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Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
(/ˌtʃæŋ ˈmaɪ/, from Thai: เชียงใหม่  [tɕʰiəŋ màj] ( listen), Lanna: ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩉ᩠ᨾᩲ᩵ [t͡ɕīaŋ.màj] ( listen)) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province
Chiang Mai Province
and was a former capital of the kingdom of Lan Na
Lan Na
(1296–1768), which later became the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, a tributary state of Siam
Siam
from 1774 to 1899, and finally the seat of a princely rulers until 1939. It is 700 km (435 mi) north of Bangkok
Bangkok
and is situated amongst the highest mountains in the country. The city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
means "New City" and was so named because it became the new capital of Lan Na
Lan Na
when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262.[2]:208–209 In May 2006 Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was the site of the Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Initiative, concluded between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
and the "ASEAN+3" countries, (China, Japan, and South Korea). Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020. The others were Chonburi, and Ayutthaya).[3] Ayutthaya, however, was the city ultimately chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition.[4] In early–December 2017, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was awarded the UNESCO title of Creative City. However, its 2015 application for UNESCO Heritage City is still under consideration, with UNESCO committee's main concern being the ongoing conflicts between local business interests, and the native-born residents' passion for preserving their traditional way of life and cultural environment. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand
Thailand
on TripAdvisor's 2014 list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands at number 24.[5] Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River
Ping River
and major trading routes.[6][7] While officially the city (thesaban nakhon, "city municipality") of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
District with a population of 160,000, the city's sprawl extends into several neighboring districts. The Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
metropolitan area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province. The city is subdivided into four khwaeng (electoral wards): Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila. The first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, and Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping District includes the northern part of the city. Srivijaya, Mengrai, and Kawila consist of the western, southern, and eastern parts, respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is mostly within Srivijaya ward.[8] The Ping River,[9] one of the main tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates at Doi Thuai, in the mountains of the Daen Lao Range in Chiang Dao District. The river, the largest in the region, runs from north to south, forming a river basin east of Chiang Mai. Mae Ping River
Ping River
also served as the route of trade and communication between Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
and its controlled states in Lanna, as well as the outside world.

Contents

1 History 2 Emblem 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Air pollution

4 Religious sites 5 Culture

5.1 Festivals 5.2 Language 5.3 Museums 5.4 Dining

6 Education 7 Nature 8 Recreation 9 Transportation 10 "Smart City" initiative

10.1 Smart transportation 10.2 Smart agriculture 10.3 Smart healthcare 10.4 Smart tourism

11 Tourism 12 Notable persons 13 Twin towns and sister cities 14 Gallery 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

History[edit]

Wat
Wat
Chiang Man, the oldest Buddhist temple in the city

City wall, north-west corner

Mangrai
Mangrai
founded Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
in 1294[10] or 1296[2]:209 on the site of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi.[11][12] Gordon Young, in his 1962 book The Hill tribes of Northern Thailand, mentions how a Wa chieftain in British Burma told him that the Wa, a people who are closely related to the Lawa, once lived in the Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
valley in "sizeable cities".[13] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
succeeded Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
as the capital of Lan Na. Pha Yu enlarged and fortified the city, and built Wat
Wat
Phra Singh in honor of his father Kham Fu.[2]:226–227 The ruler was known as the chao. The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall since nearby Taungoo Dynasty
Taungoo Dynasty
of the Bamar people
Bamar people
was a constant threat, as were the armies of the Mongol Empire, which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, China, and in 1292 overran the bordering Dai kingdom of Chiang Hung. With the decline of Lan Na, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Taungoo in 1556.[14] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
formally became part of the Thonburi Kingdom
Thonburi Kingdom
in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thonburi king Taksin
Taksin
helped drive out the Taungoo Bamar. Because of Taungoo counterattacks, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was abandoned between 1776 and 1791.[15] Lampang
Lampang
then served as the capital of what remained of Lan Na. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
then slowly grew in cultural, trading, and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of Northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok.[16] The modern municipality dates to a sanitary district (sukhaphiban) that was created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality (thesaban) on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80. First covering just 17.5 km2 (7 sq mi), the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 (16 sq mi) on 5 April 1983.[17] Emblem[edit] The city emblem shows the stupa at Wat Phra That Doi Suthep
Wat Phra That Doi Suthep
in its center. Below it are clouds representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a nāga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, and rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land.[18] Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and much lower than daytime highs. The maximum temperature ever recorded was 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) in May 2005.[19]

Climate data for Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.2 (95.4) 37.7 (99.9) 40.9 (105.6) 41.4 (106.5) 42.4 (108.3) 39.3 (102.7) 39.0 (102.2) 36.5 (97.7) 35.8 (96.4) 37.9 (100.2) 34.7 (94.5) 33.4 (92.1) 42.4 (108.3)

Average high °C (°F) 29.8 (85.6) 32.7 (90.9) 35.2 (95.4) 36.5 (97.7) 34.2 (93.6) 32.7 (90.9) 31.8 (89.2) 31.5 (88.7) 31.7 (89.1) 31.4 (88.5) 30.1 (86.2) 28.6 (83.5) 32.2 (90)

Daily mean °C (°F) 21.5 (70.7) 23.9 (75) 27.1 (80.8) 29.3 (84.7) 28.2 (82.8) 27.6 (81.7) 27.2 (81) 26.8 (80.2) 26.7 (80.1) 26.1 (79) 24.0 (75.2) 21.4 (70.5) 25.8 (78.4)

Average low °C (°F) 14.9 (58.8) 16.2 (61.2) 19.5 (67.1) 22.9 (73.2) 23.8 (74.8) 24.0 (75.2) 23.9 (75) 23.7 (74.7) 23.2 (73.8) 22.2 (72) 19.2 (66.6) 15.7 (60.3) 20.8 (69.4)

Record low °C (°F) 8.6 (47.5) 9.4 (48.9) 13.0 (55.4) 16.3 (61.3) 18.3 (64.9) 21.2 (70.2) 20.5 (68.9) 21.2 (70.2) 19.5 (67.1) 14.0 (57.2) 9.3 (48.7) 3.8 (38.8) 3.8 (38.8)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 4.2 (0.165) 8.9 (0.35) 17.8 (0.701) 57.3 (2.256) 162.0 (6.378) 124.5 (4.902) 140.2 (5.52) 216.9 (8.539) 211.4 (8.323) 117.6 (4.63) 53.9 (2.122) 15.9 (0.626) 1,130.6 (44.512)

Average rainy days 0.7 0.9 2.3 6.8 15.0 17.1 18.9 20.9 17.8 11.7 4.9 1.4 118.4

Average relative humidity (%) 68 58 52 57 71 77 79 81 81 79 75 73 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.8 257.1 294.5 279.0 198.4 156.0 120.9 117.8 144.0 201.5 216.0 254.2 2,512.2

Mean daily sunshine hours 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.3 6.4 5.2 3.9 3.8 4.8 6.5 7.2 8.2 6.9

Source #1: Thai Meteorological Department[20]

Source #2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity)[21]

Panorama, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
during the rainy season, August 2014

Air pollution[edit] See also: Environmental issues in Thailand A continuing environmental issue in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
is the incidence of air pollution that primarily occurs every year towards the end of the dry season between February and April. In 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference—held in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
that year—the Governor Virachai Naewboonien invited guest speaker Dr. Jakapan Wongburanawatt, Dean of the Social Science Faculty of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
University, to discuss air pollution efforts in the region. Dr. Wongburanawatt stated that, in 1994, an increasing number of city residents attended hospitals suffering from respiratory problems associated with the city's air pollution.[22] During the February–March period, air quality in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
often remains below recommended standards, with fine-particle dust levels reaching twice the standard limits.[23] According to the Bangkok
Bangkok
Post, corporations in the agricultural sector, not farmers, are the biggest contributors to smoke pollution. The main source of the fires is forested area being cleared to make room for new crops. The new crops to be planted after the smoke clears are not rice and vegetables to feed locals. A single crop is responsible: corn. The haze problem began in 2007 and has been traced at the local level and at the macro-market level to the growth of the animal feed business. "The true source of the haze...sits in the boardrooms of corporations eager to expand production and profits. A chart of Thailand's growth in world corn markets can be overlaid on a chart of the number of fires. It is no longer acceptable to scapegoat hill tribes and slash-and-burn agriculture for the severe health and economic damage caused by this annual pollution." These data have been ignored by the government. The end is not in sight, as the number of fires has increased every year for a decade, and data shows more pollution in late-February 2016 than in late-February 2015.[24] The northern centre of the Meteorological Department has reported that low-pressure areas from China
China
trap forest fire smoke in the mountains along the Thai- Myanmar
Myanmar
border.[25] Research conducted between 2005 and 2009 showed that average PM10 rates in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
during February and March were considerably above the country's safety level of 120 μg/m3, peaking at 383 μg/m3 on 14 March 2007.[26] According to the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the acceptable level is 50 μg/m3.[27] To address the increasing amount of greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector in Chiang Mai, the city government has advocated the use of non-motorised transport (NMT). In addition to its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the NMT initiative addresses other issues such as traffic congestion, air quality, income generation for the poor, and the long-term viability of the tourism industry.[28] It has been said that smoke pollution has made March "the worst month to visit Chiang Mai".[29] Religious sites[edit]

Chedi, Wat
Wat
Phrathat Doi Suthep

Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has over 300 Buddhist temples ("wat" in Thai).[30] These include:

Wat
Wat
Phra That Doi Suthep, the city's most famous temple, stands on Doi Suthep, a hill to the north-west of the city. The temple dates from 1383. Wat
Wat
Chiang Man, the oldest temple in Chiang Mai, dating from the 13th century.[2]:209 King Mengrai lived here during the construction of the city. This temple houses two important and venerated Buddha figures, the marble Phra Sila and the crystal Phra Satang Man. Wat
Wat
Phra Singh is within the city walls, dates from 1345, and offers an example of classic Northern Thai-style architecture. It houses the Phra Singh Buddha, a highly venerated figure brought here many years ago from Chiang Rai.[31] Wat
Wat
Chedi Luang was founded in 1401 and is dominated by a large Lanna style chedi, which took many years to finish. An earthquake damaged the chedi in the 16th century and only two-thirds of it remains.[32] Wat
Wat
Ku Tao in the city's Chang Phuak District dates from (at least) the 13th century and is distinguished by an unusual alms-bowl-shaped stupa thought to contain the ashes of King Anawrahta, Chiang Mai's first Bamar ruler.[33] Wat
Wat
Chet Yot is on the outskirts of the city. Built in 1455, the temple hosted the Eighth World Buddhist Council in 1977. Wiang Kum Kam
Wiang Kum Kam
is at the site of an old city on the southern outskirts of Chiang Mai. King Mangrai
Mangrai
lived there for ten years before the founding of Chiang Mai. The site includes many ruined temples. Wat
Wat
Umong is a forest and cave wat in the foothills west of the city, near Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
University. Wat
Wat
U-Mong is known for its "fasting Buddha", representing the Buddha at the end of his long and fruitless fast prior to gaining enlightenment. Wat
Wat
RamPoeng (Tapotaram), near Wat
Wat
U-Mong, is known for its meditation center (Northern Insight Meditation Center). The temple teaches the traditional vipassanā technique and students stay from 10 days to more than a month as they try to meditate at least 10 hours a day. Wat RamPoeng houses the largest collection of Tipitaka, the complete Theravada canon, in several Northern dialects.[34] Wat
Wat
Suan Dok is a 14th-century temple just west of the old city wall. It was built by the king for a revered monk visiting from Sukhothai for a rainy season retreat. The temple is also the site of Mahachulalongkorn Rajavidyalaya Buddhist University, where monks pursue their studies.[35] "First Church" was founded in 1868 by the Laos Mission
Laos Mission
of the Rev. Daniel and Mrs. Sophia McGilvary. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has about 20 Christian churches[36] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
at Sacred Heart Cathedral. Muslim traders have traveled to north Thailand
Thailand
for many centuries, and a small settled presence has existed in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
from at least the middle of the 19th century.[37] The city has mosques identified with Chinese or Chin Haw
Chin Haw
Muslims as well as Muslims of Bengali, Pathan, and Malay descent. In 2011, there were 16 mosques in the city.[38] Two gurdwaras ( Sikh
Sikh
places of worship), Siri Guru Singh Sabha and Namdhari,[39] serve the city's Sikh
Sikh
community.[39] The Hindu temple
Hindu temple
Devi Mandir serves the Hindu community.[39]

Fireworks at Wat
Wat
Phantao during Loi Krathong, Chiang Mai

Wat
Wat
Chedi Luang.

Ban Ho Mosque.

Wat
Wat
Prathat Doi Suthep

Culture[edit] Festivals[edit]

Thousands of khom fai in Mae Jo during Loi Kratong

Splashing water on others during Songkran celebrations (picture from Chiang Mai)

Street scene, Chiang Mai

Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
hosts many Thai festivals, including:

Loi Krathong
Loi Krathong
(known locally as Yi Peng), held on the full moon of the 12th month of the traditional Thai lunar calendar, being the full moon of the second month of the old Lanna calendar. In the Western calendar this usually falls in November. Every year thousands of people assemble floating banana-leaf containers (krathong) decorated with flowers and candles and deposit them on the waterways of the city in worship of the Goddess of Water. Lanna-style sky lanterns (khom fai or kom loi), which are hot-air balloons made of paper, are launched into the air. These sky lanterns are believed to help rid the locals of troubles and are also used to decorate houses and streets. Songkran is held in mid-April to celebrate the traditional Thai New Year. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has become one of the most popular locations to visit during this festival. A variety of religious and fun-related activities (notably the indiscriminate citywide water fight) take place each year, along with parades and Miss Songkran beauty competition. Chiang Mai Flower Festival is a three-day festival held during the first weekend in February each year; this event occurs when Chiang Mai's temperate and tropical flowers are in full bloom. Tam Bun Khan Dok, the Inthakhin (City Pillar) Festival, starts on the day of the waning moon of the sixth lunar month and lasts 6–8 days.

Language[edit] The inhabitants speak Northern Thai, also known as Lanna or Kham Mueang. The script used to write this language, called the Tai Tham alphabet, is studied only by scholars, and the language is commonly written with the standard Thai alphabet.[40] English is used in hotels and travel-related businesses. Museums[edit]

Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
City Arts and Cultural Center. Chiang Mai National Museum highlights the history of the region and the Kingdom of Lan Na. Tribal Museum
Tribal Museum
showcases the history of the local mountain tribes. Mint Bureau of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
or Sala Thanarak, Treasury Department, Ministry of Finance, Rajdamnern Road (one block from AUA Language Center) has an old coin museum open to the public during business hours. The Lan Na
Lan Na
Kingdom used leaf (or line) money made of brass and silver bubbles, also called "pig-mouth" money. Nobody has been able to duplicate the technique of making pig-mouth money, and because the silver is very thin and breakable, good pieces are now very rare.[41] Bank of Thailand
Thailand
Museum

Dining[edit] Khan tok is a century-old Lan Na
Lan Na
Thai tradition[42] in Chiang Mai. It is an elaborate dinner or lunch offered by a host to guests at various ceremonies or parties, such as weddings, housewarmings, celebrations, novice ordinations, or funerals. It can also be held in connection with celebrations for specific buildings in a Thai temple and during Buddhist festivals such as Khao Pansa, Og Pansa, Loi Krathong, and Thai New Year (Songkran). Education[edit] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has several universities, including Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
University, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Rajabhat University, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Payap University, Far Eastern University, and Maejo University, as well as numerous technical and teacher colleges. Chiang Mai University was the first government university established outside of Bangkok. Payap University was the first private institution in Thailand
Thailand
to be granted university status. Nature[edit]

Nam Tok Huai Kaeo (lit. "Crystal Creek Waterfall") lies at the foot of Doi Suthep
Doi Suthep
on the western edge of the city

Nearby national parks include Doi Inthanon
Doi Inthanon
National Park, which includes Doi Inthanon, the highest mountain in Thailand Doi Pui- Doi Suthep
Doi Suthep
National Park begins on the western edge of the city. An important and famous tourist attraction, Wat
Wat
Doi Suthep Buddhist temple located near the sumit of Doi Suthep, can be seen from much of the city and its environs. Pha Daeng National Park, or more commonly Chiang Dao National Park which includes Doi Chiang Dao
Doi Chiang Dao
and Pha Deang mountain near the border with Myanmar. Hill tribe tourism and trekking: Many tour companies offer organized treks among the local hills and forests on foot and on elephant back. Most also involve visits to various local hill tribes, including the Akha, Hmong, Karen, and Lisu.[43] Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden

Recreation[edit]

Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Zoo, the oldest zoo in northern Thailand. Shopping: Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has a large and famous night bazaar for local arts and handicrafts. The night markets extend across several city blocks along footpaths, inside buildings and temple grounds, and in open squares. A handicraft and food market opens every Sunday afternoon until late at night on Rachadamnoen Road, the main street in the historical centre, which is then closed to motorised traffic. Every Saturday evening a handicraft market is held along Wua Lai Road, Chiang Mai's silver street[44] on the south side of the city beyond Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Gate, which is then also closed to motorised traffic.[45] Thai massage: The back streets and main thoroughfares of Chiang Mai have many massage parlours which offer anything from quick, simple, face and foot massages, to month-long courses in the art of Thai massage. Thai cookery: A number of Thai cooking schools have their home in Chiang Mai. For IT shopping, Pantip Plaza
Pantip Plaza
just south of Night Bazaar, as well as Computer Plaza, Computer City, and Icon Square near the northwestern moat corner, and IT City department store in Kad Suan Kaew Mall are available. Horse racing: Every Saturday starting at 12:30 there are races at Kawila Race Track. Betting is legal.

Transportation[edit]

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Songthaew
Songthaew
on Wua Lai Rd, Chiang Mai

Tuk-tuks near Tha Phae Gate, Chiang Mai

A number of bus stations link the city to central, southeast, and northern Thailand. The central Chang Puak Terminal (north of Chiang Puak Gate) provides local services within Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province. The Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Arcade bus terminal northeast of the city centre (which can be reached with a songthaew or tuk-tuk ride) provides services to over 20 other destinations in Thailand
Thailand
including Bangkok, Pattaya, Hua Hin, and Phuket. There are several services a day from Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Arcade terminal to Mo Chit Station in Bangkok
Bangkok
(a 10- to 12-hour journey). The state railway operates 10 trains a day to Chiang Mai Station
Chiang Mai Station
from Bangkok. Most journeys run overnight and take approximately 12–15 hours. Most trains offer first-class (private cabins) and second-class (seats fold out to make sleeping berths) service. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
is the northern terminus of the Thai railway system. Chiang Mai International Airport
Chiang Mai International Airport
receives up to 28 flights a day from Bangkok
Bangkok
(flight time about 1 hour 10 minutes) and also serves as a local hub for services to other northern cities such as Chiang Rai, Phrae, and Mae Hong Son. International services also connect Chiang Mai with other regional centers, including cities in other Asian countries. The locally preferred form of transport is personal motorbike and, increasingly, private car. Local public transport is via tuk-tuk, songthaew, bus,[46] or rickshaw. As population density continues to grow, greater pressure is placed upon the city's transportation system. During peak hours, the road traffic is often badly congested. The city officials as well as researchers and experts have been trying to find feasible solutions to tackle the city's traffic problems. Most of them agree that factors such as lack of public transport, increasing number of motor vehicles, inefficient land use plan and urban sprawl, have led to these problems.[47] The latest development is that Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand
Thailand
(MRTA) has approved a draft decree on the light railway transit system project in Chiang Mai. If the draft is approved by the Thai cabinet, the construction could begin in 2020 and be completed by 2023.[48] It is believed that such a system would mitigate Chiang Mai's traffic problems[49] to a large degree. "Smart City" initiative[edit] In February 2017, the Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA) (under Thailand's Digital Economy and Society Ministry) announced that 36.5 million baht would be invested into developing Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
into an innovation-driven "smart city". Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
was the second city in Thailand, after Phuket and along with Khon Kaen,[50] to be developed using the "smart city" model. The model aims to capture and populate multiple levels of information (including building, social, environmental, governmental, and economic data) from sources like sensors, real-time traffic information, and social forums for access by managers, governments, and citizens using mobile apps, tablets, and dashboards.[51] The "Smart City" outlook (integrating Information and Communications Technology (ICT) with the Internet of Things (IOT)), is viewed to be critical both for secondary cities with burgeoning urban population like Chiang Mai,[52] as well as part of Thailand's move to be digital hub of ASEAN.[53] The role of private sector investment, together with public sector partnership, is key to promote digital entrepreneurship. Prosoft Comtech, a Thai software company, has spent 300 million baht to build its own "Oon IT Valley"[54] on a 90 rai plot of land as a community for tech start-ups, Internet of Things technology, software programmers and business process outsourcing services. It is aimed to both increase the size of Chiang Mai's digital workforce, as well as attract foreign digital talent to Chiang Mai.[55] Smart transportation[edit] In January 2018, it was announced that Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
would be launching "Mobike In", a bike-sharing app that would see the introduction of some 500 smart bikes on the streets. The smart bikes would be available for use for both locals and tourists. It is reported that as a start, the bikes would be placed at convenient locations including the Three Kings monument, Tha Pae Gate and Suan Buak Haad Park, as well as in the old town. The "Mobike In" project is sponsored by Advanced Info Service
Advanced Info Service
(Thailand's largest mobile phone operator), in collaboration with the Tourism Authority of Thailand
Thailand
(Chiang Mai Office), together with local universities, public and private sectors. The project aims to promote non-motorised transportation and support eco-tourism. Speaking at the launch at the Lanna Folklife Museum, Deputy Governor Puttipong Sirimart stated that the introduction of such "smart transportation" was a positive move in Chiang Mai's transformation into a "Smart City" (part of the " Thailand
Thailand
4.0" vision).[56] Smart agriculture[edit] Phongsak Ariyajitphaisal, DEPA's Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
branch manager, stated that one of the areas its smart city initiative would be promoting was "smart agriculture". Eighty percent of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province's population are farmers, mostly small-scale, and increasing productivity through use of ICT has the potential to improve the local economy and living standards.[citation needed] DEPA has also provided funding to Chiang Mai's Maejo University, to develop wireless sensor systems for better farmland irrigation techniques, to reduce use of water sprinklers and increase productivity. The university is also developing agricultural drones that can spray fertilizers and pesticides on crops which, if successful, will result in lower costs. The drones may also detect and monitor fires and smoke pollution.[55] Under the 2011 IBM "Smarter Cities Challenge", IBM experts recommended smarter food initiatives focused on creating agricultural data for farmers, including price modelling, farmer-focused weather forecasting tools, an e-portal to help farmers align crop production with demand, as well as branding of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
produce. Longer-term recommendations included implementing traceability, enabling the tracking of produce from farm to consumer, smarter irrigation as well as flood control and early warning systems.[57] Smart healthcare[edit] As part of the smart city project supported by IBM, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
is also looking to use technology to boost its presence as a medical tourism hub. In 2011, IBM launched its Smarter Cities Challenge, a three-year, 100 city, 1.6 billion baht (US$50 million) program where teams of experts study and make detailed recommendations to address local important urban issues. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
won a grant of about US$400,000 in 2011. The IBM team focused on smarter healthcare initiatives, aimed at making Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
and the University Medical Clinic a medical hub,[58] as well as improving efficiency of hospitals for improved service delivery. For example, healthcare providers could use real-time location tracking of patients and hospital assets to increase efficiency and build an internationally recognised service identity. Electronic medical record technology can also be adopted to standardise information exchanges to link all medical service providers, even including traditional medicine and spas.[59] Similar ideas include linking patient databases and healthcare asset information.[60] In partnership with the Faculty of Medicine at Chiang Mai University, the team of experts aim to enhance the quality of medical care available to the community, both urban and rural, as well as develop Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
into a centre for medical tourism with the infrastructure for supporting international visitors seeking long-term medical care.[61] As the largest city in northern Thailand, Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
already receives some long stay healthcare visitors, largely Japanese. Its main advantage over Bangkok
Bangkok
is lower costs of living. Quality services at low prices are a major selling point in mainstream healthcare, dental and ophthalmologic care as well as Thai traditional medicine. Its local university is also developing specializations in robotic surgery and geriatric medicine to accommodate a future aging population.[59] Smart tourism[edit] DEPA also reported that it has developed an mobile app that uses augmented reality technology to showcase various historical attractions in Chiang Mai, in line with the government's policy to promote Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
as a world heritage city.[55] Tourism[edit]

Courtyard, Wat
Wat
Phrathat Doi Suthep

According to Thailand's Tourist Authority, in 2013 Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
had 14.1 million visitors: 4.6 million foreigners and 9.5 million Thais.[62] In 2016, tourist arrivals are expected to grow by approximately 10 percent to 9.1 million, with Chinese tourists increasing by seven percent to 750,000 and international arrivals by 10 percent to 2.6 million.[63] Tourism in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has been growing annually by 15 percent per year since 2011, mostly due to Chinese tourists who account for 30 percent of international arrivals.[63] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
is estimated to have 32,000–40,000 hotel rooms[62][63] and Chiang Mai International Airport
Chiang Mai International Airport
(CNX) is Thailand's fourth largest airport, after Suvarnabhumi (BKK) and Don Mueang (DMK) in Bangkok, and Phuket (HKT).[64] The Thailand
Thailand
Convention and Exhibition Bureau (TCEB) aims to market Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
as a global MICE city as part of a five-year plan. The TCEB forecasts revenue from MICE to rise by 10 percent to 4.24 billion baht in 2013 and the number of MICE travellers to rise by five percent to 72,424.[65] The influx of tourists has put a strain on the city's natural resources. Faced with rampant unplanned development, air and water pollution, waste management problems, and traffic congestion, the city has launched a non-motorised transport (NMT) system. The initiative, developed by a partnership of experts and with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create employment opportunities for the urban poor. The climate compatible development strategy has gained support from policy-makers and citizens alike as a result of its many benefits.[28] Notable persons[edit]

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Chookiat Sakveerakul
Chookiat Sakveerakul
(born 1981) – film director and screenwriter Nat Sakdatorn
Nat Sakdatorn
(born 1983) – singer-songwriter, actor, writer and model Natthaphong Samana
Natthaphong Samana
(born 1984) – footballer Noppawan Lertcheewakarn
Noppawan Lertcheewakarn
(born 1991) – tennis player Rodjaraeg Wattanapanit
Rodjaraeg Wattanapanit
– the first Thai winner of the International Women of Courage Award[66]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
has agreements with four sister cities:[67]

Uozu, Japan
Japan
(8 August 1989) Saitama Prefecture, Japan
Japan
(9 November 1992) Kunming, Yunnan, China
China
(7 June 1999) Harbin, China
China
(29 April 2008)

Gallery[edit]

Inthakhin city pillar building, Wat
Wat
Chedi Luang

Street food, Sunday Evening Market

Selling umbrellas, Sunday Evening Market

A soi NE of city center

Police tuk-tuk, Tha Phae Gate

Chang Phueak Gate and part of the old city wall

View south along the eastern moat of city center, Chiang Mai. The road on the right is Moon Muang, on the left, Chaiyapoom

Ho Trai
Ho Trai
(library), Wat
Wat
Phra Singh

Sunday Evening Market, Chiang Mai

Huai Tueng Thao Lake, NW of Chiang Mai

See also[edit]

Buddhist temples in Chiang Mai Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Creative City Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Initiative Royal Flora Ratchaphruek

References[edit]

^ http://stat.bora.dopa.go.th/stat/statnew/statTDD/views/showZoneData.php?rcode=5099&statType=1&year=59[dead link] ^ a b c d Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States of south-east Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.  ^ S.T. Leng (October–November 2010). "TCEB keen on World Expo 2020". Exhibition Now. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved 13 Jan 2013.  ^ Suchat Sritama (2011-04-05). "Ayutthaya Chosen Thailand's Bid City for World Expo 2020". The Nation (Thailand) Asia News Network. Retrieved 12 Dec 2012.  ^ "Best Destinations in the World; Travelers' Choice Awards 2014". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2014-12-12. [not in citation given] ^ " Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Night Bazaar in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Province, Thailand". Lonely Planet. 2011-10-24. Retrieved 2012-07-05.  ^ "มหาวิทยาลัยนอร์ท-เชียงใหม่ [North – Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
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Chiang Mai
Municipality" (in Thai). Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
City. 2008. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04.  ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Monuments, Sites and Cultural Landscape of Chiang Mai, Capital of Lanna - UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2017-10-09.  ^ Colquhoun, Archibald Ross (1885). Amongst the Shans. New York: Scribner & Welford. p. 121. Retrieved 8 February 2018.  ^ Aroonrut Wichienkeeo (2001–2012). "Lawa (Lua) : A Study from Palm-Leaf Manuscripts and Stone Inscriptions". COE Center of Excellence. Rajabhat Institute of Chiangmai. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 15 Aug 2012.  ^ See also the chronicle of Chiang Mai, Zinme Yazawin, in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai
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Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE ^ http://reninc.org/bookshelf/hilltribes_of_northern.pdf ^ "History of Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
– Lonely Planet Travel Information". Lonelyplanet.com. 2006-09-19. Retrieved 2012-07-05.  ^ "Thailand's World: General Kavila". Thailandsworld.com. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2012-07-05.  ^ Jimmy Carter; Rosalynn Carter (2009). " Thailand
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Chiang Mai
Municipality — History". Chiang Mai
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City. 2008. Archived from the original on 28 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04.  ^ " Chiang Mai
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Municipality — Emblem". Chiang Mai
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City. 2008. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-04.  ^ "Daily Climate Weather Data Statistics". Geodata.us. Retrieved 2012-04-29.  ^ "Climatological Data for the Period 1981–2010". Thai Meteorological Department. p. 2. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "ปริมาณการใช้น้ำของพืชอ้างอิงโดยวิธีของ Penman Monteith (Reference Crop Evapotranspiration by Penman Monteith)" (PDF) (in Thai). Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department. p. 14. Retrieved 31 July 2016.  ^ "Chiang Mai's Environmental Challenges", Fourth International Conference of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement ^ "Air Pollution in Chiang Mai: Current Air Quality & PM-10 Levels". Earthoria. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2010-04-15.  ^ "Officials in a haze". Bangkok
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Post. 2016-02-23. Retrieved 23 February 2016.  ^ "Chiang Mai's air pollution still high". Nationmultimedia.com. 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2010-04-15.  ^ http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/30054.pdf ^ "WHO Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global Update 2005" (PDF). WHO. 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-21.  ^ a b Catalysing sustainable tourism: The case of Chiang Mai, Thailand, Kyoko Kusakabe, Pujan Shrestha, S. Kumar and Trinnawat Suwanprik, the Climate and Development Knowledge Network, 2014 ^ http://www.siamandbeyond.com/smoke-pollution-makes-march-the-worst-month-to-visit-chiang-mai-northern-thailand/ ^ " Lan Na
Lan Na
Rebirth: Recently Re-established Temples", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW ^ " Wat
Wat
Phra Singh Woramahaviharn", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE ^ ^ " Wat
Wat
Chedi Luang: Temple of the Great Stupa", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE ^ " Wat
Wat
Ku Tao: Chang Phuak's Watermelon Temple", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 1. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ^ " Wat
Wat
Rampoeng Tapotharam" in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ^ " Wat
Wat
Suan Dok, the Flower Garden temple", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW ^ "Churches". Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Info. Retrieved 2010-04-15.  ^ "The Muslim Community Past and Present", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006IN1RNW ^ "Muslim Chiangmai" (bi-lingual Thai-English) (in Thai). Muslim Chiangmai. September 21, 2011. Retrieved September 21, 2011. Samsudin Bin Abrahim is the Imam of Chang Klan Mosque
Mosque
in Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
and a vibrant personality within Chiang Mai's 20,000 Muslim community  ^ a b c "Chiang Mai — A Complete Guide To Chiangmai". Chiangmai-thai.com. 2008-07-06. Retrieved 2010-04-15.  ^ See: Forbes, Andrew, "The Peoples of Chiang Mai", in Penth, Hans, and Forbes, Andrew, A Brief History of Lan Na. Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
City Arts and Cultural Centre, Chiang Mai, 2004, pp. 221–256. ^ "Thai Coins History". Royal Thai Mint. 28 Mar 2010. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved 19 Sep 2011.  ^ "Khan Tok Dinner". Lanna Food. Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai University
Library. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ "Chiang Mai's Hill Peoples", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 3. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ^ "Shan Silversmiths of Wua Lai", in Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai, Volume 4. Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, 2012. ASIN: B006J541LE ^ Lonely Planet (2012). "Shopping in Chiang Mai". Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet. Retrieved 15 August 2012.  ^ "เชียงใหม่เปิดตัวและแสดงข้อมูลระบบขนส่งสาธารณะ จับทุกภาคส่วนลงนามร่วมพัฒนาต่อเนื่อง". Manager Online (in Thai). Retrieved 2018-03-03.  ^ Peraphan, Jittrapirom; Hermann, Knoflacher; Markus, Mailer (2017-01-01). "Understanding decision makers' perceptions of Chiang Mai city's transport problems an application of Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) methodology". Transportation Research Procedia. World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016. 25 (Supplement C): 4438–4453. doi:10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.350.  ^ "Green Light for Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Light Railway Transit System". Chiang Mai Citylife. Retrieved 2017-10-08.  ^ " Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
for Digital Nomads". Moving Nomads. Retrieved 2018-02-06.  ^ Boonnoon, Jirapan (2017-01-27). "DE Ministry pushing for nationwide". The Nation. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ "Prayut gets long-distance look at 'smart' 3D Chiang Mai". The Nation. 22 September 2017. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ Da Hsuan, Feng; Hai Ming, Liang (28 September 2017). " Thailand
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can be smart-city flagship for Belt and Road" (Editorial). The Nation. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ Asina Pornwasin (15 September 2015). "Plan to make Phuket and Chiang Mai 'smart cities'". The Nation. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ "Oon IT Valley ออนไอทีวัลเลย์ เมืองไอที วิถีล้านนา". Oon IT Valley ออนไอทีวัลเลย์ เมืองไอที วิถีล้านนา (in Thai). Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ a b c Leesa-Nguansuk, Suchit (11 February 2017). " Chiang Mai
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to become smart city". Bangkok
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Post. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ " Chiang Mai
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To Get 500 Smart Bikes, Known as MOBIKE IN". Citylife Chiang Mai. 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ " Chiang Mai
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Post. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ a b "Smarter technology: medical tourism in Thailand". International Medical Travel Journal (IMTJ). 2 June 2011. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ Leesa-Nguansuk, Suchit (1 August 2016). "A tale of smart cities". Bangkok
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Post. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ Boonnoon, Jirapan (19 July 2012). "Thai arm of IBM spreads wings in Laos". The Nation. Retrieved 2018-03-01.  ^ a b "Internal Tourism in Chiang Mai" (PDF). Thailand
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Department of Tourism. Department of Tourism. 2014-08-20. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ a b c Chinmaneevong, Chadamas (2016-05-21). " Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
hoteliers face price war woe". Bangkok
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Post. Retrieved 22 May 2016.  ^ "2013 (Statistic Report 2013)". About AOT: Air Transport Statistic. Airports of Thailand
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PLC. Retrieved 2014-12-09.  ^ Amnatcharoenrit, Bamrung. " Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
sees boost in MICE sector" (2013-09-27). The Nation. Retrieved 2014-12-09.  ^ http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/914997/chiang-mai-activist-wins-us-courage-award ^ " Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Municipality Information Slideshow". Chiang Mai Municipality. Section of Foreign Affairs Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
Municipality. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  (page 21)[dead link]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chiang Mai.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chiang Mai.

City of Chiang Mai  "Chieng Mai". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 132. 

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