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Coordinates: 51°23′50″N 00°31′40″E / 51.39722°N 0.52778°E / 51.39722; 0.52778

HMS Gannet at Chatham Dockyard

Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
shown within Kent
Kent
(grid reference TQ759692)

The Commissioner's House (1704), was built for Captain George St Lo, who found the previous house unsuitable. It remains the oldest surviving naval building in England.

Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
was a Royal Navy Dockyard
Royal Navy Dockyard
located on the River Medway in Kent. Established in Chatham in the mid-16th century, the dockyard subsequently expanded into neighbouring Gillingham (at its most extensive, in the early 20th century, two-thirds of the dockyard lay in Gillingham, one-third in Chatham). It came into existence at the time when, following the Reformation, relations with the Catholic
Catholic
countries of Europe
Europe
had worsened, leading to a requirement for additional defences. For 414 years Chatham Royal Dockyard provided over 500 ships for the Royal Navy, and was at the forefront of shipbuilding, industrial and architectural technology. At its height, it employed over 10,000 skilled artisans and covered 400 acres (1.6 km²). Chatham dockyard closed in 1984, and 84 acres (340,000 m2) of the Georgian dockyard is now managed as a visitor attraction by the Chatham Historic Dockyard
Chatham Historic Dockyard
Trust.

Contents

1 Outline history

1.1 Jillingham water 1.2 The early dockyard 1.3 Relocation and consolidation

1.3.1 Sheerness

1.4 Expansion 1.5 Mechanisation 1.6 Last years

2 Administration of the dockyard

2.1 Resident Commissioners of the Navy Board 2.2 Admiral/Captain superintendents 2.3 Flag Officer, Medway and Admiral
Admiral
Superintendents 2.4 Flag Officer, Medway and Port Admiral

3 Descriptions 4 Significant buildings within the Georgian Dockyard

4.1 Wood and canvas 4.2 Dry docks and covered slips 4.3 Offices and residential 4.4 Anchor
Anchor
Wharf
Wharf
and the Ropery 4.5 Later buildings

5 Surviving structures within the Victorian Dockyard 6 The Gun Wharf 7 Defence of the dockyard

7.1 Upnor
Upnor
Castle 7.2 Chain
Chain
defence 7.3 The Lines

8 Associated barracks

8.1 Infantry Barracks
Barracks
(Kitchener Barracks) 8.2 Marine Barracks 8.3 Artillery/Engineer Barracks
Barracks
(Brompton Barracks) 8.4 St Mary's Barracks 8.5 Naval Barracks
Barracks
(HMS Pembroke)

9 Closure and regeneration

9.1 Filming

10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Outline history[edit]

Engraving of " Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
from Fort Pitt" from Ireland's History of Kent, Vol. 4, 1831. Facing p. 349. Drawn by G. Sheppard, engraved by R. Roffe.

The Treasurer of the Navy's accounts of the King's Exchequer
Exchequer
for the year 1544 identifies Deptford as the Dockyard that carried out all the major repairs to the King's Ships that year. That was soon to change (although Deptford remained a dockyard for over three centuries). Jillingham water[edit] Chatham's establishment as a naval dockyard was precipitated by the use of the Medway as a safe anchorage by the ships of what was to become (under King Henry VIII) England's permanent Royal Navy. In 1550, a decree was issued to the Lord High Admiral
Admiral
that:

the Kinges shipps shulde be harborowed [harboured] in Jillingham Water – saving [except] those that be at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
– to remaigne there till the yere be further spent...

Even prior to this, there is evidence of certain shore facilities being established in the vicinity for the benefit of the King's ships at anchor: there are isolated references from as early as 1509 to the hiring of a storehouse nearby[1] and from 1547 this becomes a fixed item in the Treasurer's annual accounts. (At around the same time a victualling store was also established, in nearby Rochester, to provide the ships and their crews with food.) The storehouse would have furnished ships with such necessary consumables as rope, pulleys, sailcloth and timber; for more specialised repairs and maintenance, however, they would have had to travel to one of the purpose-built royal dockyards (the nearest being those on the Thames: Deptford and Woolwich). The early dockyard[edit] 1567 is generally seen as the date of Chatham's establishment as a Royal Naval Dockyard.[2] In the years that followed the ground was prepared, accommodation was secured and a mast pond was installed. The renowned Tudor shipwright Mathew Baker
Mathew Baker
was appointed to Chatham in 1572 (though he was primarily based at Deptford). Under his supervision the site was developed to include sawpits, workshops, a wharf with a crane and, most significantly, its first dry dock, which opened in 1581. The dockyard received its first royal visit, from Elizabeth I, in 1573. The first ship to be built at the dockyard, HMS Sunne was launched in 1586.[3] Relocation and consolidation[edit] James I used Chatham dockyard for a meeting in 1606 with Christian IV of Denmark.[4] In 1613, the dockyard moved from its original location (now the gun wharf to the south) to its present site.[3] The growing importance of the dockyard was illustrated with the addition of two new mast ponds, and the granting of additional land on which a dock, storehouse, and various brick and lime kilns were planned. Peter Pett, of the family of shipwrights whose history is closely connected to the Chatham dockyard, became commissioner in 1649.[5]

Dutch Attack on the Medway, June 1667 by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, painted c. 1667. The captured ship Royal Charles
Royal Charles
is right of centre.

One of the disadvantages of Chatham (and also of the Thames-side yards) was their relative inaccessibility for ships at sea (including those anchored in The Nore). Therefore, rather than risk being constrained by wind, tide and draught on a journey upriver, ships would seek as often as possible to do running repairs and maintenance while at anchor, and would only travel to the dockyard when necessary. Thus deliveries of victuals, ordnance and other supplies were made by small boats, sailing regularly between Chatham and The Nore.[6] Sheerness[edit] Seeking to alleviate this less-than-satisfactory situation, the Navy Board explored options for developing a shore facility with direct access from the open water of the Thames
Thames
Estuary. The escalating Anglo-Dutch wars
Anglo-Dutch wars
forced their hand, however: several temporary buildings were hastily erected on Sheerness, at the mouth of the Medway, to enable ships to re-arm, re-victual and (if necessary) be repaired as quickly as possible. In 1665, the Navy Board
Navy Board
approved Sheerness
Sheerness
as a site for a new dockyard, and building work began; but in 1667 the still-incomplete Sheerness
Sheerness
Dockyard was captured by the Dutch Navy
Dutch Navy
and used as the base for a humiliating attack on the English fleet at anchor in the Medway itself. Sheerness
Sheerness
remained operational as a royal dockyard until 1959, but it was never considered a major shore establishment and in several respects it operated as a subsidiary yard to Chatham.[7] Expansion[edit] By the late 17th century Chatham was the largest refitting dockyard, important during the Dutch wars. It was, however, superseded in the following century, first by Portsmouth, then Plymouth, when the main naval enemy became France, and the Western approaches the chief theatre of operations. In addition, the Medway had begun to silt up, making navigation more difficult. Nevertheless, following a visit by the Admiralty
Admiralty
Board in 1773, the decision was taken to invest further in Chatham, which developed into a building yard rather than a refitting base.[5] Among many vessels built in this Dockyard and which still exist, are HMS Victory, launched in 1765 – now preserved at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Historic Dockyard.[8] By the year 1770 the establishment had so expanded that, including the gun wharf, it stretched a mile (1.6 km) in length, and included an area of in excess of 95 acres (384,000 m²), possessing four slip ways and four large docks. The officers and men employed in the yard also increased, and by 1798 they numbered 1,664, including 49 officers and clerks and 624 shipwrights. Additionally required were the blockmakers, caulkers, pitch-heaters, blacksmiths, joiners and carpenters, sail makers, riggers, and ropemakers (274), as well as bricklayers, labourers and others.[9] Mechanisation[edit]

1884 map, showing the 'Royal Dock Yard' (centre) with the river to the west, new extension to the north, barracks and fortifications to the east.

Between 1862 and 1885, the yard underwent another large building programme as the Admiralty
Admiralty
adjusted to the new technology of steam-powered ships with metal hulls. Three basins were constructed along St Mary's creek: of 28 acres (110,000 m2), 20 acres (81,000 m2) and 21 acres (85,000 m2). There were four new dry docks. Much of the work was done by convict labour. The construction materials required regenerated the North Kent
Kent
brick and cement industries. It is estimated that 110 million bricks were used. These basins formed the Victorian Dockyard. Chatham built on average, two new ships each year. HMS Unicorn, (a Leda class frigate), now preserved afloat at Dundee, was launched at Chatham in 1824.[10] With the 20th century came the submarine. HMS C17
HMS C17
was launched at Chatham in 1908, and during World War I, twelve submarines were built here, but when hostilities ceased, uncompleted boats were scrapped and five years passed before a further ship was launched. In the interwar years, 8 "S" class submarines were built at Chatham but this was a period of decline. During World War II there were 1,360 refits and sixteen launchings. Last years[edit] The final boats constructed in Chatham were Oberon class submarines – Ocelot was the last vessel built for the Royal Navy, and the final vessel was Okanagan built for the Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
and launched on 17 September 1966. In 1968, a nuclear submarine refitting complex was built complete with refuelling cranes and health physics building. In spite of this in June 1981, it was announced to Parliament that the dockyard would be run down and closed in 1984.[11] In the mid-1980s Defence Estates disposed of the former Royal Navy ratings Married Quarters on the nearby Walderslade Estate, which were sold by public auction. These were previously occupied by personnel from the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
dockyard Chatham, with 110 married quarters being sold. The Georgian site is now a visitor attraction, under the care of the Chatham Historic Dockyard
Chatham Historic Dockyard
Trust. The Trust is preparing an application for the Dockyard and its Defences to become a World Heritage Site.[12] Administration of the dockyard[edit] Resident Commissioners of the Navy Board[edit] The Commissioner of Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
held a seat and a vote on the Navy Board
Navy Board
in London. The Commissioners were:[13]

1631–1647 Phineas Pett[14] 1648–1668 Peter Pett[15] 1669–1672 John Cox[16] 1672–1686 Thomas Middleton[17] 1686–1689 Phineas Pett[18] 1689–1703 Sir Edward Gregory[18] 1703–1714 George St Lo[18] 1714–1722 James Lyttleton[18] 1722–1736 Thomas Kempthorne[18] 1736–1742 Thomas Mathews[18] 1742–1754 Charles Brown[18] 1754–1755 Arthur Scott[18] 1755–1763 Thomas Cooper[18] 1763–1771 Thomas Hanway[18] 1771–1799 Charles Proby[18] 1799–1801 John Hartwell[19] 1801–1808 Captain Charles Hope[20] 1808–1823 Captain Robert Barlow[21] 1823–1829 Captain Charles Cunningham

In 1832 the post of commissioner was replaced by the post of superintendent, who was invested with the same power and authority as the former commissioners, "except in matters requiring an Act of Parliament to be submitted by the Commissioner of the Navy". Admiral/Captain superintendents[edit]

Note incomplete list included.[22]

Captain Sir James A. Gordon, July 1832 – 10 January 1837 [23] Captain Sir Thomas Bourchier, 20 September 1846 – 5 May 1849 [24] Captain Peter Richards, 5 May 1849 – 14 June 1854 [25] Captain Christopher Wyvill, 14 June 1854 – 1 April 1861 [26][27] Captain Edward G. Fanshawe, 1 April 1861 – 9 November 1863, [28] Captain William Houston Stewart, 19 November 1863 to 30 November 1868 [29] Captain William Charles Chamberlain, 30 November 1868 – 19 January 1874 Captain Charles Fellowes, 19 January 1874 – 1876 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Thomas Brandreth, 1 February 1879 – 1 December 1881 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
George W. Watson, 1 December 1881 – April 1886 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
William Codrington, April 1886 – 1 November 1887 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Edward Kelly , 1 November 1887 – December 1890 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
George D. Morant, 25 January 1892 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Hilary G. Andoe, 2 September 1895 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Swinton Colthurst Holland, 2 September 1899 – 2 September 1902 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
Robert William Craigie, 2 September 1902 – 2 September 1905[30] Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Alvin C. Corry, 2 September 1905 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
George A. Giffard, 5 February 1907 – 9 August 1909 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Robert N. Ommanney, 9 August 1909 – 9 August 1912 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Charles E. Anson, 9 August 1912 – 9 August 1915 Captain Harry Jones, 16 August 1913 – 15 September 1913 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
Arthur D. Ricardo, 9 August 1915 – 1 May, 1919 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Sir William E. Goodenough, 1 May, 1919 – 26 May, 1920 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Lewis Clinton-Baker, 26 May, 1920 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Edward B. Kiddle, 28 September 1921 – 1 December 1923 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Percy M. R. Royds, 1 December 1923 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Charles P. Beaty-Pownall, 7 December 1925 – 7 December 1927 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Anselan J. B. Stirling, 7 December 1927 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
Charles W. Round-Turner, October 1931 – October 1935 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
Sir Clinton F. S. Danby, 1 October 1935 – 15 October 1942 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
John G. Crace, 15 October 1942 – July 1946 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
A.L. Poland, 5 September 1950 – May 1951 [31] Rear- Admiral
Admiral
George V.M. Dolphin: October 1954 – October 1958 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
John Y. Thompson: October 1958 – February 1961

Flag Officer, Medway and Admiral
Admiral
Superintendents[edit] Included: [32]

Rear- Admiral
Admiral
I.William T. Beloe: February 1961 – December 1963 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Ian L.T.Hogg: December 1963 – July 1966 Vice- Admiral
Admiral
Sir W. John Parker: July 1966 – September 1969 [33] Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Frederick C.W. Lawson: September 1969 – November 1971 [34]

Flag Officer, Medway and Port Admiral[edit]

Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Colin C.H. Dunlop: November 1971 – January 1974 [35] Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Stephen F. Berthon: January 1974 – July 1976 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Christopher M. Bevan: July 1976 – August 1978 [36] Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Charles B. Williams: August 1978 – August 1980 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
George M.K. Brewer: August 1980 – August 1982 Rear- Admiral
Admiral
William A. Higgins: August 1982–1983 [37]

Of Note: On 5 September 1971 all Flag Officers of the Royal Navy holding positions of Admiral
Admiral
Superintendents at Royal Dockyards were restyled as Port Admirals.[38] Descriptions[edit]

William Camden
William Camden
(1551–1623) described Chatham dockyard as

stored for the finest fleet the sun ever beheld, and ready at a minute’s warning, built lately by our most gracious sovereign Elizabeth at great expense for the security of her subjects and the terror of her enemies, with a fort on the shore for its defence.[39]

Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe
visiting the yard in 1705, also spoke of its achievements with an almost incredulous enthusiasm:

So great is the order and application there, that a first-rate vessel of war of 106 guns, ordered to be commissioned by Sir Cloudesley Shovell, was ready in three days. At the time the order was given the vessel was entirely unrigged; yet the masts were raised, sails bent, anchors and cables on board, in that time.[40]

Significant buildings within the Georgian Dockyard[edit]

Police Section House, one of the Dockyard's many listed buildings

Wood and canvas[edit]

The Mast Ponds. 1697,1702. Fir
Fir
logs were seasoned by immersing them in salt water while the sap died back.

South Mast Pond 1697. Now a car park.[41] North Mast Pond,1702. The ponds were connected by canal.[41]

Clocktower building 1723. The oldest surviving naval storehouse in any Royal Dockyard. The ground floor was a "present use store" and the upper floor was a mould loft. It was rebuilt in 1802 – the timber cladding was replaced by brick. In the 20th century it was used for offices, and was adapted in 1996-7 to become the University of Kent's Bridge Warden's College.[42][43] Sail and Colour Loft 1723. Constructed from timber recycled from warships probably from the Dutch Wars. Lower floors were for storage, and the upper floor is a large open space for sail construction. In 1758 there were 45 sailmakers. They sewed 2 ft (0.61 m) strips of canvas into the sails using 170 – 190 (5 stitches per inch) stitches per yard, remembering that there would be 2 rows of stitching to each seam. Flags denoting nationality and for signals were made here. The flags used by Nelson in his "England expects..." message would have been made here.[44] Timber Seasoning Sheds 1774. These were built to a standard design with bays 45 ft (13.7m) by 20 ft (6.1m). These are the first standardised industrial buildings. There were 75 bays erected at Chatham Dockyard, to hold three years worth of timber.[45] Wheelwrights' shop c1780. This three bay building was built as a mast house using "reclaimed" timber. The top bay was used by the wheelwrights, who constructed and repaired the wheels on the dockyard carts, and may have made ships' wheels. The middle bay was used by the pumpmakers and the coak and treenail makers. Pumps were simple affairs, made of wood with iron and leather fittings. Coaks were the bearings in pulley blocks, and treenails were the long oak pins, made on a lathe, or moot that were used to pin the planking to the frames. The west bay was used by the capstan makers, capstans were used to raise the anchor.[46] Masthouses and Mouldloft 1753–55. Grade I listed
Grade I listed
since August 1999.[47] These were used to make and store masts. Here there are 7 interlinking masthouses. Above them is the mould loft where the lines of HMS Victory
HMS Victory
were laid down. The lines of each frame of a ship would be taken from the plan and scribed, full size, into the floor by shipwrights. From this, patterns or moulds would be built using softwoods, and from these the actual frames would be built and shaped. This building houses the "Wooden Walls Exhibition".[48] Joiners Shop c. 1790 originally to make treenails, but later used by the yards joiners. The Resolute Desk
Resolute Desk
(the Oval Office desk) was constructed here by Dockyard Joiners from the timbers of HMS Resolute.[49] Lower Boat House c1820 built as a storehouse for squared timber, and later to store ship's boats.[41]

The Clocktower Building

Sail and Colour Loft

Timber Seasoning sheds

Wheelwrights' shop

Masthouses and Mould Loft

Joiners' Shop

Lower Boat House and North Mast Pond

Dry docks and covered slips[edit]

The covered slips 1838–55. It was on slipways that ships were built. The slipways were covered, to prevent ships rotting before they had been launched. The earliest covered slips no longer exist. By 1838 the use of cast and wrought iron in buildings had become feasible. The oldest slip had a wooden roof, three had cast iron roofing and the last used wrought iron. They are of unique importance in the development of wide span structures such as were later used by the railways.

No 3 Slip 1838. This had a linked timber roof truss structure and was originally covered in tarred paper, which was quickly replaced with a zinc roof. The slip was backfilled around 1900 and a steel mezzanine floor was added. It became a store house for ship's boats.[50] No 4, 5 and 6 Slips 1848. These were designed by Captain Thomas Mould, Royal Engineers, and erected by Bakers and Sons of Lambeth. Similar structures were erected at Portsmouth
Portsmouth
but these are no longer extant. They predate the London train sheds of Paddington
Paddington
and King's Cross which were often cited as the country's first wide span metal structures.[50] No 7 Slip is one of the earliest examples of a modern metal trussed roof. It was designed in 1852 by Colonel Godfrey T. Green, Royal Engineers. It was used for shipbuilding until 1966; HMS Ocelot
HMS Ocelot
was launched from there on 5 May 1962.[51]

Dry Dock. The docks are filled by sluice gates set into the caissons, and emptied by a series of underground culverts connected to the pumping station.

No 2 Dry Dock
Dry Dock
1856 was built on the site of "The Old Single Dock" where HMS Victory
HMS Victory
was constructed. In 1863, this dock constructed HMS Achilles, the first iron battleship to be built in a Royal Dockyard. It now houses HMS Cavalier.[42] No 3 Dry Dock
Dry Dock
1820, the first to be constructed of stone, was designed by John Rennie. It now houses HMS Ocelot.[42] No 4 Dry Dock
Dry Dock
1840 now houses HMS Gannet.[42]

South Dock Pumping Station 1822, designed by John Rennie. It originally housed a beam engine, which was replaced by an electric pump in 1920. The building is still in use.[42]

No 3 Covered Slip

No 3 Covered Slip (interior)

Nos 4-6 Covered Slips

No 6 Covered Slip (interior)

No 7 Covered Slip

No 7 Covered Slip (interior)

Slip covers viewed from the river

No 2 Dry Dock

No 3 Dry Dock

No 4 Dry Dock

South Dock pumping station

Offices and residential[edit]

Commissioner's House 1704. This is the oldest surviving naval building in England. It is Grade I listed.[52] It was built for the Resident Commissioner, his family and servants. The previous building was built in 1640 for Phineas Pett. In 1703, Captain George St Lo
George St Lo
took up the post and petitioned the Admiralty
Admiralty
for a more suitable residence. Internally the principal feature is the main staircase with its painted wooden ceiling attributed to Thomas Highmore (Serjeant Painter), to sketches by Sir James Thornhill.[53] Commissioner's Garden dating from 1640. The lower terraces are one of the first Italianate Water Gardens in England. There is a 400-year-old mulberry tree, from where Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
reputedly watched the Roundhead
Roundhead
Army take Rochester from the Royalists. There is an 18th-century icehouse and an Edwardian conservatory with its great vine.[54] Officers' Terrace 1722-3. Twelve houses built for senior officers in the Dockyard. The ground floor were built as offices, the first floor contained reception rooms with bedrooms above. Each has a 18C walled garden, which again are now very rare. They are now privately owned.[49] House Carpenters' Shop c 1740. Built to harmonise with the officers' terrace. House Carpenters worked solely on maintaining the dockyard buildings.[49] Stables. For officers' horses.[44] Main gatehouse 1722, designed by the master shipwright in the style of Vanbrugh. It bears the arms of George III. Inside the gateway stands the muster bell on a wrought iron mast dating from the late 18th or early 19th century; it is Grade II* listed.[55][56] Guard House 1764. Built when Marines were introduced into the Dockyard to improve security. It continued in use till 1984.[44] Cashiers' Office 18C. John Dickens, father of Charles Dickens, worked here from 1817 to 1822. It is still used as offices.[49] Assistant Queen's Harbourmaster's Office c. 1770, Grade II* listed.[57] This office was supplied to the person who has been appointed to superintend the Dockyard Port. In 1865, the whole of the tidal Medway from Allington Lock to Sheerness
Sheerness
was designated as a dockyard port and the Assistant Queen's Harbourmaster
Harbourmaster
was responsible for all moorings and movements. Alongside this office is a set of stone steps leading into the river Medway, with a wrought iron arch and lantern holder. Also Grade II listed.[58] This was called the "Queen Stairs"[59] and was the formal entry into the dockyard, during the "Age of Sail".[54] Admiral's Offices 1808. Designed by Edward Holl
Edward Holl
as offices for the master shipwright. The roofline was low so it would not obstruct the view from the officers' terrace. Later it became Port Admiral's office and was extended. The northern extension became the dockyard's communication centre.[53] Thunderbolt Pier, a pier named after HMS Thunderbolt, built 1856, which was used as a floating pier from 1873 until 1948, when she was rammed and sunk.[60] Captain of the Dockyard's House 19C. Now used as offices. Also Grade II* listed.[61][62]

Commissioner's House

Commissioner's House and banqueting marquee

The Commissioner's garden with conservatory

The entrance to the Ice House

Officers' Terrace

The Officers' Stables

The Main Gate from outside

The Main Gate and Guardhouse

The bell mast

The Guardhouse

Assistant Queen's Harbourmaster's Office

The Admiral's Office

The Captain of the Dockyard's House and Cashier's Office

Anchor
Anchor
Wharf
Wharf
and the Ropery[edit]

Anchor
Anchor
Wharf
Wharf
Store Houses 1778–1805 (at nearly 700 feet long) are the largest storehouses ever built for the navy.[63]

The southern building, Store House No 3, completed in 1785, is subdivided with timber lattice partitions as a "lay apart store", a store for equipment from vessels under repair. It has been Grade I listed since August 1999.[63] The northern building was used as a fitted rigging house, and a general store for equipment to fit out newly built ships. It also has been Grade I listed
Grade I listed
since August 1999.[64] The Fitted Rigging
Rigging
House is now used as the Library and houses the Steam
Steam
Steel and Submarines 1832–1984 gallery.[65]

The Ropery consists of Hemp
Hemp
Houses (1728 extended 1812), Yarn Houses and a double Rope
Rope
House with attached Hatchelling House. Hatchelling is combing the hemp fibres to straighten them out before spinning. This was the first stage of the ropemaking process. The Ropery is still in use, being operated by Master Ropemakers Ltd.[66]

The Double Rope
Rope
House has spinning on the upper floors and ropemaking (a ropewalk) on the ground floor.[67] It is 346 m (1135 ft) long, and when constructed was the longest brickbuilt building in Europe
Europe
capable of laying a 1,000 ft (300 m) rope. Over 200 men were required before 1836, to make and lay a 20in (circumference) cable. All was done by hand. Steam power
Steam power
in the form of a beam engine was introduced in 1836, and then electricity in the early 1900s. The White Yarn House to store the yarn before it was tarred to prevent rot. The Tarring House with its " Tar
Tar
Kettle" and horse drawn winch. The Black Yarn House to store the tarred yarn. The tarring process declined as manila replaced hemp, and sisal replaced manila. These fibres were chemically protected at the hatchelling stage and tarring stopped in the 1940s.

Anchor
Anchor
Wharf
Wharf
Store Houses

Hemp
Hemp
Houses and Hatchelling House

Hemp
Hemp
Houses and Double Ropewalk

Double Ropewalk
Ropewalk
and Black Yarn House to right

Laying the Rope

Looking at the Traveller

Tops

The Traveller

Later buildings[edit]

No 1 Smithery
Smithery
1808. It was designed by Edward Holl, for production of Anchors
Anchors
and Chain. Anchors
Anchors
could weigh 72 cwt (3657 kg), and were forged by hand. "Anchorsmiths" were given an allowance of 8 pints of strong beer a day, because of the difficult working conditions.[45] Dockyard Church 1806. Designed by Edward Holl, it has a gallery supported on cast iron columns, one of the first uses of cast iron in the dockyard. Last used in 1981.[44] Brunel Saw Mill 1814. Until 1814 timber was cut by pairs of men, one above and one below the log. In 1758, there were 43 pairs of sawyers working in the yard. In 1812, the sawmill was designed by Marc Brunel, father of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The mill was driven by steam. The mill was linked to the mast ponds by a mechanical timber transport system, and underground canals. Later the basement was converted into a steam laundry.[45] Lead and Paint
Paint
Mill 1818. Designed by Edward Holl
Edward Holl
to be fireproof. There were a lead furnace, casting area and steam powered double rolling mill, paint mills for grinding pigment, canvas stretching frames, and vats for storing and boiling linseed oil. A warship was painted every 4 months.[56] No 1 Machine Shop. This building retains it original structure and roof glazing. It was used to house the machine tools needed to produce HMS Achilles, the first iron battleship built in a Royal Dockyard. This building has now become home to the railway workshop.[42] The Galvanising
Galvanising
Shop c1890. Galvanising
Galvanising
is a process of dipping steel in molten zinc to prevent it from rusting. There were baths of acid and molten zinc, the fumes vented through louvres in the roof.[45] Chain
Chain
Cable Shed c1900, built to protect newly manufactured anchor chain. It is supported by a row of 28 captured French and Spanish guns.[56]

No 1 Smithery

Dockyard Church

Dockyard Church (interior)

Brunel Sawmill

Brunel Sawmill

Lead and Paint
Paint
Mill

No 1 Machine Shop

Galvanising
Galvanising
Shop

Surviving structures within the Victorian Dockyard[edit]

The Victorian Steam
Steam
Yard was built around three large Basins, constructed between 1865 and 1885 along the line of St Mary's Creek (separating St Mary's Island from the mainland). It was envisaged that Basin No 1 would serve as a "repair basin", No 2 as the "factory basin" and No 3 as the "fitting-out" basin; a newly launched ship could therefore enter via the west lock, have any defects remedied in the first basin, have its engines and heavy machinery installed in the second, and then be finished, and loaded with coal and provisions, in the third before leaving via the east locks.[7] Four dry docks (Nos 5–8) were constructed at the same time on the south side of No 1 Basin; all four were in use by 1873. The yard's Steam
Steam
Factory complex was built at around the same time; most of its buildings were sited around these docks (rather than by Basin No 2 as had originally been planned).[68] No 1 Boiler Shop and No 8 Machine Shop were originally built as slip covers at Woolwich Dockyard
Woolwich Dockyard
in the 1840s. When that Dockyard closed in 1869 they were dismantled and rebuilt at Chatham alongside the new dry docks. Only the framework survives of the Machine Shop, but the Boiler Shop was renovated in 2003 to house the Dockyard Outlet shopping centre. A third such structure from Woolwich, similar in design to the boiler shop, stood nearby and served as a fitting shop; it was demolished in 1990.[69] Dock Pumping Station 1874: as well as serving to empty dry docks 5–8 when required, its accumulator tower provided hydraulic power for the adjacent cranes, capstans and caissons.[70] Two other pumping stations served a similar purpose (one for dock 9 and one for the two east locks) but they have not survived.[7] Combined Ship Trade Office 1880: now the "Ship & Trades" public house.[71] The 100 ft bell mast was erected in 1903 alongside the Dockyard's Pembroke Gate, where it was used to signal the start of each working day. (A similar but older mast fulfilled the same function alongside the main gate in the Georgian part of the Yard.) The 1903 mast had originally served as foremast to HMS Undaunted. In 1992 it had been dismantled, but was re-erected, a short distance from its original location, in 2001. Apart from the two Chatham examples, only one other is believed to have survived: in Devonport's Morice Ordnance Yard.[72] A fifth dry dock (No 9) was added in 1895 on the north side of No 1 Basin, opposite the other four, to accommodate the new, larger battleships which were then under construction. It was completed in 1903.

Expanse of water in No 2 Basin

View down the length of the former No 7 Dock towards No 1 Basin (now Chatham Marina)

Remains of No 8 Machine Shop with No 1 Boiler Shop behind it

Dock pumping station (its 80 ft chimney, formerly on the plinth to the right, has been removed)

Bell Mast on Leviathan Way

Combined Ship Trade Office

The Gun Wharf[edit]

The Ordnance Storekeeper's house at the heart of the former Gun Wharf

An Ordnance Yard was established in the 17th century immediately upriver of the Dockyard (on the site of the original Tudor yard, vacated in 1622). The yard would have received, stored and issued cannons and gun-carriages (along with projectiles, accoutrements and also all manner of small arms) for ships based in the Medway, as well as for local artillery emplacements and for army use. (Gunpowder, on the other hand, was received, stored and issued across the river at Upnor
Upnor
Castle.) A plan of 1704 shows (from north to south) a long Storehouse parallel to the river, the Storekeeper's house (the Storekeeper was the senior officer of the Yard) and a pair of Carriage Stores. The original Storehouse was replaced with a much larger, three-storey building in 1717, contemporary with and of a similar style to, the Main Gatehouse in the Dockyard. A similarly sized Carriage Store, with a long frontage parallel to the river, was constructed south of the Storekeeper's House not long afterwards.

The Library (former machine shop)

After the demise of the Board of Ordnance
Board of Ordnance
(1855), Ordnance Yards passed under the control of the War Office, and were eventually (in 1891) apportioned to either the Army or the Navy. Chatham's yard was split in two, the area south of the Storekeeper's House becoming an Army Ordnance Store, and the rest a Navy Ordnance Store. It remained thus until 1958 when the yards were closed (the Army depot having served latterly as an atomic weapons research laboratory).[73] Most of the 18th-century buildings were demolished, with the exception of the Storekeeper's House of 1719, which survives as the Command House public house.[74] A few later buildings have survived: a long brick shed of 1805, south-west of the Command House, which once housed carpenters, wheelwrights and other workers as well as stores of various kinds,[75] the adjacent building (machine shop, late-19th century) which now serves as a public library, and the building known as the White House (built as the Clerk of the Cheque's residence in 1816).[7] Defence of the dockyard[edit] Upnor
Upnor
Castle[edit] Main article: Upnor
Upnor
Castle Dockyards have always required shore defences. Among the earliest for Chatham was Upnor
Upnor
Castle, built in 1567, on the opposite side of the River Medway. It was somewhat unfortunate that, on the one occasion when it was required for action—the Raid on the Medway, 1667—the Dutch fleet were able to sail right past it to attack the English fleet and carry off the pride of the fleet, HMS Royal Charles, back to the Netherlands.[76] Chain
Chain
defence[edit] During the wars with Spain it was usual for ships to anchor at Chatham in reserve; consequently John Hawkins threw a massive chain across the River Medway
River Medway
for extra defence in 1585. Hawkins' chain was later replaced with a boom of masts, iron, cordage, and the hulls of two old ships, besides a couple of ruined pinnacles.[77] The Lines[edit] See also: Great Lines Heritage Park With the failure of Upnor
Upnor
Castle, it was seen necessary to increase the defences. In the event, those defences were built in distinct phases, as the government saw the increasing threat of invasion:[78]

1669 Fort Gillingham and Cockham Wood Fort
Cockham Wood Fort
built. 1756 Chatham Lines built, to designs by Captain John Desmaretz (who also designed the Portsmouth
Portsmouth
fortifications).[78] This fortification, and its subsequent upgrading, were to concentrate on an overland attack and so were built to face south. They included redoubts at Amherst and Townsend. The Lines enclosed the entire dockyard on its eastern side. 1778–1783 Further improvements were carried out, to the designs of Captain Hugh Debbeig at the bequest of General Amherst. In 1782, an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
increased the land needed for the Field of Fire.[78] 1805–1812 Amherst redoubt, now Fort Amherst; new forts, named Pitt and Clarence. The Lines were also extended to the east of Saint Mary’s Creek (on St Mary's Island).[78] 1860s Grain Fort, and other smaller batteries in that area. 1870–1892 A number of forts built at a greater distance from the dockyard: Forts Bridgewood, Luton, Borstal, Horsted and Darland. These became known as the "Great Lines". Forts Darnet and Hoo built on islands in the River Medway.

The defences in 1770. 

The defences in 1812. 

How the military presence developed after 1820, showing how the need for housing gave birth to New Brompton, and showing roads and railways. 

Associated barracks[edit] The Dockyard led to large numbers of military personnel being garrisoned in Chatham and the surrounding area. A good many were engaged in manning the defences, but some had other duties; others were accommodated there for convenience prior to embarking on ships for duties overseas, or following their disembarkation. Initially, soldiers were housed under canvas or else billetted in houses and inns, but from the 18th century barracks began to be constructed. The oldest surviving barracks in the Chatham area is in Upnor; dating from 1718, it housed the detachment of 64 men responsible for guarding the gunpowder store in Upnor
Upnor
Castle. Infantry Barracks
Barracks
(Kitchener Barracks)[edit]

Kitchener Barracks
Barracks
(1950s extension)

Chatham Infantry Barracks
Barracks
was opened in 1757 to house troops manning the fortifications which had recently been built to defend the Dockyard. Within the space of 20 years it had taken on the additional role of national recruitment centre for the British Army, providing basic training for all new recruits. This role ceased in 1803, but the barracks went on to serve as a home depot for numerous regiments stationed around the globe. Accommodating some 1,800 men, Chatham was one of the first large-scale Army barracks in England, and remained in military use until 2014.[79] One barrack block remains from 1757; the rest was largely demolished and rebuilt to a more modern design in the 1930s–50s. In 1928 the barracks was taken over by the Royal Engineers and renamed Kitchener Barracks. In 2014 the site was sold to a property developer, with permission given the following year for the building of 295 homes. The main 1930s barracks building will be retained, along with the remaining earlier structures.[80] Marine Barracks[edit]

The Royal Marine Barracks
Barracks
in the Second World War.

The Royal Marine Barracks, Chatham
Royal Marine Barracks, Chatham
were established in 1779, on a site nestled between the Gun Wharf
Wharf
to the west, the Dockyard to the north, and Infantry Barracks
Barracks
to the east. The site was expanded and rebuilt in the 1860s; in 1905 the Royal Marines
Royal Marines
took over Melville Barracks, which stood between Dock Road and Brompton Hill (it had formerly served as Chatham's Royal Naval Hospital). The Marines were withdrawn from Chatham in 1950, and the buildings were later demolished. Medway Council offices and car park now stand on the site.[81] Artillery/Engineer Barracks
Barracks
(Brompton Barracks)[edit]

The Garrison Church of St Barbara in Maxwell Road continues to serve Brompton Barracks.

A barracks was built in Brompton in 1804-6 for the Royal Artillery gunners serving on the defensive Lines (previously they had been accommodated in the Infantry Barracks). There was space for some 500 horses and 1,000 men. In 1812 the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
Establishment was founded within the barracks to provide instruction in military engineering. The Establishment grew, and by 1856 the Artillery had moved out; Brompton Barracks
Barracks
remains in service as headquarters of the Royal Engineers.[82] St Mary's Barracks[edit] St Mary's Casemated Barracks
Barracks
were built during the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
and initially held French prisoners of war. After the war's end, they went on to serve as a gunpowder store for a time, and were used by the Royal Engineers
Royal Engineers
(based nearby in Brompton Barracks). From 1844 St Mary's was used as an 'Invalid Barracks', accommodating soldiers having to return from service in different parts of the British Empire because of illness, injury or age.[83] Built within the defensive earthworks to the north of Chatham, St Mary's Barracks
Barracks
was demolished in the 1960s and the land used for housing.[84] Naval Barracks
Barracks
(HMS Pembroke)[edit] See also: Drill Hall Library The Naval Barracks
Barracks
(later HMS Pembroke) opened in 1902; prior to this, most Naval (as opposed to Dockyard) personnel were accommodated on board their ships or on hulks moored nearby. Built on the site of what had been a convict prison, the barracks complex could accommodate 4,742 officers and seamen in a series of large blocks built along the length of a terrace. Below the terrace lay the parade ground and its adjacent drill hall and other amenities. A further 3,000 troops could be accommodated in times of "total emergency" (900 were sleeping in the Drill Hall when it suffered a direct hit from two bombs in September 1917, which killed over 130 men). The barracks were set to close in 1961 when the majority of naval personnel were withdrawn from Chatham;[85] however, it went on to serve instead as the RN Supply and Secretariat School in succession to HMS Ceres, before finally being closed along with the Dockyard in 1984. The majority of its buildings are still standing, several of them occupied by the Universities at Medway.[86]

Former Commodore's residence

Former barracks church

Former barrack blocks

Former officers' quarters

Former drill hall with offices behind

Gymnasium

Former gunnery school

Closure and regeneration[edit] The dockyard closed in 1984. It covered 400 acres (1.6 km²). After closure this was divided into three sections. The easternmost basin (Basin No 3) was handed over to the Medway Ports authority and is now a commercial port. It includes Papersafe UK[87] and Nordic Recycling Ltd.[88] 80 acres (324,000 m²), comprising the 18th century core of the site, was transferred to a charity called the Chatham Historic Dockyard Trust and is now open as a visitor attraction.[89]

The topsail schooner Julia visiting the middle basin in 2006; behind her is the St Mary's Island housing estate

St Mary's Island, a 150-acre (0.61 km2) site once a part of the Dockyard, has been transformed into a residential community for some 1,500 homes. It has several themed areas with traditional maritime buildings, a fishing (though in looks only) village with its multi-coloured houses and a modern energy-efficient concept. Many homes have views of the River Medway. A primary school (St. Mary's CofE) and a medical centre provide facilities for the residents and there are attractive walks around the Island.[90] Peel Ports, who run a 26-acre (0.11 km2) portion of the commercial port on Basin No 3, are about to transform a former brownfield site into mixed use development incorporating offices, an education facility, an "EventCity", a hotel, apartments, town houses and a food store (Asda), as well as landscaped public areas. The development will be called "Chatham Waters", even though it is on East Wharf
Wharf
of the Chatham Docks.[91] A second planning application for the development has been approved by Medway Council. The original planning application included plans for a pub/restaurant and a café, but these have been removed.[92] Filming[edit] Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
has become a popular location for filming, due to its varied and interesting areas such as the cobbled streets, church and over 100 buildings dating from the Georgian and Victorian periods. Productions that have chosen to film at Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
include: Les Misérables,[93] Call the Midwife,[94] Mr Selfridge,[95] Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows,[96] Oliver Twist[97] and The World Is Not Enough.[98] See also[edit]

British narrow gauge railways Chatham Historic Dockyard Fort Darnet

References[edit]

^ "20th-century naval dockyards characterisation report, part 1: introduction". Historic England. Naval Dockyards Society. Retrieved 7 February 2017.  ^ "Research guide: Royal Dockyard names and locations". National Archives. Retrieved 7 February 2017.  ^ a b Guidebook, p. 28 ^ "Visits to Rochester and Chatham" (PDF). Kent
Kent
Archaeology. p. 55.  ^ a b Guidebook, p. 29 ^ Hughes, David T. (2002). Sheerness
Sheerness
Naval Dockyard and Garrison. Stroud, Gloucs.: The History Press.  ^ a b c d Coad, Jonathan (2013). Support the Fleet: Architecture
Architecture
and engineering of the Royal Navy's bases, 1700–1914. Swindon: English Heritage.  ^ Eastland & Ballantyne, p. 13 ^ "Chatham Dockyard". Battleships cruisers. Retrieved 2 September 2016.  ^ "HMS Unicorn: Summary from the Official HMS Unicorn website". Retrieved 15 June 2010.  ^ "Chatham Dockyard: Lasting impact three decades on". BBC. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ "World heritage bid for dockyard". BBC. 6 June 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ Beaston , p. 351 ^ Perrin, p. 146 ^ " Peter Pett
Peter Pett
(1610–1672)". History of Parliament. Retrieved 27 March 2016.  ^ Sephton, p. 151 ^ Beaston 1788, p. 85 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Beaston 1788, p. 351 ^ MacDonald, p.230 ^ "Charles Hope". More than Nelson. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ Marshall, p. 48 ^ Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Chatham Royal Dockyard – The Dreadnought Project". dreadnoughtproject.org. Lovell and Harley, 17 July 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 March 1834). "Dockyards: Officers". The Navy List. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 136.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 June 1848). "Dockyards: Officers". The Navy List. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 163.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 December 1853). "Dockyards: Officers". The Navy List. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 189.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 September 1854). "Dockyards: Officers of". The Navy List. John Murray. p. 191.  ^ Laughton, John Knox. "Wyvill Christopher (1792–1863)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900. Wikisource, 24 April 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2017.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 June 1863). "Dockyards: Officers of". The Navy List. John Murray. p. 232.  ^ Government, H.M. (20 December 1867). "Dockyards: Officers of". The Navy List. John Murray. p. 259.  ^ "Naval & Military intelligence". The Times (36862). London. 2 September 1902. p. 4.  ^ Government, H.M. (May 1951). "Principle Officers in the Dockyards". The Navy List. H.M. Stationary Office. p. 362.  ^ Mackie, Colin. " Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Senior Appointments from 1865". gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, pp.108–109. February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Vat, Dan van der (12 June 2005). "Obituary: Vice Adm Sir John Parker". the Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Obituary (30 March 2010). "Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Derick Lawson". Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Obituary (29 March 2009). "Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Colin Dunlop". Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ "Person Page". www.thepeerage.com. The Peerage, 8 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ Obituary (6 February 2007). "Rear- Admiral
Admiral
Bill Higgins". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2018.  ^ "1971 – Admiral
Admiral
Superintendents become Port Admirals – Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Royal Dockyard Historical Trust". portsmouthdockyard.org.uk. Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Historical Dockyard Trust. Retrieved 19 December 2017.  ^ Brayley and Britton, p. 667 ^ "Kanye video to become a museum exhibit". The Guardian. 20 July 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ a b c Guidebook, p. 27 ^ a b c d e f Guidebook, p. 14 ^ "Bridge Wardens' College Teaching and Meeting Rooms". www.kent.ac.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ a b c d Guidebook, p. 23 ^ a b c d Guidebook, p. 26 ^ Guidebook, p. 9 ^ "Former Mast House and Mould Loft, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ Guidebook, p. 8 ^ a b c d Guidebook, p. 25 ^ a b Guidebook, p. 10 ^ Guidebook, p. 12 ^ "Former Commissioners House and Attached Staff Accommodation, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2013.  ^ a b Guidebook, p. 15 ^ a b Guidebook, p. 16 ^ Historic England. "Bell Mast (1378626)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 28 July 2015.  ^ a b c Guidebook, p. 22 ^ "Former Assistant Queens Harbourmasters Office, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ "Queens Stairs with Overthrow Arch, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ "Steps from Quay, Chatham Historic Dockyard, Kent". www.geograph.org.uk. 21 August 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ "Thunderbolt Pier
Pier
and Kingswear Castle, Chatham". UK BeachesGuide. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "Former Captain of the Dockyards House and Attached Front Area Railings, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Guidebook, p. 24 ^ a b "Former Storehouse Number 3 and Former Chain
Chain
Cable Store, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ "Former Storehouse Number 2 and Former Rigging
Rigging
Store, Medway". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Guidebook, p. 17 ^ "Master Ropemakers Chatham". www.master-ropemakers.co.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Guidebook, p. 18 ^ Guidebook, p. 30 ^ "Engineering timelines".  ^ Historic England. "Dock Pumping Station (1246993)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 June 2015.  ^ Historic England. "Combined Ship Trade Office (1267779)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 June 2015.  ^ "Bell Mast".  ^ "English Heritage report:AWRE Foulness" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 February 2015.  ^ "Listed building description (Command House)".  ^ "Listed building description (Ordnance Store)".  ^ Saunders, p. 14 ^ "Records of the hospital of Sir John Hawkins Kt in Chatham (1500) 1594–1987". National Archives. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ a b c d "Brompton Lines Conservation Area Appraisal (Adopted Version)" (PDF). www.medway.gov.uk. May 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.  ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1410725)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 28 July 2015.  ^ "Kitchener Barracks
Barracks
to be converted for housing". Kent
Kent
on line. 30 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "Chatham Royal Naval Division Barracks". Roll of Honour. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "Brompton Barracks". Brompton History. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "Illustrated London News, March 8 1856". Kent
Kent
History Forum. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ " Fort Amherst
Fort Amherst
Guidebook". Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ Copy of government briefing paper ^ Coad, Jonathan (2013). Support for the Fleet. Swindon: English Heritage.  ^ Papersafe UK, Berth 6, Basin 3, Chatham STORAGE. Yell. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. ^ "Nordic Recycling" (PDF).  ^ "Economic impact of the Historic Dockyard Chatham". Chatham Historic Dockyard. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "St Mary's Island". Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "Chatham Waters". www.peel.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.  ^ ""New era" for Gillingham as Chatham Docks approved". insidermedia.com. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office Les Miserables Film Focus".  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office Call The Midwife Film Focus".  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office Mr Selfridge
Mr Selfridge
Film Focus".  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows Film Focus".  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office Oliver Twist Film Focus".  ^ Kent
Kent
Film Office. " Kent
Kent
Film Office The World is Not EnoughFilm Focus". 

Sources[edit]

The Annual Biography and Obituary for the Year. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown. 1835.  Guidebook. Chatham Historic Dockyard
Chatham Historic Dockyard
Trust. 2010.  Beaston, Robert (1788). A Political Index to the Histories of Great Britain and Ireland. I. G.G.J. and J. Robinson.  Beaston, Robert (1806). A Political Index to the Histories of Great Britain and Ireland. I. Longman, Hurst, Rees and Orme.  Brayley, Edward Wedlake; Britton, John (1808). The Beauties of England and Wales, Or, Delineations, Topographical, Historical and Descriptive of each County. Vernor, Mood and Sharpe.  Eastland, Jonathan; Ballantyne, Iain (2011). HMS Victory
HMS Victory
– First Rate 1765. Barnsley: Vernor, Mood and Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-84832-094-9.  MacDonald, Janet (2010). The British Navy's Victualling Board, 1793-1815: Management Competence and Incompetence. Boydell Press. ISBN 978-1843835530.  Marshall, John (1824). Royal Naval Biography; Or, Memoirs of the Services of All the Flag-officers. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.  Perrin, William Gordon (1918). The autobiography of Phineas Pett. Naval Records Society.  Saunders, A. D. (1985). Upnor
Upnor
Castle: Kent. English Heritage. ISBN 978-1-85074-039-1.  Sephton, James (2011). Sovereign of the Seas: The Seventeenth Century Warship. Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1445601687. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chatham Dockyard.

Meridian Tonight at the Dockyard Did you know that the iconic White House desk that has sat in the Oval Office since 1880 was built at Chatham Dockyard? The Chatham forts The Historic Dockyard Trust Chatham Dockyard
Chatham Dockyard
Historical Society website Chatham's World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
application

v t e

Current and historic Royal Navy
Royal Navy
shore establishments

Current

HM Dockyard Rosyth HMS Calliope HMRMB Chivenor HMNB Clyde HMS Collingwood HMS Dalriada HMNB Devonport HMNB Portsmouth HMRMC Norton Manor RNAD Coulport RNAS Culdrose RNAS Yeovilton HMS Forward (1984) HMS King Alfred (1994) HMS President HMS Raleigh HMS Scotia HMS Wildfire RM Condor RM Poole HMS Flying Fox

Former Home

HMS Abastor HMS Aggressive HMS Badger HMS Daedalus II HM Dockyard Brunswick HM Dockyard Chatham HM Dockyard Deptford HM Dockyard Deptford Wharf HM Dockyard Frindsbury HM Dockyard Harwich HM Dockyard Pembroke HM Dockyard Portland HMS Cambridge HMS Dryad HMS Ferret HMS Forest Moor HM Fort Roughs HMS Forward (1939) HMS Flycatcher HMS Ganges HM Holmrook Hall HMS Imperieuse HMS Lochinvar HMS Mercury HMS King Alfred (1939) HM the Kings Yard HM Ordnance Yard Haulbowline Scapa Flow HMS Newt HMRMB Stonehouse HMS Royal Arthur HMS Standard HMS St Christopher HMS St Vincent HMS Vernon Port HHZ RM Turnchapel RNAD Broughton Moor RNAD Crombie RNAD Dean Hill RNAD Gosport RNAS Hatston RNAY Wroughton HM Victualling Yard Royal William HM Dockyard Woolwich

Former Overseas

Grand River Naval Depot HM Naval Yard Penetanguishene HM Naval Shipyards York HMRND Amherstburg HMD Bermuda HM Dockyard Bombay HM Dockyard Gibraltar HM Dockyard Madras HM Dockyard Port Mahon HM Dockyard Port Royal HM Dockyard Trincomalee HM Naval Base Aden HM Naval Base Colombo HM Naval Base Cochin HM Naval Base Singapore HM Naval Base Simon's Town HM Naval Base Weihaiwei HM Naval Yard Garden Island HMRND Esquimalt HMRNB Georgetown HMRND Kingston HM Dockyard Malta HMRNZNB Devonport HMRNB Halifax HMS Tamar Nelson's Dockyard Navy Hall

v t e

Navy Board

Principal officers

Lieutenant of the Admiralty, (1546-1564) Treasurer of Marine Causes, (1546-1564) Comptroller of the Navy, (1546-1660) Surveyor of the Navy, (1546-1832) Clerk of the Navy, (1546-1660) Surveyor of Marine Victuals, (1550-1679) Master of Naval Ordnance, (1561-1569) Treasurer of the Navy
Treasurer of the Navy
and Senior Commissioner, (1564-1660) Comptroller of the Navy and Chairman of the Board, (1660-1832) Treasurer of the Navy, (1660-1832)

Clerk of the Acts, (1660-1796)

Controller of Treasurer Accounts, (1667-1796) Controller of Victualling Accounts, (1667-1796) Controller of Storekeepers Accounts, (1671-1796) Commissioners for Current Business, (1686-1688) Commissioners for Old Accounts, 1686-1688) Commissioners for Examining Accounts (Incurred), (1688-1689) Deputy Comptroller of the Navy, (1793-1813), (1829-1832) Pay Commissioner, (1796-1814) Civil Architect and Engineer of the Navy, (1808-1812) Surveyor of Buildings, (1813-1832) Surveyor of Dockyards, (1813-1832) Accountant-General of the Navy, (1829-32) Superintendent of Transport, (1829-1831) Storekeeper General of the Navy, (1829-32)

Subsidiary boards

Sick and Hurt Board Transport Board Victualling Board

Commissioners of the navy home yards

Commissioner, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Yard, (1496-) Commissioner, Woolwich Yard,(1512-1832) Commissioner, Deptford Yard, (1513-1832) Commissioner, Erith
Erith
Yard, (1514-1521) Commissioner, Chatham Yard, (1567-1832) Commissioner, Harwich Yard, (1652-1713) Commissioner, Sheerness
Sheerness
Yard, (1665-1826) Commissioner, Plymouth Yard, (1690-1842) Commissioner, Pembroke Yard, (1815-1832)

Commissioners of the navy overseas yards

Commissioner, Jamaica Yard, (1675-1832) Commissioner, Cadiz Yard, (1694) Commissioner, Kinsale
Kinsale
Yard, (1695-1696, 1702-1713) Commissioner, Gibraltar Yard, (1704-1832) Commissioner, Antigua Yard, (1707-1832) Commissioner, Ascension Yard, (1728-1832) Commissioner, Halifax Yard, (1759-1832) Commissioner, Barbados
Barbados
Yard, (1779-1783, 1810) Commissioner, Kingston Yard, (1783-1832) Commissioner, Ajaccio
Ajaccio
Yard, (1794-1799) Commissioner, Bermuda Yard, (1795-1832) Commissioner, Amherstburg Yard, (1796-1813) Commissioner, Quebec Yard, (1804-1826) Commissioner, Malta Yard, (1805-1832) Commissioner, Madras
Madras
Yard, (1808-1817) Commissioner, Cape of Good Hope Yard, (1808-1822) Commissioner, Bombay Yard, (1810-1832) Commissioner, Trincomalee Yard, (1813-1832)

Branch's, departments, offices under the principal officers

Accounts Branch Accounts Department Allotment Office Allotment Branch Bill Office Bill and Remittance Branch Contract Office Draftsmen Office Navy Branch Navy Pay Office Naval Works Department Office of Bills and Accounts Office of the Paymaster of Widows Pensions Office of the Paymaster of the Marines Office of the Paymaster of the Navy Office for Foreign Accounts Office of Seamen's Wages Office of the Superintendent of Transports Payments Department Prize Branch Stores Branch Stores Department Storekeepers’ Accounts Ticket Branch Ticket and Wages Branch Ticket Office Transport Service Treasurer's Accounts Victualling Accounts

v t e

Admiralty
Admiralty
Department

Direction and control of Admiralty
Admiralty
and Naval affairs

Office of First Lord of the Admiralty
Admiralty
and President of the Board of Admiralty Lord High Admirals Council

Boards and offices under the First Lord

Board of Admiralty Navy Board Office of the Naval Secretary Office of the First Naval Lord Office of the First Sea Lord Office of the Senior Naval Lord Office of the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty Office of the Permanent Secretary to the Admiralty Office of the Private Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty

Direction of Admirals Naval/Sea Lords War and Naval Staff

Office of the Senior Naval Lord Office of the First Naval Lord Office of the First Sea Lord

Secretariat and staff under the First Sea Lord

Office of the Naval Assistant to the First Sea Lord Office of the Additional Naval Assistant to the First Sea Lord Office of the Hydrographer of the Navy Offices of the Sea Lords Admiralty
Admiralty
Navy War Council Admiralty
Admiralty
War Staff Admiralty
Admiralty
Naval Staff

Operational planning, policy strategy, tactical doctrine requirements

Admiralty
Admiralty
Navy War Council Admiralty
Admiralty
War Staff Admiralty
Admiralty
Naval Staff

Divisions and sections under the War and Naval Staff

Administrative Planning Division Air Division Anti-Submarine Division Anti-Submarine and Warfare Division Anti-U-boat Division Air Warfare Division Air Warfare and Fly Training Division Air Warfare and Training Division Communications Division Convoy Section Economic Warfare Division Gunnery and Anti-Aircraft Warfare Division Gunnery Division Gunnery and Torpedo Division Historical Section Local Defence Division Division Mercantile Movements Division Naval Air Division Naval Air Organisation and Training Division Naval Artillery and Torpedos Division Navigation Division Navigation and Direction Division Minesweeping Division Mobilisation Division Naval Intelligence Division Operations Division Operations Division
Operations Division
(Home) Operations Division
Operations Division
(Foreign) Operations Division
Operations Division
(Mining) Plans Division Plans Division Q Press Division Requirements and Organisation (Combined Operations) Division Service Conditions and Fleet Supply Duties Division Signal Division Signal Section Standardisation Division Tactical Division Tactical and Weapons Policy Division Torpedo Division Torpedo, Anti-Submarine and Minewarfare Division Trade Division Trade and Operations Division Training Division Training and Staff Duties Division Tactical and Staff Duties Division Undersurface Warfare Division

Offices of the Sea Lords

Office of the Second Sea Lord Office of the Third Sea Lord Office of the Fourth Sea Lord Office of the Fifth Sea Lord

Admiralty
Admiralty
civil units under the Sea Lords

Admiralty
Admiralty
Area Cash Offices Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Dockyard Laboratory Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Metallurgical Laboratory Admiralty
Admiralty
Civilian Shore Wireless Service Admiralty
Admiralty
Compass Observatory Admiralty
Admiralty
Constabulary Admiralty
Admiralty
Experiment Works Admiralty
Admiralty
Gunnery Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Interview Board Admiralty
Admiralty
Labour Department Admiralty
Admiralty
Mine Design Department Admiralty
Admiralty
Mining Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Naval Aircraft Materials Laboratory Admiralty
Admiralty
Regional Offices Admiralty
Admiralty
Research Laboratory Admiralty
Admiralty
Signal Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Signals and Radar Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Surface Weapons Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Surveying Service Admiralty
Admiralty
Torpedo Experimental Establishment Admiralty
Admiralty
Underwater Weapons Establishment Architectural and Engineering Works Department Air Equipment and Naval Photography Department Air Department Air Materiel Department Air Personnel Department Amphibious Warfare Headquarters Armament Supply Department Board of Invention and Research Board of Longitude Boom Defence Department Boom Defence and Marine Salvage Department Britannia Royal Naval College Chemical Board Chemical Department Civil Catering Department Civil Engineer in Chiefs Department Coastguard and Reserves Branch Combined Operations Headquarters Commissioner for Property and Income-tax for the Naval Department Compass Department Contract and Purchase Department Council of Naval Education Dental Examining Board Department of Radio Equipment Department of the Accountant-General of the Navy Department of Aeronautical and Engineering Research Department of Miscellaneous Weapons Development Department of Naval Assistant (Foreign) to Second Sea Lord Department of Naval Education Operational Research Department of Personal Services and Officer Appointments Department of Physical Research Department of Physical Training & Sports Department of Radio Equipment Department of Research Programmes and Planning Department of Superintendent of de-magnetisation Department of the Admiral
Admiral
of the Training Service Department of the Chief Inspector of Naval Ordnance Department of the Chief of Naval Information Department of the Chief Scientist Department of the Civil Engineer-in-Chief Department of the Comptroller of Steam
Steam
Machinery Department of the Comptroller for Victualling and Transport Services Department of the Controller of the Navy Department of the Controller-General of Merchant Shipbuilding Department of the Controller for Navy Pay Department of the Deputy Controller for Auxiliary Shipbuilding Department of the Deputy Controller for Dockyards and Shipbuilding Department of the Director Contract-Built Ships Department of the Director-General Aircraft Department of the Director-General of Manpower Department of the Director-General, Supply and Secretariat Branch Department of the Director of Aircraft Maintenance and Repair Department of the Director of Contract Labour Department of the Director of Dockyards Department of the Director of Electrical Engineering Department of the Director of Manning Department of the Director of Merchant Shipbuilding Department of the Director of Merchant Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
and Repairs Department of the Director of Merchant Ship Repairs Department of the Director of Naval Construction Department of the Director of Naval Equipment Department of the Director of Naval Recruiting Department of the Director of Naval Weather Service Department of the Director of Personal Services Department of the Director of Physical Training and Sports Department of the Director of Torpedoes and Mining Department of the Director of Transports Department of the Director of Underwater Weapons Department of the Director of Unexploded Bombs Department of the Director of Warship Production Department of the Director of Welfare and Service Conditions Department of the Director of Wreck Dispersal Department of the Flag Officer Sea Training Department of the Engineer in Chief Department of the Paymaster Director-General Department of the Inspector of Anti-Aircraft Weapons Department of the Inspector of Dockyard Expense Accounts Department of the Inspector-General of Naval Hospitals and Fleets Department of the Medical Director-General of the Navy Department of the Physician of the Navy Department of the Physician General of the Navy Department of the Storekeeper-General of the Navy Department of the Surveyor of Buildings Department of the Surveyor of Dockyards Dockyards and Fleet Maintenance Department Dockyards Branch Dockyard Expense Accounts Department Dockyard Schools Electrical Engineering Department Engineer Branch Engineering Department Experimental Department Fire Control Group Greenwich Hospital Department Inspector of Telegraphs Inspector of Repairs Medical Consultative Board Medical Examining Board Historical Section Hydrographic Department Marine Pay Office Materials and Priority Department Medical Consultative Board Medical Department Medical Examining Board Movements Department Nautical Almanac Office Naval Artillery and Torpedo Department Naval Engineering College Naval Equipment Department Naval Historical Branch Naval Construction Department Naval Intelligence Department Naval Medical Service Naval Law Division Naval Mobilisation Department Naval Ordnance Department Naval Ordnance Inspection Department Naval Ordnance Stores Department Naval Publicity Department Naval Reserve Department Naval Security Department Naval Stores Department Naval Training Department Naval Works Department Navy, Army and Air Force Institute Navy and Army Canteen Board Navy Works Department Navigation Department Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope Office of the Admiral
Admiral
Commanding Coast Guard and Reserves Office of the Admiral
Admiral
Commanding, Reserves Office of the Admiral
Admiral
Superintendent, Chatham Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Devonport Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Malta Office of the Admiral-Superintendent of Naval Reserves Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Pembroke Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Plymouth Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Portsmouth Office of the Admiral-Superintendent, Rosyth Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Chemist Office of the Adviser on the Naval Construction to the Board of Admiralty Office of the Assistant Controller Office of the Assistant Controller Research and Development Office of the Clerk of the Journals Office of the Deputy Controller of Navy Office of the Deputy Controller Production Office of the Director Woman’s Royal Naval Nursing Service Office of Extra Naval Assistant to Second Sea Lord Office of the Inspector Gun Mountings Office of the Keeper of Records Office of the Senior Psychologist of the Navy Office of the Translator of French and Spanish Languages Office of the Vice Controller Air Office of the Vice Controller of the Navy Organisation and Methods Department Packet Service Regional Organisation for Merchant Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding
and Repairs Royal Corps of Naval Constructors Royal Flying Corps Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Office Royal Marines
Royal Marines
Pay Office Office of the Chaplain of the Fleet Royal Naval Academy Royal Naval Aircraft Workshops Royal Naval Air Service Royal Naval Air Stations Royal Naval Armaments Depot Royal Naval Cordite Factories Royal Naval Propellant Factory Royal Naval College, Dartmouth Royal Naval College, Greenwich Royal Naval College, Keyham Royal Naval College, Osborne Royal Naval Engineering College Royal Naval Film Corporation Royal Naval Hospital Royal Naval Medical Depot Royal Naval Minewatching Service Royal Naval Mine Depot Royal Naval Patrol Service Royal Naval Scientific Service Royal Naval Sick Quarters Royal Naval Torpedo Depot Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Royal Naval War College Royal Naval War College, Portsmouth Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Dockyard Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Medical Service Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Shore Signal Service Royal Observatory, Greenwich Royal School of Naval Architecture Salvage Department School of Mathematics and Naval Construction Scientific Research and Experiment Department Sea Transport Department Ship Department Ship Design Department Signal Department Signal School Statistics Department Steam
Steam
Department Superintendent of De-magnetisation Torpedoes and Mining Department Transport Department Undersurface Warfare Department Victualling Department Volunteer Boys and Cadet Corps Weapons Department Wireless Telegraphy Board

Distribution of the Fleet

Office of the Permanent Secretary to the Admiralty Office of the First Naval Lord Office of the First Sea Lord Admiralty
Admiralty
Naval Staff

Military units distributed under the Admiralty

1st Fleet 2nd Fleet 3rd Fleet Africa Station Atlantic Fleet Australia Station Cape of Good Hope Station Cape and West Africa Station Battle Cruiser Fleet Battle Cruiser Force Caspian Flotilla Channel Fleet Channel Squadron Coastal Forces Coast of Ireland Station Cork Station Coast of Scotland Command China Command Dover Command Downs Station East Indies Fleet East Indies Station East Indies and China Station Eastern Fleet Far Eastern Fleet Grand Fleet Gibraltar Command Gibraltar and Mediterranean Approaches Command Harwich Force Home Fleet Jamaica Station Leeward Islands Station Lisbon Station Mediterranean Fleet Newfoundland Station New Zealand Division New Zealand Naval Forces Nore Command North America and West Indies Station North Atlantic Command North Sea Fleet Orkneys and Shetlands Command Pacific Fleet Pacific Station Patrols Command Plymouth Command Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Command Queenstown Station Royal East African Navy Royal Indian Navy Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Submarine Service Rosyth Command Reserve Fleet Scotland and Northern Ireland South Atlantic Command South Atlantic and Pacific Station South America Station South East Coast of America Station West Africa Squadron West Africa Station Western Approaches Command West Indies Station Western Squadron

Direction of Naval Finance

Department of the Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Admiralty

Departments under Secretary

Department of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty Accountant-General's Department Comptroller of the Navy Department of the Surveyor of the Navy

Direction of Naval Administration and the Admiralty
Admiralty
Secretariat

Department of the Permanent Secretary

Branches and offices under Permanent Secretary

Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Copying Branch Admiralty
Admiralty
Central Registry Branch Admiralty
Admiralty
Record Office Admiralty
Admiralty
Library Admiralty
Admiralty
Secretariat Air Branch Civil Branch Legal Branch Military Branch Naval Branch Ship Branch

Civil Administration

Department of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty, Department of the Additional Civil Lord of the Admiralty

Departments under Civil Administration

Accountant-General's Department Contract and Purchase Department Department of the Director of Contract Labour Department of the Surveyor of Buildings Director of Works' Department Greenwich Hospital Department Works Loan Department

Legal

Judicial Department

Legal under Judicial Department

Admiralty
Admiralty
court High Court of Admiralty Office of the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty High Court of Justice Office of the Judge Advocate of the Fleet Office of the Chief Naval Judge Advocate Office of the Marshall High Court of the Admiralty Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Advocate Office of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Proctor Office of the Receiver of Droits High Court of Admiralty Office of the Registrar High Court of the Admiralty Office of the Solicitor for the Affairs of the Admiralty Office of the Solicitor to the Admiralty
Admiralty
and Navy Office of the Counsel to the Admiralty Court of Admiralty
Admiralty
for the Cinque Ports King's Bench Division (Admiralty) Queens's Bench Division (Admiralty) Probate, Divorce and Admiralty
Admiralty
Division Vice Admiralty
Admiralty
courts Colonial C

.