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Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1 July 1899 – 15 December 1962) was an English stage and film actor, director, producer and screenwriter. Laughton was trained in London at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and first appeared professionally on the stage in 1926. In 1927, he was cast in a play with his future wife Elsa Lanchester, with whom he lived and worked until his death; they had no children. He played a wide range of classical and modern parts, making an impact in Shakespeare
Shakespeare
at the Old Vic. His film career took him to Broadway and then Hollywood, but he also collaborated with Alexander Korda
Alexander Korda
on notable British films of the era, including The Private Life of Henry VIII. He portrayed everything from monsters and misfits to kings.[1] Among Laughton's biggest film hits were The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Mutiny on the Bounty, Ruggles of Red Gap, Jamaica Inn, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and The Big Clock. In his later career, he took up stage directing, notably in The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
Court-Martial, and George Bernard Shaw's Don Juan
Don Juan
in Hell, in which he also starred. He directed one film, the thriller The Night of the Hunter. Laughton has been seen by one actor as one of the greatest performers of his generation. Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
cited him as one of his inspirations, saying: "He was probably the greatest film actor who came from that period of time. He had something quite remarkable. His generosity as an actor, he fed himself into that work. As an actor, you cannot take your eyes off him."[2]

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Film career

2.1 1933–1943 2.2 1943–1962 2.3 The Night of the Hunter

3 Theatre 4 Recordings 5 Television 6 Personal life 7 Death 8 Awards and nominations 9 Filmography 10 Theatre

10.1 Actor 10.2 Director 10.3 Producer

11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 References 14 External links

Early life and career[edit] Laughton was born in Scarborough, North Riding of Yorkshire, the son of Eliza (née Conlon; 1869–1953) and Robert Laughton (1869–1924), Yorkshire
Yorkshire
hotel keepers. A blue plaque marks his birthplace.[3] His mother was a devout Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
of Irish ancestry, and she sent him to briefly attend a local boys' school, Scarborough College,[4] before sending him to Stonyhurst College, the pre-eminent English Jesuit school.[5] Laughton served in World War I, during which he was gassed, serving first with the 2/1st Battalion of the Huntingdonshire Cyclist Battalion,[6] and then with the 7th Battalion of the Northamptonshire Regiment. He started work in the family hotel, though also participating in amateur theatricals in Scarborough. He was allowed by his family to become a drama student at RADA
RADA
in 1925, where actor Claude Rains
Claude Rains
was one of his teachers. Laughton made his first professional appearance on 28 April 1926 at the Barnes Theatre, as Osip in the comedy The Government Inspector, which he also appeared in at London's Gaiety Theatre in May. He impressed audiences with his talent and had classical roles in two Chekov plays, The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
and The Three Sisters. Laughton played the lead role as Harry Hegan in the world premiere of Seán O'Casey's The Silver Tassie in 1928 in London. He played the title roles in Arnold Bennett's Mr Prohack (Elsa Lanchester was also in the cast) and as Samuel Pickwick
Samuel Pickwick
in Mr Pickwick at the Theatre Royal (1928–29) in London.[7][8] He played Tony Perelli in Edgar Wallace's On the Spot and William Marble in Payment Deferred. He took the last role across the Atlantic and made his United States debut on 24 September 1931, at the Lyceum Theatre. He returned to London for the 1933–34 Old Vic season and was engaged in four Shakespeare
Shakespeare
roles (as Macbeth
Macbeth
and Henry VIII, Angelo in Measure for Measure
Measure for Measure
and Prospero
Prospero
in The Tempest) and also as Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, Canon Chasuble in The Importance of Being Earnest, and Tattle in Love for Love. In 1936, he went to Paris and on 9 May appeared at the Comédie-Française
Comédie-Française
as Sganarelle in the second act of Molière's Le Médecin malgré lui, the first English actor to appear at that theatre, where he acted the part in French and received an ovation.[citation needed] Laughton commenced his film career in Britain while still acting on the London stage. He also took small roles in three short silent comedies starring his wife Elsa Lanchester, Daydreams, Blue Bottles and The Tonic (all 1928) which had been specially written for her by H.G. Wells
H.G. Wells
and were directed by Ivor Montagu. He made a brief appearance as a disgruntled diner in another silent film Piccadilly with Anna May Wong
Anna May Wong
in 1929. He appeared with Lanchester again in a "film revue", featuring assorted British variety acts, called Comets (1930) in which they sang a duet, "The Ballad of Frankie and Johnnie". He made two other early British talkies: Wolves with Dorothy Gish (1930) from a play set in a whaling camp in the frozen north, and Down River (1931), in which he played a drug-smuggling ship's captain. His New York stage debut in 1931 immediately led to film offers and Laughton's first Hollywood
Hollywood
film was The Old Dark House (1932) with Boris Karloff, in which he played a bluff Yorkshire
Yorkshire
businessman marooned during a storm with other travelers in a creepy remote Welsh manor. He then played a demented submarine commander in Devil and the Deep with Tallulah Bankhead, Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
and Cary Grant, and followed this with his best-remembered film role of that year as Nero
Nero
in Cecil B. DeMille's The Sign of the Cross. Laughton turned out other memorable performances during that first Hollywood
Hollywood
trip, repeating his stage role as a murderer in Payment Deferred, playing H.G. Wells' mad vivisectionist Dr. Moreau in Island of Lost Souls, and the meek raspberry-blowing clerk in the brief segment of If I Had A Million, directed by Ernst Lubitsch. He appeared in six Hollywood
Hollywood
films in 1932. His association with director Alexander Korda
Alexander Korda
began in 1933 with the hugely successful The Private Life of Henry VIII
The Private Life of Henry VIII
(loosely based on the life of King Henry VIII), for which Laughton won an Academy Award. He also continued to act occasionally on stage, including a US production of The Life of Galileo
Life of Galileo
by (and with) Bertolt Brecht.[citation needed] Film career[edit] 1933–1943[edit]

From the trailer for Mutiny on the Bounty
Mutiny on the Bounty
(1935)

Laughton soon gave up the stage for films and returned to Hollywood, where his next film was White Woman
White Woman
(1933) in which he co-starred with Carole Lombard
Carole Lombard
as a Cockney
Cockney
river trader in the Malayan jungle. Then came The Barretts of Wimpole Street (1934) as Norma Shearer's character's malevolent father (although Laughton was only three years older than Shearer); Les Misérables (1935) as Inspector Javert; one of his most famous screen roles in Mutiny on the Bounty
Mutiny on the Bounty
(1935) as Captain William Bligh, co-starring with Clark Gable
Clark Gable
as Fletcher Christian; and Ruggles of Red Gap
Ruggles of Red Gap
(1935) as the very English butler transported to early 1900s America. He signed to play Micawber in David Copperfield (1934), but after a few days shooting asked to be released from the part and was replaced by W. C. Fields.[citation needed] Back in the UK, and again with Korda, he played the title role in Rembrandt (1936). In 1937, also for Korda, he starred in an ill-fated film version of the classic novel, I, Claudius, by Robert Graves, which was abandoned during filming owing to the injuries suffered by co-star Merle Oberon
Merle Oberon
in a car crash. After I, Claudius, he and the expatriate German film producer Erich Pommer
Erich Pommer
founded the production company Mayflower Pictures in the UK, which produced three films starring Laughton: Vessel of Wrath (US title The Beachcomber) (1938), based on a story by W. Somerset Maugham, in which his wife, Elsa Lanchester, co-starred; St. Martin's Lane (US title Sidewalks of London), about London street entertainers, which featured Vivien Leigh and Rex Harrison; and Jamaica Inn, with Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
and Robert Newton, about Cornish shipwreckers, based on Daphne du Maurier's novel, and the last film Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
directed in Britain before moving to Hollywood
Hollywood
in the late 1930s. The films produced were not commercially successful enough, and the company was saved from bankruptcy only when RKO Pictures
RKO Pictures
offered Laughton the title role (Quasimodo) in The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939), with Jamaica Inn co-star O'Hara. Laughton and Pommer had plans to make further films, but the outbreak of World War II, which implied the loss of many foreign markets, meant the end of the company. Laughton's early success in The Private Life of Henry VIII
The Private Life of Henry VIII
established him as one of the leading interpreters of the costume and historical drama parts for which he is best remembered (Nero, Henry VIII, Mr. Barrett, Inspector Javert, Captain Bligh, Rembrandt, Quasimodo
Quasimodo
and others); he was also type-cast for arrogant, unscrupulous characters.[citation needed] He largely moved away from historical parts when he played an Italian vineyard owner in California in They Knew What They Wanted (1940); a South Seas patriarch in The Tuttles of Tahiti
The Tuttles of Tahiti
(1942); and an American admiral during World War II
World War II
in Stand By for Action
Stand By for Action
(1942). He played a Victorian butler in Forever and a Day (1943) and an Australian bar-owner in The Man from Down Under
The Man from Down Under
(1943). Simon Callow's 1987 biography quotes a number of contemporary reviews of Laughton's performances in these films. James Agate, reviewing Forever and a Day, wrote: "Is there no-one at RKO to tell Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
when he is being plain bad?" On the other hand, Bosley Crowther of the New York Times declared that Forever and a Day boasted "superb performances".[9] C. A. Lejeune, wrote Callow, was "shocked" by the poor quality of Laughton's work of that period: "One of the most painful screen phenomena of latter years", she wrote in The Observer, "has been the decline and fall of Charles Laughton." On the other hand, David Shipman, in his book The Great Movie Stars: The Golden Years, said "Laughton was a total actor. His range was wide".[10] 1943–1962[edit]

Laughton in The Suspect (1944)

As Henry VIII in Young Bess
Young Bess
(1953)

Laughton played a cowardly schoolmaster in occupied France in This Land is Mine (1943), by Jean Renoir, in which he engaged himself most actively;[11] in fact, while Renoir was still working on an early script, Laughton would talk about Alphonse Daudet's story "The Last Lesson", which suggested to Renoir a relevant scene for the film.[12] Laughton played a henpecked husband who eventually murders his wife in The Suspect (1944), directed by Robert Siodmak, who would become a good friend.[13] He played sympathetically an impoverished composer-pianist in Tales of Manhattan
Tales of Manhattan
(1942) and starred in an updated version of Oscar Wilde's The Canterville Ghost
The Canterville Ghost
in 1944. Laughton appeared in two comedies with Deanna Durbin, It Started with Eve (1941) and Because of Him (1946). He portrayed a bloodthirsty pirate in Captain Kidd (1945) and a malevolent judge in Alfred Hitchcock's The Paradine Case
The Paradine Case
(1948). Laughton played a megalomaniac press tycoon in The Big Clock (1948). He had supporting roles as a Nazi in pre-war Paris in Arch of Triumph (1948), as a bishop in The Girl from Manhattan (1948), as a seedy go-between in The Bribe
The Bribe
(1949), and as a kindly widower in The Blue Veil (1951). He played a Bible-reading pastor in the multi-story A Miracle Can Happen (1947), but his piece wound up being cut and replaced with another featuring Dorothy Lamour, and in this form the film was retitled as On Our Merry Way. However, an original print of A Miracle Can Happen was sent abroad for dubbing before the Laughton sequence was deleted, and in this form it was shown in Spain as Una Encuesta Llamada Milagro. Laughton made his first colour film in Paris as Inspector Maigret in The Man on the Eiffel Tower
The Man on the Eiffel Tower
(1949) and, wrote the Monthly Film Bulletin, "appeared to overact" alongside Boris Karloff
Boris Karloff
as a mad French nobleman in a version of Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Door in 1951. He played a tramp in O. Henry's Full House
O. Henry's Full House
(1952). He became the pirate Captain Kidd again, this time for comic effect, in Abbott and Costello Meet Captain Kidd
Abbott and Costello Meet Captain Kidd
(1952). Laughton made a guest appearance on the Colgate Comedy Hour (featuring Abbott and Costello), in which he delivered the Gettysburg Address. In 1953 he played Herod Antipas in Salome, and he reprised his role as Henry VIII in Young Bess, a 1953 drama about Henry's children. He returned to Britain to star in Hobson's Choice (1954), directed by David Lean. Laughton received Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for his role in Witness for the Prosecution (1957). He played a British admiral in Under Ten Flags
Under Ten Flags
(1960) and worked with Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
in Spartacus (1960). His final film was Advise & Consent (1962), for which he received favourable comments for his performance as a Southern US Senator (for which accent he studied recordings of Mississippi
Mississippi
Senator John C. Stennis). The Night of the Hunter[edit] Main article: The Night of the Hunter (film) In 1955, Laughton directed The Night of the Hunter, starring Robert Mitchum, Shelley Winters
Shelley Winters
and Lillian Gish, and produced by his friend Paul Gregory. The film has been cited among critics as one of the best of the 1950s,[14] and has been selected by the United States National Film Registry for preservation in the Library of Congress. At the time of its original release it was a critical and box-office failure, and Laughton never directed again. The documentary Charles Laughton Directs The Night of the Hunter by Robert Gitt (2002) features preserved rushes and outtakes with Laughton's audible off-camera direction.[15] Theatre[edit] Laughton made his London stage debut in Gogol's The Government Inspector (1926). He appeared in many West End plays in the following few years and his earliest successes on the stage were as Hercule Poirot in Alibi (1928); he was the first actor to portray the Belgian detective in this stage adaptation of The Murder of Roger Ackroyd, and as William Marble in Payment Deferred, making his Lyceum Theatre (New York) debut in 1931.[citation needed]

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
in 1940

In 1926, he played the role of the criminal Ficsur in the original London production of Ferenc Molnár's Liliom
Liliom
(The play became a musical in 1945 by Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
as Carousel, where Ficsur became Jigger Craigin, but Laughton never appeared in the musical version). While Laughton is most remembered for his film career, he continued to work in the theatre, as when, after the success of The Private Life of Henry VIII he appeared at the Old Vic Theatre
Old Vic Theatre
in 1933 as Macbeth, Lopakin in The Cherry Orchard, Prospero
Prospero
in The Tempest
The Tempest
and Angelo in Measure for Measure. In the US, Laughton worked with Bertolt Brecht on a new English version of Brecht's play Galileo. Laughton played the title role at the play's premiere in Los Angeles on 30 July 1947 and later that year in New York. This staging was directed by Joseph Losey. The processes by which Laughton painstakingly, over many weeks, created his Galileo—and incidentally, edited and translated the play along with Brecht—are detailed in an essay by Brecht, "Building Up A Part: Laughton's Galileo."[16] Laughton had one of his most notable successes in the theatre by directing and playing the Devil in Don Juan in Hell
Don Juan in Hell
beginning in 1950. The piece is actually the third act sequence from George Bernard Shaw's play Man and Superman, frequently cut from productions to reduce its playing time, consisting of a philosophical debate between Don Juan
Don Juan
and the Devil with contributions from Doña Ana and the statue of Ana's father. Laughton conceived the piece as a staged reading and cast Charles Boyer, Cedric Hardwicke
Cedric Hardwicke
and Agnes Moorehead (billed as "The First Drama Quartette") in the other roles. Boyer won a special Tony Award
Tony Award
for his performance.[citation needed] He directed several plays on Broadway, mostly under the production of his friend and Broadway producer Paul Gregory. His most notable box-office success as a director came in 1954, with The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial, a full-length stage dramatisation by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
of the court-martial scene in Wouk's novel The Caine Mutiny. The play, starring Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
as defence attorney Barney Greenwald, opened the same year as the film starring Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
as Captain Queeg and José Ferrer
José Ferrer
as Greenwald based on the original novel, but did not affect that film's box-office performance. Laughton also directed a staged reading in 1953 of Stephen Vincent Benét's John Brown's Body, a full-length poem about the American Civil War
American Civil War
and its aftermath. The production starred Tyrone Power, Raymond Massey
Raymond Massey
(re-creating his film characterisations of Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
and John Brown), and Judith Anderson. Laughton did not appear himself in either production, but John Brown's Body was recorded complete by Columbia Masterworks.[citation needed] Laughton returned to the London stage in May 1958 to direct and star in Jane Arden's The Party at the New Theatre which also had Elsa Lanchester and Albert Finney
Albert Finney
in the cast. He made his final appearances on stage as Nick Bottom
Nick Bottom
in A Midsummer Night's Dream, and as King Lear
King Lear
at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre
in 1959, although failing health resulted in both performances being disappointing, according to some British critics. His performance as King Lear
King Lear
was lambasted by critics, including Kenneth Tynan, who wrote that Laughton's Nick Bottom
Nick Bottom
"... behaves in a manner that has nothing to do with acting, although it perfectly hits off the demeanor of a rapscallion uncle dressed up to entertain the children at a Christmas party". Although he did not appear in any later plays, Laughton toured the US with staged readings, including a successful appearance on the Stanford University
Stanford University
campus in 1960.[citation needed] Recordings[edit] Laughton's voice, equally capable of a penetrating, theatre-filling shout and a soft, velvety tone, first appeared on 78-rpm records with the release of five British Regal Zonophone 10-inch discs entitled Voice of the Stars issued annually from 1934 to 1938. These featured short soundtrack snippets from the year's top films. He is heard on all five records in, respectively, The Private Life of Henry VIII, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, Mutiny on the Bounty, I, Claudius (curiously, since this film was unfinished and thus never released), and Vessel of Wrath. In 1937 he recorded Lincoln's Gettysburg Address on a 10-inch Columbia 78, having made a strong impression with it in Ruggles of Red Gap. He made several other spoken-word recordings, one of his most famous being his one-man album of Charles Dickens's Mr. Pickwick's Christmas, a twenty-minute version of the Christmas chapter from Dickens's The Pickwick Papers. It was first released by American Decca in 1944 as a four-record 78-rpm set, but was afterward transferred to LP. It frequently appeared on LP with a companion piece, Decca's 1941 adaptation of Dickens's A Christmas Carol, starring Ronald Colman
Ronald Colman
as Scrooge. Both stories were released together on a Deutsche Grammophon CD for Christmas 2005. In 1943, Laughton recorded a reading of the Nativity story from St. Luke's Gospel, and this was released in 1995 on CD on a Nimbus Records collection entitled Prima Voce: The Spirit of Christmas Past. A Brunswick/American Decca LP entitled Readings from the Bible featured Laughton reading Garden of Eden, The Fiery Furnace, Noah's Ark, and David and Goliath. It was released in 1958. Laughton had previously included several Bible readings when he played the title role in the film Rembrandt. Laughton also narrated the story on the soundtrack album of the film that he directed, Night of the Hunter, accompanied by the film's score. This album has also been released on CD. Also, and derived from the film they made together, a complete radio show (18 June 1945) of The Canterville Ghost
The Canterville Ghost
was broadcast which featured Laughton and Margaret O'Brien. It has been issued on a Pelican LP.[citation needed] A two-LP Capitol Records
Capitol Records
album was released in 1962, the year of Laughton's death, entitled The Story Teller: A Session with Charles Laughton. Taken from Laughton's one-man stage shows, it culls together dramatic readings from several sources. Three of the excerpts are broadcast annually on a Minnesota Public Radio Thanksgiving program entitled Giving Thanks. The Story Teller won a Grammy
Grammy
in 1962 for Best Spoken Word Recording. However, although the album has yet to be released on compact disc, it can now be heard in its entirety online. Television[edit]

With Tennessee Ernie Ford
Tennessee Ernie Ford
in a guest appearance on The Ford Show (1961)

Laughton was the fill-in host on 9 September 1956, when Elvis Presley made his first of three appearances on CBS's The Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
Show, which garnered 72 million viewers ( Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
was recuperating from a car accident). That same year, Laughton hosted the first of two programmes devoted to classical music entitled "Festival of Music", and telecast on the NBC
NBC
television anthology series Producers' Showcase. One of his last performances was on Checkmate, in which he played a missionary recently returned from China. He threw himself into the role, travelling to China for several months to better understand his character.[17] Personal life[edit] In 1927, Laughton began a relationship with Elsa Lanchester, at the time a castmate in a stage play. The two were married in 1929, became US citizens in 1950, and remained together until Laughton's death. Over the years, they appeared together in several films, including Rembrandt (1936), Tales of Manhattan
Tales of Manhattan
(1942) and The Big Clock (1948). Lanchester portrayed Anne of Cleves, Henry VIII's fourth wife, opposite Laughton in The Private Life of Henry VIII. They both received Academy Award nominations for their performances in Witness for the Prosecution (1957)—Laughton for Best Actor, and Lanchester for Best Supporting Actress—but neither won. Although Laughton's bisexuality has been corroborated by several of his contemporaries and is generally accepted by Hollywood historians,[18][19][20][21] actress Maureen O'Hara, a friend and co-star of Laughton, has disputed the contention that his sexuality was the reason Laughton and Lanchester did not have children. O'Hara claimed Laughton told her that he had wanted children but that it had not been possible because of a botched abortion that Lanchester had early in her career of performing burlesque.[22] In her autobiography, Lanchester acknowledged two abortions in her youth—one of the pregnancies purportedly by Laughton—although she didn't mention whether she had been rendered infertile. According to her biographer, Charles Higham, the reason she did not have children was that she did not want any.[23] Laughton owned a spectacular estate on the bluffs above Pacific Coast Highway at 14954 Corona Del Mar in Pacific Palisades.[24] The property suffered a landslide in 1944, alluded to by Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
in his poem "Garden in Progress".[25] Death[edit]

English Heritage
English Heritage
blue plaque erected in 1992 at 15 Percy Street, London commemorating Charles Laughton.

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
died on 15 December 1962 from spinal cancer[26][27][28] and is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park ( Hollywood
Hollywood
Hills)[29] Awards and nominations[edit] Laughton won the New York Film Critics' Circle Awards for Mutiny on the Bounty and Ruggles of Red Gap
Ruggles of Red Gap
in 1935.

Academy Awards

1933: Won Best Actor
Actor
in a Leading Role, The Private Life of Henry VIII 1936: Nominated Best Actor
Actor
in a Leading Role, Mutiny on the Bounty 1958: Nominated Best Actor
Actor
in a Leading Role, Witness for the Prosecution

For his contributions to the motion picture industry, Laughton has a star on the Hollywood
Hollywood
Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood
Hollywood
Boulevard.[30] Filmography[edit] Main article: Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
filmography Theatre[edit] Actor[edit]

1926: The Revizor, [written] by Nikolai Gogol

first appearance, debut on the London stage (aka The Government Inspector)

1928: Alibi, adapted from the novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Agatha Christie

police drama; he is the first actor to play detective Hercule Poirot

1928: The Silver Tassie (premiere) 1931: Payment Deferred
Payment Deferred
adapted from the novel by C. S. Forester

debut on the New York stage

1932: The Fatal Alibi adapted from the novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Agatha Christie

police drama, Laughton is also the director (American version of Alibi)

1947: Galileo by Bertolt Brecht 1950: The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard
by Anton Chekhov 1951 and 1952: Don Juan
Don Juan
in Hell, the third act of Man and Superman
Man and Superman
by George Bernard Shaw

drama, Laughton is also the director

1956–1957: Major Barbara
Major Barbara
by George Bernard Shaw

comedy, Laughton is also the director

1959: King Lear
King Lear
by William Shakespeare

classic tragedy

Director[edit]

1932: The Fatal Alibi adapted from the novel The Murder of Roger Ackroyd by Agatha Christie

police drama, Laughton also acts in the play.

1951 and 1952: Don Juan in Hell
Don Juan in Hell
(the third act of Man and Superman), by George Bernard Shaw

drama, Laughton also acts in the play.

1953: John Brown's Body, adapted by Laughton from Stephen Vincent Benét

with Judith Anderson

1956–1957: Major Barbara, by George Bernard Shaw

comedy, Laughton also acts in the play

1954–1955: The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
Court Martial, adapted from the novel by Herman Wouk

drama, with Henry Fonda, transferred in 1954 to the screen by Edward Dmytryk

Producer[edit]

1955: 3 for Tonight

musical revue, with Harry Belafonte

See also[edit]

Biography portal

List of actors with Academy Award nominations

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Charles Laughton: dazzling player of monsters, misfits and kings". 24 Nov 2012.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKfGU3vKjvc ^ " Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
profile". Biography.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.  ^ Burton, Peter (1998). Six Inches of Bath Water: One Hundred Years of Scarborough College
Scarborough College
in Memories & Photographs, 1898-1998 (First ed.). Norwich: Michael Russell. p. 15. ISBN 085955239X.  ^ RonaldBruceMeyer.com ""1 July Almanac."". Archived from the original on 8 May 2006. Retrieved 22 March 2006. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Retrieved 12 August 2007. ^ The Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
pages ^ Laughton in Mr. Pickwick - The University of Kent
University of Kent
Theatre Collection ^ Laughton in Mr. Pickwick on the Theatricalia website ^ Crowther, Bosley (13 March 1943). "'Forever and a Day', Pageant of Some English People, Made Cooperatively in Hollywood, Is Attraction at the Rivoli". The New York Times.  ^ David Shipman The Great Movie Stars: The Golden Years, London: Macdonald, 1989, p.353 ^ Lourié, Eugène (1985) My Work in Films. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich ISBN 0-15-164019-X (Lourié, who worked after hours to work on the decors, once found Laughton working after hours to get used to move in the scenery.) ^ Sesonske, Alexander (1996) Persistence of Vision (Maspeth), no. 12–13, 1996 ^ Dumont, Hervé (1981) Robert Siodmak. Lausanne: L'Age d'homme ^ Ebert, Roger (1996). "Review: Night of the Hunter". Chicago Sun-Times.  ^ Robert Gitt in The Guardian, 6 June 2003 " Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
directs The Night of the Hunter." Retrieved 25 October 2008. ^ Brecht, Life of Galileo. Ed John Willett. London: Methuen, 1980. PP. 131–61. ^ Booklet/Insert, "The Best of 'Checkmate'", Timeless Media Group ^ Callow ^ Crowe ^ Higham ^ Jones ^ O'Hara ^ Higham, p. 27 ^ http://capequity.com/properties/1005/homes/pacific_palisades-ca/palisades_paradise/ ^ Weimar on the Pacific: German Exile Culture in Los Angeles by Erhard Bahr (page 96) ^ " Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
Dies at 63". The Daily News (St. John's, N.L.). AP. December 17, 1962. Retrieved 29 August 2017.  ^ "Widow of Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
Had Many Talents : Actress Elsa Lanchester Dies at 84". Los Angeles Times. December 27, 1986. Retrieved 29 August 2017.  ^ Callow, Simon (November 24, 2012). "Charles Laughton: dazzling player of monsters, misfits and kings". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 August 2017.  ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 26892-26893). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition ^ " Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
Inducted to the Walk of Fame". walkoffame.com. Hollywood
Hollywood
Chamber of Commerce. February 8, 1960. Retrieved December 7, 2016. 

References[edit]

Brown, William (1970). Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
A Pictorial Treasury of his Films. New York: Falcon Enterprises.  Callow, Simon (1988). Charles Laughton: A Difficult Actor. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1047-9.  Crowe, Cameron (2001). Conversations With Wilder. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-375-70967-3.  Higham, Charles (1976). Charles Laughton: An Intimate Biography. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-09403-5.  Jones, Preston Neal (2004). Heaven and Hell to Play With: The Filming of The Night of the Hunter. New York: Limelight Editions. ISBN 0-87910-974-2.  Lanchester, Elsa (1938). Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
and I. London: Faber and Faber. p. 271.  Lanchester, Elsa (1983). Elsa Lanchester
Elsa Lanchester
Herself. London: Michael Joseph. ISBN 0-7181-2309-3.  Lyon, James K. (1980). Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-19-502639-X.  O'Hara, Maureen (2005). 'Tis Herself. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-4693-4.  Parker, John (ed), (1947). Who's Who in the Theatre 10th revised edition. London. pp. 892–3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Singer, Kurt (1954). The Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
Story. London: John C. Winston Company.  Tell Me a Story (1957) and The Fabulous Country (1962). Two literary anthologies selected by Charles Laughton. They contain pieces which were presented by him in his reading tours across America, with written introductions which give some insight about Laughton's thoughts. This selection presents texts from the Bible, Charles Dickens, Thomas Wolfe, Ray Bradbury, and James Thurber
James Thurber
to name just a few. Diverse authors, articles in The Stonyhurst magazine: Charles Laughton at Stonyhurst by David Knight (Volume LIV, No. 501, 2005), Charles Laughton. A Talent in Bloom (1899–1931), by Gloria Porta (Volume LIV, No. 502, 2006)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles Laughton.

Official website Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
on IMDb Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
at the TCM Movie Database Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
at the British Film Institute's Screenonline Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
at Find a Grave Rooting for Laughton: Laughtonians of the world, unite! (Weblog) Gay Greats Call him Jack...Thank you for introducing me to Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
and to Life with a capital L!

v t e

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
filmography

Director

The Man on the Eiffel Tower
The Man on the Eiffel Tower
(1949, uncredited) The Night of the Hunter (1955)

Producer

Vessel of Wrath (1938) Sidewalks of London
Sidewalks of London
(1938, co-writer) Jamaica Inn (1939)

Awards for Charles Laughton

v t e

Academy Award for Best Actor

1928–1950

Emil Jannings
Emil Jannings
(1928) Warner Baxter
Warner Baxter
(1929) George Arliss
George Arliss
(1930) Lionel Barrymore
Lionel Barrymore
(1931) Fredric March
Fredric March
/ Wallace Beery
Wallace Beery
(1932) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1933) Clark Gable
Clark Gable
(1934) Victor McLaglen
Victor McLaglen
(1935) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1936) Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1937) Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1938) Robert Donat
Robert Donat
(1939) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1940) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1941) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Bing Crosby
Bing Crosby
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Fredric March
Fredric March
(1946) Ronald Colman
Ronald Colman
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) José Ferrer
José Ferrer
(1950)

1951–1975

Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
(1951) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1952) William Holden
William Holden
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Yul Brynner
Yul Brynner
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1962) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Lee Marvin
Lee Marvin
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Cliff Robertson
Cliff Robertson
(1968) John Wayne
John Wayne
(1969) George C. Scott1 (1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Marlon Brando1 (1972) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1973) Art Carney
Art Carney
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975)

1976–2000

Peter Finch
Peter Finch
(1976) Richard Dreyfuss
Richard Dreyfuss
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1983) F. Murray Abraham
F. Murray Abraham
(1984) William Hurt
William Hurt
(1985) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1986) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1987) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(1992) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1993) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1997) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(1998) Kevin Spacey
Kevin Spacey
(1999) Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
(2000)

2001–present

Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(2001) Adrien Brody
Adrien Brody
(2002) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2003) Jamie Foxx
Jamie Foxx
(2004) Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) Jeff Bridges
Jeff Bridges
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Jean Dujardin
Jean Dujardin
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Matthew McConaughey
Matthew McConaughey
(2013) Eddie Redmayne
Eddie Redmayne
(2014) Leonardo DiCaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Gary Oldman
Gary Oldman
(2017)

1 refused award that year

v t e

David di Donatello
David di Donatello
Award for Best Foreign Actor

Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1957) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
/ Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1958) Jean Gabin
Jean Gabin
(1959) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1960) Charlton Heston
Charlton Heston
(1961) Anthony Perkins
Anthony Perkins
/ Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1962) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1963) Fredric March
Fredric March
/ Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1964) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1965) Richard Burton
Richard Burton
(1966) Richard Burton
Richard Burton
/ Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1967) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
/ Spencer Tracy
Spencer Tracy
(1968) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1969) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
/ Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(1970) Ryan O'Neal
Ryan O'Neal
(1971) Chaim Topol
Chaim Topol
(1972) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1973) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1974) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
/ Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
/ Walter Matthau
Walter Matthau
(1975) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
/ Philippe Noiret
Philippe Noiret
(1976) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
/ Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(1977) Richard Dreyfuss
Richard Dreyfuss
(1978) Richard Gere
Richard Gere
/ Michel Serrault
Michel Serrault
(1979) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
/ Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1980) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1981) Klaus Maria Brandauer
Klaus Maria Brandauer
(1982) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1983) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1984) Tom Hulce
Tom Hulce
(1985) William Hurt
William Hurt
(1986) Dexter Gordon
Dexter Gordon
(1987) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1988) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1989) Philippe Noiret
Philippe Noiret
(1990) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1991) John Turturro
John Turturro
(1992) Daniel Auteuil
Daniel Auteuil
(1993) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1994) John Travolta
John Travolta
(1995) Harvey Keitel
Harvey Keitel
(1996)

v t e

Grammy
Grammy
Award for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
– BBC Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

v t e

New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor

Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
(1935) Walter Huston
Walter Huston
(1936) Paul Muni
Paul Muni
(1937) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1938) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1939) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1940) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
(1941) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1942) Paul Lukas
Paul Lukas
(1943) Barry Fitzgerald
Barry Fitzgerald
(1944) Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1945) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1946) William Powell
William Powell
(1947) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1948) Broderick Crawford
Broderick Crawford
(1949) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1950) Arthur Kennedy
Arthur Kennedy
(1951) Ralph Richardson
Ralph Richardson
(1952) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1953) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1954) Ernest Borgnine
Ernest Borgnine
(1955) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1956) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1957) David Niven
David Niven
(1958) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1959) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1960) Maximilian Schell
Maximilian Schell
(1961) No award (1962) Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(1963) Rex Harrison
Rex Harrison
(1964) Oskar Werner
Oskar Werner
(1965) Paul Scofield
Paul Scofield
(1966) Rod Steiger
Rod Steiger
(1967) Alan Arkin
Alan Arkin
(1968) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1969) George C. Scott
George C. Scott
(1970) Gene Hackman
Gene Hackman
(1971) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1972) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1975) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1976) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1979) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1980) Burt Lancaster
Burt Lancaster
(1981) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
(1982) Robert Duvall
Robert Duvall
(1983) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(1984) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1985) Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1987) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(1988) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(1989) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(1990) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(1991) Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
(1992) David Thewlis
David Thewlis
(1993) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1994) Nicolas Cage
Nicolas Cage
(1995) Geoffrey Rush
Geoffrey Rush
(1996) Peter Fonda
Peter Fonda
(1997) Nick Nolte
Nick Nolte
(1998) Richard Farnsworth
Richard Farnsworth
(1999) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2000) Tom Wilkinson
Tom Wilkinson
(2001) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2002) Bill Murray
Bill Murray
(2003) Paul Giamatti
Paul Giamatti
(2004) Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
(2005) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(2006) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2007) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2008) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2009) Colin Firth
Colin Firth
(2010) Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
(2011) Daniel Day-Lewis
Daniel Day-Lewis
(2012) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2013) Timothy Spall
Timothy Spall
(2014) Michael Keaton
Michael Keaton
(2015) Casey Affleck
Casey Affleck
(2016) Timothée Chalamet
Timothée Chalamet
(2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32104205 LCCN: n50058537 ISNI: 0000 0001 1023 8117 GND: 118726684 SELIBR: 235411 SUDOC: 034318542 BNF: cb12508546x (data) BIBSYS: 90854668 ULAN: 500331079 MusicBrainz: 75a45262-8e8d-4eb6-bc30-207fbf6d9644 NLA: 36023415 NKC: pna2004261719 BNE: XX1055341 SN