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China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 中国联合网络通信集团有限公司) or China Unicom
China Unicom
(Chinese: 中国联通) is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator of China. China Unicom
China Unicom
is the world's fourth-largest mobile service provider by subscriber base.[5] On 7 January 2009, China Unicom
China Unicom
was awarded W CDMA
CDMA
license to expand its business to 3G telecommunication.[6] The group had a special group structure to list its share. The group had a subsidiary China United Network Communications Limited (Chinese: 中国联合网络通信股份有限公司) which its A shares were traded in the Shanghai Stock Exchange
Shanghai Stock Exchange
(SSE: 600050), while an indirect subsidiary of the A share listed company, China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong) Limited (Chinese: 中国联合网络通信(香港)股份有限公司) listed its shares in Hong Kong Stock Exchange
Hong Kong Stock Exchange
as a red chip company (SEHK: 762) and in the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
as American depository share (NYSE: CHU). The operating subsidiaries of the group were under China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong). However, the group have some subsidiaries that involve in equity investment, such as "China Unicom Group Corporation (BVI) Limited", which were not injected to either listed companies.

Contents

1 History

1.1 IPOs 1.2 Merger with China Netcom 1.3 Mixed-ownership reform of state-owned enterprise 1.4 Establishment of China Unicom
China Unicom
Global Limited

2 Partnership with Telefonica 3 Equity investments 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] China Unicom
China Unicom
(known as Chinese: 中国联合通信有限公司 at that time) was founded as a state-owned enterprise on 18 June 1994[1] by the Ministry of Railways, the Ministry of Electronics Industry (zh) and the Ministry of Electric Power Industry (zh);[7] the establishment was approved by the State Council in December 1993.[7] Started as a wireless paging and GSM
GSM
mobile operator, it currently provides a wide range of services including nationwide GSM
GSM
mobile network, long-distance, local calling, data communication, Internet services, and IP telephony in mainland China,[citation needed] and has operated a CDMA
CDMA
network in Macau
Macau
since October 18, 2006.[8] As of the end of April 2008[update], the company had 125 million GSM subscribers and 43 million CDMA
CDMA
subscribers.[9] As of November 2008 the CDMA
CDMA
operations have been moved to China Telecommunications Corporation ( China Telecom
China Telecom
Group).[10] UMTS
UMTS
(Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) has just launched in major cities across China on May 17, 2009.[citation needed] IPOs[edit] In February 2000 a subsidiary " China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong) Limited" was incorporated in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and was listed on the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Stock Exchange on June 22, 2000.They are an MVNO running on Three's 2G network. They are the only provider to sell SIM cards that provide native phone numbers on both sides of the border (charging slightly higher rates than local while in the mainland, but cheaper than roaming with another provider—in some cases even cheaper than a SIM from another Chinese province
Chinese province
if being used in the Shenzhen– Guangzhou
Guangzhou
area).[citation needed] The intermediate parent company " China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong) Limited" was " China Unicom
China Unicom
(BVI) Limited", As of 31 December 2001[update], the BVI company owned 77.47% shares of China Unicom
China Unicom
(H.K.). In turn, China Unicom
China Unicom
(H.K.) owned the operating subsidiaries of the group. In 2002, another intermediate parent company "China United Network Communications Limited" was established in Shanghai (headquartered in Beijing), to own 51% stake of " China Unicom
China Unicom
(BVI) Limited" as well as listing the shares in the Shanghai Stock Exchange.[11] As of 31 December 2002[update], state-owned China Unicom
China Unicom
Group owned 74.6% shares of the A share company,[12]:8 in turn the A share company owned 73.84% of the BVI company.[12]:23 The BVI company owned 77.47% shares of the red chip company.[13] To sum up, the Chinese Government via A share company, owned 42.67% stake of the operating subsidiaries, as well as additional 20.27% stake by the minority stake in the BVI company. Merger with China Netcom[edit] On June 2, 2008, China Unicom
China Unicom
announced its intention to sell its CDMA business and assets to China Telecommunications Corporation
China Telecommunications Corporation
(China Telecom Group) for a combined total of 110 billion RMB[10] and to merge the remainder of the company,[14][non-primary source needed] in a share swap valued at USD $56.3 billion (based on Unicom's stock last traded price) on June 2, 2008, with China Netcom.[15] The CDMA business was officially moved to China Telecom
China Telecom
in early November. It also continues the former China Netcom's and the former China Telecom's PHS mobile phone businesses.[citation needed] In July 2009, China Unicom
China Unicom
signed a $700 million deal with infrastructure vendor Ericsson
Ericsson
to upgrade the company's GSM network.[citation needed] In April 2012, China Unicom
China Unicom
was a founding member in the formation of Cloud Computing Industry
Industry
Alliance in Beijing. Other members of the alliance include Baidu, Tencent, and Alibaba.[16][17] Mixed-ownership reform of state-owned enterprise[edit] In 2017 China Unicom
China Unicom
became one of the pilot project of the mixed-ownership reform of the state-owned enterprise of China, which saw the decrease in ownership of the Government.[18] In 2017 the A share listed company of the group introduced 10 strategic investors: state-controlled China Structural Reform Fund (zh), state-controlled listed company China Life Insurance, a private equity fund (Chinese: 腾讯信达有限合伙企业; literally: "Tencent–Cinda Limited Partnership") that was owned by China Cinda Asset
Asset
Management and a company related to Tencent,[nb 4] a private equity fund partially owned by Baidu[nb 5] and Industrial Bank (Chinese: 百度鹏寰投资合伙企业), a private equity fund that related to JD.com
JD.com
(Chinese: 京东三弘企业管理中心; literally: "Jingdong Sanhong"),[nb 6] a public company Ali Venture Capital (Chinese: 阿里创业投资),[nb 7] a public company Suning Commerce Group and three minor private equity funds that was subscribed by companies such as Kuang-Chi and CRRC
CRRC
Group.[24][25] In the same year, the fund raised by the A share company was injected to the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
incorporated red chip company, via "China Unicom (BVI) Limited", for HK$13.24 per share (for a maximum of 6.64 billion share / HK$88 billion).[26] Establishment of China Unicom
China Unicom
Global Limited[edit] China Unicom
China Unicom
Global Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of China United Network Communication Group Company Limited. It was established on 24 June 2015, with its headquarter in Hong Kong. China Unicom Global is aimed to deliver direct and dedicate local support to customers outside Mainland China, including Asia Pacific, Americas, Europe, South Africa and the Middle East.[citation needed] On 2 December 2016, China Unicom
China Unicom
Global Limited launched the “CUniq” overseas mobile virtual network operator (“MVNO”) service in London, UK and unveiled the one-card-multiple-number service. The "CUniq" one-card-multiple-number service provides a SIM card
SIM card
which works in Mainland China, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) and the UK. The service may be extended to other areas.[27] Partnership with Telefonica[edit] In 2009, China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong) agreed a US$1 billion cross-holding with Spain's Telefónica.[28] In January 2011, the two partners agreed a further US$500 million tie-up in each other, which following completion in late 2011, Telefonica will hold a 9.7% shares in China Unicom (H.K.), while the red chip company will own 1.4% shares of the Spanish firm.[29] The companies also agreed to deepen their cooperation in areas such as procurement, mobile service platforms, service to MNC's wholesale carriers, roaming, technology, among others, where both companies have been cooperating since the signature of their strategic alliance agreement.[30][31] In June 2012, China United Network Communications Group (China Unicom Group), the ultimate parent company of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
listed company "China Unicom (Hong Kong)", had agreed to buy back about 1.1 billion shares (approx. 4.6% of the share capital) of the red chip company from Telefonica for an approx. HK$11 billion. (HK$10.21 per share; by narrow band floating exchange rate approx. US$1.4 billion), via an unlisted subsidiary " China Unicom
China Unicom
Group Corporation (BVI) Limited". Immediate after the deal, Telefonica still owned 5% of China Unicom (H.K.).[32][33] In 2014 Telefónica
Telefónica
sold a further 2.5% shares of " China Unicom
China Unicom
(H.K.)" for HK$6.66 billion (HK$11.14 per share)[34]:379 During year 2016, Telefónica
Telefónica
sold a further 1.51% shares of "China Unicom (H.K.)" for HK$2.822 billion (HK$7.8 per share),[34]:379 As of 31 December 2016[update] Telefónica
Telefónica
owned 1% shares of the red chip company (decreased from 2.51% year-to-yearly), as well as Telefónica's director César Alierta, still served as a director of " China Unicom
China Unicom
(H.K.)".[34]:62 Equity investments[edit]

As of 31 December 2016

PCCW
PCCW
(18.46%, held by unlisted portion of China Unicom
China Unicom
Group)[35] Telefónica
Telefónica
(1.27%, held by Hong Kong
Hong Kong
listed subsidiary "China Unicom (H.K.)")[34]

See also[edit]

Communications in China Telecommunications industry in China

Footnotes[edit]

^ Wang Xiaochu, Lu Yimin and Li Fushen were also chairman and directors of China United Network Communications Limited;[3] Wang Xiaochu was the chairman and CEO of China Unicom
China Unicom
(H.K.), Lu Yimin was the president and director and Li Fushen was the CFO and director.[4] ^ Shao Guanglu was also the director of China United Network Communications Limited[3] ^ Jiang Zhengxin was also the chairman of the supervisory board (Chinese: 监事会主席) of China United Network Communications Limited[3] ^ An indirect unit holder of the fund (Chinese: 深圳市腾讯产业投资基金; literally: " Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Tencent Industry
Industry
Investment Fund"), was owned by some managers of Tencent. It was stated as a "new OPCO" (new operating company) of Cayman-incorporated listed company Tencent
Tencent
Holdings.[19] ^ One of the unit holder of the fund was indirectly owned by Baidu Netcom Science Technology (Chinese: 百度网讯科技); the stake of Baidu
Baidu
Netcom was 99.5% owned by Robin Li; the stake was pledged to Baidu
Baidu
Online Network Technology (Beijing) (Chinese: 百度在线网络技术(北京)), an indirect subsidiary of Cayman-incorporated Baidu
Baidu
Inc., thus it was considered as part of Baidu
Baidu
Group.[20] Another indirect unit holder (Chinese: 北京鼎鹿中原科技), owned by some of the managers of Baidu, was linked to Baidu
Baidu
by the Chinese media, but Baidu
Baidu
denied to comment.[21] ^ The indirect unit holder of the private equity fund (Chinese: 江苏京东邦能投资管理有限公司; literally: "Jingdong Bangneng Investment Management") was 45% owned by Liu Qiangdong founder of JD.com
JD.com
(Jingdong) and 55% by Sun Jiaming (Chinese: 孙加明), a senior manager of JD.com. Jingdong Bangneng was listed as a consolidated variable interest entity of JD.com[22] ^ The stake of the company was 80% owned by Jack Ma, but also pledged to Alibaba Group. It was considered as a subsidiary and/or consolidated entity of Alibaba Group.[23]

References[edit]

^ a b c "2016 Annual Report" (PDF) (in Chinese). China United Network Communications Limited. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ "领导成员" [Leaders] (in Chinese). China United Network Communications Group. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ a b c "董事、监事及高级管理人员" (in Chinese). China United Network Communications Limited. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong). 31 March 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ "Airtel becomes third largest globally". NDTV. 30 June 2015.  ^ "China awards 3G licences". 2009.  ^ a b "关于同意组建中国联合通信有限公司的批复" (Press release) (in Chinese). State Council (China). 14 December 1993. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ CHENG, Jingsheng (19 October 2006). "中国联通CDMA澳门本地业务开通" (in Chinese). C114中国通信网. Retrieved 24 October 2017.  ^ " China Unicom
China Unicom
Subscriber Data". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04.  ^ a b "ROUNDUP China Unicom
China Unicom
acquires Netcom, sells CDMA
CDMA
assets as telco reorg takes off". Forbes. 2 June 2008. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2008.  ^ "Prospectus" (PDF) (in Chinese). China United Network Communications. 17 September 2002. Retrieved 26 August 2017.  ^ a b "2002 Annual Report" (PDF) (in Chinese). China United Network Communications. 2 April 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2017.  ^ "Report of the Directors". 2002 Annual Report. China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong). 14 April 2003.  ^ " China Netcom
China Netcom
/ China Unicom
China Unicom
Press Release about Merger".  ^ "China telecom companies agree to $56 billion merger". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-06-10.  ^ " China Unicom
China Unicom
Hongkong". Archived from the original on 2013-01-18.  ^ "China Cloud Computing Industry
Industry
Alliance Established". BrightWire. Archived from the original on 2012-07-24.  ^ 郑, 志刚 (28 August 2017). 联通混改“得”与“失” ["Pros" and "Cons" of the mixed-ownership reform of China Unicom]. The Financial Times (Chinese edition) (in Chinese). Retrieved 17 November 2017.  ^ "2014 Annual Report" (PDF). Tencent. 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). Baidu. 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ "百度"曲线入股"华策影视 鼎鹿中原10亿参与增发". 新京报 (in Chinese). re-published by ifeng.com. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ FORM 20-F ^ "List of Significant Subsidiaries and Consolidated Entities of Alibaba Group
Alibaba Group
Holding Limited" (SEC filing). Alibaba Group.  ^ 邓, 元杰 (22 August 2017). "联通混改的本质" (in Chinese). Sina. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ "非公开发行A股股票预案" (in Chinese). China United Network Communications. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017 – via cninfo.com.cn.  ^ "BRIEF- China Unicom
China Unicom
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
enters share subscription agreement with controlling shareholder Unicom Bvi". Reuters. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  ^ " China Unicom
China Unicom
launches UK MVNO on O2's network". Global Telecoms Business. Retrieved 26 May 2017.  ^ "Completion of Discloseable Transaction - Increase in Shareholding Interest in the Company by Telefonica and Investment by the Company in Telefonica" (PDF). China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong). 21 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ "Telefonica and China Unicom
China Unicom
strengthen ties". BBC News. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011.  ^ "Telecommunications - China Unicom
China Unicom
and Telefonica Strengthen Strategic Alliance". telecommunications.tmcnet.com. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ "Telefonica and China Unicom". Telefónica. [dead link] ^ "Spain's Telefonica sells Unicom stake for $1.4B". the jakarta post. June 11, 2012. Archived from the original on June 13, 2012.  ^ "Announcement" (PDF) (Press release). China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong). 10 June 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ a b c d "2016 Annual Report". Telefónica. 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.  ^ "2016 Annual Report" (PDF). PCCW. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to China Unicom.

Official website

Links to related articles

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Constituents of the SSE 50 Index

Agricultural Bank of China Bank of Beijing Bank of China Bank of Communications Bank of Jiangsu Bank of Shanghai China Communications Construction China Everbright Bank China Fortune Land Development China Galaxy Securities China Life Insurance China Merchants Bank China Merchants Securities China Minsheng Bank China National Nuclear Power China Northern Rare Earth China Pacific Insurance China Railway Engineering China Railway Construction China Shenhua Energy China Shipbuilding Industry China Southern Airlines China State Construction China Unicom CITIC Securities CRRC Daqin Railway Dongxing Securities Everbright Securities Founder Securities Greenland Holdings Guotai Junan Securities Haitong Securities Huatai Securities Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Industrial Bank Kangmei Pharmaceutical Kweichow Moutai New China Life Insurance Orient Securities PetroChina Ping An Insurance Poly Real Estate SAIC Motor Shandong Gold Mining Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Sinopec Tsinghua Tongfang Xinwei Group Yili Group

v t e

Constituents of Hang Seng Index

Finance

HSBC
HSBC
Holdings Hang Seng Bank Bank of E Asia HKEx CCB AIA ICBC Ping An BOC Hong Kong China Life Bankcomm Bank of China

Utilities

CLP Holdings HK & China Gas Power Assets China Res Power CKI Holdings

Properties

Wharf Holdings Henderson Land SHK Ppt New World Dev Sino Land Hang Lung Ppt China Overseas Link REIT China Res Land CK Asset Wharf REIC (zh) Country Garden

Commerce and Industry

CKH Holdings Swire Pacific A Galaxy Ent MTR Corporation China Mer Port Want Want China Geely
Geely
Auto CITIC WH Group Sinopec
Sinopec
Corp Tencent China Unicom PetroChina CNOOC China Mobile Lenovo
Lenovo
Group Hengan Int'l China Shenhua Sands China Ltd AAC Tech (zh) Mengniu Dairy Sunny Optical (zh)

v t e

Constituents of the Hang Seng China-Affiliated Corporations Index

Kunlun Energy China Merchants Port Shenzhen
Shenzhen
International Everbright Ltd. Everbright International CITIC Limited Guangdong Investment China Resources Enterprise Shanghai Industrial Beijing
Beijing
Enterprises Water Group Beijing
Beijing
Enterprises China Overseas Land and Investment China Unicom China Jinmao China Resources Power CNOOC China Mobile China Taiping Lenovo
Lenovo
Group CSPC Pharmaceutical China Resources Land Brilliance Auto China Resources Gas COSCO Ship Ports Mengniu Dairy China Power

v t e

Constituents of Hang Seng China 50 Index

A shares/H shares

Finance

Agricultural Bank of China Bank of China Bank of Communications China CITIC Bank China Construction Bank China Everbright Bank China Life Insurance China Merchants Bank China Minsheng Bank China Pacific Insurance CITIC Securities GF Securities Guosen Securities Guotai Junan Securities Haitong Securities Industrial Bank Industrial and Commercial Bank of China People's Insurance Company of China PICC Property
Property
and Casualty Ping An Bank Ping An Insurance Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Shenwan Hongyuan

Other

China Communications Construction
China Communications Construction
Company China National Nuclear Power China Railway Construction Ltd. China Railway Group Limited China Telecom China Shipbuilding Industry
Industry
Co., Ltd. China Yangtze Power CRRC China State Construction Ltd. Daqin Railway Gree Electric Greenland Holdings Hikvision Huaneng Power Intl. Kweichow Moutai PetroChina SAIC Motor Shanghai Port Shenhua Energy Sinopec Vanke

Red chip

China Mobile
China Mobile
Limited China Overseas Land and Investment China Unicom CITIC Limited CNOOC Limited

Others

Tencent

v t e

Telecommunications in China

Telecommunications industry

History

CERNET China Next Generation Internet Chinese Domain Name Consortium CNGrid Digital divide Electronics industry ICP license Internet Internet censorship

Golden Shield Project List of websites blocked

Mobile phone
Mobile phone
industry Online gaming

Government agencies

China Internet Network Information Center Internet police Ministry of Industry
Industry
and Information Technology Cyberspace Administration of China

Telecom operators

China Mobile China Telecommunications Corporation

China Telecom

China Unicom

Equipment suppliers

Amoi Datang Telecom Group

Datang Telecom Technology

Huawei Konka Group Ningbo Bird SVA Group ZTE

Economy Media Television

v t e

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
mobile network operators (MNOs)

CMHK CSL Mobile
CSL Mobile
(csl, 1O1O, Club SIM) 3 Hong Kong SmarTone
SmarTone
(Birdie Mobile)

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
major mobile virtual network operators (MVNOs)

China Unicom
China Unicom
(Hong Kong) Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Broadband Network SUN Mobile

Former MNOs and MVNOs

SUNDAY PCCW
PCCW
Mobile

v t e

Open Handset Alliance

Mobile operators

Bouygues Telecom China Mobile China Telecommunications Corporation China Unicom KDDI Nepal Telecom NTT DoCoMo SoftBank Group Sprint Corporation T-Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Telus Vodafone

Software
Software
companies

Access Ascender Corporation eBay Google Myriad Group Nuance Communications NXP Software Omron PacketVideo SVOX VisualOn

Semiconductor
Semiconductor
companies

AKM Semiconductor, Inc. Arm Holdings Audience Broadcom CSR plc
CSR plc
(joined as SiRF) Cypress Semiconductor Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Intel Marvell Technology Group MediaTek MIPS Technologies Nvidia Qualcomm Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Atheros Renesas Electronics ST- Ericsson
Ericsson
(joined as Ericsson
Ericsson
Mobile Platforms) Synaptics Texas Instruments

Handset makers

Acer Inc. Alcatel Mobile Phones Asus Chaudhary Group
Chaudhary Group
(with association of LG) CCI Dell Foxconn Garmin HTC Huawei Kyocera Lenovo
Lenovo
Mobile LG Electronics Motorola Mobility NEC
NEC
Corporation Samsung Electronics Sharp Corporation Sony Mobile Toshiba ZTE

Commercialization companies

Accenture Borqs Sasken Communication Technologies Teleca The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems Wipro Technologies

See also

Android Dalvik virtual machine Google
Google
Nexus T-Mobile
T-Mobile
G1

v t e

Major telecommunications companies

Companies with an annual revenue of over US$10 billion

América Móvil AT&T Bell Canada Bezeq Bharti Airtel Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited BT Group CenturyLink China Mobile China Telecommunications Corporation

China Telecom

China Unicom Chunghwa Telecom Comcast Deutsche Telekom Digicel FLOW Hutchison Asia Idea Cellular Jio KDDI KPN KT Corporation Mahanagar Telephone Nigam MTN MTS Nippon NTT DoCoMo Oi Orange S.A. PCCW Reliance Rogers Shaw Singtel SK Telecom SoftBank Mobile Spark Sprint Corporation Swisscom Tata Teleservices Telecom Italia Telefónica Telenor Telus Telmex Telstra TPG Trilogy International Partners True Türk Telekom VEON Verizon Viettel Vivendi Vodafone

See also Largest IT companies List of mobile network operators List of telephone operating companies Category:Telecommunicatio

.