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Charles James Haughey (16 September 1925 – 13 June 2006) was an Irish Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
politician who served as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
on three different occasions, from 1987 to 1992, March 1982 to December 1982 and 1979 to 1981, Minister for the Gaeltacht from March 1987 to February 1992, Leader of the Opposition from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fianna Fáil
Leader of Fianna Fáil
from 1979 to 1992, Minister for Social Welfare and Minister for Health from 1977 to 1979, Minister for Finance from 1966 to 1970, Minister for Agriculture from 1964 to 1966, Minister for Justice from 1961 to 1964 and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Justice from 1959 to 1961. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1957 to 1992.[1] Haughey was first elected to Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
as a Teachta Dála (TD) in 1957 and was re-elected in every election until 1992, representing the Dublin
Dublin
North-East, Dublin
Dublin
Artane and Dublin
Dublin
North-Central constituencies. Haughey is generally regarded as the most dominant Irish politician of his generation,[2] as well as the most controversial.[3] Upon entering government in the early 1960s, Haughey became the symbol of a new vanguard of Irish Ministers.[4] As Taoiseach, he is credited by some economists as starting the positive transformation of the economy in the late 1980s.[5] However, his career was also marked by several major scandals. Haughey was implicated in the Arms Crisis
Arms Crisis
of 1970, which nearly destroyed his career. His political reputation revived, his tenure as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
was then damaged by the sensational GUBU Affair in 1982; his party leadership was challenged four times, each time unsuccessfully, earning Haughey the nickname "The Great Houdini".[3] Revelations about his role in a phone tapping scandal forced him to resign as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and retire from politics in 1992. After Haughey's retirement from politics, further revelations of corruption, embezzlement, tax evasion and a 27-year extra-marital affair tarnished his reputation.[6] He died of prostate cancer in 2006, at the age of eighty.[7]

Contents

1 Early life 2 First forays into politics

2.1 Minister for Justice 2.2 Minister for Agriculture: 1966 Farmers' Strike

3 1966 presidential campaign and Minister for Finance 4 Arms crisis 5 Political return

5.1 Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1979–1981 5.2 Opposition 1981–1982 5.3 Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1982 5.4 Opposition 1982–1987 5.5 Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1987–1992

6 Retirement, tribunals and scandal

6.1 Financial scandals 6.2 Terry Keane affair

7 Death and funeral 8 Legacy 9 Governments 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External links

Early life[edit] He was born in Castlebar, County Mayo
County Mayo
in 1925, the third of seven children, of Seán Haughey
Seán Haughey
and Sarah McWilliams, both natives of Swatragh, Derry. Haughey's father was in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence, then in the National Army of the Irish Free State. Seán Haughey
Seán Haughey
left the army in 1928 and the family moved to County Meath; there he developed multiple sclerosis and the family moved again to Donnycarney, where Charles Haughey spent his youth.[8][9] Haughey was educated by the Irish Christian Brothers at St. Joseph's secondary school in Fairview, where one of his classmates was George Colley, subsequently his cabinet colleague and rival in Fianna Fáil. In his youth he was an amateur sportsman, playing Gaelic football
Gaelic football
with the Parnells GAA
Parnells GAA
Club in Donnycarney. He won a Dublin
Dublin
Senior Football Championship medal in 1945. Haughey read Commerce at University College Dublin
Dublin
(UCD), where he took a first class Honours degree in 1946. It was at UCD that Haughey became increasingly interested in politics and was elected Auditor of the Commerce and Economics Society. He also met there with one of his future political rivals, Garret FitzGerald.[10] He joined the Local Defence Force during "The Emergency" in 1941 and considered a permanent career in the Army. He continued to serve in the FCÁ, until entering Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
in 1957.[11][12] On VE-day Haughey and other UCD students burnt the British Union Jack on College Green, outside Trinity College, Dublin, in response to a perceived disrespect afforded the Irish tricolour
Irish tricolour
among the flags hung by the College in celebration of the Allied victory which ended World War II. [4][13] Haughey qualified as a chartered accountant and also attended King's Inn. He was subsequently called to the Irish Bar. Shortly afterwards, he set up the accountancy firm of Haughey, Boland & Company with Harry Boland, son of Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Minister Gerald Boland. On 18 September 1951, he married Maureen Lemass, the daughter of the Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Minister and future Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Seán Lemass, having been close to her since their days at UCD, where they first met.[9] They had four children together: Eimear, Conor, Ciarán and Seán.[9] After selling his house in Raheny, in 1969, Haughey bought Abbeville, located at Kinsealy, north County Dublin, an historic house, once owned by Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
politician John Beresford, for whom it had been extensively re-designed by the architect James Gandon
James Gandon
in the late 18th century. Haughey purchased its existing estate of approximately 250 acres at the same time; it became his family home and he lived there for the rest of his life.[14] This marked the beginning of a long period when Haughey's spending was well beyond his income level. For the rest of his life Haughey would refuse to say where the extra money came from. First forays into politics[edit] He started his political career as a local Councillor, being a member of Dublin
Dublin
Corporation from 1953 to 1955.[15] Haughey's first attempt at election to Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
came in June 1951, when he unsuccessfully contested the general election.[16] While living in Raheny, Haughey was first elected to the Dáil
Dáil
as a Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
TD at the 1957 general election for the Dublin
Dublin
North-East constituency.[17] It was his fourth attempt. Haughey was re-elected in every election until 1992; he represented the Dublin
Dublin
North-East constituency from 1957 to 1977. The constituency lines were redrawn under the Electoral (Amendment) Act 1974, in an attempt to secure re-election for the sitting Fine Gael-Labour Party government in the 1977 election, when Haughey switched to representing Dublin
Dublin
Artane; but this constituency was abolished in 1981 and most of Haughey's electoral area was moved into the reformed Dublin North-Central constituency, which he represented from 1981 until his retirement in 1992. Haughey obtained his first government position, that of Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Justice, to his constituency colleague Oscar Traynor
Oscar Traynor
in 1960. It is unclear whether the choice was made by Lemass directly as Taoiseach, or by the cabinet against his wishes.[18] Lemass had advised Haughey;

As Taoiseach
Taoiseach
it is my duty to offer you the post of parliamentary secretary, and as your father-in-law I am advising you not to take it.[19]

Haughey ignored Lemass's advice and accepted the offer. Although officially junior to Traynor, Haughey was the de facto Minister.[20] Haughey and Traynor clashed openly. Defenders of Haughey portray the disagreement as being due to his ability and radical ideas, which were upsetting for the more conservative older Minister.[citation needed] Haughey came to epitomise the new style of politician – the "men in the mohair suits". He regularly socialised with other younger cabinet colleagues, such as Donogh O'Malley and Brian Lenihan.[4]

By day he impressed the Dáil. By night he basked in the admiration of a fashionable audience in the Russell Hotel. There, or in Dublin's more expensive restaurants, the company included artists, musicians and entertainers, professionals, builders and business people. His companions, Lenihan and O'Malley, took mischievous delight in entertaining the Russell with tales of the Old Guard. O'Malley in turn entertained the company in Limerick's Brazen Head or Cruise's Hotel with accounts of the crowd in the Russell. On the wings of such tales Haughey's reputation spread.

Haughey's status by 1961 was such that Leader of the Opposition James Dillon complimented him lavishly on the floor of the Dáil, remarking on his opponent's "skill with which he has had recourse to his brief," as well as his "extraordinary erudition" and "his exceptional and outstanding ability."[21] Minister for Justice[edit] When Traynor retired in 1961, Haughey succeeded him as Minister for Justice. As such, he initiated an extensive scale of legislative reforms. He introduced new legislation including the Adoption Act; the Succession Act, which protected the inheritance rights of wives and children;[22] the Criminal Justice Act, which abolished capital punishment; and the Extradition Act, which virtually prevented extradition for IRA offences. Haughey also introduced the Special Military Courts which helped to defeat the Irish Republican Army's Border Campaign.[4] Minister for Agriculture: 1966 Farmers' Strike[edit] In 1964, Lemass appointed Haughey as Minister for Agriculture.[23] Criticism was voiced from the National Farmers Association (NFA) of the appointment of a non-rural person to the position, and there was increased antagonism from farmers towards the government. Haughey became embroiled in a series of controversies with the NFA and with another organisation, the Irish Creamery Milk Suppliers Association (ICMSA).[4] Twenty-seven ICMSA picketers outside Leinster House, were arrested on 27 April 1966 under the Offences Against the State Act, an act originally intended for use against the IRA. 78 were arrested the following day, and 80 a day later as the dispute escalated. The general public was supportive of the farmers, who were not in a position to hold a strike to air their grievances, and who were clearly only posing a problem to the Minister, rather than the state. The farmers then began a national solidarity campaign, and even farmers who supported Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
turned against the government. Haughey, who did not rely on rural voters, was under intense pressure from fearful members of his own party to negotiate a deal and reduce the tension. Eventually, Haughey backed down from the confrontation, for electoral reasons connected to the imminent presidential election.[citation needed] It was Haughey's first alienation of a significant voting block, and probably damaged him electorally in later years as many farmers remembered the events, known in folk memory as the "Farmers' Strike". 1966 presidential campaign and Minister for Finance[edit] Haughey was appointed by Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
to run President Éamon de Valera's re-election campaign for the 1966 Irish presidential election. His interventions proved highly controversial. Fine Gael chose a comparatively young Teachta Dála (TD) and barrister, Tom O'Higgins (nephew of Kevin O'Higgins), to run against de Valera. Aware that de Valera's age (84) and almost total blindness might compare unfavourably to O'Higgins, whose campaign drew comparisons with the equally youthful US President
US President
John F. Kennedy, Haughey launched what was seen as a political stroke. He insisted that it was beneath the presidency to actively campaign, meaning that de Valera would have a low profile. Therefore, in the interests of fairness the media was asked to give O'Higgins an equally low profile, ignoring his speeches and publicity campaign. The print media, both nationally and locally, ignored Haughey's suggestion. But the state-run Raidió Teilifís Éireann, facing criticism from Lemass' government for being too radical in other areas, agreed and largely ignored the O'Higgins campaign. De Valera got a high media profile from a different source, the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the Easter Rising, of which he was the most senior survivor. While O'Higgins's campaign was ignored by RTÉ, de Valera appeared in RTÉ coverage of the Rising events regularly. To add further to de Valera's campaign, Haughey as Agriculture Minister arranged[24] for milk price increases to be given to farmers on the eve of polling, as a way of reducing farmer disquiet after they had effectively become an opposition movement to the government. These tactics should have ensured an easy de Valera victory. Instead O'Higgins came within less than one percent of winning the vote. The President was re-elected by a narrow margin of ten thousand votes out of a total of nearly one million. De Valera personally developed a highly negative view of Haughey,[citation needed] whom he came to distrust. In 1970, de Valera told Desmond O'Malley (by now a rival of Haughey) that Haughey would "destroy" Fianna Fáil.[citation needed] De Valera's Minister for Foreign Affairs and lifelong political confidant Frank Aiken, also dismissed Haughey's political motives as being entirely selfish, and believed he was motivated to hold power for its own sake and not duty. In 1966, the Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
retired. Haughey declared his candidature to succeed Lemass in the consequent leadership election, and George Colley
George Colley
and Neil Blaney did likewise. As this meant that there were three strong candidates who held strong and divisive views on the future of the party, the party elders sought to find a compromise candidate. Lemass himself encouraged his Minister for Finance Jack Lynch, to contest the party leadership, and encouraged Colley, Haughey and Blaney to withdraw in favour of Lynch, arguing that they would not win a contest against him. However, Colley refused the Taoiseach's request and insisted on remaining in the race, but he was defeated by Lynch. Upon Lynch's election as Taoiseach, Haughey was appointed Minister for Finance
Minister for Finance
by Lynch, in a cabinet reshuffle, which indicated that Haughey's withdrawal was a gain at the expense of Colley. The inexpensive and socially inclusive initiatives that Haughey made caught the public imagination; these included popular decisions to introduce free travel on public transport for pensioners, subsidise electricity for pensioners, the granting of special tax concessions for the disabled and tax exemptions for artists. They increased Haughey's populist appeal and his support from certain elements in the media and artistic community. As Minister for Finance, Haughey on two occasions arranged foreign currency loans for the government which he then arranged to be left on deposit in foreign countries ( Germany
Germany
and the United States), in the local currencies, instead of immediately changing the loans to Irish punts and depositing them in the exchequer. These actions were unconstitutional, because it effectively meant that the Minister for Finance was making a currency speculation against his own currency. When this was challenged by the Comptroller and Auditor General Eugene Francis Suttle, Haughey introduced a law to retrospectively legalise his actions. The debate was very short and the record shows no understanding of the issue by the Opposition Spokesperson for Finance, O'Higgins for Fine Gael
Fine Gael
and Tully for Labour. The legislation was passed on 26 November 1969. Arms crisis[edit]

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Main article: Arms Crisis The late 1960s saw the old tensions boil over into an eruption of violence in Northern Ireland. Haughey was generally seen as coming from the pragmatist wing of the party, and was not believed to have strong opinions on the matter, despite having family links with Derry. Indeed, many presumed that he had a strong antipathy to physical force Irish republicanism; during his period as Minister for Justice he had followed a tough anti-IRA line, including using internment without trial against the IRA. The hawks in the cabinet were seen as Kevin Boland and Neil Blaney, both sons of founding fathers in the party with strong Old IRA pasts. Blaney was also a TD for Donegal; a staunchly Republican area which bordered Derry. They were opposed by those described as the "doves" of the cabinet; Tánaiste
Tánaiste
Erskine Childers, George Colley
George Colley
and Patrick Hillery. A fund of £100,000 was set up to give to the Nationalist people in the form of aid. Haughey, as Finance Minister would have a central role in the management of this fund. There was general surprise when, in an incident known as the Arms Crisis, Haughey, along with Blaney, was sacked from Lynch's cabinet amid allegations of the use of the funds to import arms for use by the IRA. The Garda Special
Special
Branch informed the Minister for Justice Micheál Ó Móráin and Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Jack Lynch
Jack Lynch
that a plot to import arms existed and included government members, however Lynch took no action until the Special
Special
Branch made Leader of the Opposition Liam Cosgrave aware of the plot. Cosgrave told Lynch he knew of the plot and would announce it in the Dáil
Dáil
the next day if he didn't act. Lynch subsequently requested Haughey and Blaney to resign from cabinet. Both men refused, saying they did nothing illegal. Lynch then asked President de Valera to terminate their appointments as members of the government, a request that de Valera was required to grant by convention. Boland resigned in sympathy, while Micheál Ó Móráin was dismissed one day earlier in a preemptive strike to ensure a subservient Minister for Justice was in place when the crisis broke. Lynch chose government chief whip Desmond O'Malley for the role. Haughey and Blaney were subsequently tried in court along with an army Officer, Captain James Kelly, and Albert Luykx, a former Flemish National Socialist
National Socialist
and businessman, who allegedly used his contacts to buy the arms.[24][25] After trial all the accused were acquitted but many refused to recognise the verdict of the courts. Although cleared of wrongdoing, it looked as if Haughey's political career was finished. Blaney and Boland eventually resigned from Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
but Haughey remained. He spent his years on the backbenches – the wilderness years – building support within the grassroots of the party, during this time he remained loyal to the party and served the leader but after the debacle of the "arms crises" neither man trusted the other. Political return[edit]

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In 1975, Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
was in opposition and Haughey had achieved enough grassroots support to warrant a recall to Jack Lynch's opposition front bench. At the time Lynch was harshly criticised[citation needed] in the media for this. Haughey was appointed Spokesman on Health and Social Welfare, a fairly minor portfolio at the time, but Haughey used the same imagination and skill he displayed in other positions to formulate innovative and far reaching policies. Two years later in 1977, Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
returned to power with a massive parliamentary majority in Dáil
Dáil
Éireann, having had a very populist campaign (spearhead by Colley and O'Malley) to abolish rates, vehicle tax and other extraordinary concessions, which were short-lived. Haughey returned to the cabinet, after an absence of seven years as Minister for Health and Social Welfare. In this position he continued the progressive policies he had shown earlier by, among others, beginning the first government anti-smoking campaigns and legalising contraception, previously banned. Following the finding by the Supreme Court of Ireland, in McGee v The Attorney General, that there was a constitutional right to use contraceptives, he introduced The Family Planning Bill which proved to be highly controversial. The bill allowed a pharmacist to sell contraceptives on presentation of a medical prescription. Haughey called this bill "an Irish solution to an Irish problem". It is often stated that the recipient of the prescription had to be married, but the legislation did not include this requirement. It was also during this period that Lynch began to lose his grip on the party, the economy faltered in the aftermath of energy crises[citation needed] and the fallout from the giveaway concessions that had re-elected the government under Lynch, led to a succession race to succeed Lynch. As well as this a group of backbenchers began to lobby in support of Haughey. This group, known as the "gang of five," consisted of Jackie Fahey, Tom McEllistrim, Seán Doherty, Mark Killilea, Jnr and Albert Reynolds. Haughey was also helped by the TD Síle de Valera. The granddaughter of Éamon de Valera, she was highly critical of Jack Lynch's policy regards to Northern Ireland. In a speech at the Liam Lynch commemoration at Fermoy on 9 September, de Valera made a series of thinly veiled attacks on Lynch.[26] Although Lynch quickly tried to impose party discipline, attempting to discipline her for opposing party policy at a parliamentary party meeting held at the 28th, de Valera correctly pointed out that she had not opposed the party policy regarding Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
which called for the declaration of the British intent to withdraw from Northern Ireland.[26] Lynch left for a trip to the United States on 7 November. On the same day the government lost two by-elections to Fine Gael
Fine Gael
in Cork City[27] and in Cork North-East.[28] During the trip Lynch claimed in an interview with the Washington Post
Washington Post
that a five-kilometer air corridor between the border was agreed upon during the meeting with British Prime Minister
British Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher, to enhance security co-operation.[29][30] This was something highly unsavoury to many in Fianna Fáil. When Lynch returned he was questioned on this by a Clare backbencher Bill Loughnane, along with Tom McEllistrim at a parliamentary party meeting.[31] Lynch stated that the British did not have permission to overfly the border. Afterwards Loughnane went public with the details of the meeting and accused Lynch of deliberately misleading the party. An attempt to remove the whip from Loughnane failed. At this stage Lynch's position had become untenable, with supporters of Haughey and George Colley
George Colley
caucusing opinion within the party. In December 1979, Lynch announced his resignation as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and leader of Fianna Fáil. The leadership contest that resulted was a two-horse race between Haughey and the Tánaiste, George Colley. Colley had the support of the entire cabinet, with the exception of Michael O'Kennedy, and felt that this popularity would be reflected within the parliamentary party as a whole. Haughey on the other hand was distrusted by a number of his Cabinet colleagues, but was much more respected by new backbenchers who were worried about the safety of their Dáil
Dáil
seats. When the vote was taken Haughey emerged as the victor by a margin of 44 votes to 38, a very clear division within the party. In a conciliatory gesture, Colley was re-appointed as Tánaiste
Tánaiste
and had a veto over whom Haughey would appoint as Ministers for Justice and for Defence. This was due to his distrust of Haughey on security issues (because of the Arms Crisis). However, he was removed from the important position of Minister for Finance. Nonetheless, on 11 December 1979, Charles Haughey was elected Taoiseach
Taoiseach
and leader of Fianna Fáil, almost a decade after the Arms Crisis nearly destroyed his political career. In 2010, a founder of the Saatchi & Saatchi advertising firm, said that Haughey had asked for 'a new image' similar to the one provided for Margaret Thatcher for the 1979 general election.[32] Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1979–1981[edit] When Haughey came to power, the country was sinking into a deep economic crisis, following the 1979 energy crisis. Haughey effectively acted as his own Minister for Finance, ignoring the views of his Minister. One of his first functions as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
was a televised address to the nation – only the third such address in the Republic's history – in which he outlined the bleak economic picture:[33]

“ I wish to talk to you this evening about the state of the nation's affairs and the picture I have to paint is not, unfortunately, a very cheerful one. The figures which are just now becoming available to us show one thing very clearly. As a community we are living away beyond our means. I don't mean that everyone in the community is living too well, clearly many are not and have barely enough to get by, but taking us all together we have been living at a rate which is simply not justified by the amount of goods and services we are producing. To make up the difference we have been borrowing enormous amounts of money, borrowing at a rate which just cannot continue. A few simple figures will make this very clear...we will just have to reorganise government spending so that we can only undertake those things we can afford... ”

— Charles Haughey, 9 January 1980

While Haughey had identified the problem with the economy, his actions made the problem worse. He increased public spending, which soon became out of control, and led to increases in borrowing and taxation at an unacceptable level. By 1981, Haughey was still reasonably popular and decided to call a general election. However, the timing of the election was thwarted twice by external events, in particular the hunger strikes of IRA volunteers for political status. The Anti H-Block Committee announced that they would field abstentionist candidates which many predicted correctly would take Republican votes away from Fianna Fáil. This coincided with the Stardust Disaster, where a fire destroyed a night club in Haughey's constituency and claimed the lives of 48 young people; these caused Haughey to delay the Ard Fheis and the election. The poll was eventually held in June, much later than Haughey wanted. In the hope of winning an overall Dáil
Dáil
majority Haughey's campaign took a populist line with regard to taxation, spending and Northern Ireland. The campaign was enhanced and hyped up by a live debate on RTÉ between Haughey and the Leader of the Opposition Garret FitzGerald, of Fine Garl, over the major issues. On the day of the vote Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
won 45.5%, failing to secure a majority in the 166-seat Dáil. A Fine Gael–Labour Party coalition came to power, under FitzGerald and Haughey went into opposition. Within days of his becoming Taoiseach, Allied Irish Banks
Allied Irish Banks
forgave Haughey £400,000 of a £1,000,000 debt. No reason was given for this. The Economist
The Economist
obituary on Haughey (24 June 2006) asserted that he had warned the bank "I can be a very troublesome adversary". Opposition 1981–1982[edit] FitzGerald's government lasted until January 1982, when it collapsed due to a controversial budget which proposed the application of Value Added Tax to children's shoes, previously exempt. FitzGerald, no longer having a majority in the Dáil, went to Áras an Uachtaráin, to advise President Hillery to dissolve the Dáil
Dáil
and call a general election. However, the night the government collapsed the Fianna Fáil Front Bench issued a statement encouraging the President not to grant the dissolution and to allow Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
to form a government. Phone calls were also made to the President by Brian Lenihan.[34] Haughey, on attempting to contact his former colleague, the President, and on failing to be put through to him, was reported to have threatened the President's aide de camp by telling him that he would be Taoiseach
Taoiseach
one day and when that happened, I intend to roast your fucking arse if you don't put me through immediately.[35] Hillery considered such pressure to be gross misconduct, and granted the dissolution. A biography of Hillery blames Haughey for the sex scandal rumours which almost destroyed the Presidency of Hillery in 1979.[36] Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1982[edit] After the February 1982 election, when Haughey failed to win an overall majority again, questions were raised about his leadership. Some of Haughey's critics in the party suggested that an alternative candidate should stand as the party's nominee for Taoiseach. Desmond O'Malley emerged as the likely alternative candidate and was ready to challenge Haughey for the leadership. However, on the day of the vote O'Malley withdrew and Haughey went forward as the nominee. He engineered confidence and supply agreements with the Independent Socialist TD, Tony Gregory (in return for £100 million of investment in the Dublin
Dublin
North Inner City; a deal dubbed the Gregory Deal), the Independent Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
TD Neil Blaney and three Workers' Party TDs, which saw him return as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
for a second time. Haughey's second term was dominated by even more economic mismanagement, based on Haughey's policy of using government policy and money, in an effort to induce a sufficiently large share of the electorate to vote him his elusive 'overall majority' in the Dáil. With Haughey and his supporters taking a dangerously populist line in every area of policy, and refusing to address serious shortcomings in the performance of the state, a growing minority in his own party were becoming increasingly concerned. The issue of his leadership cropped up again when in October the backbench TD, Charlie McCreevy, put down a motion of no-confidence in Haughey. Desmond O'Malley disagreed with the timing but supported the hasty motion of no confidence all the same. O'Malley resigned from the cabinet prior to the vote as he was going to vote against Haughey. A campaign now started that was extremely vicious on the side of Haughey's supporters, with threats made to the careers of those who dissented from the leadership. After a marathon 15-hour party meeting, Haughey, who insisted on a roll-call as opposed to a secret ballot, and won the open ballot by 58 votes to 22. Not long after this, Haughey's government collapsed when the Workers' Party TD's and Tony Gregory withdrew their support for the government over a Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
policy document called "The Way Forward," which would lead to massive spending cuts. Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
lost the November 1982 election and FitzGerald once again returned as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
at the head of a Fine Gael-Labour coalition with a comfortable Dáil
Dáil
majority. Haughey found himself back in opposition. During this tenure of Haughey, the GUBU Incidents, involving the Attorney General to his Government, occurred in Dublin. At a press-conference on the affair, Haughey was paraphrased as having described the affair as "grotesque, unbelievable, bizarre and unprecedented", from which journalist and former politician Conor Cruise O'Brien coined the term GUBU. Opposition 1982–1987[edit] Haughey's leadership came under scrutiny for a third time when a report linked Haughey with the phone tapping of political journalists. In spite of huge pressure Haughey refused to resign and survived yet another vote of no-confidence in early 1983, albeit with a smaller majority. Haughey's success was partly due to the death of the Fianna Fáil TD Clement Coughlan, a supporter of O'Malley. Haughey's supporters managed to have the meeting moved to the following week after the funeral, which gave him more time to manoeuver. Having failed three times to oust Haughey, most of his critics gave up and returned to normal politics. In May 1984, the New-Ireland Forum Report was published. Haughey was involved in the drafting of this at the time he was in office and had agreed to potential scenarios for improving the political situation of Northern Ireland. However, on publication, Haughey rejected it and said the only possible solution was a United Ireland. This statement was criticised by the other leaders who forged the New-Ireland Forum, John Hume, Garret FitzGerald
Garret FitzGerald
and Dick Spring. Desmond O'Malley supported the Forum report and criticised Haughey's ambiguous position, accusing him of stifling debate. At a Fianna Fáil Parliamentary Party meeting to discuss the report, the whip was removed from O'Malley, which meant he was no longer a Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
TD. Ironically, when Haughey returned to power he embraced the Anglo-Irish Agreement that had developed from the New Ireland Forum Report. In early 1985, a bill was introduced by the Fine Gael-Labour government to liberalise the sale of contraceptives in the country. Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
in opposition opposed the bill. O'Malley supported it as a matter of principle rather than a political point to oppose for opposition's sake. On the day of the vote O'Malley spoke in the Dáil chamber stated:

But I do not believe that the interests of this State or our Constitution and of this Republic would be served by putting politics before conscience in regard to this .... I stand by the Republic and accordingly, I will not oppose this Bill..[37]

He abstained rather than vote with the government. Despite this Haughey moved against O'Malley and in February 1985, O'Malley was charged with "conduct un-becoming".. At a Party Meeting, even though O'Malley did not have the Party whip, he was expelled from the Fianna Fáil organisation by 73 votes to 9 in roll-call vote. With George Colley dead, O'Malley expelled and other critics silenced, Haughey was finally in full control of Fianna Fáil. O'Malley decided to form a new political party and 21 December 1985, Desmond O'Malley announced the formation of the Progressive Democrats. Several Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
TDs joined including Mary Harney
Mary Harney
and Bobby Molloy. In November 1985, the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Agreement was signed between Garret FitzGerald and British Prime Minister
British Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher. The agreement gave Ireland a formal say in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and its affairs. As was the case with the New Ireland Forum Report, the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Agreement was harshly criticised by Haughey, who said that he would re-negotiate it, if re-elected. FitzGerald called a general election for February 1987. The campaign was dominated by attacks on the government over severe cuts in the budget and the general mismanagement of the economy. When the results were counted Haughey had failed once again to win an overall majority for Fianna Fáil. When it came to electing a Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in the Dáil
Dáil
Haughey's position looked particularly volatile. When it came to a vote the Independent TD Tony Gregory voted against Fitzgerald but abstained on Haughey, seeing Haughey as the "lesser of two evils" (the reason for this was Gregory's opposition to the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
agreement as well as his personal dislike of Garrett Fitzgerald and Fine Gael). Haughey was elected Taoiseach
Taoiseach
on the casting vote of the Ceann Comhairle. Taoiseach
Taoiseach
1987–1992[edit]

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Haughey now headed a minority Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
government. Fine Gael
Fine Gael
under leader Alan Dukes, made the unprecedented move, with its Tallaght strategy, of supporting the government and voting for it when it came to introducing tough economic policies. The national debt had doubled under previous administrations, so the government introduced severe budget cuts in all departments. The taxation system was transformed to encourage enterprise and employment. One of the major schemes put forward, and one which would have enormous economic benefits for the country, was the establishment of the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) in Dublin.

Haughey and Felipe González
Felipe González
in Moncloa (April 1990)

In late April 1989, Haughey returned from a trip to Japan, to the news that the government was about to be defeated in a Dáil
Dáil
vote, on a private members' motion regarding provision of funds for HIV/AIDS sufferers. The government lost the vote, which was seen as merely embarrassing, but Haughey, buoyed by opinion polls which indicated the possibility of winning an overall majority, called a general election for 15 June. Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
however ended up losing four seats and the possibility of forming another minority government looked slim. For the first time in history a nominee for Taoiseach
Taoiseach
failed to achieve a majority when a vote was taken in the Dáil, on 29 June 1989.[38] Constitutionally Haughey was obliged to resign, however he refused to, for a short period. He eventually tendered his resignation to President Hillery and remained on as Taoiseach, albeit in an acting capacity.[38] A full 27 days after the election had taken place a coalition government was formed between Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
and the Progressive Democrats. It was the first time that Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
had entered into a coalition, abandoning one of its "core values" in the overwhelming need to form a government.[7] Haughey in 1990 had more difficulties than successes. The first half of the year saw Haughey in a leading role as European statesman, when Ireland held the presidency of the European Community, which rotated semi-annually between the member states of the European Union. Haughey supported German Reunification
German Reunification
and during the extraordinary Dublin Summit, which he called for in April, he pressed this viewpoint forward.[39][40][41][42] He believed both Ireland and Germany
Germany
were similar in that both countries were divided. During a Dáil
Dáil
debate on German Reunification, Haughey stated "I have expressed a personal view that coming as we do from a country which is also divided many of us would have sympathy with any wish of the people of the two German States for unification".[43] The Presidential election was disappointing for Haughey with Brian Lenihan, the Tánaiste, who was nominated as the party's candidate, being defeated by Mary Robinson. During the campaign the controversy over the phone calls made to the Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
in 1982, urging the then President not to dissolve the Dáil
Dáil
resurfaced. Lenihan was accused of calling and attempting to influence the President, who as Head of State
Head of State
is above politics. The PDs threatened to pull out of the coalition and support a Fine Gael
Fine Gael
no-confidence motion unless Haughey forced Lenihan out. Haughey tried to force Lenihan to resign, and sacked him when he refused to do so. Lenihan's dismissal damaged Haughey's standing in the Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
organisation. Haughey's grip on political power began to slip in the autumn of 1991. There was a series of resignations by chairmen of semi-state companies, followed by an open declaration by Minister for Finance Albert Reynolds, that he had every intention of standing for the party leadership if Haughey resigned. Following a heated parliamentary party meeting, Seán Power, one of Reynolds's supporters, put down a motion of no-confidence in Haughey. Reynolds and his supporters were sacked from the government by Haughey, who went on to win the no-confidence motion by 55 votes to 22. Haughey's victory was short-lived, as a series of political errors would lead to his demise as Taoiseach. Controversy erupted over the attempted appointment of Jim McDaid
Jim McDaid
as Minister for Defence, which saw him resign from the post before he had been officially installed, under pressure from O'Malley. Worse was to follow when Seán Doherty, the man who as Minister for Justice had taken the blame for the phone-tapping scandal of the early 1980s, went on RTÉ television, and after ten years of insisting that Haughey knew nothing of the tapping, claimed that Haughey had known and authorised it.[7] Haughey denied this, but the Progressive Democrats members of the government stated that they could no longer continue in government with Haughey as Taoiseach. Haughey told Desmond O'Malley, the Progressive Democrats leader, that he intended to stand down shortly, but wanted to choose his own time of departure. O'Malley agreed to this and the government continued. On 30 January 1992, Haughey resigned as leader of Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
at a parliamentary party meeting. He remained as Taoiseach
Taoiseach
until 11 February 1992, when he was succeeded by the former Finance Minister, Albert Reynolds. In his final address to the Dáil
Dáil
he quoted Othello, saying inter alia "I have done the state some service, they know it, no more of that." Haughey then returned to the backbenches before retiring from politics at the 1992 general election. His son, Seán Haughey, was elected at that election, in his father's old constituency. Sean Haughey was appointed as a Junior Minister in the Department of Education and Science in December 2006. Retirement, tribunals and scandal[edit] Main articles: McCracken Tribunal and Moriarty Tribunal Financial scandals[edit] Haughey's personal wealth and extravagant lifestyle (he owned racehorses,[44] a large motor sailing yacht Celtic Mist, a private island and a Gandon-designed mansion) had long been a point of speculation. He refused throughout his career to answer any questions about how he financed this lifestyle on a government salary.[45] Despite his professed desire to fade from public attention, these questions followed him into retirement, eventually exploding into a series of political, financial and personal scandals that tarnished his image and reputation. In 1997, a government-appointed tribunal, led by Judge Brian McCracken, first revealed that Haughey had received substantial monetary gifts from businessmen, and that he had held secret offshore bank accounts in the Ansbacher Bank
Ansbacher Bank
in the Cayman Islands. Haughey faced criminal charges for obstructing the work of the McCracken tribunal.[46][47] His trial on these charges was postponed indefinitely after the judge in the case found that he would not be able to get a fair trial following prejudicial comments by the then PD leader and Tánaiste
Tánaiste
Mary Harney.[48] Also in 1997, the public were shocked by allegations that Haughey had embezzled money destined for the Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
party, taxpayers' money taken from government funds earmarked for the operation of a political party, and that he had spent large portions of these funds on Charvet shirts and expensive dinners in a top Dublin
Dublin
restaurant, while preaching belt-tightening and implementing budget cuts as a national policy.[49] The subsequent Moriarty Tribunal
Moriarty Tribunal
delved further into Haughey's financial dealings. In his main report[6] on Charles Haughey released on 19 December 2006, Mr. Justice Moriarty made the following findings:

Haughey was paid more than IR£8 million between 1979 and 1986 from various benefactors and businessmen, including £1.3 million from the Dunnes Stores
Dunnes Stores
supermarket tycoon Ben Dunne.[45] The tribunal described these payments as "unethical".[50] In May 1989 one of Haughey's lifelong friends, former government minister Brian Lenihan, underwent a liver transplant which was partly paid for through fundraising by Haughey. The Moriarty tribunal found that of the £270,000 collected in donations for Brian Lenihan, no more than £70,000 ended up being spent on Lenihan's medical care. The tribunal identified one specific donation of £20,000 for Lenihan that was surreptitiously appropriated by Haughey,[51] who took steps to conceal this transaction.[52][53] The tribunal found evidence of favours performed in return for money – Saudi businessman Mahmoud Fustok paid Haughey £50,000 to support applications for Irish citizenship.[50] In other evidence of favours performed, the tribunal reported that Haughey arranged meetings between Ben Dunne and civil servant Seamus Pairceir of the Revenue Commissioners. These discussions resulted in an outstanding capital gains tax bill for Dunne being reduced by £22.8 million. Moriarty found that this was "not coincidental", and that it was a substantial benefit conferred on Dunne by Haughey's actions.[54] Allied Irish Banks
Allied Irish Banks
settled a million-pound overdraft with Haughey soon after he became Taoiseach
Taoiseach
in 1979; the tribunal found that the lenience shown by the bank in this case amounted to an indirect payment by the bank to Haughey.[50]

The tribunal rejected Haughey's claims of ignorance of his own financial affairs[49] and Haughey was accused by the tribunal of "devaluing democracy".[50] Haughey eventually agreed a settlement with the revenue and paid a total of €6.5 million in back taxes and penalties to the Revenue Commissioners in relation to these donations.[55] In August 2003 Haughey was forced to sell his large estate, Abbeville, in Kinsealy in north County Dublin
Dublin
for €45 million to settle legal fees he had incurred during the tribunals.[56] He continued to live at Abbeville and own the island of Inishvickillane
Inishvickillane
off the coast of County Kerry until his death. Terry Keane affair[edit] In May 1999, Terry Keane, gossip columnist and once wife of former Chief Justice of Ireland
Chief Justice of Ireland
Ronan Keane, revealed on The Late Late Show that she and Haughey had conducted a 27-year extramarital affair.[57] In a move that she subsequently said she deeply regretted, Keane confirmed that the man she had been referring to for years in her newspaper column as "sweetie" was indeed Haughey. The revelation on the television programme shocked at least some of the audience, including Haughey's son Seán who was watching the show. Haughey's wife Maureen was also said to have been deeply hurt by the circumstances of the revelation. Death and funeral[edit] Haughey's attendance before the tribunals had repeatedly been disrupted by illness.[58] He died from prostate cancer, from which he had suffered for a decade, on 13 June 2006, at his home in Kinsealy, County Dublin, aged 80.[59] Haughey received a state funeral on 16 June 2006.[59] He was buried in St. Fintan's Cemetery, Sutton
St. Fintan's Cemetery, Sutton
in County Dublin, following mass at Donnycarney. The then Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
delivered the graveside oration.[60] The funeral rites were screened live on RTÉ One
RTÉ One
and watched by a quarter of a million people. It was attended by President Mary McAleese, the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, members of the Oireachtas, many from the world of politics, industry and business.[61] The chief celebrant was Haughey's brother, Father Eoghan Haughey. Legacy[edit] Former Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Garret FitzGerald
Garret FitzGerald
has said that he had the potential to be one of the best Taoisigh that the country ever had, had his preoccupation with wealth and power not clouded his judgement:[62]

“ Charles Haughey spent much energy fending off leadership challenges, chasing an elusive Dáil
Dáil
majority and dealing with GUBU-like events." ”

“ He comes with a flawed pedigree. ... His motives can ultimately only be judged by God, but we cannot ignore the fact that he differs from his predecessors in that these motives have been widely impugned, most notably by those in his own party who have observed him over many years . . ”

Another former Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
said[63]

“ He had an immense ability to get things done and he inspired great loyalty amongst many of his followers both inside and outside Fianna Fáil. In recent times, these achievements have become clouded by the revelations that are the subject of inquiry by the Moriarty Tribunal. History will have to weigh up both the credit and the debit side more dispassionately than may be possible today, but I have no doubt its ultimate judgement on Mr Haughey will be a positive one.

Historian Diarmaid Ferriter said,[64]

“ He was a very promising minister in the '60s, but once he became leader all he was concerned with was staying leader. It was always about the cult of leadership. His sense of himself was much more important than any vision he had for the country. People say he discovered fiscal rectitude in '87, and people talk about his contribution to Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
affairs, but really if you try and look for any consistency in his affairs after the late '70s you can't find it because it's just about him. ”

Historian John A Murphy said,[65]

“ His vision was one of personal vanity. I don't think history's assessment will be the one Bertie uttered over his grave. ”

Haughey was characterised in a 2012 novel Ratlines.[66] A three-part television drama[67] Charlie, covering Haughey between 1979 and 1992, débuted on RTÉ in January 2015.[68] Governments[edit] The following governments were led by Haughey:

16th Government of Ireland (December 1979 – June 1981) 18th Government of Ireland (March 1982 – December 1982) 20th Government of Ireland (March 1987 – July 1989) 21st Government of Ireland (July 1989 – February 1992)

See also[edit]

Families in the Oireachtas Haughey Haughey (TV series)

References[edit]

^ "Mr. Charles Haughey". Oireachtas
Oireachtas
Members Database. Retrieved 1 June 2009.  ^ "The death of Charles Haughey". The Irish Times. 14 June 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2011.  ^ a b "Ex-Irish Taoiseach
Taoiseach
Haughey dies". BBC News. 13 June 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2011.  ^ a b c d e A young Turk full of overweening ambition – The Irish Times obituary ^ "Fierce spending and tax cuts that began to transform Ireland from a banana republic into a "Celtic Tiger"." Charles Haughey – The Economist obituary, 22 June 2006. ^ a b "Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into Payments to Politicians and Related Matters Part I" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ a b c "Charles Haughey (1925–2006)". RTÉ News. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012.  ^ The other six children were Pádraig, Seán, Eoghan, Bridget, Maureen and Eithne. ^ a b c Carl O'Brien, "Green roots and new shoots – The Family", A supplement with The Irish Times, 14 June 2006. ^ FitzGerald's later wife, Joan O'Farrell, had at one stage dated Haughey. ^ Haughey served with the North Dublin
Dublin
Battalion, becoming commanding officer of the Donnycarney
Donnycarney
Platoon FCÁ ^ Local Defence Force (later FCA): 1941 - 1957. "Charles J Haughey". charlesjhaughey.ie. Retrieved 22 March 2016.  ^ Ian S. Wood, Ireland During the Second World War, 2003, p. 100 (ISBN 1-84067-418-0) ^ Sam Smyth, "Four Haughey children will inherit a fortune – €30m (and Blasket island) to be shared", Irish Independent, 17 June 2006. ^ Kenny, S. and Keane, F., "Irish Politics Now: 'This Week' Guide to the 25th Dáil", Brandon/RTÉ (Dingle, 1987), p. 132 ^ The Irish Times, 14 June 2006. ^ "Charles Haughey". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 1 June 2009.  ^ Lemass was Haughey's father-in-law as well as Taoiseach. Traynor had submitted a list of four names[citation needed]. The first, Seán Flanagan, had declined, while Lemass had rejected the other three. ^ T. Ryle Dwyer, Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles J. Haughey (Marino, 1995) p.31. ^ Traynor, a Minister from Éamon de Valera's era, was elderly and in poor health, and only nominally running the department. ^ T. Ryle Dwyer, Haughey's Forty Years of Controversy (2003), p.33. ^ 'Irish solutions for Irish problems' – The Irish Times
The Irish Times
obituary. ^ The previous Minister for Agriculture, Paddy Smith, had resigned over a policy dispute. ^ a b Maume, Patrick. "Dictionary of Irish Biography - Haughey, Charles James (C.J.)". Royal Irish Academy. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 24 October 2013.  ^ Dillon, Martin (2012). The Dirty War. Random House. p. 20. ISBN 9781407074801. Retrieved 24 October 2013.  ^ a b Down Down Deeper and Down – Ireland in the 70's and 80's – Eamon Sweeney – pg 182 ^ "21st Dail By Elections – Cork City
Cork City
First Preference Votes". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 28 December 2010.  ^ "21st Dail By Elections – Cork North-East First Preference Votes". ElectionsIreland.org. Retrieved 28 December 2010.  ^ Ireland in the 20th Century – Tim Pat Coogan ^ Down Down Deeper and Down – Ireland in the 70's and 80's – Eamon Sweeney – pg 186 ^ Down Down Deeper and Down – Ireland in the 70's and 80's – Eamon Sweeney – pg 186 -187 ^ Haughey ‘wanted a new image’ Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Haughey, £1.14m in debt, went on TV to lecture the nation on overspending, Irish Times, January 30, 1999 ^ This attempted contact with the President proved a major embarrassment to Lenihan subsequently in 1990. ^ Finlay, Fergus Snakes and Ladders pub:New Island Books 1998. Haughey told the Dáil
Dáil
that he never insulted an army officer and he never would. Lenihan in his subsequent account noted that no-one ever claimed Haughey had insulted an army officer but that he had threatened him, a subtle but important difference, and that Haughey never denied threatening the army officer, merely denied ever insulting an army officer. ^ " Haughey blamed for sex smear against Hillery". Irish Independent. 13 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ " Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
– Volume 356". Oireachtas
Oireachtas
historical. 20 February 1985. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ a b Stephen O'Byrnes (27 February 2016). "1989 a road map for Fine Gael- Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
deal". The Irish Times. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ The European Council, Dublin, 28 April 1990, http://aei.pitt.edu/1397/1/Dublin_april_1990.pdf ^ European Commission, Press Release Database, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_DOC-90-1_en.htm?locale=en ^ Germany
Germany
Will Never Forget Ireland´s Help, Irish Times, http://www.irishtimes.com/news/germany-will-never-forget-ireland-s-help-1.658399 ^ European Commission, Ireland´s Previous Presidencies, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ German Reunification, Houses of the Oireachtas, Dáil
Dáil
Éireann, http://debates.oireachtas.ie/dail/1989/12/13/00007.asp ^ Haughey's horse Flashing Steel won the Irish Grand National in 1995. ^ a b Ex-Irish PM Haughey 'took bribes' – BBC News
BBC News
article, 19 December 2006. ^ Former PM in court – BBC News
BBC News
article, 6 October 1998. ^ Haughey to stand trial for obstructing McCracken Tribunal – RTÉ News article, 9 July 1999. ^ High Court upholds ruling on Haughey trial Archived 29 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. – RTÉ News
RTÉ News
report, 3 November 2000. ^ a b "Mr Haughey was lambasted for having spent huge sums on tailored shirts and expensive restaurant meals while simultaneously urging Irish people
Irish people
to tighten their belts amid economic gloom."Former taoiseach Haughey took millions for favours, report finds – The Guardian newspaper article, 19 December 2006. ^ a b c d Haughey payments 'devalued' democracy – The Irish Times newspaper article, 19 December 2006. ^ Betrayal of a friend and of us – The Times (UK) ^ Haughey severely criticised by Moriarty – RTÉ News
RTÉ News
article, 19 December 2006. ^ Haughey 'misused Lenihan funds' – The Irish Times
The Irish Times
newspaper article, 19 December 2006. ^ Moriarty Tribunal
Moriarty Tribunal
report, chapter 16: Dunnes Settlement. ^ Haughey to pay Revenue €5m in tax – RTÉ News
RTÉ News
report, 18 March 2003. ^ Haugheys raise €45m from sale of Kinsealy home, land – The Irish Times newspaper article, 14 August 2003. ^ A Very Public Affair Irish Times
Irish Times
article on speculation about Charles Haughey's private life before Terry Keane revealed all. ^ "Moriarty refuses to accept Haughey cannot continue to give evidence". RTÉ News. 16 October 2000.  ^ a b " Haughey to get State funeral on Friday". RTÉ News. 13 June 2006.  ^ "Charles Haughey laid to rest in Dublin". RTÉ News. 16 June 2006.  ^ " Haughey laid to rest after sombre State funeral". The Irish Times. 16 June 2006.  ^ "A lifelong obsession with the pursuit of political power". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ ,Reaction to ex-Taoiseach's death ^ "'Controversial' Taoiseach". Sunday Tribune. 28 November 2010. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ Patrick Freyne (4 May 2008). "Arise Mr Cowen, Taoiseach
Taoiseach
No 12". Sunday Tribune. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ ISBN 1616952040 ISBN 978-1616952044 ^ http://www.rte.ie/drama/tv/featured/charlie/ ^ McGreevy, Ronan. "RTÉ Charles Haughey series a 'fair reflection of the man'". Irish Times. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 

Sources[edit]

Frank Dunlop, Yes Taoiseach: Irish politics from behind closed doors (Penguin Ireland, 2004) ISBN 1-84488-035-4 T. Ryle Dwyer, Short Fellow: A Biography of Charles J. Haughey (Marino, 1994) ISBN 1-86023-142-X T. Ryle Dwyer, Nice Fellow: A Biography of Jack Lynch
Jack Lynch
(Marino, 2004) ISBN 1-85635-401-6 T. Ryle Dwyer, Charlie: The political biography of Charles Haughey (1987) ISBN 0-7171-1449-X Brian Lenihan, For the Record (Blackwater, 1991) ISBN 0-86121-362-9 P.J. Mara, The Spirit of the Nation. (Fianna Fáil) Raymond Smith, Garret: The Enigma (Aherlow, 1986)

Further reading[edit]

Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp. 188–95. The most controversial of them all – Irish Times

External links[edit]

charlesjhaughey.ie "The official memorial website ... established with the consent of his family"

Oireachtas

Preceded by Jack Belton Patrick Byrne Harry Colley Denis Larkin Oscar Traynor Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Teachta Dála for Dublin
Dublin
North-East 1957–1977 Constituency abolished

New constituency Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Teachta Dála for Dublin
Dublin
Artane 1977–1981

Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Teachta Dála for Dublin
Dublin
North-Central 1981–1992 Succeeded by Richard Bruton Ivor Callely Seán Haughey Derek McDowell

Political offices

New title Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Justice 1959–1961 Succeeded by Brian Lenihan

Preceded by Oscar Traynor Minister for Justice 1961–1964

Preceded by Paddy Smith Minister for Agriculture 1964–1966 Succeeded by Neil Blaney as Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries

Preceded by Jack Lynch Minister for Finance 1966–1970 Succeeded by George Colley

Preceded by Brendan Corish Minister for Health 1977–1979 Succeeded by Michael Woods

Minister for Social Welfare 1977–1979

Preceded by Jack Lynch Taoiseach 1979–1981 Succeeded by Garret FitzGerald

Preceded by Garret FitzGerald Leader of the Opposition 1981–1982

Taoiseach March–December 1982

Leader of the Opposition 1982–1987 Succeeded by Alan Dukes

Taoiseach 1987–1992 Succeeded by Albert Reynolds

Preceded by Paddy O'Toole Minister for the Gaeltacht 1987–1992 Succeeded by John Wilson

Party political offices

Preceded by Jack Lynch Leader of Fianna Fáil 1979–1992 Succeeded by Albert Reynolds

Charles Haughey navigational boxes

v t e

Taoisigh of Ireland

Éamon de Valera John A. Costello Seán Lemass Jack Lynch Liam Cosgrave Charles Haughey Garret FitzGerald Albert Reynolds John Bruton Bertie Ahern Brian Cowen Enda Kenny Leo Varadkar

Previous offices under earlier constitutions

President of the Executive Council (1922–37)

W. T. Cosgrave Éamon de Valera

Chairman of the Provisional Government (1922)

Michael Collins W. T. Cosgrave

President of the Irish Republic (1921–22)

Éamon de Valera Arthur Griffith

President of Dáil Éireann
Dáil Éireann
(1919–21)

Cathal Brugha Éamon de Valera

v t e

Irish Leaders of the Opposition

Thomas Johnson Éamon de Valera W. T. Cosgrave Thomas F. O'Higgins Richard Mulcahy John A. Costello James Dillon Liam Cosgrave Jack Lynch Garret FitzGerald Charles Haughey Alan Dukes John Bruton Bertie Ahern Michael Noonan Enda Kenny Micheál Martin

v t e

Lemass Cabinet (1961–65)

Taoiseach: Seán Lemass

Frank Aiken Gerald Bartley Neil Blaney Kevin Boland Erskine H. Childers Charles Haughey Patrick Hillery Michael Hilliard Brian Lenihan Jack Lynch Seán MacEntee Micheál Ó Móráin James Ryan Paddy Smith

v t e

Lemass Cabinet (1965–66)

Taoiseach: Seán Lemass

Frank Aiken Neil Blaney Kevin Boland Joseph Brennan Erskine H. Childers George Colley Seán Flanagan Charles Haughey Patrick Hillery Michael Hilliard Brian Lenihan Jack Lynch Donogh O'Malley Micheál Ó Móráin

v t e

Lynch Cabinet (1966–69)

Taoiseach: Jack Lynch

Frank Aiken Neil Blaney Kevin Boland Joseph Brennan Erskine H. Childers George Colley Pádraig Faulkner Seán Flanagan Charles Haughey Patrick Hillery Michael Hilliard Brian Lenihan Donogh O'Malley Micheál Ó Móráin

v t e

Lynch Cabinet (1969–73)

Taoiseach: Jack Lynch

Neil Blaney Kevin Boland Joseph Brennan Erskine H. Childers George Colley Gerry Collins Jerry Cronin Pádraig Faulkner Seán Flanagan Jim Gibbons Charles Haughey Patrick Hillery Patrick Lalor Brian Lenihan Bobby Molloy Michael O'Kennedy Desmond O'Malley Micheál Ó Móráin

v t e

Lynch Cabinet (1977–79)

Taoiseach: Jack Lynch

Sylvester Barrett George Colley Gerry Collins Pádraig Faulkner Gene Fitzgerald Denis Gallagher Jim Gibbons Charles Haughey Brian Lenihan Bobby Molloy Martin O'Donoghue Michael O'Kennedy Desmond O'Malley John Wilson

v t e

Haughey Cabinet (1979–81)

Taoiseach: Charles Haughey

Sylvester Barrett Ray Burke George Colley Gerry Collins Pádraig Faulkner Gene Fitzgerald Máire Geoghegan-Quinn Brian Lenihan Ray MacSharry Tom Nolan Michael O'Kennedy Desmond O'Malley Paddy Power Albert Reynolds John Wilson Michael Woods

v t e

Haughey Cabinet (1982)

Taoiseach: Charles Haughey

Ray Burke Gerard Brady Gerry Collins Brendan Daly Seán Doherty Gene Fitzgerald Pádraig Flynn Denis Gallagher Brian Lenihan Ray MacSharry Martin O'Donoghue Desmond O'Malley Paddy Power Albert Reynolds John Wilson Michael Woods

v t e

Haughey Cabinet (1987–89)

Taoiseach: Charles Haughey

Bertie Ahern Ray Burke Gerry Collins Brendan Daly Pádraig Flynn Brian Lenihan Ray MacSharry Michael J. Noonan Rory O'Hanlon Michael O'Kennedy Mary O'Rourke Albert Reynolds Michael Smith John Wilson Michael Woods

v t e

Haughey Cabinet (1989–92)

Taoiseach: Charles Haughey

Bertie Ahern Vincent Brady Séamus Brennan Ray Burke Gerry Collins Brendan Daly Noel Davern Pádraig Flynn Brian Lenihan Bobby Molloy Rory O'Hanlon Michael O'Kennedy Desmond O'Malley Mary O'Rourke Albert Reynolds John Wilson Michael Woods

v t e

Ministers for Agriculture of Ireland

Robert Barton Art O'Connor Patrick Hogan James Ryan Paddy Smith James Dillon Thomas Walsh Frank Aiken Seán Moylan Charles Haughey Neil Blaney Jim Gibbons Mark Clinton Ray MacSharry Alan Dukes Brian Lenihan, Snr Austin Deasy Michael O'Kennedy Michael Woods Joe Walsh Ivan Yates Mary Coughlan Brendan Smith Simon Coveney Michael Creed

v t e

Ministers for Education of Ireland

John J. O'Kelly Michael Hayes Fionán Lynch Eoin MacNeill John M. O'Sullivan Thomas Derrig Seán T. O'Kelly Éamon de Valera Richard Mulcahy Seán Moylan Jack Lynch Patrick Hillery George Colley Donogh O'Malley Brian Lenihan, Snr Pádraig Faulkner Richard Burke Peter Barry John Wilson John Boland Martin O'Donoghue Charles Haughey Gerard Brady Gemma Hussey Patrick Cooney Mary O'Rourke Noel Davern Séamus Brennan Niamh Bhreathnach Michael Smith Micheál Martin Michael Woods Noel Dempsey Mary Hanafin Batt O'Keeffe Mary Coughlan Ruairi Quinn Jan O'Sullivan Richard Bruton

v t e

Ministers for Finance of Ireland

Eoin MacNeill Michael Collins W. T. Cosgrave Ernest Blythe Seán MacEntee Seán T. O'Kelly Frank Aiken Patrick McGilligan Gerard Sweetman James Ryan Jack Lynch Charles Haughey George Colley Richie Ryan Michael O'Kennedy Gene Fitzgerald John Bruton Ray MacSharry Alan Dukes Albert Reynolds Bertie Ahern Ruairi Quinn Charlie McCreevy Brian Cowen Brian Lenihan, Jnr Michael Noonan Paschal Donohoe

v t e

Ministers for Justice of Ireland

Michael Collins Arthur Griffith Austin Stack Eamonn Duggan Kevin O'Higgins W. T. Cosgrave James FitzGerald-Kenney James Geoghegan P. J. Ruttledge Gerald Boland Seán Mac Eoin Daniel Morrissey James Everett Oscar Traynor Charles Haughey Seán Lemass Brian Lenihan, Snr Micheál Ó Móráin Desmond O'Malley Patrick Cooney Gerry Collins Jim Mitchell Seán Doherty Michael Noonan Alan Dukes Ray Burke Pádraig Flynn Máire Geoghegan-Quinn Nora Owen John O'Donoghue Michael McDowell Brian Lenihan, Jnr Dermot Ahern Brendan Smith Alan Shatter Frances Fitzgerald Charles Flanagan

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Ministers for Health of Ireland

Séamus Burke Richard Mulcahy Seán T. O'Kelly P. J. Ruttledge Éamon de Valera Seán MacEntee James Ryan Noël Browne John A. Costello Tom O'Higgins Donogh O'Malley Seán Flanagan Erskine H. Childers Brendan Corish Charles Haughey Michael Woods Eileen Desmond Barry Desmond John Boland Rory O'Hanlon Mary O'Rourke John O'Connell Brendan Howlin Michael Noonan Brian Cowen Micheál Martin Mary Harney Mary Coughlan James Reilly Leo Varadkar Simon Harris

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Ministers for Social Affairs of Ireland

James Ryan William Norton Brendan Corish Paddy Smith Seán MacEntee Kevin Boland Joseph Brennan Charles Haughey Michael Woods Eileen Desmond Barry Desmond Gemma Hussey Brendan Daly Charlie McCreevy Proinsias De Rossa Dermot Ahern Mary Coughlan Séamus Brennan Martin Cullen Mary Hanafin Éamon Ó Cuív Joan Burton Leo Varadkar Regina Doherty

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Ministers for Defence of Ireland

Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha W. T. Cosgrave Peter Hughes Desmond FitzGerald Frank Aiken Oscar Traynor Thomas F. O'Higgins Seán Mac Eoin Kevin Boland Gerald Bartley Michael Hilliard Jim Gibbons Jerry Cronin Paddy Donegan Liam Cosgrave Oliver J. Flanagan Bobby Molloy Pádraig Faulkner Sylvester Barrett James Tully Paddy Power Patrick Cooney Paddy O'Toole Michael J. Noonan Brian Lenihan, Snr Charles Haughey Brendan Daly Vincent Brady John Wilson David Andrews Hugh Coveney Seán Barrett Michael Smith Willie O'Dea Brian Cowen Tony Killeen Éamon Ó Cuív Alan Shatter Simon Coveney Enda Kenny Leo Varadkar

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1981 Irish hunger strike

Participants who died

Bobby Sands Francis Hughes Raymond McCreesh Patsy O'Hara Joe McDonnell Martin Hurson Kevin Lynch Kieran Doherty Thomas McElwee Michael Devine

Participants who survived

Brendan McLaughlin Paddy Quinn Laurence McKeown Pat McGeown Matt Devlin Liam McCloskey Patrick Sheehan Jackie McMullan Bernard Fox Hugh Carville John Pickering Gerard Hodgkins James Devine

Political and religious figures

Margaret Thatcher Garret FitzGerald Charles Haughey Humphrey Atkins James Prior Bernadette Devlin McAliskey Owen Carron Tomás Ó Fiaich Basil Hume Denis Faul John Magee

Key events

Fermanagh and South Tyrone by-election, April 1981 Irish general election, June 1981 Fermanagh and South Tyrone by-election, August 1981

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Presidents of the European Council

President-in-Office (1975–2009)

Liam Cosgrave Aldo Moro Gaston Thorn Joop den Uyl James Callaghan Leo Tindemans Anker Jørgensen Helmut Schmidt Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Jack Lynch Francesco Cossiga Charles Haughey Pierre Werner Dries van Agt Margaret Thatcher Wilfried Martens Anker Jørgensen Poul Schlüter Helmut Kohl Andreas Papandreou François Mitterrand Garret FitzGerald Bettino Craxi Jacques Santer Ruud Lubbers Wilfried Martens Felipe González François Mitterrand Giulio Andreotti Ruud Lubbers Aníbal Cavaco Silva John Major Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Jean-Luc Dehaene Jacques Chirac Felipe González Lamberto Dini Romano Prodi John Bruton Wim Kok Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Viktor Klima Gerhard Schröder Paavo Lipponen António Guterres Jacques Chirac Göran Persson Guy Verhofstadt José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López Anders Fogh Rasmussen Costas Simitis Silvio Berlusconi Bertie Ahern Jan Peter Balkenende Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Wolfgang Schüssel Matti Vanhanen Angela Merkel José Sócrates Janez Janša Nicolas Sarkozy Mirek Topolánek Jan Fischer Fredrik Reinfeldt

Permanent President (since 2009)

Herman Van Rompuy Donald Tusk

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Fianna Fáil

History

History of Fianna Fáil Abstentionism Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Treaty Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin Arms Crisis Beef Tribunal Celtic Tiger Comhairle na dTeachtaí Cumann na Poblachta The Emergency Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
TDs (past and present Gang of 22 Independent Fianna Fáil Irish Civil War Irish EEC ascension Irish Recession The Irish Press Mahon Tribunal Moriarty Tribunal Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
peace process Progressive Democrats 2016 Irish government formation

Leadership

Leaders

Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
(1926–59) Seán Lemass
Seán Lemass
(1959–66) Jack Lynch
Jack Lynch
(1966–79) Charles Haughey (1979–92) Albert Reynolds (1992–94) Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
(1994–2008) Brian Cowen
Brian Cowen
(2008–11) Micheál Martin
Micheál Martin
(2011–present)

Deputy leaders

Joseph Brennan (1973–77) George Colley
George Colley
(1977–82) Ray MacSharry (1982–83) Brian Lenihan, Snr (1983–90) John P. Wilson
John P. Wilson
(1990–92) Bertie Ahern
Bertie Ahern
(1992–94) Mary O'Rourke (1994–2002) Brian Cowen
Brian Cowen
(2002–08) Mary Coughlan (2008–11) Mary Hanafin
Mary Hanafin
(2011) Brian Lenihan, Jnr (2011) Éamon Ó Cuív
Éamon Ó Cuív
(2011–12)

Seanad leaders

Eoin Ryan, Snr (1977–82) Mick Lanigan (1982–90) Seán Fallon (1990–92) G. V. Wright (1992–97) Donie Cassidy (1997–2002; 2007–11) Mary O'Rourke (2002–07) Darragh O'Brien (2011–16) Catherine Ardagh (2016–present)

Secretary-Generals

Séamus Brennan
Séamus Brennan
(1973–79) Frank Wall (1981–91) Pat Farrell (1991–97) Seán Dorgan (2007–present)

Leadership elections

1959 (Lemass) 1966 (Lynch) 1979 (Haughey) 1992 (Reynolds) 1994 (Ahern) 2008 (Cowen) 2011 (Martin)

Party structures

Cumainn Leader of Fianna Fáil Ardfheis Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
Front Bench Ógra Fianna Fáil

Presidential candidates

Presidential candidates (winners in bold)

Seán T. O'Kelly
Seán T. O'Kelly
(1945) Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
(1959, 1966) Erskine H. Childers (1973) Brian Lenihan, Snr (1990) Mary McAleese
Mary McAleese
(1997)

Unopposed presidential candidates with Fianna Fáil
Fianna Fáil
support

Douglas Hyde
Douglas Hyde
(1938) Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh
Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh
(1974) Patrick Hillery
Patrick Hillery
(1976)

Elected representatives

Dáil
Dáil
Éireann

Aylward Brassil Breathnach Browne Butler Byrne Cahill Calleary Casey Cassells J. Chambers L. Chambers Collins Cowen Curran Dooley Fleming Gallagher Haughey Kelleher Lahart Lawless Martin McConalogue McGrath McGuinness A. Moynihan M. Moynihan Murphy Murphy-O'Mahony O'Brien O'Callaghan Ó Cuív O'Dea O'Keeffe O'Loughlin O'Rourke Rabbitte Scanlon Smith Smyth Troy

Seanad Éireann

Ardagh Clifford-Lee M. Daly P. Daly Davitt Gallagher Horkan Leyden Murane-O'Connor Ó Domhnaill O'Donovan O'Sullivan Swanick Wilson

Alliances

European

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe

International

Liberal International
Liberal International
(observer)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 8199019 LCCN: n84089887 ISNI: 0000 0001 0952 2217 GND: 119483394 SELIBR: 345905 SUDOC: 032863284 BNF: cb12381066s (data) SN

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