The Info List - Charles G. Dawes

Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was an American banker, general, diplomat, and Republican politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States
Vice President of the United States
from 1925 to 1929. For his work on the Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan
for World War I
World War I
reparations, he was a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1925. Born in Marietta, Ohio, Dawes attended Cincinnati Law School
Cincinnati Law School
before beginning a legal career in Lincoln, Nebraska. After serving as a gas plant executive, he managed William McKinley's 1896 presidential campaign in Illinois. After the election, McKinley appointed Dawes as the Comptroller of the Currency, and he remained in that position until 1901 before forming the Central Trust Company of Illinois. Dawes served as a general during World War I, holding the position of chairman of the general purchasing board for the American Expeditionary Forces. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
appointed Dawes as the first Director of the Bureau of the Budget. Dawes also served on the Allied Reparations Commission, where he helped formulate the Dawes Plan
Dawes Plan
to aid the struggling German economy, though the plan was eventually replaced by the Young Plan. The 1924 Republican National Convention
1924 Republican National Convention
nominated President Calvin Coolidge without opposition. After Frank Lowden
Frank Lowden
declined the vice presidential nomination, the convention chose Dawes as Coolidge's running mate. The Republican ticket won the 1924 presidential election and Dawes was sworn in as vice president in 1925. Dawes helped pass the McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Bill
McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Bill
in Congress, but the bill was vetoed by President Coolidge. Dawes was a candidate for re-nomination at the 1928 Republican National Convention, but Coolidge's opposition to Dawes helped ensure that Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
was nominated for the vice presidency instead. In 1929, President Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
appointed Dawes to be the Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Dawes also briefly led the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which organized a government response to the Great Depression. He resigned from that position in 1932 to return to banking, and he died in 1951 of coronary thrombosis.


1 Early life and family 2 Education 3 Early business career 4 Interest in music 5 Early political career 6 World War I
World War I
participation and the Nobel Peace Prize 7 Vice presidency 8 Court of St. James' and the RFC 9 Later life 10 Selected writings 11 Death 12 Legacy and honors 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Sources 17 External links

Early life and family[edit]

From 1909 to 1951, Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
lived in this house at 225 Greenwood St. in Evanston, Illinois, which was built in 1894 by Robert Sheppard. The house is a National Historic Landmark.

Dawes was born in Marietta, Ohio, in Washington County, son of Civil War General Rufus Dawes and his wife Mary Beman Gates.[1] Rufus Dawes had commanded the 6th Wisconsin Regiment of the Iron Brigade
Iron Brigade
from 1863 to 1864 during the American Civil War. His Uncle was Ephraim C. Dawes, younger brother to Rufus, was a Major who served under Ulysses S. Grant at the Battles of Shiloh and Vicksburg. Dawes' brothers were Rufus C. Dawes, Beman Gates Dawes, and Henry May Dawes, all prominent businessmen or politicians. He also had two sisters, Mary Frances Dawes Beach, and Betsey Gates Dawes Hoyt.[2] Dawes was a great-great-grandson of Revolutionary War figure William Dawes. In 1915, Dawes joined the Illinois Society of the Sons of the American Revolution by right of his descent from William Dawes.[3] Dawes married Caro Blymyer
Caro Blymyer
on January 24, 1889.[4] They had a son, Rufus Fearing Dawes, and a daughter, Carolyn. They later adopted two children, Dana and Virginia.[5] Education[edit] He graduated from Marietta College
Marietta College
in 1884,[6] and from the Cincinnati Law School in 1886.[7] His fraternity was Delta Upsilon.[citation needed] Early business career[edit] Dawes was admitted to the bar in Nebraska, and he practiced in Lincoln, Nebraska, from 1887 to 1894.[6][8] When Lieutenant John Pershing, the future Army general, was appointed as a military instructor at the University of Nebraska
while attending its law school, he and Dawes met and formed a lifelong friendship.[9] Dawes also met Democratic Congressman William Jennings Bryan, forming a friendship with Bryan despite his opposition to Bryan's free silver policies.[10] Dawes relocated from Lincoln to Chicago
during the Panic of 1893.[10] In 1894, Dawes acquired interests in a number of Midwestern gas plants, and he became the president of both the La Crosse Gas Light Company in La Crosse, Wisconsin
La Crosse, Wisconsin
and the Northwestern Gas Light and Coke Company in Evanston, Illinois.[5] Interest in music[edit] Dawes was a self-taught pianist and a composer. His composition Melody in A Major became a well-known piano and violin song in 1912.[11] Marie Edwards made a popular arrangement of the work in 1921.[12] Also, in 1921, it was arranged for a small orchestra by Adolf G. Hoffmann.[13] Melody in A Major was played at many official functions which Dawes attended.[14] In 1951, Carl Sigman added lyrics to Melody in A Major transforming the song into It's All in the Game.[14] Tommy Edwards' recording of "It's All in the Game" was a number-one hit on the American Billboard record chart for six weeks in the fall of 1958.[15] Edwards' version of the song also hit number one on the United Kingdom chart that year.[16] Since then, it has since become a pop standard. It has been recorded by numerous artists, including Cliff Richard, The Four Tops, Isaac Hayes, Jackie DeShannon, Van Morrison, Nat "King" Cole, Brook Benton, Elton John, Mel Carter, Donny and Marie Osmond, Barry Manilow, and Keith Jarrett. Dawes is the only vice president to be credited with a No. 1 pop hit.[14] Dawes and Sonny Bono
Sonny Bono
are the only people credited with a No. 1 pop hit who were also members of the United States
United States
Senate or House of Representatives.[17] Dawes and Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
are the only persons credited with a No. 1 pop hit to have also won a Nobel Prize.[a] Dawes was a brother of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia.[18] Early political career[edit] Dawes' prominent positions in business caught the attention of Republican party leaders. They asked Dawes to manage the Illinois portion of William McKinley's bid for the Presidency of the United States in 1896.[19] Following McKinley's election, Dawes was rewarded for his efforts by being named Comptroller of the Currency, United States Department of the Treasury. Serving in that position from 1898 to 1901, he collected more than $25 million from banks that had failed during the Panic of 1893, and also changed banking practices to try to prevent a similar event in the future.[citation needed] Upon the death of his father in 1899, Dawes became a First Class Companion of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States.[citation needed] In October 1901, Dawes left the Department of the Treasury in order to pursue a U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
seat from Illinois. He thought that, with the help of the McKinley Administration, he could win it. McKinley was assassinated and his successor, President Theodore Roosevelt, preferred Dawes's opponent.[20] In 1902, following this unsuccessful attempt at legislative office, Dawes declared that he was done with politics. He organized the Central Trust Company of Illinois, where he served as its president until 1921.[5] On September 5, 1912, Dawes' 21-year-old son Rufus drowned in Geneva Lake,[21] while on summer break from Princeton University. In his memory, Dawes created homeless shelters in both Chicago
and Boston.[22] World War I
World War I
participation and the Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

Gen. Charles Dawes during World War I

Dawes helped support the first Anglo-French Loan to the Entente powers of $500 million. Dawes' support was important because the House of Morgan needed public support from a non-Morgan banker. The Morgan banker Thomas Lamont said that Dawes' support would "make a position for him in the banking world such as he otherwise could never hope to make."[23] (Loans were seen as possibly violating neutrality, and Wilson was still resisting permitting loans.) During the First World War, Dawes was commissioned major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel of the 17th Engineers. In October 1918 he was promoted to brigadier general.[24] From August 1917 to August 1919, Dawes served in France during World War I
World War I
as chairman of the general purchasing board for the American Expeditionary Forces
American Expeditionary Forces
(AEF), as a member representing the AEF on the Military Board of Allied Supply, and, after the war, as a member of the Liquidation Commission of the United States
United States
War Department. He was decorated with the Distinguished Service Medal[25] and the French Croix de Guerre
Croix de Guerre
in recognition of his service. He returned to the United States
United States
on board the SS Leviathan
SS Leviathan
in August 1919.[26] In February 1921, the U.S. Senate
U.S. Senate
held hearings on war expenditures. During heated testimony, Dawes burst out, "Hell and Maria, we weren't trying to keep a set of books over there, we were trying to win a war!"[27] He was later known as "Hell and Maria Dawes" (although he always insisted the expression was "Helen Maria").[citation needed] Dawes resigned from the Army in 1919[5] and became a member of the American Legion. He supported Frank Lowden
Frank Lowden
at the 1920 Republican National Convention, but the presidential nomination went to Warren G. Harding.[10] When the Bureau of the Budget was created, he was appointed in 1921 by President Harding as its first director. Hoover appointed him to the Allied Reparations Commission in 1923. For his work on the Dawes Plan, a program to enable Germany
to restore and stabilize its economy, Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1925.[5] The negotiations on reparations broke down. Dawes' plan was replaced with the Young Plan, which reduced the total amount of reparations and called for the removal of occupying forces.[28] Vice presidency[edit]

Dawes (r) and Calvin Coolidge

I should hate to think that the Senate was as tired of me at the beginning of my service as I am of the Senate at the end. — Charles G. Dawes[29]

At the 1924 Republican National Convention, President Calvin Coolidge was quickly selected almost without opposition to be the Republican presidential nominee.[30] The vice presidential nominee was more contested. Illinois Governor Frank Lowden
Frank Lowden
was nominated, but declined. Coolidge's next choice was Idaho Senator William Borah, but he also declined the nomination. The Republican National Chairman, William Butler, pledged to nominate then Commerce Secretary Herbert Hoover, but he was not sufficiently popular.[30] Eventually, the delegates chose Dawes to be the vice presidential nominee. Coolidge quickly accepted the delegates' choice and felt that Dawes would be loyal to him and make a strong addition to his campaign.[30] Dawes traveled throughout the country during the campaign, giving speeches to bolster the Republican ticket. He frequently attacked Progressive nominee Robert M. La Follette Sr.
Robert M. La Follette Sr.
as a dangerous radical who sympathized with the Bolsheviks.[10] Dawes was elected Vice President of the United States
United States
on November 4, 1924 with more popular votes than the candidates from the Democratic and Progressive parties combined.[31] The inauguration was held on March 4, 1925.[32] On March 10, the president's nomination of Charles B. Warren
Charles B. Warren
to be United States
United States
Attorney General was being debated. In the wake of the Teapot Dome scandal
Teapot Dome scandal
and other scandals, Democrats and Progressive Republicans objected to the nomination because of Warren's close association with the Sugar Trust. At midday, six speakers were scheduled to address Warren's nomination. Desiring to take a break for a nap, Dawes consulted the majority and minority leaders, who assured him that no vote would be taken that afternoon. After Dawes left the Senate, however, all but one of the scheduled speakers decided against making formal remarks, and a vote was taken. When it became apparent that the vote would be tied, Republican leaders hastily called Dawes at the Willard Hotel and he immediately left. While waiting for Dawes to arrive, the only Democratic senator who had voted for Warren switched his vote. The nomination had failed by a single vote resulting in the first such rejection of a president's nominee in nearly 60 years.[29] This incident was chronicled in a derisive poem, based on the Longfellow poem "Paul Revere's Ride;" it began with the line, "Come gather round children and hold your applause for the afternoon ride of Charlie Dawes." The choice of poem was based on Charles Dawes being descended from William Dawes, who rode with Paul Revere.[citation needed] Dawes and Coolidge quickly became alienated from one another. Dawes declined to attend Cabinet meetings and annoyed Coolidge with his attack on the Senate filibuster. Dawes championed the McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Bill, which sought to alleviate the 1920s farm crisis by having the government buy surplus farm produce and sell that surplus in foreign markets. Dawes helped ensure the passage of the bill through Congress, but it was vetoed by President Coolidge.[10] In 1927, Coolidge announced that he would not seek re-election. Dawes again favored Frank Lowden
Frank Lowden
at the 1928 Republican National Convention, but the convention chose Herbert Hoover.[10] Rumors circulated about Dawes serving as the vice presidential candidate on the ticket with Hoover. Coolidge made it known that he would consider an affront the renomination of Dawes as vice president, and Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
of Kansas, known for his skills in collaboration, was chosen as Hoover's running mate.[33] Court of St. James' and the RFC[edit] After Dawes had finished his term as vice president, he served as the U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom
U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom
(i.e., to the Court of St. James's) from 1929 to 1932.[34] Overall, Dawes was considered to be a very effective U.S. ambassador, as George V's son, the future Edward VIII, would later confirm in his memoirs.[citation needed] Dawes was rather rough-hewn for some of his duties, disliking having to present American débutantes to the King. On his first visit to the royal court, in deference to American public opinion, he refused to wear the customary Court dress, which then included knee breeches. This episode was said to upset the King, who had been prevented by illness from attending the event. As the Great Depression
Great Depression
continued to ravage the United States, Dawes accepted President Herbert Hoover's appeal to leave diplomatic office and head the newly created Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
(RFC). But after a few months, Dawes resigned from the RFC. As a board member of the failing City National Bank and Trust Company of Chicago, he felt obligated to work for its rescue.[citation needed] Political opponents alleged that, under Dawes' leadership, the RFC had given his bank preferential treatment.[citation needed] This marked the end of Dawes' career in public service. For the 1932 election, Hoover considered the possibility of adding Dawes to the ticket in place of Curtis, but Dawes declined the potential offer.[35] Later life[edit] Dawes resumed a role in the banking business, serving for nearly two decades as chairman of the board of the City National Bank and Trust Co., from 1932 until his death.[36] Selected writings[edit]

Dawes, C. G. (1894). The Banking System of the United States
United States
and Its Relation to the Money and the Business of the Country. Chicago: Rand McNally. Dawes, C. G. (1915). Essays and Speeches. New York: Houghton. Dawes, C. G. (1921). Journal of the Great War. 2 vols. New York: Houghton. Dawes, C. G. (1923). The First Year of the Budget of the United States. New York: Harper. Dawes, C. G. (1935). Notes as Vice President, 1928–1929. Boston: Little, Brown. Dawes, C. G. (1937). How Long Prosperity? New York: Marquis. Dawes, C. G. (1939). Journal as Ambassador to Great Britain. New York: Macmillan. Dawes, C. G. (1939). A Journal of Reparations. New York: Macmillan. Dawes, C. G. (1950). A Journal of the McKinley Years. Bascom N. Timmons (Ed.). La Grange, IL: Tower.

Death[edit] He died on April 23, 1951 at his Evanston home from coronary thrombosis.[37] He is interred in Rosehill Cemetery, Chicago.[38] Legacy and honors[edit]

In 1925, Dawes was a co-winner of the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for his work on World War I
World War I
reparations.[39] In 1944, he bequeathed his lakeshore home in Evanston to Northwestern University for the Evanston Historical Society (later renamed the Evanston History Center). Dawes lived in the house until his death. The Dawes family continued to occupy it until the death of Mrs. Dawes in 1957. Since then, the Evanston History Center operates out of the house and manages it as a museum. Designated a National Historic Landmark, the Charles G. Dawes House
Charles G. Dawes House
is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1948, Lincoln Public Schools in Lincoln, Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska
opened Dawes Middle School. Named after Dawes, the school serves students in grades in 6–8.

See also[edit]

Biography portal United States
United States
Army portal World War I
World War I

List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s – December 14, 1925


^ Dylan, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2016, wrote Mr. Tambourine Man, a No. 1 hit for The Byrds


^ Dunlap, Annette B. (2016). Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. Northwestern University Press and the Evanston History Center. p. 12. ISBN 9780810134195.  ^ Gates Dawes Ancestral Lines ^ Thruston, Rogers Clark Ballard (June 1, 1913). Official Bulletin of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 8–10. Sons of the American Revolution: Louisville, KY. p. 32.  ^ http://www.adherents.com/people/pd/Charles_Dawes.html ^ a b c d e Davis, Jr., Henry Blaine (1998). Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, Inc. p. 103. ISBN 1571970886.  ^ a b Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. p. 17.  ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. p. 18.  ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. pp. 20–38.  ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. pp. 24–25.  ^ a b c d e f "Charles G. Dawes, 30th Vice President (1925–1929)". US Senate. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved February 2, 2017.  ^ Dawes, Charles Gates. Melody [in A major] for violin with piano acc. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music, 1912. OCLC 21885776 ^ Dawes, Charles Gates, and Marie Edwards. Melody. Chicago, Ill: Gamble Hinged Music Co, 1921. OCLC 10115887 ^ Dawes, Charles Gates, and Adolf G. Hoffmann. Melody, small orchestra. Chicago: Gamble Hinged Music Co, 1921. OCLC 46679677 ^ a b c http://www.popularsong.org/forgotten-gem13.html ^ Joel Whitburn, The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, revised and enlarged 6th edition (New York: Billboard Publications, 1996), 201. ^ (Hatfield 1997: 360) ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Record Research. p. 539.  ^ "The Vice President Who Wrote a Hit Song". August 16, 2011.  ^ Davis, Jr., Henry Blaine (1998). Generals in Khaki. Pentland Press, Inc. p. 81. ISBN 1571970886. OCLC 40298151 ^ (Waller 1998: 274) ^ "Charles Gates Dawes Timeline – Evanston History Center".  ^ "Let's Talk
It Over". The National Magazine. 46 (September): 905. 1917. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Merchants of Death Revisited Mises Institute
Mises Institute
p. 61 ^ New York Times. October 4, 1918. ^ "Valor awards for Charles G. Dawes".  ^ New York Times. August 7, 1919. ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Dawes Gates: a Life. p. 144.  ^ Dunlap, pp. 214–15. ^ a b Hatfield, M. O. (1997). Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789–1993. Senate Historical Office. Washington: United States Government Printing Office ^ a b c Hatfield 1997: 363 ^ Hatfield 1997: 364 ^ Reviews, C.T.I (2016-10-16). American Foreign Relations, A History. p. 193. ISBN 9781619066649. Retrieved 26 January 2017.  ^ Mencken, Henry Louis; George Jean Nathan
George Jean Nathan
(1929). The American Mercury. p. 404.  ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. pp. 221–44.  ^ Witcover, Jules (2014). The American Vice Presidency. Smithsonian Books. p. 296.  ^ "DAWES, Charles Gates - Biographical Information". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress. Archived from the original on 1999-09-15. Retrieved 2018-01-17.  ^ "Charles G. Dawes, Ex-Vice President, Dies (April 24, 1951)".  ^ Rumore, Kori. "Buried in Chicago: Where the famous rest in peace".  ^ Dunlap, Annette B. Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. pp. 178–79. 


Dunlap, Annette B. (2016). Charles Gates Dawes: a Life. Northwestern University Press and the Evanston History Center. ISBN 9780810134195.  Haberman, F. W. (Ed.). (1972). Nobel Lectures, Peace 1901–1925. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Publishing. Hatfield, Mark O. (1997). "Vice Presidents of the United States Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1925-1929)" (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office.  Pixton, J. E. (1952). The Early Career of Charles G. Dawes. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press. Sortland, R. A. (1958). Charles G. Dawes: Businessman in Politics. Unpublished manuscript, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH. Timmons, B. N. (1953). Portrait of an American: Charles G. Dawes. New York: Holt. Waller, R. A. (1998). The Vice Presidents: A Biographical Dictionary. Purcell, L. E. (Ed.). New York: Facts On File.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles Gates Dawes.

Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
– Biographical – Nobelprize.org " Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
Archive" Finding aid for the Charles G. Dawes archival collection Evanston History Center, headquartered in the lakefront Dawes house

United States
United States
Congress. " Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(id: D000147)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress. . Retrieved 2009-05-14 Notes As Vice President 1928–1929 by Charles G. Dawes Portrait Of An American by Charles G. Dawes "Charles G. Dawes". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 

Government offices

Preceded by James H. Eckels Comptroller of the Currency 1898–1901 Succeeded by William Ridgely

New office President of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation 1932 Succeeded by Atlee Pomerene

Political offices

New office Director of the Bureau of the Budget 1921–1922 Succeeded by Herbert Lord

Preceded by Calvin Coolidge Vice President of the United States 1925–1929 Succeeded by Charles Curtis

Party political offices

Preceded by Calvin Coolidge Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States 1924 Succeeded by Charles Curtis

Awards and achievements

Vacant Title last held by Fridtjof Nansen Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize 1925 With: Austen Chamberlain Succeeded by Aristide Briand Gustav Stresemann

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Alanson B. Houghton United States
United States
Ambassador to the United Kingdom 1929–1932 Succeeded by Andrew Mellon

v t e

Vice Presidents of the United States
United States

John Adams
John Adams
(1789–1797) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1797–1801) Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr
(1801–1805) George Clinton (1805–1812) Elbridge Gerry
Elbridge Gerry
(1813–1814) Daniel D. Tompkins
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1817–1825) John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun
(1825–1832) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1833–1837) Richard M. Johnson (1837–1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1845–1849) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1849–1850) William R. King
William R. King
(1853) John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
(1857–1861) Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865) Schuyler Colfax
Schuyler Colfax
(1869–1873) Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
(1873–1875) William A. Wheeler
William A. Wheeler
(1877–1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881) Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas A. Hendricks
(1885) Levi P. Morton
Levi P. Morton
(1889–1893) Adlai Stevenson (1893–1897) Garret Hobart
Garret Hobart
(1897–1899) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901) Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1905–1909) James S. Sherman
James S. Sherman
(1909–1912) Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas R. Marshall
(1913–1921) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1921–1923) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1925–1929) Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–1933) John Nance Garner
John Nance Garner
(1933–1941) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–1953) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1953–1961) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1961–1963) Hubert Humphrey
Hubert Humphrey
(1965–1969) Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
(1969–1973) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1973–1974) Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
(1974–1977) Walter Mondale
Walter Mondale
(1977–1981) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–1989) Dan Quayle
Dan Quayle
(1989–1993) Al Gore
Al Gore
(1993–2001) Dick Cheney
Dick Cheney
(2001–2009) Joe Biden
Joe Biden
(2009–2017) Mike Pence
Mike Pence

List Category

v t e

Cabinet of President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge

Vice President

None (1923–25) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes

Secretary of State

Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes
(1923–25) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg

Secretary of the Treasury

Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon

Secretary of War

John W. Weeks
John W. Weeks
(1923–25) Dwight F. Davis
Dwight F. Davis

Attorney General

Harry M. Daugherty
Harry M. Daugherty
(1923–24) Harlan F. Stone
Harlan F. Stone
(1924–25) John G. Sargent
John G. Sargent

Postmaster General

Harry S. New (1923–29)

Secretary of the Navy

Edwin C. Denby (1923–24) Curtis D. Wilbur
Curtis D. Wilbur

Secretary of the Interior

Hubert Work
Hubert Work
(1923–28) Roy O. West (1928–29)

Secretary of Agriculture

Henry C. Wallace (1923–24) Howard M. Gore (1924–25) William M. Jardine (1925–29)

Secretary of Commerce

Herbert C. Hoover (1923–28) William Fairfield Whiting (1928–29)

Secretary of Labor

James J. Davis
James J. Davis

v t e

United States
United States
Republican Party

Chairpersons of the RNC

Morgan Raymond Ward Claflin Morgan Chandler Cameron Jewell Sabin Jones Quay Clarkson Carter Hanna Payne Cortelyou New Hitchcock Hill Rosewater Hilles Wilcox Hays Adams Butler Work Huston Fess Sanders Fletcher Hamilton Martin Walsh Spangler Brownell Reece Scott Gabrielson Summerfield Roberts Hall Alcorn T. B. Morton Miller Burch Bliss R. Morton Dole Bush Smith Brock Richards Laxalt/Fahrenkopf Reagan/Fahrenkopf Atwater Yeutter Bond Barbour Nicholson Gilmore Racicot Gillespie Mehlman Martínez Duncan Steele Priebus Romney McDaniel

Presidential tickets

Frémont/Dayton Lincoln/Hamlin Lincoln/Johnson Grant/Colfax Grant/Wilson Hayes/Wheeler Garfield/Arthur Blaine/Logan Harrison/Morton Harrison/Reid McKinley/Hobart McKinley/Roosevelt Roosevelt/Fairbanks Taft/Sherman Taft/Sherman/Butler Hughes/Fairbanks Harding/Coolidge Coolidge/Dawes Hoover/Curtis (twice) Landon/Knox Willkie/McNary Dewey/Bricker Dewey/Warren Eisenhower/Nixon (twice) Nixon/Lodge Goldwater/Miller Nixon/Agnew (twice) Ford/Dole Reagan/G. H. W. Bush (twice) G. H. W. Bush/Quayle (twice) Dole/Kemp G. W. Bush/Cheney (twice) McCain/Palin Romney/Ryan Trump/Pence

Parties by state and territory


Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming


American Samoa District of Columbia Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico Virgin Islands

Conventions (list)

1856 (Philadelphia) 1860 (Chicago) 1864 (Baltimore) 1868 (Chicago) 1872 (Philadelphia) 1876 (Cincinnati) 1880 (Chicago) 1884 (Chicago) 1888 (Chicago) 1892 (Minneapolis) 1896 (Saint Louis) 1900 (Philadelphia) 1904 (Chicago) 1908 (Chicago) 1912 (Chicago) 1916 (Chicago) 1920 (Chicago) 1924 (Cleveland) 1928 (Kansas City) 1932 (Chicago) 1936 (Cleveland) 1940 (Philadelphia) 1944 (Chicago) 1948 (Philadelphia) 1952 (Chicago) 1956 (San Francisco) 1960 (Chicago) 1964 (San Francisco) 1968 (Miami Beach) 1972 (Miami Beach) 1976 (Kansas City) 1980 (Detroit) 1984 (Dallas) 1988 (New Orleans) 1992 (Houston) 1996 (San Diego) 2000 (Philadelphia) 2004 (New York) 2008 (St. Paul) 2012 (Tampa) 2016 (Cleveland)

Affiliated organizations

Fundraising groups

National Republican Congressional Committee National Republican Senatorial Committee Republican Conference of the United States
United States
House of Representatives Republican Conference of the United States
United States
Senate Republican Governors Association

Sectional groups

College Republicans


Congressional Hispanic Conference International Democrat Union Log Cabin Republicans Republican Jewish Coalition Republican National Hispanic Assembly Republicans Abroad Teen Age Republicans Young Republicans

Factional groups

Republican Main Street Partnership Republican Majority for Choice Republican Liberty Caucus Republican National Coalition for Life Republican Study Committee ConservAmerica Liberty Caucus Freedom Caucus Ripon Society The Wish List

Related articles

History Primaries Debates 2009 chairmanship election 2011 chairmanship election 2013 chairmanship election 2015 chairmanship election 2017 chairmanship election Bibliography Timeline of modern American conservatism

Republican Party portal

v t e

Directors of the United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget

Dawes Lord Roop Douglas D. W. Bell Smith Webb Pace Lawton Dodge Hughes Brundage Stans D. E. Bell Gordon Schultze Zwick Mayo Shultz Weinberger Ash Lynn Lance McIntyre Stockman Miller Wright Darman Panetta Rivlin Raines Lew Daniels Bolten Portman Nussle Orszag Lew Burwell Donovan Mulvaney

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize


1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes


1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche


1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov


1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung


2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States
United States
of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

v t e

(1920 ←) United States
United States
presidential election, 1924 (→ 1928)

Democratic Party Convention Primaries


John W. Davis

VP nominee

Charles W. Bryan


William Gibbs McAdoo Al Smith Oscar Underwood

Republican Party Convention


Calvin Coolidge

VP nominee

Charles G. Dawes


Hiram Johnson Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

Progressive Party


Robert M. La Follette, Sr.

VP nominee

Burton K. Wheeler

Third party and independent candidates

Communist Party


William Z. Foster

VP nominee

Benjamin Gitlow

Prohibition Party


Herman P. Faris

VP nominee

Marie C. Brehm

American Party


Gilbert Nations

VP nominee

Charles Hiram Randall

Other 1924 elections: House Senate

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44568420 LCCN: n79032944 ISNI: 0000 0000 8123 4351 GND: 12348720X SUDOC: 076019667 BNF: cb14838379r (data) MusicBrainz: 831fd885-7564-4389-9ae1-79d86c2df135 US Congress: D000147 SNAC: w6k36gk