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Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
(Spanish: Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700) was the last Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler of the Spanish Empire. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado),[1] he is now best remembered for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and the war that followed his death. He died childless in 1700, all potential Habsburg
Habsburg
successors having predeceased him. His will named his successor as 16-year-old Philip, grandson of the reigning French king Louis XIV
Louis XIV
and Charles's half-sister Maria Theresa.[2] Disputes over his inheritance led to a European war known as the War of the Spanish Succession.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Background; the decline of Spanish power 3 Reign 4 The Succession 5 Death 6 Legacy 7 Heraldry 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

Early life[edit] Charles was born in Madrid
Madrid
to Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV of Spain
and his second wife, Mariana of Austria, also known as Maria Anna. The only surviving son of his father's two marriages, he was named Prince of Asturias, a title traditionally held by the heir to the Spanish throne.[3]

Las Meninas, by Diego Velázquez; Charles' sister Margarita Teresa in 1656.

Since power and possessions were habitually transferred by marriage, some degree of inter-marriage or consanguinity was common at the upper levels of society in order to retain their assets;[a] the Spanish Habsburgs took this to a level considered extreme even by contemporaries.[4] Philip and Mariana were uncle and niece, making Charles their son and first-cousin and great-nephew respectively, an impact heightened by all eight of his great-grandparents being descendants of Joanna and Philip I of Castile.[b] His older full sister Margaret Theresa does not appear to have suffered the same issues. Charles was severely disabled, both physically and mentally, described as "short, lame, epileptic, senile and completely bald before 35, always on the verge of death but repeatedly baffling Christendom by continuing to live."[5] He is thought to have suffered from the endocrine disease acromegaly and a combination of rare genetic disorders often transmitted through recessive genes, including combined pituitary hormone deficiency and distal renal tubular acidosis.[6] In his case, the so-called Habsburg
Habsburg
lip was so pronounced that he spoke and ate with difficulty his entire life. He did not learn to speak until four, walk until eight, was effectively treated as an infant until he was ten years old and did not attend school. His indolence was indulged to such an extent that at times he was not expected to be clean. When his illegitimate half-brother John of Austria the Younger obtained power by exiling his mother Mariana from court, he covered his nose and insisted the King at least brush his hair.[citation needed] The only vigorous activity in which Charles is known to have participated was shooting in the preserves of El Escorial.[citation needed] Background; the decline of Spanish power[edit]

Charles II in his twenties

When Charles succeeded his father in 1665, the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
or 'Monarchy' remained an enormous global confederation but its power and prestige had been diminishing since the 1640s for a number of reasons. Almost continuous warfare drained money, energy and men, the most serious of which was the 1578-1648 Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
with the Dutch Republic. Spain recognised Dutch independence in the 1648 Peace of Münster but kept the Spanish Netherlands. This simply replaced the Dutch with France and led to a series of wars for a province that no longer provided any benefit; Münster also gave the Dutch and the merchants of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
control of the Scheldt
Scheldt
that flowed through Antwerp
Antwerp
and destroyed its trading activities.[c] The 17th Spanish economy experienced long periods of low productivity and depression for a number of reasons.[7] Between 1600-1700 the population declined by an estimated 25%, due to emigration, disease eg the 1646-50 Great Plague of Seville, famine and the casualties caused by almost endless warfare. This had a huge economic impact with major manufacturing areas losing almost half their workforce and not enough men to build or man the ships on which Spanish trade depended.[8] Limited central control made it hard to collect taxes and combined with economic depression meant government finances were in perpetual crisis.[9] The Spanish Crown declared bankruptcy nine times between 1557 to 1666, including 1647, 1652, 1661 and 1666. The third factor was weak central control; 'Spain' was actually separate kingdoms under the same monarch, the major ones being the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
and Crown of Aragon.[d] The tensions between the different regions combined with the deeply conservative nature of the political class made decision-making or enacting reforms extremely slow and difficult. These factors make it debatable as to how far Charles himself and those who ruled in his name can be held responsible for long-term trends that predated his reign.[10] In addition, these problems were not uniquely Spanish; the 17th century was a period of crisis for many European nations.[11] The Empire proved remarkably resilient and when Charles died in 1700, it remained largely intact.[12] Reign[edit] Charles was three years old when his father, Philip IV, died on 17 September 1665 and so the Council of Castile
Council of Castile
appointed his mother, Mariana of Austria
Mariana of Austria
as Queen Regent. Charles ruled in his own name after Mariana's death in 1696 but for practical purposes his disabilities and long minority meant power was exercised by others, the feud between his mother and illegitimate half-brother John being especially damaging.

Mariana of Austria
Mariana of Austria
by Diego Velázquez, c. 1656; she acted as Regent for much of Charles' reign

John of Austria; his struggles with Mariana for control of government severely weakened Spain

The system of ruling through personal favourites or "validos" was established by Charles' father Philip in 1621 when he appointed the Count-Duke of Olivares. Mariana did the same, the only difference being that as a woman, they were more visible. The first was her personal confessor, Juan Everardo Nithard who was appointed Grand Inquisitor in 1666 which placed him on the Regency Council that advised Mariana. On Charles' accession, his administration had to deal with the long-running Portuguese Restoration War and the War of Devolution
War of Devolution
with France. Nithard was desperate to reduce Spain's military commitments at almost any price; the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution with the Treaty of Lisbon accepting the restoration of the Crown of Portugal and the loss of the Portuguese Empire.[13] These were simply an acceptance of reality while Aix-La-Chapelle was in many ways a diplomatic triumph, since France was forced to return most of its territorial gains. However, John exploited discontent within the ruling class at these to instigate a revolt in Aragon and Catalonia, compelling Mariana to dismiss Nithard in February 1669. Nithard was replaced by Fernando de Valenzuela; in 1675, when Charles reached the age of 14 and legally able to rule on his own, John used the opportunity to force his dismissal. However, Mariana succeeded in continuing her Regency on the basis of Charles's disabilities and Valenzuela returned to court in 1677. The outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War in 1672 dragged Spain into another war with France over the Spanish Netherlands, the cost of which placed almost intolerable strain on the economy. In January 1678, John finally took charge of government, expelled Mariana and exiled Valenzuela. Ironically, given his earlier opposition to the concessions made in 1668, his first act was to end the war by the Treaties of Nijmegen
Treaties of Nijmegen
under which Spain ceded many of the territories in Franche-Comté and the Spanish Netherlands returned by France at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Marie Louise, Charles' first Queen.

Having spent so many years achieving power, John's administration failed to live up to expectations, one of the few achievements being the stabilisation of the currency. He faced an almost impossible situation and had insufficient time to have a real impact before his government ended with his death in September 1679. Mariana returned as Queen Regent but her influence was diminished by Charles' marriage in November 1679 to the 17-year-old Marie Louise of Orléans to whom he was devoted.

Marie-Anne de Neuborg, Charles' second wife.

The 1683-84 War of the Reunions
War of the Reunions
was a brief but devastating conflict with France over the Spanish Netherlands, followed in 1688 by the outbreak of the Nine Years' War. Shortly afterwards, Marie Louise died in February 1689, almost certainly from appendicitis; there were allegations she was poisoned but many deaths wdue to lack of medical knowledge. In August, Charles married Maria Anna of Neuburg
Maria Anna of Neuburg
and when Mariana died on 16 May 1696, he ruled in his own name until his death in 1700. By this time it was clear Charles' health was finally failing and agreeing his successor increasingly urgent. The Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
showed France could not achieve its objectives on its own; the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick was the result of mutual exhaustion and Louis' search for allies in anticipation of a contest over the Spanish throne. The Habsburg
Habsburg
Emperor Leopold initially refused to sign the Treaty since it left this issue unresolved; he reluctantly did so in October 1697 but all sides viewed it as simply a pause in hostilities.[14] The Succession[edit]

Europe in 1700, at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

Main article: War of the Spanish Succession Unlike France or Austria, the Spanish Monarchy could be inherited by or through a woman. [15] Charles had two sisters, Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
and Margaret; Maria (1638-83) married Louis XIV, their son Louis, Dauphin of France being heir to the French throne. Margaret married her Habsburg
Habsburg
cousin Emperor Leopold and their daughter Maria Antonia 1669-1692 had a son Joseph Ferdinand with Max Emanuel of Bavaria. Maria Antonia transferred her rights to the Spanish throne to Leopold's sons from his third marriage, her half-brothers Joseph and Charles.[16] This was a measure of dubious legality but theoretical arguments over who had the better claim by birth are largely irrelevant; neither Austria and France could allow the other to acquire an undivided Spanish Monarchy.

Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Bavaria and heir to Charles until his death in 1699.

The 1698 Treaty of the Hague made Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria heir to the bulk of the Spanish Monarchy and split its European possessions between France and Austria.[e][17] Acceptable to Spain, it was less so to Leopold; his grandson became King but it made Bavaria more powerful, threatening Habsburg
Habsburg
dominance of the Holy Roman Empire.[f] When Joseph Ferdinand died of smallpox in February 1699, the 1700 Treaty of London made Leopold's younger son Archduke Charles the new heir and divided Spanish possessions in Italy, the Netherlands and Northern Spain between France, Savoy and Austria.[18] Neither Spain nor Austria signed the Treaty.

Philip, Duke of Anjou is recognised as Philip or Felipe V of Spain on 16 November 1700

The Spanish saw no reason why their Empire should be partitioned and devised their own solution, the key principle being an undivided and independent Empire.[19] For various reasons, including the unpopularity of the Austrians with Spanish ministers, Charles' will named his heir as Louis' younger grandson Philip but on condition he renounce any claim on the French throne. Since his father the Dauphin and older brother stood between him and the French crown, the Spanish hoped this would be acceptable.[g][20] When Charles died on 1 November 1700, insisting on the Treaty of London required Louis to enforce an Austrian heir on an undivided Spanish Monarchy for a treaty neither signed and led to an outcome unacceptable to France. This was never likely to happen and on 16 November 1700, his grandson became Philip V of Spain, a decision accepted with varying degrees of enthusiasm by the other European powers.[21] Having achieved most of his aims by diplomacy, Louis then made a series of moves that led to the conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession.[22] Death[edit] Toward the end of his life Charles's fragile health deteriorated; he became increasingly hypersensitive and strange, at one point demanding the bodies of his family be exhumed so he could look upon the corpses. He officially retired when he had a nervous breakdown caused by the stress of Spain's economic issues and conflict over his successor. He died in Madrid
Madrid
five days before his 39th birthday on 1 November 1700, the 39th anniversary of the death of his elder brother Philip. The physician who performed his autopsy stated his body "did not contain a single drop of blood; his heart was the size of a peppercorn; his lungs corroded; his intestines rotten and gangrenous; he had a single testicle, black as coal, and his head was full of water."[23] His life is memorably summarised by John Langdon-Davies
John Langdon-Davies
as follows; We are dealing with a man who died of poison two hundred years before he was born. If birth is a beginning, of no man was it more true to say that in his beginning was his end. From the day of his birth they were waiting for his death.[24] Legacy[edit]

Spanish gold coin minted in 1700, the last year of the reign of Charles II.

Marie Louise, Charles and his mother attend the auto de fe of 30 June 1680 by Francisco Rizi.

In 1680, Charles presided over the greatest auto-da-fé in the history of the Spanish Inquisition, in which 120 prisoners were forced to participate and 21 later burned at the stake. This seems to have left its mark; the last public auto-da-fé took place in 1691 and in one of his few independent acts as king, Charles set up a Council in August 1700 to investigate the Inquisition. Their report was so critical the Inquisitor General convinced Charles to have it burned.[25] Nevertheless, the power of the Inquisition was broken, although the institution itself survived until 1834. During his reign as the Count of Namur
Count of Namur
in 1666, the city of Charleroi in modern Belgium
Belgium
was named after him as were the Caroline Islands
Caroline Islands
by the Spanish explorer Francisco Lazcano when he visited Yap
Yap
in 1686. Heraldry[edit]

Heraldry of Charles II of Spain

Coat of arms as King of Spain (1665–1668)

Coat of arms as King of Spain (1668–1700)

Coat of arms as King of Naples & Sicily (1665–1700)

Coat of arms as Duke of Milan (1665–1700)

Lesser coat of arms as King of Naples (1665–1668)

Coat of arms as King of Naples & Sicily (1665–1700)

Coat of arms as King of Navarre (1665–1700)

Notes[edit]

^ Requesting approval to waive restrictions on this was a major source of income for the Catholic Church ^ The offspring of an uncle-niece marriage would normally have an inbreeding coefficient of 0.125 but in Charles' case this was 0.254. ^ This was kept in place until 1863, although by then it was no longer as significant an outlet. ^ The Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
was divided into the Kingdoms of Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Majorca, Naples, Sicily, Malta and Sardinia. ^ In practice this meant Italy; the Spanish had long since recognised their inability to retain the Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
unaided. ^ Leopold habitually seemed to view solutions that required him to make concessions with deep suspicion. ^ The high mortality rate of the period meant Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was ultimately succeeded by Philip's 4 year old nephew.

References[edit]

^ "A History of Spain and Portugal, v. 1". Chapter 15, "The Seventeenth Century Decline". pp. Payne, Stanley. Retrieved July 7, 2013.  ^ Kamen, Henry (2001). Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08718-7.  ^ Sampedro, José Luis (2006). "Los títulos del Príncipe - La dignidad de Príncipe de Asturias". Boda Real (in Spanish). abc.es. Retrieved July 8, 2013.  ^ Francisco C. Celballos; Gonzalo Álvarez (10 April 2013). "Royal Dynasties as Human Inbreeding Laboratories: The Habsburgs". Heredity. 111: 114-121. doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.25.  ^ Durant, Ariel, Durant, Will (1963). Age of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(Story of Civilization). TBS Publishing. ISBN 0207942277.  ^ Callaway, Ewen (19 April 2013). "Inbred Royals Show Traces of Natural Selection". Nature News. Retrieved 7 July 2016.  ^ Storrs, Christopher. [gale.cengage.co.uk/images/SpainChristopherStorrs.pdf "The Decline of Spain in the Seventeenth Century"] Check url= value (help) (PDF). State Papers Online. Gale;Cengage Learning. Retrieved 7 April 2018.  ^ Earl J. Hamilton, "Money and Economic Recovery in Spain under the First Bourbon, 1701–1746", Journal of Modern History Vol. 15, No. 3 (Sep., 1943), pp. 192-206 in JSTOR ^ Jon Cowans (2003). Modern Spain: A Documentary History. U. of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 0-8122-1846-9.  ^ Payne, Stanley. "A History of Spain and Portugal Volume 1; Chapter 15 The Seventeenth Century Decline". The Library of Iberian Resources Online. UCA. Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ de Vries, Jan (2009). "The Economic Crisis of the 17th Century" (PDF). Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 40 (2): 151–194. Retrieved 7 April 2018.  ^ Storrs, Christopher (2006). The Resilience of the Spanish Monarchy 1665-1700. OUP Oxford. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0199246378.  ^ Barton, Simon (2009). A History of Spain. ISBN 978-0230200111.  ^ Meerts, Paul Willem (2014). Diplomatic negotiation: Essence and Evolution. http://hdl.handle.net/1887/29596: Leiden University dissertation. p. 168.  ^ Wolf: Louis XIV, 493 ^ Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 105; McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 55 ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession, 393 ^ McKay and Scott: The Rise of the Great Powers, 55; Ingrao: The Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy, 106; Spielman: Leopold I, 172–4 ^ Kamen: Philip V, 3; Spielman: Leopold I, 176 ^ Clark: From the Nine Years' War
Nine Years' War
to the War of the Spanish Succession, 396–7; Wolf: Louis XIV, 503–4 ^ Trevelyan: England, I, 134; Wolf: Louis XIV, 507 ^ Falkner, James (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession
1701-1714 (Kindle ed.). 96: Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473872905.  ^ Gargarilla, Pedro. "Enfermedades de los reyes de España. Los Austrias : de la locura de Juana a la impotencia de Carlos II el Hechizado" La Esfera de los Libros S.L., 2005. ISBN 8497343387 ^ Langdon-Davies, John (1963). Carlos; the King Who Would Not Die. Prentice Hall. ISBN B0006AYR3A Check isbn= value: invalid character (help).  ^ Durant, Ariel and Durant, Will. The Age of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(The Story of Civilization VIII), 1963

Sources[edit]

Will Durant, The Reformation (1957) Will and Ariel Durant, The Age of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
(1963) Martin Andrew Sharp Hume, The Year After the Armada, and other historical studies (1896) Henry Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
(1997) John Langdon-Davies, Carlos, the Bewitched, the last Spanish Hapsburg, 1661-1700, London (1962) Ludwig Pfandl, Karl II. Das Ende der spanischen Machtstellung in Europa, Munich (1940)

External links[edit]

Media related to Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
at Wikimedia Commons

Charles II of Spain House of Habsburg Born: November 6 1661 Died: November 1 1700

Regnal titles

Preceded by Philip IV King of Spain, Sardinia, Naples and Sicily Duke of Milan, Lothier, Brabant, Limburg and Luxemburg Count of Flanders, Hainaut and Namur 1665–1700 Succeeded by Philip V

Count Palatine of Burgundy 1665–1678 Lost to France Treaties of Nijmegen

Spanish royalty

Vacant Title last held by Philip Prospero Prince of Asturias 1661–1665 Vacant Title next held by Louis Philip

v t e

Austrian archdukes

1st generation

Frederick V Albert VI Sigismund

2nd generation

Cristopher Maximilian I John Wolfgang

3rd generation

Philip I of Castile Archduke Francis

4th generation

Charles I Ferdinand I

5th generation

Philip II of SpainS Maximilian II Ferdinand II FerdinandS JohnS John FerdinandS Charles II

6th generation

Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Rudolf V Ernest Matthias Maximilian III Albert VII Wenzel Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand Carlos LorenzoS Diego, Prince of AsturiasS Philip III of SpainS Ferdinand III Charles Maximilian Ernest Leopold V Charles, Bishop of Wroclaw

7th generation

Charles Philip IV of SpainS Philipp John-Charles Albert CharlesS Ferdinand IV FerdinandS Alfonso Mauricio Leopold Wilhelm Ferdinand Charles Sigismund Francis

8th generation

Balthasar Charles, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand IV of Hungary Francisco FernandoS Philip August Maximilian Thomas Leopold VI Charles Joseph Ferdinand Joseph Alois Philip Prospero, Prince of AsturiasS Ferdinand ThomasS Charles II of SpainS

9th generation

Ferdinand Wenzel John Leopold Joseph I Leopold Joseph Charles III

10th generation

Leopold Joseph Leopold John

11th generation

Joseph IIT Charles JosephT Leopold VIIT FerdinandT Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of CologneT

12th generation

Emperor Francis IT Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Charles, Duke of TeschenT Alexander Leopold, Palatine of HungaryT Joseph, Palatine of HungaryT Anton VictorT JohnT Rainer JosephT Archduke LouisT Cardinal-Archduke RudolfT Joseph FranzM Francis IV, Duke of ModenaM Ferdinand Karl JosephM MaximilianM Karl, Primate of HungaryM

13th generation

Emperor Ferdinand I Francis Leopold, Grand Prince of TuscanyT Leopold II, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Joseph Franz Franz Karl Johann Nepomuk Albert, Duke of Teschen Stephen, Palatine of Hungary Karl Ferdinand Francis V, Duke of ModenaM Frederick Ferdinand Ferdinand Karl ViktorM Archduke Rudolf Leopold Ludwig Ernest Alexander Sigismund Leopold Rainer Ferdinand Wilhelm Franz Heinrich Anton Maximilian Karl Joseph Karl

14th generation

Emperor Franz Joseph I Maximilian I of Mexico Karl Ludwig Ludwig Viktor Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of TuscanyT Karl SalvatorT RainierT Ludwig SalvatorT John SalvatorT Karl Franz Joseph Friedrich, Duke of Teschen Charles Stephen Eugen Joseph August Ladislaus

15th generation

Crown Prince Rudolf Franz FerdinandM Otto Francis Ferdinand Karl Leopold FerdinandT Josef FerdinandT Peter FerdinandT Heinrich FerdinandT Robert FerdinandT Leopold SalvatorT Franz SalvatorT Albrecht SalvatorT Rainier SalvatorT Ferdinand SalvatorT Albrecht Franz, Duke of Teschen Karl Albrecht Leo Karl Wilhelm Joseph Francis Ladislaus Joseph Matthias

16th generation

Emperor Charles I Maximilian Eugen

Habsburg Tuscany

GottfriedT GeorgT RainerT Leopold MariaT AntonT Franz JosephT Karl PiusT Franz KarlT Hubert SalvatorT Theodor SalvatorT Clemens SalvatorT

Palatines of Hungary

Joseph Árpád István Géza Michael Koloman

17th generation

Descent of Charles I

Crown Prince Otto RobertM Felix Carl Ludwig Rudolf

Descent of Maximilian

Ferdinand Karl Heinrich Maria

Tuscany

Leopold FranzT GuntramT RadbotT JohannT GeorgT StephanT DominicT Friederich SalvatorT Andreas SalvatorT MarkusT JohannT MichaelT Franz SalvatorT Karl SalvatorT

Palatines

Joseph Karl Andreas Agustinus Nicholas Franz Johann Jacob Edward Karl Paul Rudolf

18th generation

Charles

Karl Georg LorenzM GerhardM MartinM Karl Philipp Raimund Joseph István Rudolf Carl Christian Karl Peter Simeon Johannes

Maximilian

Maximilian Heinrich Philipp Joachim Ferdinand Karl Konrad

Tuscany

SigismundT GeorgT GuntramT LeopoldT Alexander SalvatorT Thaddäus SalvatorT Casimir SalvatorT MatthiasT JohannesT BernhardT BenediktT

Palatines

Joseph Albrecht (1994–) Paul Leo (1996–) Friedrich Cyprian (1995–) Pierre (1997–) Benedikt Alexander (2005–) Nicolás (2003–) Santiago (2006–) Johannes (2010–) Paul Benedikt (2000–)

19th generation

Charles

Ferdinand Zvonimir Karl Konstantin AmedeoM JoachimM BartholomaeusM EmmanuelM LuigiM Felix Carl Andreas Franz Paul Johannes Carl Christian Johannes Thomas Franz Ludwig Michael Joseph Imre Christoph Alexander Lorenz Carl Johannes Ludwig Philipp

Maximilian

Nicholas Constantin Jacob Maximilian

Tuscany

Leopold AmedeoT MaximilianT LeopoldT Constantin SalvatorT Paul SalvatorT

S: also an infante of Spain T: also a prince of Tuscany M: also a prince of Modena

v t e

Infantes of Spain

The generations indicate descent from Carlos I, under whom the crowns of Castile and Aragon were united, forming the Kingdom of Spain. Previously, the title Infante
Infante
had been largely used in the different realms.

1st generation

Felipe II Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Juan Infante
Infante
João

2nd generation

Carlos, Prince of Asturias Fernando, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Carlos Lorenzo Diego, Prince of Asturias Felipe III

3rd generation

Felipe IV Infante
Infante
Carlos Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Alfonso Mauricio

4th generation

Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Asturias Felipe Próspero, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Fernando Tomás Carlos II

5th generation

None

6th generation

None

7th generation

Luis I Infante
Infante
Felipe Infante
Infante
Felipe Pedro Fernando VI Carlos III Felipe, Duke of Parma Infante
Infante
Luis, Count of Chinchón

8th generation

Infante
Infante
Philip, Duke of Calabria Carlos IV Fernando I of the Two Sicilies Infante
Infante
Gabriel Infante
Infante
Antonio Pascual Infante
Infante
Francisco Javier Fernando, Duke of Parma 1

9th generation

Infante
Infante
Carlos Clemente Infante
Infante
Carlos Domingo Infante
Infante
Carlos Francisco de Paula Infante
Infante
Felipe Francisco de Paula Fernando VII Infante
Infante
Carlos, Count of Molina Infante
Infante
Felipe María Infante
Infante
Francisco de Paula Infante
Infante
Pedro Carlos, Infante
Infante
of Portugal 1 Infante
Infante
Carlos1 Luis I of Etruria 2

10th generation

Infante
Infante
Antonio, Duke of Montpensier 2 Infante
Infante
Carlos, Count of Montemolin 1 Infante
Infante
Juan, Count of Montizón 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando1 Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís, Duke of Cádiz1 Francisco de Asís, King consort of Spain 1 Infante
Infante
Enrique, Duke of Seville 1 Infante
Infante
Eduardo Felipe 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando María1 Infante
Infante
Sebastián, Infante
Infante
of Portugal 1 Carlos II, Duke of Parma 1

11th generation

Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís Alfonso XII Infante
Infante
Francisco de Asís Infante
Infante
Gaetan, Count of Girgenti 2 Infante
Infante
Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria 2 Infante
Infante
Fernando of Orléans 1 Infante
Infante
Felipe of Orleans1 Infante
Infante
Antonio, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Luis of Orleans1 Carlos III, Duke of Parma 1

12th generation

Infante
Infante
Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies 2 Infante
Infante
Ferdinand of Bavaria 2 Infante
Infante
Alfonso, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Luis Fernando of Orléans 1 Roberto I, Duke of Parma 1

13th generation

Alfonso, Prince of Asturias Infante
Infante
Jaime, Duke of Segovia Infante
Infante
Fernando Infante
Infante
Juan, Count of Barcelona Infante
Infante
Gonzalo Infante
Infante
Alfonso, Duke of Calabria 1 Infante
Infante
Fernando of Bourbon-Two Sicilies1 Infante
Infante
Luis Alfonso of Bavaria 1 Infante
Infante
José Eugenio of Bavaria 1 Infante
Infante
Alvaro, Duke of Galliera 1 Infante
Infante
Afonso of Orléans 1 Infante
Infante
Ataúlfo of Orléans 1

14th generation

Juan Carlos I Infante
Infante
Alfonso Infante
Infante
Carlos, Duke of Calabria 1

15th generation

Felipe VI

16th generation

None

1 title granted by Royal Decree 2 consort to an Infanta naturalized as a Spanish Infante

v t e

Princes and Princesses of Asturias

Leonor (2014–present)

Henry (1388–90) Maria (1402–05) John (1405–06) Catherine (1423–24) Eleanor (1424–25) Henry (1425–54) Joanna (1462–64) Alfonso (1464–68) Isabella (1468–70) Isabella (1470–78) John (1478–97) Isabella (1497–98) Michael (1498–1500) Joanna (1502–04) Charles (1504–16) Philip (1527–56) Charles (1556–68) Ferdinand (1571–78) Diego (1578–82) Philip (1582–98) Philip (1605–21) Balthasar Charles (1629–1646) Philip Prospero (1657–1661) Charles (1661–1665) Louis (1709–24) Ferdinand (1724–46) Charles (1759–88) Ferdinand (1788–1808) Isabella (1830–33) Isabella (1851–57) Alfonso (1857–68) Emanuele Filiberto (1871–73) Isabella (1875–80) Mercedes (1881–1904) Alfonso (1907–38) Felipe (1977–2014) Leonor (2014– )

v t e

Monarchs of Spain

Charles I Philip II Philip III Philip IV Charles II Philip V Louis I Philip V Ferdinand VI Charles III Charles IV Ferdinand VII Joseph I Ferdinand VII Isabel II Amadeo I Alfonso XII Alfonso XIII Juan Carlos I Felipe VI

v t e

Monarchs of Luxembourg

County of Luxemburg
County of Luxemburg
(963–1354)

Elder House of Luxembourg (963–1136)

Siegfried (963–998) Henry I (998–1026) Henry II (1026–1047) Giselbert (1047–1059) Conrad I (1059–1086) Henry III (1086–1096) William I (1096–1131) Conrad II (1131–1136)

House of Namur (1136–1189)

Henry IV (1136–1189)

House of Hohenstaufen (1196–1197)

Otto (1196–1197)

House of Namur (1197–1247)

Ermesinde (1197–1247), with Theobald (1197–1214), and then Waleran (1214–1226)

House of Limburg (1247–1354)

Henry V (1247–1281) Henry VI (1281–1288) Henry VII (1288–1313) John I (1313–1346) Charles I (1346–1353) Wenceslaus I (1353–1354)

Duchy of Luxemburg
Duchy of Luxemburg
(1354–1794)

House of Limburg (1354–1443)

Wenceslaus I (1354–1383) Wenceslaus II (1383–1388) Jobst (1388–1411) Elisabeth (1411–1443) with Anthony (1411–1415), and then John II (1418–1425)

House of Valois-Burgundy (1443–1482)

Philip I (1443–1467) Charles II (1467–1477) Mary I (1477–1482) and Maximilian I (1477–1482)

House of Habsburg (1482–1700)

Philip II (1482–1506) Charles III (1506–1556) Philip III (1556–1598) Isabella Clara Eugenia
Isabella Clara Eugenia
(1598–1621) and Albert (1598–1621) Philip IV (1621–1665) Charles IV (1665–1700)

House of Bourbon (1700–1712)

Philip V (1700–1712)

House of Wittelsbach (1712–1713)

Maximilian II (1712–1713)

House of Habsburg (1713–1780)

Charles V (1713–1740) Mary II (1740–1780)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1780–1794)

Joseph (1780–1790) Leopold (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1794)

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(since 1815)

House of Orange-Nassau (1815–1890)

William I (1815–1840) William II (1840–1849) William III (1849–1890)

House of Nassau-Weilburg (1890–present)

Adolphe (1890–1905) William IV (1905–1912) Marie-Adélaïde (1912–1919) Charlotte (1919–1964) Jean (1964–2000) Henri (since 2000)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 87648027 LCCN: n50081499 ISNI: 0000 0001 0922 3700 GND: 118776797 SELIBR: 209264 SUDOC: 031037933 BNF: cb1008

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