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Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(/kælˈsiːdən/ or /ˈkælsɪdɒn/;[1] Greek: Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Üsküdar) and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul
Istanbul
named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon
Chalcedon
is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works. Except for a tower, almost no aboveground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy
Kadıköy
today; artifacts uncovered at Altıyol and other excavation sites are on display at the Istanbul
Istanbul
Archaeological Museum. The site of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
is located on a small peninsula on the north coast of the Sea of Marmara, near the mouth of the Bosphorus. A stream, called the Chalcis or Chalcedon
Chalcedon
in antiquity[2] and now known as the Kurbağalıdere (Turkish: stream with frogs), flows into Fenerbahçe bay. There Greek colonists from Megara
Megara
in Attica
Attica
founded the settlement of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
in 685 BC, some seventeen years before Byzantium. The Greek name of the ancient town is from its Phoenician name (Karkhēdōn), meaning "New Town",[3] as is the name of Carthage. The mineral chalcedony is named for where it came from outside Chalcedon.[4]

Contents

1 Prehistory 2 Megarian colony 3 Roman city 4 Byzantine and Ottoman suburbs 5 Ecclesiastical history

5.1 Greek and Catholic successions

6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Prehistory[edit] The mound of Fikirtepe has yielded remains dating to the Chalcolithic period (5500-3500 BC) and attest to a continuous settlement since prehistoric times. Phoenicians
Phoenicians
were active traders in this area. Pliny states that Chalcedon
Chalcedon
was first named Procerastis, a name which may be derived from a point of land near it: then it was named Colpusa, from the harbour probably; and finally Caecorum Oppidum, or the town of the blind.[5] Megarian colony[edit]

Funerary stele
Funerary stele
from the 1st century BC.

Chalcedon
Chalcedon
originated as a Megarian colony in 685 BCE. The colonists from Megara
Megara
settled on a site that was viewed in antiquity as so obviously inferior to that visible on the opposite shore of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
(with its small settlements of Lygos and Semistra on Seraglio Point), that the 6th-century BCE Persian general Megabazus allegedly remarked that Chalcedon's founders must have been blind.[6] Indeed, Strabo and Pliny relate that the oracle of Apollo
Apollo
told the Athenians and Megarians who founded Byzantium
Byzantium
in 657 BCE to build their city "opposite to the blind", and that they interpreted "the blind" to mean Chalcedon, the "City of the Blind".[7][8] Nevertheless, trade thrived in Chalcedon; the town flourished and built many temples, including one to Apollo, which had an oracle. Chalcedonia, the territory dependent upon Chalcedon,[9] stretched up the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
at least as far as the temple of Zeus
Zeus
Urius, now the site of Yoros Castle, and may have included the north shore of the Bay of Astacus which extends towards Nicomedia. Important villages in Chalcedonia included Chrysopolis[10] (the modern Üsküdar) and Panteicheion (Pendik). Strabo notes that "a little above the sea" in Chalcedonia lies "the fountain Azaritia, which contains small crocodiles".[11] In its early history Chalcedon
Chalcedon
shared the fortunes of Byzantium. Later, the 6th-century BCE Persian satrap Otanes captured it. The city vacillated for a long while between the Lacedaemonian and the Athenian interests. Darius the Great's bridge of boats, built in 512 BC for his Scythian campaign, extended from Chalcedonia to Thrace. Chalcedon formed a part of the kingdom of Bithynia, whose king Nicomedes willed Bithynia
Bithynia
to the Romans upon his death in 74 BCE. Roman city[edit] See also: Battle of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(74 BC) The city was partly destroyed by Mithridates. The governor of Bithynia, Cotta, had fled to Chalcedon
Chalcedon
for safety along with thousands of other Romans. Three thousand of them were killed, sixty ships captured, and four ships destroyed in Mithridates' assault on the city.[12] During the Empire, Chalcedon
Chalcedon
recovered, and was given the status of a free city. It fell under the repeated attacks of the barbarian hordes who crossed over after having ravaged Byzantium, including some referred to as Scythians who attacked during the reign of Valerian and Gallienus in the mid 3rd century.[13] Byzantine and Ottoman suburbs[edit]

Small silver jug from Chalcedon.

Chalcedon
Chalcedon
suffered somewhat from its proximity to the new imperial capital at Constantinople. First the Byzantines and later the Ottoman Turks used it as a quarry for building materials for Constantinople's monumental structures.[14] Chalcedon
Chalcedon
also fell repeatedly to armies attacking Constantinople
Constantinople
from the east. In 361 AD it was the location of the Chalcedon
Chalcedon
tribunal, where Julian the apostate brought his enemies to trial. In 451 AD an ecumenical council of Christian leaders convened here. See below for this Council of Chalcedon. The general Belisarius
Belisarius
probably spent his years of retirement on his estate of Rufinianae in Chalcedonia. Beginning in 616 and for at least a decade thereafter, Chalcedon furnished an encampment to the Persians under Chosroes II[15] (cf. Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(626)). It later fell for a time to the Arabs under Yazid (cf. Siege of Constantinople
Constantinople
(674)). Chalcedon
Chalcedon
was badly damaged during the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
(1204). It came definitively under Ottoman rule under Orhan Gazi a century before the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. Ecclesiastical history[edit]

Nicetas of Chalcedon

Main article: Metropolis of Chalcedon Chalcedon
Chalcedon
was an episcopal see at an early date and several Christian martyrs are associated with Chalcedon:

The virgin St. Euphemia
Euphemia
and her companions in the early 4th century; the cathedral of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
was consecrated to her. St. Sabel the Persian and his companions.

It was the site of various ecclesiastical councils. The Fourth Ecumenical Council, known as 'the' Council of Chalcedon, was convened in 451 and defined the human and divine natures of Jesus, which provoked the schism with the churches composing Oriental Orthodoxy. After the council, Chalcedon
Chalcedon
became a metropolitan see, but without suffragans. There is a list of its bishops in Le Quien,[16] completed by Anthimus Alexoudes,[17] revised for the early period by Pargoire.[18] Among others are:[19]

St. Adrian, a martyr; St. John, Sts. Cosmas and Nicetas, during the Iconoclastic period; Maris, the Arian; Heraclianus, who wrote against the Manichaeans
Manichaeans
and the Monophysites; Leo, persecuted by Alexius I Comnenus.

Greek and Catholic successions[edit] The Greek Orthodox Metropolitan of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
holds senior rank (currently third position) within the Greek Orthodox patriarchal synod of Constantinople. The incumbent is Metropolitan Athanasios Papas. The cathedral is that of St. Euphemia. After the Great Schism, the Latin Church
Latin Church
retained Chalcedon
Chalcedon
as a titular see with archiepiscopal rank.,[20] with known incumbents since 1356. Among the titular bishops named to this see were William Bishop (1623–1624) and Richard Smith (1624–1632), who were appointed vicars apostolic for the pastoral care of Catholics in England at a time when that country had no Catholic diocesan bishops. Such appointments ceased after the Second Vatican Council, leaving the titular see vacant since 1967.[21] Furthermore, Chalcedon
Chalcedon
has been a titular archbishopric for two Eastern Catholic churches, dioceses:

Syrian ( Antiochian Rite
Antiochian Rite
(established in 1922; vacant since 1958) Armenian Catholic (Armenian Rite; established 1951, after two incumbents suppressed in 1956)

Notable people[edit]

Chalcedony
Chalcedony
cameo of Titus
Titus
head, 2nd Century AD

Euphemia
Euphemia
(3rd century AD), Christian saint and martyr, patron saint of Kalkhedon Boethus
Boethus
(2nd century BC), Greek sculptor Herophilos
Herophilos
(2nd century BC), Greek physician Phaleas of Chalcedon (4th century BC), Greek statesman Thrasymachus (5th century BC), Greek sophist Xenocrates
Xenocrates
(4th century BC), Greek philosopher

See also[edit]

List of traditional Greek place names Chalkidona, Greece

References[edit]

^ "Chalcedon". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. (accessed: September 21, 2008). ^ William Smith, LLD, ed. (1854). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. "Chalcedon"[permanent dead link]. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Chalcedony". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2010-05-19.  ^ Erika Zwierlein-Diehl: Antike Gemmen und ihr Nachleben. Berlin (Verlag Walter de Gruyter) 2007, S. 307 (online) ^ Pliny. Nat. 5.32 ^ Herodotus. Histories. 4.144. ^ Strabo (p. 320). ^ Pliny. Nat. 9.15 ^ Herodotus. Histories. 4.85.) ^ Xenophon, Xen. Anab. 6.6, 38-Z1. ^ Strabo 1.597. ^ Appian. Mithrid. 71; Plut. Luc. 8. ^ Zosimus 1.34. ^ Ammian. 31.1, and the notes of Valesius. ^ Gibbon. Decline, &c. 100.46. ^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens christianus, I, 599. ^ In Anatolikos Aster XXX, 108. ^ In Echos d'Orient III, 85, 204; IV, 21, 104. ^ Sophrone Pétridès, "Chalcedon" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908) ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 855 ^ Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(Titular See)

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. 

External links[edit]

GigaCatholic Latin GigaCatholic Armenian GigaCatholic Syriac

Coordinates: 40°59′N 29°02′E / 40.983°N 29.033°E / 40.983; 29.033

v t e

Ancient settlements in Turkey

Aegean

Aegae Aizanoi Alabanda Alinda Allianoi Amorium Amyzon Antioch
Antioch
on the Maeander Apamea in Phrygia Aphrodisias Apollonia in Mysia Apollonos Hieron Atarneus Aulai Bargylia Beycesultan Blaundus Caloe Caryanda Celaenae Ceramus Colophon Claros Cyme Didyma Dios Hieron Docimium Ephesus Erythrae Eucarpia Euromus Gambrion Gryneion Halicarnassus Hierapolis Iasos Karmylissos Kaunos Klazomenai Knidos Labraunda Laodicea on the Lycus Latmus Lebedus Leucae Limantepe Magnesia ad Sipylus Magnesia on the Maeander Metropolis Miletus Myndus Myriandrus Myrina Myus Notion Nysa on the Maeander Oenoanda Pepuza Pergamon Perperene Phocaea Pinara Pitane Priene Sardis Smyrna Stratonicea in Lydia Stratonicea in Caria Temnos Teos Tymion

Black Sea

Alaca Höyük Comana in the Pontus Euchaita Hattusa Heraclea Pontica Hüseyindede Tepe Ibora Laodicea Pontica Nerik Nicopolis Pompeiopolis Salatiwara Samuha Sapinuwa Tripolis Yazılıkaya Zaliche

Central Anatolia

Alişar Hüyük Binbirkilise Çatalhöyük Cotenna Derbe Dorylaeum Eudocia (Cappadocia) Eudocia (Phrygia) Gordium Heraclea Cybistra Irenopolis Kaman-Kalehöyük Kerkenes Kültepe
Kültepe
(Kanesh) Laodicea Combusta Meloë Mokissos Nyssa Pessinus Purushanda Tavium Tyana

Eastern Anatolia

Altıntepe Ani Cafer Höyük Melid Sugunia Tushpa

Marmara

Achilleion Aegospotami Ainos Alexandria Troas Apamea Myrlea Apollonia on the Rhyndax Apros Assos Byzantium Cardia Cebrene Chalcedon Charax Cius Cyzicus Drizipara/Drusipara Faustinopolis Germanicopolis Lamponeia Lampsacus Lygos Lysimachia Marpessos Neandreia Nicomedia Orestias Perinthos Sestos Sigeion Skepsis Troy
Troy
(Hisarlik)

Mediterranean

Acalissus Acarassus Alalakh Amelas Anazarbus Andriaca Antigonia Antioch
Antioch
on the Orontes Antioch
Antioch
of Pisidia Antiochia Lamotis Antioch
Antioch
on the Cragus Antioch
Antioch
on the Pyramis Antiphellus Aperlae Aphrodisias
Aphrodisias
of Cilicia Araxa Ariassos Arneae Arsinoe Arycanda Aspendos Bab al-Hawa Border Crossing Balbura Bubon Calynda Carallia Carmylessus Casae Castabala Cestrus Choma Cibyra Mikra Comama Comana in Cappadocia Comba Coracesium Corycus
Corycus
(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

Antioch
Antioch
in the Taurus Antioch
Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Ti

.