HOME
The Info List - Chechen Republic Of Ichkeria





The Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria (/ɪtʃˈkɛriə/; Chechen: Nóxçiyn Paçẋalq Içkeri [noχtʃʰiːn pʰɑtʃʜɑlq nɔχtʃɪtʃʰy̯ø], Cyrillic: Нохчийн Пачхьалкх Ичкери; Russian: Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") is the unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic. The republic was proclaimed in late 1991 by Dzhokhar Dudayev, and fought two devastating wars with the Russian Federation, which denounced the secession. Ethnic Russians made up 29% of the Chechen population before the war,[3] and they generally opposed independence.[4] Due to the mounting anti-Russian sentiment following the declaration of independence, by 1994 over 200,000 ethnic Russians had become refugees.[5] The First Chechen War
First Chechen War
(December 1994 - August 1996) resulted in the victory of the separatist forces.[6] After achieving de facto independence from Russia
Russia
in 1996, the Chechen government failed to establish order.[7] The region became plagued by kidnappings and violence between different Chechen clans.[7] In 1997 the Chechen Republic
Republic
adopted sharia law and carried out public executions.[8][9] In November 1997 Chechnya
Chechnya
was proclaimed an Islamic republic.[10] A Second Chechen War
Second Chechen War
began in July 1999 and ended in May 2000, with Chechen rebels continuing attacks as an insurgency.[11]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Declaration of Independence 1.2 First war 1.3 Interwar period (1996–1999) 1.4 Second war and postwar period

2 Military 3 Politics

3.1 Foreign relations

4 Human rights

4.1 Kidnappings 4.2 Sharia

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Declaration of Independence[edit] In November 1990, Dzhokhar Dudayev
Dzhokhar Dudayev
was elected head of the Executive Committee of the unofficial opposition All-National Congress of the Chechen People (NCChP), which advocated sovereignty for Chechnya
Chechnya
as a separate republic within the Soviet Union. The Soviet coup d'état attempt on 19 August 1991 became the spark for the so-called Chechen revolution.[12] On 21 August the NCChP called for the overthrow of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Chechen-Ingush Republic.[12] In September 1991, NCChP squads seized the local KGB headquarters, and took over the building of the Supreme Soviet.[13] The NCChP declared itself the only legitimate authority in the region.[13] In October 1991, Dudayev was elected president of the Chechen-Ingush Republic.[14] Dudayev, in his new position as president, issued a unilateral declaration of independence on 2 November 1991.[15] Initially, his stated objective was for Checheno-Ingushetia to become a union republic within Russia.[16] The separatist Interior Minister promised amnesty to any prison inmates who would join pro-independence rallies.[4] Among the prisoners was Ruslan Labazanov, who was serving a sentence for armed robbery and murder in Grozny
Grozny
and later headed a pro-Dudayev militia.[17] As crowds of armed separatists gathered in Grozny, President Yeltsin sought to declare a state of emergency in the region, but his efforts were thwarted by the Russian parliament.[16] An early attempt by Russian authorities to confront the pro-independence forces in November 1991 ended after just three days.[18][19] In early 1992 Dudayev signed a decree outlawing the extradition of criminals to any country which did not recognize Chechnya.[20] After being informed that the Russian government would not recognize Chechnya's independence, he declared that he would not recognize Russia.[15] Grozny
Grozny
became an organized crime haven, as the government proved unable or unwilling to curb criminal activities.[15] Dudayev's government created the constitution of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, which was introduced on March 1992.[21] In the same month, armed clashes occurred between pro and anti-Dudayev factions, leading Dudayev to declare a state of emergency.[22] Chechnya
Chechnya
and Ingushetia separated on 4 June 1992.[23] Relationship between Dudayev and the parliament deteriorated, and in June 1992 he dissolved the parliament, establishing direct presidential rule.[22] In late October 1992, federal forces were dispatched to end the Ossetian-Ingush conflict. As Russian troops sealed the border between Chechnya
Chechnya
and Ingushetia to prevent arms shipments, Dudayev threatened to take action unless the Russians withdrew.[24] Russian and Chechen forces mutually agreed to a withdrawal, and the incident ended peacefully.[25] Clashes between supporters and opponents of Dudayev occurred in April 1993. The President fired Interior Minister Sharpudin Larsanov after he refused to disperse the protesters.[26] The opposition planned a no-confidence referendum against Dudayev for 5 June 1993.[27] The government deployed army and riot police to prevent the vote from taking place, leading to bloodshed.[27] After staging another coup attempt in December 1993, the opposition organized a Provisional Council as a potential alternative government for Chechnya, calling on Moscow
Moscow
for assistance. First war[edit] Main article: First Chechen War The general feeling of lawlessness in Chechnya
Chechnya
increased during the first seven months in 1994, when four hijacking accidents occurred, involving people trying to flee the country.[28] In May 1994 Labazanov changed sides, establishing the anti-Dudayev Niyso Movement.[17] In July 1994, 41 passengers aboard a bus near Mineralniye Vody
Mineralniye Vody
were held by kidnappers demanding $15 million and helicopters.[29] After this incident, the Russian government started to openly support opposition forces in Chechnya.[30] In August 1994 Umar Avturkhanov, leader of the pro-Russian Provisional Council, launched an attack against pro-Dudayev forces.[31] Dudayev ordered the mobilization of the Chechen military, threatening a jihad against Russia
Russia
as a response to Russian support for his political opponents.[32] In November 1994 Avturkanov's forces attempted to storm the city of Grozny, but they were defeated by Dudayev's forces.[33] Dudayev declared his intention to turn Chechnya
Chechnya
into an Islamic state, stating that the recognition of sharia was a way to fight Russian 'aggression'.[34] He also vowed to punish the captured Chechen rebels under Islamic law, and threatened to execute Russian prisoners.[35] The First Chechen War
First Chechen War
began in December 1994, when Russian troops were sent to Chechnya
Chechnya
to fight the separatist forces.[36] During the Battle of Grozny
Grozny
(1994–95), the city's population dropped from 400,000 to 140,000.[37] Most of the civilians stranded in the city were elderly ethnic Russians, as many Chechens had support networks of relatives living in villages who took them in.[37] Salambek Khadzhiyev was appointed leader of the officially recognized Chechen government in early 1995.[38] The conflict ended after the Russian defeat in the Battle of Grozny
Grozny
of August 1996.[36] Interwar period (1996–1999)[edit] After the Russian withdrawal crime became rampant, with kidnappings and murders multiplying as rival rebel factions fought for territory.[39] In December 1996 six Red Cross workers were killed, leading most foreign aid workers to leave the country.[39] Parliamentary and presidential elections took place in January 1997 in Chechnya
Chechnya
and brought to power Aslan Maskhadov. The elections were deemed free and fair, but no government recognized Chechnya's independence, except for the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.[40] Ethnic Russian refugees were prevented from returning to vote by threats and intimidation, and Chechen authorities refused to set up polling booths outside the republic.[41] Maskhadov sought to maintain Chechen sovereignty while pressing Moscow to help rebuild the republic, whose formal economy and infrastructure were virtually destroyed.[42] In May 1997 the Russia–Chechen Peace Treaty was signed by Maskhadov and Yeltsin.[43] Russia
Russia
continued to send money for the rehabilitation of the republic; it also provided pensions and funds for schools and hospitals. Most of these transfers were stolen by corrupt Chechen authorities and divided between themselves and favoured warlords.[44] Nearly half a million people (40% of Chechnya's prewar population) have been internally displaced and lived in refugee camps or overcrowded villages.[45] The economy was destroyed. Two Russian brigades were stationed in Chechnya
Chechnya
and did not leave.[45] Maskhadov took effort to rebuild the country and its devastated capital Grozny by trading oil in countries such as the United Kingdom.[46] Chechnya
Chechnya
had been badly damaged by the war and the economy was in shambles.[47] Aslan Maskhadov
Aslan Maskhadov
tried to concentrate power in his hands to establish authority, but had trouble creating an effective state or a functioning economy. As part of the peace negotiations, Maskhadov demanded $260 billion in reparations from Russia, an amount equivalent to 60% of the Russian GDP.[48] The war ravages and lack of economic opportunities left numbers of armed former guerrillas with no occupation but further violence. Machine guns and grenades were sold openly and legally in Grozny's central bazaar.[49] The years of independence had some political violence as well. On 10 December Mansur Tagirov, Chechnya's top prosecutor, disappeared while returning to Grozny. On 21 June the Chechen security chief and a guerrilla commander fatally shot each other in an argument. The internal violence in Chechnya
Chechnya
peaked on 16 July 1998, when fighting broke out between Maskhadov's National Guard force led by Sulim Yamadayev (who joined pro- Moscow
Moscow
forces in the second war) and militants in the town of Gudermes; over 50 people were reported killed and the state of emergency was declared in Chechnya.[50] Maskhadov proved unable to guarantee the security of the oil pipeline running across Chechnya
Chechnya
from the Caspian Sea, and illegal oil tapping and acts of sabotage deprived his regime of crucial revenues and agitated his allies in Moscow. In 1998 and 1999 Maskhadov survived several assassination attempts, which he blamed on foreign intelligence services.[51] The attacks were seen as more likely to originate from within Chechnya, as the Kremlin deemed Maskhadov an acceptable negotiating partner for the Chechen conflict.[51] In December 1998, the supreme Islamic court of Chechnya
Chechnya
suspended the Chechen Parliament, asserting that it did not conform to the standards of sharia.[52] After the Chechen Vice-President Vakha Arsanov defected to the opposition, Maskhadov abolished his post, leading to a power struggle.[53] In February 1999 President Maskhadov removed legislative powers from the parliament and convened an Islamic State Council.[54] At the same time several prominent former warlords established the Mehk-Shura, a rival Islamic government.[54] The Shura advocated the creation of an Islamic confederation in the North Caucasus, including the Chechen, Dagestani and Ingush peoples.[55] On 9 August 1999, Islamist fighters from Chechnya
Chechnya
infiltrated Russia's Dagestan region, declaring it an independent state and calling for a jihad until "all unbelievers had been driven out".[56] This event prompted Russian intervention, and the beginning of the Second Chechen War. As more people escaped the war zones of Chechnya, President Maskhadov threatened to impose sharia punishment on all civil servants who moved their families out of the republic.[57] Second war and postwar period[edit] Since the fall of Grozny
Grozny
in 2000 some of the Ichkerian government was based in exile, including in Poland
Poland
and the United Kingdom. On 23 January 2000 a diplomatic representation of Ichkeria was based in Kabul during the Taliban
Taliban
regime in Afghanistan. In June 2000 Akhmed Kadyrov was appointed as head of the official administration of Chechnya.[58] On 31 October 2007, the separatist news agency Chechenpress reported that Dokka Umarov
Dokka Umarov
had announced the Caucasus
Caucasus
Emirate and declared himself its Emir.[citation needed] He integrated the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria as Vilayat Nokhchicho. This change of status was rejected by some Chechen politicians and military leaders who continue to support the existence of the republic. Since November 2007, Akhmed Zakayev says he is now the Prime Minister of Ichkeria's government in exile. Military[edit]

Cadets of the Ichkeria Chechen National Guard in 1999

Dudayev spent the years from 1991 to 1994 preparing for war, mobilizing men aged 15-55 and seizing Russian weapons depots. The Chechen National Guard counted 10,000 troops in December 1994, rising to 40,000 insurgents by early 1996.[59] Major weapons systems were seized from the Russian military in 1992, and on the eve of the First Chechen War
First Chechen War
they included 23 air defense guns, 108 APC/tanks, 24 artillery pieces, 5 MiG-17/15, 2 Mi-8 helicopters, 24 multiple rocket launchers, 17 surface to air missile launchers, 94 L-29
L-29
trainer aircraft, 52 L-39 trainer aircraft, 6 An-22 transport aircraft, 5 Tu-134
Tu-134
transport aircraft.[59] Politics[edit] Since the declaration of independence in 1991, there has been an ongoing battle between secessionist officials and federally appointed officials. Both claim authority over the same territory. In late 2007, the President of Ichkeria, Dokka Umarov, declared that he had renamed the republic to Noxçiyc̈ó and converted it into a province of the much larger Caucasus
Caucasus
Emirate, with himself as Emir. This change was rejected by some members of the former Chechen government-in-exile. Foreign relations[edit] Ichkeria was a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. Former president of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, deposed in a military coup of 1991 and a leading participant in the Georgian Civil War, recognised the independence of the Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria in 1993.[60] Diplomatic relations with Ichkeria were also established by the partially recognized Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan
under the Taliban government on 16 January 2000. This recognition ceased with the fall of the Taliban
Taliban
in 2001.[61] However, despite Taliban
Taliban
recognition, there were no friendly relations between the Taliban
Taliban
and Ichkeria—Maskhadov rejected their recognition, stating that the Taliban
Taliban
were illegitimate.[62] In June 2000, the Russian government claimed that Maskhadov had met with Osama bin Laden, and that the Taliban
Taliban
supported the Chechens with arms and troops.[63] In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the Bush administration called on Maskhadov to cut all links with the Taliban.[64] Ichkeria also received vocal support from the Baltic countries, a group of Ukrainian nationalists and Poland; Estonia
Estonia
once voted to recognize, but the act never was consummated due to pressure applied by both Russia
Russia
and the pro-Russian elements within the EU.[62][65][66] Dudayev also had contacts with Islamist movements and guerrillas in Jordan, Lebanon and Iran.[67] Human rights[edit] Kidnappings[edit] Kidnappings, robberies, and killings of fellow Chechens and outsiders weakened the possibilities of outside investment and Maskhadov's efforts to gain international recognition of its independence effort. The Chechen government claimed that the Russian secret services
Russian secret services
were behind the kidnappings.[68] Kidnappings became common in Chechnya, procuring over $200 million during the three year independence of the chaotic fledgling state,[69] but victims were rarely killed.[70] Kidnappers would at times mutilate their captives and send video recordings to their families, to encourage the payment of ransoms.[71] Some of the kidnapped (most of whom were non-Chechens) were sold into indentured servitude to Chechen families. They were openly called slaves and had to endure starvation, beating, and often maiming.[44][72][73][74] In 1998, 176 people had been kidnapped, and 90 of them had been released during the same year according to official accounts. There were several public executions of criminals.[75][76] In 1998, four western engineers working for Granger Telecom were abducted and beheaded after a failed rescue attempt.[77] Gennady Shpigun, the Interior Ministry liaison to Chechen officials, was kidnapped in March 1999 as he was leaving Grozny
Grozny
Airport; his remains were found in Chechnya
Chechnya
in March 2000.[78] President Maskhadov started a major campaign against hostage-takers, and on 25 October 1998, Shadid Bargishev, Chechnya's top anti-kidnapping official, was killed in a remote controlled car bombing. Bargishev's colleagues then insisted they would not be intimidated by the attack and would go ahead with their offensive. Other anti-kidnapping officials blamed the attack on Bargishev's recent success in securing the release of several hostages, including 24 Russian soldiers and an English couple.[79] Maskhadov blamed the rash of abductions in Chechnya
Chechnya
on unidentified "outside forces" and their Chechen henchmen, allegedly those who joined Pro- Moscow
Moscow
forces during the second war.[80] Sharia[edit] See also: Islamic religious police of the Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria After the country won de facto independence from Russia, Islamic courts were established.[81] In September 1996 a Sharia-based criminal code was adopted, which included provisions for banning alcohol and punishing adultery with death by stoning.[82] Sharia
Sharia
was supposed to apply to Muslims only, but in fact it was also applied to ethnic Russians who violated Sharia
Sharia
provisions.[82] In one of the first rulings under sharia law, in January 1997 an Islamic court ordered the payment of blood money to the family of a man who was killed in a traffic accident.[81] In November 1997 the Islamic dress code
Islamic dress code
was imposed on all female students and civil servants in the country.[83] In December 1997, the Supreme Sharia
Sharia
Court banned New Year celebrations, considering them "an act of apostasy and falsity".[84] Conceding to an armed and vocal minority movement in the opposition led by Movladi Udugov, in February 1999, Maskhadov declared The Islamic Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria, and the Sharia
Sharia
system of justice was introduced. Maskhadov hoped that this would discredit the opposition, putting stability before his own ideological affinities. However, according to former Foreign Minister Ilyas Akhmadov, the public primarily supported Maskhadov, his Independence Party, and their secularism. This was exemplified by the much greater numbers in political rallies supporting the government than those supporting the Islamist opposition.[85] Akhmadov notes that the parliament, which was dominated by Maskhadov's own Independence Party, issued a public stating that President Maskhadov didn't have the constitutional authority to proclaim sharia law, and also condemning the opposition for "undermining the foundations of the state".[86] See also[edit]

Borz Chechenpress Caucasus
Caucasus
Emirate Dokka Umarov History of Chechnya List of unrecognized countries Shamil Basayev Assassination of Anna Politkovskaya

References[edit]

^ a b "The Constitution
Constitution
of Chechen Republic
Republic
Ichkeria". Waynakh Online. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ "Конституция Чеченской Республики » Zhaina — Нахская библиотека". zhaina.com. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.  ^ Bristol, Lela; Gutterman, Steve (22 November 1991). "Soviet Union: Mother Russia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Bohlen, Celestine (12 November 1991). "Legislators Block Yeltsin Rule of Breakaway Area". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Goldberg, Carey; Efron, Sonni (30 December 1994). " Russia
Russia
Bombs Chechen Oil Plant; Dudayev Seeks Talks". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017.  ^ "Still growling". The Economist. 22 January 1998. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b "Chechen president cracks down on crime". BBC News. 20 July 1998. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Chechnya's chop-chop justice". The Economist. 18 September 1997. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Executions Remind Uneasy Russia
Russia
Of Chechnya's Islamic Path". Chicago Tribune. 12 September 1997. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ " Chechnya
Chechnya
proclaimed Islamic republic". UPI. November 5, 1997. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ " Chechnya
Chechnya
profile". BBC News. 11 August 2015. Archived from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Yevsyukova, Mariya (1995). "The Conflict Between Russia
Russia
And Chechnya
Chechnya
- Working Paper #95-5(1)". University of Colorado, Boulder. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ a b "Первая война". Коммерсантъ. 13 December 2014. Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.  ^ Dobbs, Michael (29 October 1991). "Ethnic Strife Splintering Core of Russian Republic". Washington Post.  ^ a b c "Defiance of the wolf baying at Yeltsin's door". The Guardian. 8 September 1994. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013.  ^ a b Trevelyan, Mark (13 November 1991). "Breakaway leader challenges Russia". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b "Forces of Rusland Labazanov". Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Hockstader, Lee (12 December 1994). " Russia
Russia
Pours Troops Into Breakaway Region". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 September 2000. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Steele, Jonathan (11 November 1991). "Yeltsin fails to bring rebels to heel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Baranovski, I. (12 June 1992). "Mob Rule in Moscow". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Pike, John. "Chechen Leadership In Exile Seeks To Salvage Legitimacy". Archived from the original on 17 February 2008.  ^ a b "1992-1994: Independence in all but name". The Telegraph. 1 January 2001. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ "Bombers threaten Ingush Duma hopeful". UPI. 1 July 2000. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Schmemann, Serge (11 November 1992). "Russian Troops Arrive As Caucasus
Caucasus
Flares Up". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Jenkinson, Brett C. (2002). "Tactical Observations From The Grozny Combat Experience" (PDF). United States Military Academy, West Point. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 April 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ "Chechens in bloody protest". The Independent. 26 April 1993. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ a b "Armed standoff in breakaway Russian province". UPI. June 17, 1993. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Smith, Duane “Mike”; Hodges, Frederick “Ben”. "War as a Continuation of Policy". Archived from the original on 10 December 2017.  ^ "Russians show photos that 'prove Chechen beheadings'". The Independent. 2 August 1994. Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ " Russia
Russia
loses patience with Chechen rebels". The Independent. 1 August 1994. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ Efron, Sonni (3 August 1994). "Opposition Reports Toppling Chief of Breakaway Russian Republic". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2015.  ^ Meek, James (12 August 1994). "Dudayev threatens holy war". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "The savagery of war: A soldier looks back at Chechnya". The Independent. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ "President of Chechnya
Chechnya
Backs Islamic State". The New York Times. 21 November 1994. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Airstrike hits Chechen separatist region". UPI. 29 November 1994. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.  ^ a b "Russian troops begin pullout in Chechnya". CNN. 25 August 1996. Archived from the original on 29 April 2005.  ^ a b Erlanger, Steven (9 April 1995). "In Fallen Chechen Capital, Medical Care Is in Ruins". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Erlanger, Steven (29 March 1995). " Grozny
Grozny
Journal; Picking Up, After Guns Have Done Their Worst". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Stanley, Alessandra (24 January 1997). "Chechen Voters' Key Concerns: Order and Stability". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Reynolds, Maura (28 September 2001). "Envoys of Russia, Chechnya Discuss Options for Peace". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Little Hope in Poll for Ethnic Russians". The Moscow
Moscow
Times. 23 January 1997. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Freedomhouse.org". Archived from the original on 8 February 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Stanley, Alessandra (13 May 1997). "Yeltsin Signs Peace Treaty With Chechnya". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.  ^ a b Leon Aron. Chechnya, New Dimensions of the Old Crisis Archived 12 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. . AEI, 1 February 2003 ^ a b Alex Goldfarb and Marina Litvinenko. "Death of a Dissident: The Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the Return of the KGB." Free Press, New York, 2007. Archived 29 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ISBN 978-1-4165-5165-2. ^ London Sunday Times on Mashkadov visit Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The International Spectator 3/2003, The Afghanisation of Chechnya, Peter Brownfeld Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Habeas corpus". The Economist. August 21, 1997. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "War racketeers plague Chechnya". BBC News. 14 December 2004. Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Further emergency measures in Chechnya
Chechnya
Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Chechen leader survives assassination attempt". BBC News. 23 July 1998. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ France-Presse, Agence (25 December 1998). "A Chechen Islamic Ruling". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Islamist vice-president defies Chechen leader". BBC News. 7 February 1999. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b " Chechnya
Chechnya
power struggle". BBC News. February 9, 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Russia's violent southern rim". The Economist. March 25, 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Dagestan moves to state of holy war". The Independent. 11 August 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Uzelac, Ana (7 October 1999). "In ruins of one war, Grozny
Grozny
prepares for the second". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ " Russia
Russia
appoints Chechen leader". BBC News. 12 June 2000. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Lutz, Raymond R. (April 1997). "Russian Strategy In Chechnya: a Case Study in Failure". Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ in 1993, ex-President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia
Zviad Gamsakhurdia
recognized Chechnya
Chechnya
` s independence.. Archived 21 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine., ^ Are Chechens in Afghanistan? – By Nabi Abdullaev, 14 December 2001 Moscow
Moscow
Times Archived 7 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Kullberg, Anssi. "The Background of Chechen Independence Movement III: The Secular Movement". The Eurasian politician. 1 October 2003 ^ "What Moscow
Moscow
wants from 'summit'". Christian Science Monitor. 2 June 2000. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Chechens in talks as deadline passes". BBC News. 27 September 2001. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Kari Takamaa and Martti Koskenneimi. The Finnish Yearbook of International Law. p147 ^ Kuzio, Taras. "The Chechen crisis and the 'near abroad'". Central Asian Survey, Volume 14, Issue 4 1995, pages 553–572 ^ Boudreaux, Richard (9 February 1995). "Faith Fuels Chechen Fighters". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Chechnya's hard path to statehood". BBC News. 1 October 1999. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Tishkov, Valery. Chechnya: Life in a War-Torn Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. Page 114. ^ Four Western hostages beheaded in Chechnya
Chechnya
Archived 3 December 2002 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dixon, Robyn (18 September 2000). "Chechnya's Grimmest Industry". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ RF Ministry of Justice information. Chechnya
Chechnya
violates basic legal norms Archived 14 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine., 8 December 1999 ^ RFERL, Russia: RFE/RL Interviews Chechen Field Commander Umarov Archived 14 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine., 27 July 2005; Doku Umarov who was the head of the Security Council of Ichkeria in 1997–1999 accused Movladi Baisarov and one of Yamadayev brothers of engaging in slave trade in the inter-war period ^ Соколов-Митрич, Дмитрий (2007). Нетаджикские девочки, нечеченские маьлчики (in Russian). Moscow: Яуза-Пресс. ISBN 978-5-903339-45-7. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011.  ^ Document Information Amnesty International Archived 21 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Latest News – MFA of Latvia". Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ "Hostages 'beheaded at roadside'". BBC News. 9 December 1998. Archived from the original on 1 March 2015.  ^ Wines, Michael (15 June 2000). " Russia
Russia
Says Remains Are Those Of Envoy Abducted in Chechnya". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ The Michigan Daily Online Archived 30 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Police tried to silence GfbV – Critical banner against Putin´s Chechnya
Chechnya
policies wars Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "Chechen court applies Islamic law". The Independent. 3 January 1997. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ a b Stanley, Alessandra (1997). "Islam Gets the Law and Order Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ " Islamic dress code
Islamic dress code
for Chechnya". BBC News. November 12, 1997. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ "Chechen Islamic court bans all New Year celebrations". BBC News. 11 December 1997. Retrieved 9 December 2017.  ^ Akhmadov, Ilyas. The Chechen Struggle: Independence Won and Lost. Page 144. "The size of the rallies indicated that the public was behind Maskhadov and the secular state... and, in autumn, that they [the opposition] could not summon public support either on the street or in the parliament." ^ Akhmadov, Ilyas. The Chechen Struggle: Independence Won and Lost. Page 143.

External links[edit]

Official website of the Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria, archived June 2000

v t e

Leaders of Chechnya
Chechnya
since 1917

 Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria

Dzhokhar Dudayev Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev Aslan Maskhadov Abdul-Halim Sadulayev Dokka Umarov Akhmed Zakayev

 Chechen Republic

Salambek Khadzhiyev Doku Zavgayev Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev Akhmad Kadyrov Sergey Abramov Alu Alkhanov Ramzan Kadyrov

Caucasus
Caucasus
Emirate

Dokka Umarov Aslambek Vadalov (disputed) Khuseyn Gakayev (disputed) Aliaskhab Kebekov Magomed Suleymanov

Mountainous Republic
Republic
of the Northern Caucasus

Tapa Tchermoeff

Acting officeholders shown in italics.

v t e

Chechen–Russian conflict

First Chechen War
First Chechen War
(1994–1996) War of Dagestan
War of Dagestan
(1999) Second Chechen War
Second Chechen War
(1999–2009) War in Ingushetia
War in Ingushetia
(2007–2015) Insurgency in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
(since 2009)

First Chechen War

Battle of Grozny
Grozny
(November 1994) Battle of Dolinskoye Battle of Khankala Battle of Grozny
Grozny
(1994–95) 1995 Shali cluster bomb attack Samashki massacre Shatoy ambush Battle of Grozny
Grozny
(August 1996) Khasavyurt Accord Russia–Chechen Peace Treaty

Second Chechen War

1999 Russian bombing of Chechnya Battle of Grozny
Grozny
(1999–2000) Battle for Height 776 Battle of Komsomolskoye 2000 Zhani-Vedeno ambush 2002 Khankala Mi-26 crash 2004 Nazran raid 2004 raid on Grozny 2005 raid on Nalchik Counter-insurgency operations Guerrilla
Guerrilla
phase

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Major attacks

1995 Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis 1996 Black Sea hostage crisis

MV Avrasya
MV Avrasya
hijacking

1996 Kizlyar hostage crisis 1999 Russian apartment bombings 1999 Dagestan massacre 2002 Moscow
Moscow
theater hostage crisis 2002 Grozny
Grozny
truck bombing 2004 Russian aircraft bombings 2004 Beslan school siege

Related topics

Censorship of Chechnya
Chechnya
coverage Crimes and terrorism Mass graves Suicide attacks Assassinations Casualties Aircraft losses International response Politics of Chechnya Chechenpress Kavkaz Center

Wars in culture

Alexandra (film) Angel of Grozny Ant in a Glass Jar Polina Zherebtsova's Journal The 3 Rooms of Melancholia The Pathologies The Search (2014 film) War (2002 film)

Federalists

Combatants

Russian Federation

Armed Forces Ground Forces

Ministry of Internal Affairs

OMON ODON Internal Troops

Federal Security Service Main Intelligence Directorate Special
Special
Forces (Spetsnaz) Republic
Republic
of Chechnya

Kadyrovtsy

Leaders

Russian Federation

Boris Yeltsin Dmitry Medvedev Vladimir Putin Alexander Lebed Pavel Grachev Gennady Troshev

Chechnya

 † Akhmad Kadyrov Alu Alkhanov Ramzan Kadyrov  † Dzhabrail Yamadayev  † Ruslan Yamadayev  † Sulim Yamadayev

Separatists

Combatants

Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria Caucasian Front

Shariat Jamaat Vilayat Galgaycho Vilayat Nokhchicho

Islamic Djamaat of Dagestan

Leaders

 † Dzhokhar Dudayev  † Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev  † Aslan Maskhadov  † Abdul-Halim Sadulayev  † Ruslan Gelayev  † Shamil Basayev  † Arbi Barayev  † Salman Raduyev Akhmed Zakayev  † Turpal-Ali Atgeriyev  † Vakha Arsanov Ilyas Akhmadov  † Movsar Barayev  † Muslim Atayev  † Rasul Makasharipov  † Ilyas Gorchkhanov  † Rappani Khalilov

Mujahideen

Combatants

Caucasus
Caucasus
Emirate Arab Mujahideen Islamic International Brigade Riyad-us Saliheen ISIL – Caucasus
Caucasus
Province

Leaders

 † Magomed Suleimanov  † Aliaskhab Kebekov  † Dokka Umarov  (POW) Aslambek Vadalov  (POW) Ali Taziev  † Anzor Astemirov  † Supyan Abdullayev Aslan Byutukayev Movladi Udugov  † Khuseyn Gakayev  (POW) Tarkhan Gaziyev  † Said Buryatsky  † Magomed Vagabov  † Rustam Asildarov  † Asker Dzhappuyev  † Arthur Getagazhev  † Ibn al-Khattab  † Abu al-Walid  † Abu Hafs al-Urduni  † Muhannad  † Abdulla Kurd

v t e

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
conflict

Background

Nagorno-Karabakh

History

Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Karabakh movement

Miatsum

Armenians in Azerbaijan

Armenians in Baku

Azerbaijanis in Armenia Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan Anti-Azerbaijani sentiment in Armenia Armenia– Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
relations

Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
War

Askeran clash Sumgait pogrom Kirovabad pogrom Baku pogrom Battle of Kalbajar Capture of Shusha Black January Zvartnots Airport clash Siege of Stepanakert Khojaly Massacre Maraga massacre Mardakert and Martuni Offensives Law on Abolishment of Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast 1991 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8
Mi-8
shootdown 1992 Azerbaijani Mil Mi-8
Mi-8
shootdown Operation Goranboy Operation Ring 1993 Summer Offensives 1994 Bagratashen bombing

Post-war clashes

2008 Mardakert skirmishes February 2010 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
skirmish 2010 Mardakert skirmishes 2012 Armenian–Azerbaijani border clashes 2014 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes 2014 Armenian Mil Mi-24 shootdown 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
clashes

Main locations

Administrative divisions of the Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Stepanakert Askeran Region Hadrut Region Kashatagh Region Martakert Region Martuni Region Shahumyan Region Shushi Region

Armenian-controlled territories

Agdam District Fuzuli District Jabrayil District Kalbajar District Lachin District Qubadli District Zangilan District

Political leaders

 Armenia

Levon Ter-Petrosyan Robert Kocharyan Serzh Sargsyan

  Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Artur Mkrtchyan Robert Kocharyan Leonard Petrosyan Arkadi Ghukasyan Bako Sahakyan

 Azerbaijan

Ayaz Mutallibov Abulfaz Elchibey Heydar Aliyev Ilham Aliyev

Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh

Bayram Safarov Nizami Bahmanov

 Russia

Boris Yeltsin

 Soviet Union

Mikhail Gorbachev

 Turkey

Turgut Özal

Military leaders

 Armenia

Vazgen Sargsyan Gurgen Dalibaltayan Norat Ter-Grigoryants Jirair Sefilian

  Republic
Republic
of Artsakh

Samvel Babayan Kristapor Ivanyan Arkady Ter-Tadevosyan Monte Melkonian

 Azerbaijan

Isgandar Hamidov Rahim Gaziyev Surat Huseynov Valeh Barshadly

 Russia

Pavel Grachev

 Soviet Union

Viktor Polyanichko

 Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria

Shamil Basayev

 Afghanistan

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Peace process

Baker rules Bishkek Protocol Tehran Communiqué Zheleznovodsk Communiqué OSCE Minsk Group Prague Process Madrid Principles

International documents

Astrakhan Declaration Nagorno-Karabakh
Nagorno-Karabakh
Declaration NATO Lisbon Summit Declaration OIC Resolution 10/11, OIC Resolution 10/37 PACE Resolution 1416 UNGA Resolution 62/243 UNSC Resolutions 822, 8

.