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Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch[1] (Hebrew: חב"ד‬), is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement. Chabad is today one of the world's best known Hasidic movements and is well known for its outreach. It is one of the largest Hasidic groups[2][3][4] and Jewish religious organizations in the world.[5][6] Founded in 1775 by Rabbi
Rabbi
Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" (חב״ד‬) is a Hebrew
Hebrew
acronym for Chochmah, Binah, Da'at (חכמה, בינה, דעת‬): "Wisdom, Understanding, and Knowledge", which represent the intellectual underpinnings of the movement.[7][8] The name "Lubavitch" is the Yiddish
Yiddish
name for the originally Belorussian village Lyubavichi, now in Russia, where the movement's leaders lived for over 100 years. In the 1930s, the sixth Rebbe
Rebbe
of Chabad, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, moved the center of the Chabad
Chabad
movement from Russia
Russia
to Poland. After the outbreak of World War Two, the sixth Rebbe
Rebbe
moved the center of the movement to the United States. In 1951, Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
became the seventh Chabad Rebbe. The seventh Rebbe
Rebbe
transformed the movement into one of the largest and most widespread Jewish movements in the world today. Under Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel's leadership, the movement established a network of more than 3,600 institutions that provide religious, social and humanitarian needs in over 1,000 cities, spanning 100 countries[9] and all 50 American states.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Chabad institutions provide outreach to unaffiliated Jews
Jews
and humanitarian aid, as well as religious, cultural and educational activities at Chabad-run community centers, synagogues, schools, camps, and soup kitchens. The movement is thought to number between 40,000[17] and 200,000 adherents.[18][19][20][21] In 2005 the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs reported that up to one million Jews
Jews
attend Chabad
Chabad
services at least once a year.[17][22][23] In 2013, Chabad
Chabad
forecast that their Chanukah
Chanukah
activities would reach up to 8,000,000 Jews
Jews
in 80 countries worldwide.[24]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Leadership 1.2 Oppression and resurgence in Russia 1.3 Relations with other Hasidic groups

2 Philosophy

2.1 Tanya

2.1.1 "Chabad"

3 Community

3.1 Demographics 3.2 United States

3.2.1 Student body in the United States

3.3 Israel 3.4 France 3.5 Canada 3.6 Ashkenazim and Sephardim

4 Customs and holidays

4.1 Customs 4.2 Holidays

5 Influence 6 Organizations

6.1 Institutions

6.1.1 By geographic region

6.2 The " Chabad
Chabad
House" 6.3 Fundraising

7 Activities

7.1 Education 7.2 Outreach activities

7.2.1 Mitzvah campaigns 7.2.2 Shluchim (Emissaries) 7.2.3 Mitzvah tank 7.2.4 Campus outreach

7.3 Publishing

7.3.1 Media

7.3.1.1 Chabad.org 7.3.1.2 Community websites

7.4 Summer camps 7.5 Political activities

7.5.1 Library dispute with Russia

8 Controversies

8.1 Succession disputes and offshoot groups

8.1.1 Others

8.2 Messianism

9 In the arts

9.1 Art 9.2 Music 9.3 Literature 9.4 Film

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] The Chabad
Chabad
movement was established in the town of Liozna, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (present day Belarus), in 1775, by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi,[25] a student of Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch", the successor to Hasidism's founder, Rabbi
Rabbi
Israel
Israel
Baal Shem Tov. The movement was based in Lyubavichi (Lubavitch) for over a century, then briefly centered in the cities of Rostov-on-Don, Riga, and Warsaw. Since 1940,[25] the movement's center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn.[26][27] While the movement has spawned a number of other groups, the Chabad-Lubavitch branch appears to be the only one still active, making it the movement's main surviving line.[28] Sarna has characterized Chabad
Chabad
as having enjoyed the fastest rate of growth of any Jewish religious movement for the period 1946-2015.[29] In the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch legally incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad
Agudas Chasidei Chabad
("Association of Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim"). Leadership[edit]

Part of a series on

Chabad (Rebbes and Chasidim)

Rebbes of Chabad

Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
(Alter Rebbe) Dovber Schneuri
Dovber Schneuri
(Mitteler Rebbe) Menachem M. Schneersohn (Tzemach Tzedek) Shmuel Schneersohn
Shmuel Schneersohn
( Rebbe
Rebbe
Maharash) Sholom Dovber Schneersohn
Sholom Dovber Schneersohn
( Rebbe
Rebbe
Rashab) Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
( Rebbe
Rebbe
Rayatz) Menachem M. Schneerson (the Rebbe)

Schneersohn family

Chaim S. Z. of Liadi Yitzchak Dovber of Liadi Chaya M. Schneersohn (d. 1860) Chana Schneerson Chaya M. Schneerson (1901-1988) Levi Y. Schneerson Moshe Schneersohn Sheina Horenstein Shlomo Zalman Schneersohn Shmaryahu Noah Schneersohn Yehuda Leib Schneersohn

Rabbonim

Avraham Osdoba Chaim Gutnick Mordechai Ashkenazi Mordechai Gutnick Moshe D. Gutnick Pinhas Hirschprung Yaakov Schwei Yehuda K. Marlow Abraham Hecht Yitzchak Hendel Yosef Heller Yosef Y. Braun Zalman Dworkin Zelig Sharfstein Shmuel L. Medalia Shmarya Y. L. Medalia Sholom Rivkin Shneur Z. Fradkin

Mashpiim and scholars

Aaron of Staroselye Adin Steinsaltz Aizel Homiler Avraham C. Naeh DovBer Pinson Ezra Schochet Herman Branover Hillel Paritcher Jacob I. Schochet Levi Cooper Manis Friedman Menachem Z. Greenglass Mendel Futerfas Nissan Neminov Sholom Dov Wolpo Shlomo Y. Zevin Simon Jacobson Yehuda Chitrik Yitzchak Ginsburgh Yoel Kahn Yosef Y. Jacobson Zalman M. HaYitzchaki Levi Brackman Moshe Havlin Abraham Y. Khein Yitzchak Schochet Shmuley Boteach Shais Taub Yehoshua Mondshine Yisroel Jacobson

Mazkirus and other leaders

Chaim M. A. Hodakov Nissan Mindel Yehuda Krinsky Leib Groner Abraham Shemtov Dovid Raskin Jacob J. Hecht

Shluchim

Aaron Raskin Berel Lazar David Masinter Gavriel Holtzberg Gershon Garelik Menachem Brod Menachem S. D. Raichik Pinchus Feldman Sholom Lipskar Shlomo Cunin Shlomo Sawilowsky Shimon Lazaroff Zalman I. Posner Chezki Lifshitz Levi Shemtov Arie Z. Raskin Hanoch Hecht Simcha Weinstein Yitzchok D. Groner Yehudah Teichtal Yitzchok Moully Azriel Chaikin Mordechai Scheiner Moshe R. Azman

Other notable figures

Avraham Fried Benny Friedman Aharon Gurevich Joseph Gutnick Moshe Hecht Shea Hecht Bernard Levy Hendel Lieberman Michoel Muchnik Mendy Pellin Zalman Shmotkin Zvi Yair

 Category  Media on Commons

v t e

The Chabad
Chabad
movement has been led by a succession of Hasidic rebbes. The main line of the movement, Chabad-Lubavitch, has had seven rebbes in total:

Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
(1745–1812), founded the Chabad movement in the town of Liozna. He later moved the movement's center to the town of Liadi. Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman was the youngest disciple of Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber of Mezritch, the principal disciple and successor of Rabbi
Rabbi
Israel
Israel
Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism. The Chabad
Chabad
movement began as a separate school of thought within the Hasidic movement, focusing of the spread of Hasidic mystical teachings using logical reasoning (creating a kind of Jewish "rational-mysticism").[30] Shneur Zalman's main work is the Tanya
Tanya
(or Sefer Shel Beinonim, Book
Book
of the Average Man). The Tanya
Tanya
is the central book of Chabad
Chabad
thought and is studied daily by followers of the Chabad
Chabad
movement. Shneur Zalman's other works include a collection of writings on Hasidic thought, and the Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
HaRav, a revised version of the code of Jewish law, both of which are studied regularly by followers of Chabad. Shneur Zalman's successors went by last names such as "Schneuri" and "Schneersohn" (later "Schneerson"), signifying their descent from the movement's founder. He is commonly referred to as the Alter Rebbe (Yiddish: אַלטער רבי) or Admur Hazoken (Hebrew: אדמו״ר הזקן) ("Old Rebbe").[31][32] Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber Schneuri
Dovber Schneuri
(1773–1827), son of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman, led the Chabad
Chabad
movement in the town of Lyubavichi (Lubavitch). His leadership was initially disputed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Aaron Halevi of Stroselye, however, Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber was generally recognized as his father's rightful successor, and the movement's leader. Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber published a number of his writings on Hasidic thought, greatly expanding his father's work. He also published some of his father's writings. Many of Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber's works have been subsequently republished by the Chabad
Chabad
movement. He is commonly referred to as the Mitteler Rebbe (Yiddish: מיטעלער רבי), or Admur Ha'emtzoei (Hebrew: אדמו״ר האמצעי) (Middle Rebbe).[33][34] Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
(1789–1866), a grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalman and son-in-law of Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber. Following his attempt to persuade the Chabad
Chabad
movement to accept his brother-in-law or uncle as rebbe, Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel assumed the title of rebbe of Chabad, also leading the movement from the town of Lyubavichi (Lubavitch). He published a number of his works on both Hasidic thought and Jewish law. Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel also published some of the works of his grandfather, Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman. He is commonly referred to as the Tzemach Tzedek, after the title of his responsa.[35] Rabbi
Rabbi
Shmuel Schneersohn
Shmuel Schneersohn
(1834–1882), was the seventh and youngest son of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel. He assumed the title of rebbe in town of Lyubavichi (Lubavitch), while several of his brothers assumed the title of rebbe in other towns, forming groups of their own. Years after his death, his teachings were published by the Chabad
Chabad
movement. He is commonly referred to as the Maharash, an acronym for "Moreinu HaRav Shmuel" ("our teacher, Rabbi
Rabbi
Shmuel").[36][37] Rabbi
Rabbi
Shalom Dovber Schneersohn (1860–1920), Shmuel's second son, succeeded his father as rebbe. Rabbi
Rabbi
Shalom Dovber waited some time before officially accepting the title of rebbe, as not to offend his elder brother, Zalman Aaron. He established a yeshiva called Tomchei Temimim. During World War One, he moved to Rostov-on-Don. Many of his writings were published after his death, and are studied regularly in Chabad
Chabad
yeshivas. He is commonly referred to as the Rashab, an acronym for " Rabbi
Rabbi
Shalom Ber".[38]

Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson, known as "the Lubavitcher Rebbe"

Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
(1880–1950), the only son of Sholom Dovber, succeeded his father as rebbe of Chabad. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak was exiled from Russia, following an attempt by the Bolshevik government to have him executed.[39] He led the movement from Warsaw, Poland, until the start of World War Two. After fleeing the Nazis, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak lived in Brooklyn, New York until his death. He established much of Chabad's current organizational structure, founding several of its central organizations as well as other Chabad institutions, both local and international. He published a number of his writings, as well as the works of his predecessors. He is commonly referred to as the Rayatz, or the Frierdiker Rebbe
Rebbe
("Previous Rebbe"). Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(1902–1994),[40] son-in-law of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak, and a great-grandson of the third Rebbe
Rebbe
of Lubavitch, assumed the title of rebbe one year after his father-in-law's death. Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel greatly expanded Chabad's global network, establishing hundreds of new Chabad
Chabad
centers across the globe. He published many of his own works as well as the works of his predecessors. His teachings are studied regularly by followers of Chabad. He is commonly referred to as "the Lubavitcher Rebbe", or simply "the Rebbe". Even after his death, many continue to revere him as the leader of the Chabad
Chabad
movement.[33]

Oppression and resurgence in Russia[edit] The Chabad
Chabad
movement was subject to government oppression in Russia. The Russian government, first under the Czar, later under the Bolsheviks, imprisoned all but one of the Chabad
Chabad
rebbes.[41][42] The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
also imprisoned, exiled and executed a number of Chabad Hasidim.[43][44][45] Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chabad
Chabad
is not persecuted by the Russian government. Chabad
Chabad
Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Russia, Berel Lazar, has good relations with Russian President Vladimir Putin.[46] Lazar also received the Order of Friendship and Order "For Merit to the Fatherland"
Order "For Merit to the Fatherland"
medals from him.[47] Relations with other Hasidic groups[edit] In the 1980s, tensions arose between Chabad
Chabad
and Satmar
Satmar
Chasidim as the result of several assaults on Chabad
Chabad
hasidim by Satmar hasidim.[48][49][50] Philosophy[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
philosophy Chabad
Chabad
Hasidic philosophy
Hasidic philosophy
focuses on religious and spiritual concepts such as God, the soul, and the meaning of the Jewish commandments. Classical Judaic writings and Jewish mysticism, especially the Zohar and the Kabbalah
Kabbalah
of Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac Luria, are frequently cited in Chabad works. These texts are used both as sources for Chabad
Chabad
teachings, as well as material requiring interpretation by Chabad
Chabad
authors. Chabad philosophy is rooted in the teachings of Rabbis Yisroel ben Eliezer, (the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism) and Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch" ( Rabbi
Rabbi
Yisroel's successor).[citation needed] Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman's teachings formed the basis of Chabad
Chabad
philosophy, as expanded by succeeding generations. Many Chabad
Chabad
activities today are understood as applications of Shneur Zalman's teachings.[citation needed] Tanya[edit] Main article: Tanya Sefer HaTanya, Shneur Zalman's magnum opus, is the first schematic treatment of Hasidic moral philosophy and its metaphysical foundations.[31] The original name of the first book is Sefer Shel Beinonim, the Book
Book
of the Intermediates. It is also known as Likutei Amarim — Collected Sayings. Sefer Shel Beinonim analyzes the inner struggle of the individual and the path to resolution. Citing the biblical verse "the matter is very near to you, in your mouth, your heart, to do",[51] the philosophy is based on the notion that the human is not inherently evil; rather, every individual has an inner conflict that is characterized with two different inclinations, the good and the bad.[52] "Chabad"[edit] According to Shneur Zalman's seminal work Tanya, the intellect consists of three interconnected processes: Chochma (wisdom), Bina (understanding), and Da'at (knowledge). While other branches of Hasidism focused primarily on the idea that "God desires the heart," Shneur Zalman argued that God also desires the mind, and that the mind is the "gateway" to the heart. With the Chabad philosophy
Chabad philosophy
he elevated the mind above the heart, arguing that "understanding is the mother of fear and love for God".[53] Chabad
Chabad
often contrasted itself with what is termed the Chagat
Chagat
schools of Hasidism.[54] While all schools of Hasidism have a certain focus on the emotions, Chagat
Chagat
saw emotions as a reaction to physical stimuli, such as dancing, singing, or beauty. Shneur Zalman, on the other hand, taught that the emotions must be led by the mind, and thus the focus of Chabad
Chabad
thought was to be Torah
Torah
study and prayer rather than esotericism and song.[31] As a Talmudist, Shneur Zalman endeavored to place Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Hasidism on a rational basis. In Tanya, he defines his approach as moach shalit al halev (Hebrew: "מוח שליט על הלב", "the brain ruling the heart").[55] Community[edit]

A Lag BaOmer
Lag BaOmer
parade in front of Chabad
Chabad
headquarters at 770 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York, in 1987

An adherent of Chabad
Chabad
is called a Chabad
Chabad
Chasid (or Hasid) (Hebrew: חסיד חב"ד‎), a Lubavitcher (Yiddish: ליובאַוויטשער‎), a Chabadnik (Hebrew: חבדניק‎), or a Chabadsker (Yiddish: חבדסקער‎).[56] Chabad's adherents include both Hasidic followers, as well as non-Hasidim, who have joined Chabad
Chabad
synagogues and other Chabad
Chabad
run institutions.[57] The Chabad
Chabad
community consists of the followers (Hasidim) of the Chabad Rebbes. Originally, based in Eastern Europe, today, various Chabad communities span the globe; the communities with higher concentrations of Chabad's Hasidic followers are located in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, and Kfar Chabad, Israel. Other communities hold smaller population sizes.[citation needed] According to sociologists studying contemporary Jewry, the Chabad movement fits into neither the standard category of Haredi
Haredi
nor that of modern Orthodox among Orthodox Jews. This is due in part to the existence of the "non-Orthodox Hasidim", the general lack of official recognition of political and religious distinctions within Judaism
Judaism
and the open relationship with non-Orthodox Jews
Jews
represented by the activism of Chabad
Chabad
emissaries.[57][58] Demographics[edit] Demographic accounts on the Chabad
Chabad
movement vary. Chabad
Chabad
adherents are often reported to number some 200,000 persons.[18][20][21] Some scholars have pointed to the lack of quantitative data to back this claim,[59] and some place the number of Chabad
Chabad
followers at around 40,000 but note that the number may be higher if the non-Hasidic Jews who join Chabad
Chabad
synagogues are included as well.[17] Compared to other Hasidic groups, Chabad
Chabad
is currently thought to be the largest,[60] the third[61] or fourth[62] largest Hasidic movement. United States[edit]

President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
receives menorah from the "American Friends of Lubavitch," White House, 1984

An estimate for Chabad
Chabad
in the United States places the movement's followers in the US at around 18,600. The estimate is drawn from existing data on the Montreal Chabad
Chabad
community, and Chabad
Chabad
day school figures.[63]

Crown Heights – The Crown Heights Chabad
Chabad
community's estimated size is 10,000 to 12,000[17] or 12,000 to 16,000.[64] In 2006, extrapolating based on census data, it was estimated that the Chabad community in Crown Heights make up some 11,000. It was estimated that between 25% to 35% of Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim in Crown Heights speak Yiddish. This figure is significantly lower than other Hasidic groups and may be attributed to the addition of previously non-Hasidic Jews
Jews
to the community. It was also estimated that over 20% of Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim in Crown Heights speak Hebrew
Hebrew
or Russian.[65] The Crown Heights Chabad community has its own Beis Din (rabbinical court) and Crown Heights Jewish Community Council (CHJCC).

Chabad hipsters – Beginning from the late 2000s through the 2010s, a minor trend of cross acculturation of Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim and contemporary hipster subculture appeared within the New York Jewish community. According to The Jewish Daily Forward, a significant number of members of the Chabad
Chabad
Hasidic community, mostly residing in Crown Heights, Brooklyn, appear to now have adopted various cultural affinities of the local hipster subculture. These members are referred to as Chabad hipsters or Hipster Hasidim.[66][67]

Student body in the United States[edit] The report findings of studies on Jewish day schools and supplementary Jewish education in the United States show that the student body currently enrolled in some 295 Chabad
Chabad
schools exceeds 20,750.[68][69][70] Israel[edit]

Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad
– Kfar Chabad's estimated size is 5,100; the residents of the town are believed to all be Chabad
Chabad
adherents. This estimate is based on figures published by the Israeli Census Bureau.[71] Other estimates place the community population at around 7,000.[64] The Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Kfar Chabad
Kfar Chabad
is Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Ashkenazi. Safed
Safed
– The Chabad
Chabad
community in Safed
Safed
(or Tzfat) originates from the wave of Eastern European immigration to Israel
Israel
of 1777–1840. The Chabad
Chabad
community established synagogues and institutions in Safed. The early settlement declined by the 20th century but was renewed following an initiative by the seventh Rebbe
Rebbe
in the early 1970s, which reestablished the Chabad
Chabad
community in the city.[72] Rabbi
Rabbi
Yeshaya HaLevi Horowitz (1883–1978), a Safed
Safed
native and direct descendant of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yeshaya Horowitz, author of the Shnei Luchot HaBrit, served as the rabbi of the Chabad
Chabad
community in Safed
Safed
from 1908 until his immigration to the U.S. during World War I.[73] Members of the Chabad community run a number of outreach efforts during the Jewish holidays. Activities include blowing the shofar for the elderly on Rosh Hashana, reading the Megilla for hospital patients on Purim and setting up a Sukka on the town's main street during the Succoth holiday.[72]

France[edit] The Chabad
Chabad
community in France is estimated to be between 10,000 and 15,000. The majority of the Chabad
Chabad
community in France are the descendants of immigrants from North Africa
Africa
(specifically Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) during the 1960s.[64] Canada[edit]

Montreal – The estimated size of the Chabad
Chabad
community of Greater Montreal is 1,590. The estimate is taken from a 2003 community study.[74][75] The Chabad
Chabad
community in Montreal originated sometime prior to 1931. While early works on Canadian Jewry make little or no mention of early Hasidic life in Canada, later researchers have documented accounts of Chabad
Chabad
in Canada starting from the 1900s and 1910s. Steven Lapidus notes that there is mention of two Chabad congregations in a 1915 article in Canadian Jewish Chronicle listing the delegates of the first Canadian Jewish Conference. One congregation is listed as Chabad
Chabad
of Toronto, the other is simply listed as "Libavitzer Congregation". Sociologist William Shaffir has noted that some Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim and sympathizers did reside in Montreal prior to 1941 but does not elaborate further. Steven Lapidus also notes that in a 1931 obituary published in Keneder Odler, a Canadian Yiddish
Yiddish
newspaper, the deceased, Rabbi
Rabbi
Menashe Lavut, is credited as the founder of Anshei Chabad
Chabad
in Montreal and the Nusach Ari synagogue. Thus the Chabad
Chabad
presence in Montreal predates 1931.[76]

Ashkenazim and Sephardim[edit] Though the Chabad
Chabad
movement was founded in Eastern Europe, a center of Ashkenazic Jewry, it has in the past several decades attracted a significant number of Sephardi Jews
Jews
as adherents.[77] Some Chabad communities are now a mix of Ashkenazi and Sephardi Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim. In Montreal, close to 25% of Chabad
Chabad
households include a Sephardi parent.[78][79] Customs and holidays[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
customs and holidays Customs[edit] Chabad
Chabad
adherents follow Chabad
Chabad
traditions and prayer services based on Lurianic kabbalah.[80] General Chabad
Chabad
customs, called minhagim (or minhagei Chabad), distinguish the movement from other Hasidic groups. Some of the main Chabad
Chabad
customs are minor practices performed on traditional Jewish holidays:

Passover
Passover
– It is customary in Chabad
Chabad
communities, on passover, to limit contact of matzah (an unleavened bread eaten on passover) with water. This custom is called gebrokts (Yiddish: געבראָכטס‎, lit. 'broken'). However, on the last day of passover, it is customary to intentionally have matzah come in contact with water.[81] Chanukah
Chanukah
– It is the custom of Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim to place the Chanukah menorah against the room's doorpost (and not on the windowsill).[82][83][84] Prayer – The founder of Chabad
Chabad
wrote a very specific liturgy for the daily and festival prayers based on the teachings of the Kabbalists, primarily the Arizal. The founder of Chabad
Chabad
also instituted various other Halachic rulings, including the use of stainless steel knives for the slaughter of animal before human consumption, which is by now universally accepted in all sects of Judaism.

Holidays[edit] There are a number of days marked by the Chabad
Chabad
movement as special days. Major holidays include the liberation dates of the leaders of the movement, the Rebbes of Chabad, others corresponded to the leaders' birthdays, anniversaries of death, and other life events. The days marking the leaders' release, are celebrated by the Chabad movement as "Days of Liberation" (Hebrew: יום גאולה (Yom Geulah)). The most noted day is Yud Tes Kislev
Yud Tes Kislev
– The liberation of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of the Chabad
Chabad
movement. The day is also called the "New Year of Hasidism".[85] The birthdays of several of the movement's leaders are celebrated each year include Chai Elul, the birthday of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the founder of the Chabad
Chabad
movement,[86][87] and Yud Aleph Nissan, the birthday of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh rebbe of Chabad.[88] The anniversaries of death, or yartzeit, of several of the movement's leaders are celebrated each year, include Yud Shvat, the yartzeit of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, the sixth rebbe of Chabad,[89] Gimmel Tammuz, the yartzeit of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the seventh rebbe of Chabad,[89][90] and Chof Beis Shvat, the yartzeit of Chaya Mushka Schneerson, the wife of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson.[91] Influence[edit] Chabad's influence since World War Two
World War Two
has been far reaching among world Jewry. Chabad
Chabad
pioneered the post- World War II
World War II
Jewish outreach movement, which spread Judaism
Judaism
to many assimilated Jews
Jews
worldwide, leading to a substantial number of baalei teshuva ("returnees" to Judaism). The very first Yeshiva/Rabbinical College for such baalei teshuva, Hadar Hatorah, was established by the Lubavitcher Rebbe. It is reported that up to a million Jews
Jews
attend Chabad
Chabad
services at least once a year.[22][23] According to Steven I. Weiss, Chabad's ideology has dramatically influenced non-Hasidic Jews' outreach practice.[92] Because of its outreach to all Jews, including those quite alienated from religious Jewish tradition, Chabad
Chabad
has been described as the one Orthodox group to evoke great affection from large segments of American Jewry.[93] Organizations[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
affiliated organizations Chabad's central organization representing the movement at large, Agudas Chasidei Chabad, is headed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Abraham Shemtov. The educational, outreach and social services arms, Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch and Machneh Israel
Israel
is headed by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yehuda Krinsky, as well as the Chabad-Lubavitch publishing house, Kehot Publication Society. Local Chabad
Chabad
centers and institutions are usually incorporated as separate legal entities.[94] Institutions[edit] As of 2007 there are 3,300 Chabad
Chabad
institutions around the world.[12][13][14] As of 2006 there were Chabad
Chabad
centers in 75 countries.[15] Listed on the Chabad
Chabad
movement's online directory are around 1,350 Chabad
Chabad
institutions. This number includes schools and other Chabad-affiliated establishments. The number of Chabad
Chabad
centers vary per country; the majority are in the United States and Israel. There are over 40 countries with a small Chabad
Chabad
presence. In total, according to its directory, Chabad
Chabad
maintains a presence in 950 cities around the world: 178 in Europe, 14 in Africa, 200 in Israel, 400 in North America, 38 in South America, and about 70 in Asia
Asia
(excluding Israel, including Russia).[16] By geographic region[edit]

Russia's Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel Lazar
Berel Lazar
(left) speaks with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 28 December 2016

See also Chabad
Chabad
institutions by geographic region Chabad
Chabad
presence varies from region to region. The continent with the highest concentration of Chabad
Chabad
centers is North America. The continent with the least centers is Africa.[95][96][97][98][99]

Geographic location Chabad
Chabad
institutions

North America 2,894

South America 208

Europe 1,133

Asia 615

Africa 55

Oceania 67

Total 4,972

The " Chabad
Chabad
House"[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
house A Chabad house
Chabad house
is a form of Jewish community center, primarily serving both educational and observance purposes.[100] Often, until the community can support its own center, the Chabad house
Chabad house
is located in the shaliach's home, with the living room being used as the "synagogue". Effort is made to provide an atmosphere in which the nonobservant will not feel intimidated by any perceived contrast between their lack of knowledge of Jewish practice and the advanced knowledge of some of the people they meet there.[101] The term "Chabad House" originated with the creation of the first such outreach center on the campus of UCLA by Rabbi
Rabbi
Shlomo Cunin.[102] A key to the Chabad house was given to the Rebbe
Rebbe
and he asked if that meant that the new house was his home. He was told yes and he replied, "My hand will be on the door of this house to keep it open twenty-four hours a day for young and old, men and women alike."[103] In the 2008 Mumbai attacks, the local Chabad house
Chabad house
was targeted.[104][105] The local Chabad
Chabad
emissaries, Rabbi
Rabbi
Gavriel Holtzberg and his wife Rivka, and four other Jews
Jews
were tortured and murdered by Islamic terrorists.[106] Chabad
Chabad
received condolences from around the world.[107] Fundraising[edit] Funds for activities of a Chabad
Chabad
center rely entirely on the local community. Chabad
Chabad
centers do not receive funding from Lubavitch headquarters. For the day-to-day operations, local emissaries do all the fundraising by themselves. Chabad
Chabad
emissaries often solicit the support of local Jews.[108] Funds are used toward purchasing or renovating Chabad
Chabad
centers, synagogues and Mikvahs.[109] Activities[edit] The Chabad
Chabad
movement has been involved in numerous activities in contemporary Jewish life. These activities include providing Jewish education to different age groups, outreach to non-affiliated Jews, publishing Jewish literature, summer camps for children among other activities. Education[edit] Chabad
Chabad
runs a number of educational institutions. Most are Jewish day schools; others offer secondary and adult education.

Day schools – In the United States, there are close to 300 day schools and supplementary schools run by Chabad.[68][69] Secondary schools – Chabad
Chabad
runs multiple secondary education institutions, most notable are Tomchei Tmimim for young men, and Bais Rivka for young women. Adult education – Chabad
Chabad
run adult education programs include those organized by the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute,[110][111][112][113][114][115] and the Jewish Learning Network.

Outreach activities[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
outreach

Group photo of Chabad
Chabad
Shluchim (emissaries) in 2007

Much of the movement's activities emphasize on outreach activities. This is due to Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
encouraging his followers to reach out to other Jews.[116] Chabad outreach
Chabad outreach
includes activities promoting the practice of Jewish commandments (Mitzvah campaigns), as well as other forms of Jewish outreach. Much of Chabad's outreach is performed by Chabad
Chabad
emissaries (see Shaliach (Chabad)). Mitzvah campaigns[edit] Main article: Mitzvah campaigns The Rebbes of Chabad
The Rebbes of Chabad
have issued the call to all Jews
Jews
to attract non-observant Jews
Jews
to adopt Orthodox Jewish observance, teaching that this activity is part of the process of bringing the Messiah. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
issued a call to every Jew: "Even if you are not fully committed to a Torah
Torah
life, do something. Begin with a mitzvah — any mitzvah — its value will not be diminished by the fact that there are others that you are not prepared to do".[117] Schneerson also suggested ten specific mitzvot that he believed were ideally suited for the emissaries to introduce to non-observant Jews. These were called "mivtzoim" — meaning "campaigns" or "endeavors". These were: lighting candles before Shabbat
Shabbat
and the Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
by Jewish women; putting on tefillin; affixing a mezuzah; regular Torah study; giving Tzedakah; purchasing Jewish books; observing kashrut (kosher); kindness to others; Jewish religious education, and observing the family purity laws.[citation needed] In addition, Schneerson emphasized spreading awareness of preparing for and the coming of the moshiach Jewish messiah, consistent with his philosophy. He wrote on the responsibility to reach out to teach every fellow Jew with love, and implored that all Jews
Jews
believe in the imminent coming of the moshiach as explained by Maimonides. He argued that redemption was predicated on Jews
Jews
doing good deeds, and that gentiles should be educated about the Noahide Laws. Chabad
Chabad
has been a prime force in disseminating awareness of these laws.[citation needed] Schneerson was emphatic about the need to encourage and provide strong education for every child, Jew and non-Jew alike. In honor of Schneerson's efforts in education the United States Congress
United States Congress
has made Education and Sharing Day
Education and Sharing Day
on the Rebbe's Hebrew
Hebrew
Birthday (11 Nissan). Shluchim (Emissaries)[edit] Main article: Shaliach (Chabad) Following the initiative of Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
spurred on the movement to what has become known as shlichus ("serving as an emissary [performing outreach]") in 1950–1951. As a result, Chabad
Chabad
shluchim ("emissaries", sing. shliach) have moved all over the world with the stated mission of encouraging non-observant Jews
Jews
to adopt Orthodox Jewish observance. They assist Jews
Jews
with all their religious needs, as well as with physical assistance and spiritual guidance and teaching. The stated goal is to encourage Jews
Jews
to learn more about their Jewish heritage and to practice Judaism.[118] The Chabad
Chabad
movement, motivated by Schneerson, has trained and ordained thousands of rabbis, educators, ritual slaughterers, and ritual circumcisers, who are then accompanied by their spouses to many locations around the world. Typically, a young Lubavitch rabbi and his wife, in their early twenties, with one or two children, will move to a new location, and as they settle in will raise a large family who, as a family unit, will aim to fulfill their mandate of bringing Jewish people closer to Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
and encouraging gentiles to adhere to the Seven Laws of Noah.[118] To date, there around 5000 shluchim in 100 different countries.[9] Mitzvah tank[edit] Main article: Mitzvah tank

Chabad Lubavitch
Chabad Lubavitch
Mitzvah tank
Mitzvah tank
in Golders Green, London

A mitzvah tank is a vehicle used by Chabad
Chabad
members involved in outreach as a portable "educational and outreach center" and "mini-synagogue" (or "minagogue"). Mitzvah tanks are commonly used for advancing the Mitzvah campaigns. Mitzvah tanks have been commonplace on the streets of New York City
New York City
since 1974.[119] Today, they are used all over the globe, in countries where Chabad
Chabad
is active. Campus outreach[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
on Campus Foundation In recent years, Chabad
Chabad
has greatly expanded its outreach on university and college campuses. Chabad
Chabad
Student Centers are active on over 100 campuses, and Chabad
Chabad
offers varied activities at an additional 150 universities worldwide.[120] Professor Alan Dershowitz has said "Chabad's presence on college campuses today is absolutely crucial," and "we cannot rest until Chabad
Chabad
is on every major college campus in the world."[121] Publishing[edit] Main article: Kehot Publication Society Chabad
Chabad
publishes and distributes Jewish religious literature. Under Kehot Publication Society, Chabad's main publishing house, Jewish literature has been translated into 12 different languages. Kehot regularly provides books at discounted prices, and hosts book-a-thons. Kehot commonly distributes books written or transcribed from the rebbes of Chabad, prominent chassidim and other authors who have written Jewish materials. Kehot is a division of Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, the movement's educational arm. Media[edit] More than any other Jewish movement, Chabad
Chabad
has used media as part of its religious, social, and political experience. Their latest leader, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, was the most video-documented Jewish leader in history.[122][page needed] Chabad.org[edit] Main article: Chabad.org The Chabad
Chabad
movement publishes a wealth of Jewish material on the internet. Chabad's main website Chabad.org, is one of the first Jewish websites[123] and the first and largest virtual congregation.[124][125] It serves not just its own members but Jews worldwide in general.[126] Community websites[edit] Main article: List of Chabad
Chabad
websites Popular Chabad
Chabad
community websites include collive.com, CrownHeights.info, Chabad.org, Shmais.com, Chdailynews.com, and the Hebrew
Hebrew
site, COL.org.il.[127][128] Summer camps[edit] Main article: Gan Israel
Israel
Camping Network Chabad
Chabad
has set up an extensive network of camps around the world, most using the name Gan Israel, a name chosen by Schneerson although the first overnight camp was the girls division called Camp Emunah. There are 1,200 sites serving 210,000 children — most of whom do not come from Orthodox homes. Of these, 500 camps are in the United States.[129][130] Political activities[edit] Schneerson involved himself in matters relating to the resolution of the Israeli-Arab
Israeli-Arab
conflict.[131] He maintained that as a matter of Jewish law,[132] any territorial concession on Israel's part would endanger the lives of all Jews
Jews
in the Land of Israel, and is therefore forbidden. He also insisted that even discussing the possibility of such concessions showed weakness, would encourage Arab attacks, and therefore endanger Jewish lives.[133] In USA domestic politics, Schneerson supported government involvement in education and welcomed the establishment of the United States Department of Education in 1980, yet insisted that part of a school's educational mission was to incorporate the values espoused in the Seven Laws of Noah. He called for the introduction of a moment of silence at the beginning of the school day, and for students to be encouraged to use this time for such improving thoughts or prayers as their parents might suggest.[134] In 1981, Schneerson publicly called for the use of solar energy. Schneerson believed that the USA could achieve energy independence by developing solar energy technologies. He argued that the dependence on foreign oil may lead to the country compromising on its principles.[135][136] Library dispute with Russia[edit] In 2013, US federal judge Royce Lamberth ruled in favor of Chabad lawyers that wanted contempt sanctions on three Russian organizations to return the Schneersohn Library – 12,000 books belonging to Rabbi Yosef Schneersohn seized and nationalized by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in 1917-18, to the Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Chabad
Chabad
Library.[47][137] Lazar reluctantly accepted Putin's request in moving the Schneerson Library to Moscow's Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center
Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center
as a form of compromise, which was criticized by the Chabad
Chabad
Library.[47] Controversies[edit] Several movement-wide controversies have occurred in Chabad's 200-year history. Two major leadership succession controversies occurred in the 1800s, one took place in the 1810s following the death of the movement's founder, the other occurred in the 1860s following the death of the third Rebbe. Two other minor offshoot groups were formed later in the movement's history. The movement's other major controversy is Chabad
Chabad
messianism, which began in the 1990s. Chabad messianism appears to be among the most frequently cited controversies within the Orthodox Jewish community. Succession disputes and offshoot groups[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
offshoot groups A number of groups have split from the Chabad
Chabad
movement, forming their own Hasidic groups, and at times, positioning themselves as possible successors of previous Chabad
Chabad
rebbes. Following the deaths of the first and third rebbes of Chabad, disputes arose over their succession.

The death of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman – Following the death of Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the first Chabad
Chabad
rebbe, a dispute over his succession led to a break within the movement. While the recognized successor was Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber Schneuri, a student of Rabbi
Rabbi
Shneur Zalman, Rabbi
Rabbi
Aaron HaLevi assumed the title of rebbe, and led a number of followers from the town of Strashelye. The new group had two rebbes, Rabbi
Rabbi
Aaron and his son Rabbi
Rabbi
Haim Rephael. The new group eventually disbanded, following Rabbi
Rabbi
Haim Rephael's death.[28][138] One of the main points the two rabbis disagreed on was the place of spiritual ecstasy in prayer. R' Aharon supported the idea while Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber emphasized genuine ecstasy can only be a result of meditative contemplation (hisbonenus). Rabbi
Rabbi
Dovber published his arguments on the subject in an compilation titled Kuntres Hispa'alus ("Tract on Ecstasy").[139] The death of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn
(the Tzemach Tzedek) – Following the death of the third Chabad
Chabad
rebbe, Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneersohn (the Tzemach Tzedek), a dispute over his succession led to the formation of several Chabad
Chabad
groups. While Rabbi
Rabbi
Shmuel Schneersohn was recognized as the heir to the Chabad-Lubavitch line, several of his brothers formed groups of their own in the towns of Kopys (forming the Kapust dynasty), Nezhin
Nezhin
(forming the Niezhin dynasty), Lyady (forming the Liadi dynasty), and Ovruch
Ovruch
(forming the Avrutch dynasty). The lifespan of these groups varied; Niezhin and Avrutch had one rebbe each, Liadi had two rebbes, and Kapust had four. Following the deaths of their last rebbes, these groups eventually disbanded.[140][141][142][143][144]

Others[edit] Two other minor offshoot groups were formed by Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim:

The Malachim – The Malachim were formed as a quasi-Hasidic group. The group claims to recognize the teachings of the first four rebbes of Chabad, thus rivaling the later Chabad
Chabad
rebbes. The Malachim's first and only rebbe, Rabbi
Rabbi
Chaim Avraham Dov Ber Levine haCohen (1859/1860–1938), also known as "The Malach" (lit. "the angel"), was a follower of the fourth and fifth rebbes of Chabad.[145][146][147] While Levine did not leave a successor, the Malachim group continues to maintain a yeshiva and minyan in Williamsburg, Brooklyn. Liozna - Following the death of the seventh Chabad
Chabad
Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, an attempt by Shaul Shimon Deutsch to form a breakaway Chabad
Chabad
movement, with Deutsch as " Liozna Rebbe", fails to gain popular support.[148][149][150][151]

Messianism[edit] Main article: Chabad
Chabad
messianism In the late 1980s, the Rebbe
Rebbe
called for his followers to become involved in outreach activities with the purpose of bringing about the Jewish Messianic Age.[31] Statements concerning the advancement of the Messianic age was a factor leading to the controversy surrounding the messianic beliefs of some members of the movement.[152] Some Chabad Hasidim, called mashichists, "have not yet accepted the Rebbe's passing"[153] and even after his death regard him as the (living) 'King Messiah' and 'Moses of the generation'. In the arts[edit] Art[edit] Chabad
Chabad
Hasidic artists Hendel Lieberman and Zalman Kleinman have painted a number of scenes depicting Chabad
Chabad
Hasidic culture, including religious ceremonies, study and prayer. Chabad
Chabad
artist Michoel Muchnik has painted scenes of the Mitzvah Campaigns.[122]:156 Artist and shaliach Yitzchok Moully has adapted silkscreen techniques, bright colours and Jewish and Hasidic images to create a form of "Chasidic Pop Art".[154] Music[edit] Vocalists Avraham Fried
Avraham Fried
and Benny Friedman have included recordings of traditional Chabad
Chabad
songs on their albums of contemporary Orthodox Jewish music. Bluegrass artist Andy Statman
Andy Statman
has also recorded Chabad niggunim. Reggae artist Matisyahu
Matisyahu
has included portions of Chabad
Chabad
niggunim and lyrics with Chabad
Chabad
philosophical themes in some of his songs. Literature[edit] Novelist Chaim Potok
Chaim Potok
authored a work My Name is Asher Lev
My Name is Asher Lev
in which a Hasidic teen struggles between his artistic passions and the norms of the community. The "Ladover" community is a thinly veiled reference to the Lubavitcher community in Crown Heights.[155][156] Chabad
Chabad
poet Zvi Yair has written poems on Chabad
Chabad
philosophical topics including Ratzo V'Shov (spiritual yearning). Film[edit] The Chabad-Lubavitch community has been the subject of a number of documentary films. These films include:

The Spark – a 28-minute film, produced in 1974, providing an overview of the Lubavitch and Satmar
Satmar
of New York[157] Religious America: Lubavitch – a 28-minute, 1974 PBS
PBS
documentary focusing on a day in the life of a Lubavitcher man[157] King of Crown Heights – a 60-minute, 1993 film on Lubavitcher Hasidim by Columbia University
Columbia University
student Roggerio Gabbai[157] Shekinah – a 70 min, 2013 documentary exploring the perspectives of the female students of a Chabad
Chabad
school in Montreal[158][159] Project 2x1
Project 2x1
– a 30 min, 2013 documentary on the Chabad
Chabad
Hasidim and West Indian residents of Crown Heights, using Google Glass
Google Glass
in place of conventional camera techniques[160][161][162][163]

See also[edit]

Baal Shem Tov Hasidic philosophy

References[edit]

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Sichos In English, N.Y., 1990. ^ "Laws and Customs: Chanukah". CrownHeights.info. November 24, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Chabad
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Elul Customs". Shmais.com. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Menachem Mendel Schneerson. "Chai Elul: Breathing New Life Into Our Divine Service". Chabad. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ "Dade Jews
Jews
throw birthday party for New York Rabbi", David Hancock, Miami Herald, April 14, 1992 ^ a b "Yahrtzeit Observances". Chabad. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ "A Brief Biography". Chabad. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Chof Beis Shvat. Chabad.info. Archived December 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Weiss, Steven I (January 20, 2006). "Orthodox Rethinking Campus Outreach". The Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Jewish Literacy, Telushkin, William Morrow 2001, p. 471 ^ Burstein, Paul (2011). "Jewish Nonprofit Organizations in the U.S.: A Preliminary Survey". Contemporary Jewry. 31 (2): 129–148. doi:10.1007/s12397-010-9028-5.  ^ Lubavitch centers in Europe[not in citation given] ^ Lubavitch centers in South America[not in citation given] ^ Lubavitch centers in Australia[not in citation given] ^ Lubavitch centers in North America[not in citation given] ^ Lubavitch centers in Africa[not in citation given] ^ Marcelle S. Fischler (December 16, 2005). "Is It a Home or a House of Worship?". The New York Times. Retrieved January 13, 2015. [not in citation given] ^ " Passover
Passover
seders, around the world". Kentucky New Era. Associated Press. March 23, 2007. p. 28. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Challenge ^ Chumash Devarim. New York: Kehot Publication Society. 2011. pp. vii. ISBN 978-0-8266-0194-0.  ^ Ralph Blumenthal (November 29, 2008). "Jewish Center Is Stormed, and 6 Hostages Die". The New York Times. p. A13. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Joshua Runyan (November 30, 2008). "Funeral Preparations for Chabad House Victims Under Way". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ Damien McElroy (December 1, 2008). "Mumbai attacks: Jews
Jews
tortured before being executed during hostage crisis". Retrieved February 8, 2017.  ^ "Obama sends condolences to Chabad". Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA). December 4, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Mark Avrum Ehrlich (2004). The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present. Jersey City, N.J.: KTAV. p. 134. ISBN 0881258369.  ^ Fishkoff, Sue, The Rebbe's Army: Inside the World of Chabad-Lubavitch, Schocken Books 2003 (ISBN 08052 11381) pages 160–161. ^ Wertheimer, Jack (June 16, 2014). "Why the Lubavitch Movement Thrives in the Absence of a Living Rebbe". JA Mag in Jewish World. Orthodox Union. Retrieved 30 September 2014. Among the latter is the Jewish Learning Institute, the largest educational program for Jewish adults in the world (with the possible exception of the Daf Yomi enterprise), which currently enrolls over 66,000 teens and adults at some 850 sites around the world, each following a prescribed course of study according to a set timetable.  ^ Wertheimer, Jack. "The Outreach Revolution". Commentary Magazine. Retrieved April 2, 2013.  ^ " Chabad
Chabad
hosts Jewish perspectives on staying positive". New Jersey Hills Media Group, Bernardsville, NJ. Hanover Eagle. October 30, 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 'How Happiness Thinks' was created by the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute- an internationally acclaimed adult education program running on over 350 cities worldwide, which boast over 75,000 students. This particular course builds on the latest observations and discoveries in the field of positive psychology. "How Happiness Thinks" offers participants the chance to earn up to 15 continuing education credits from the American Psychological Association (APA), American Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and the National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC).  ^ "New course to explore Jewish perspective on modern ethical dilemmas". Your Houston News. October 23, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2013.  ^ "Happiness focus of JLI presentation". Tahoe Daily Tribune. October 30, 2014. Retrieved 3 November 2014. JLI, the adult education branch of Chabad
Chabad
Lubavitch, offers programs in more than 350 U.S. cities and in numerous foreign locations, including Australia, Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. More than 260,000 students have attended JLI classes since the organization was founded in 1998.  ^ Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2014). "National Jewish Organizations". American Jewish Year Book
Book
(Volume 113 ed.). Springer International Publishing. pp. 447–597. ISBN 978-3-319-01657-3. ... is currently the largest provider of adult Jewish learning. JLI's mission is to inspire Jewish learning worldwide and to transform Jewish life and the greater community through Torah
Torah
study. Its goal is to create a global network of informed students connected by bonds of shared Jewish experience. JLI's holistic approach to Jewish study considers the impact of Jewish values on personal and interpersonal growth. (The authors of the book are Professor Ira Sheskin of Department of Geography and Regional Studies, The Jewish Demography Project, The Sue and Leonard Miller Center for Contemporary Judaic Studies, University of Miami, and Professor Arnold Dashefsky, Department of Sociology, The Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut.)  ^ Hayom Yom, p. A38 ^ "The Rebbe's 10-Point Mitzvah Campaign". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ a b Fishkoff, Sue, The Rebbe's Army, Schocken books 2003 (ISBN 08052 11381)[page needed] ^ "1974: The Mitzvah Tank on". Chabad. Retrieved 2011-04-13.  ^ "Directory of Chabad
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on Campus". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-05-12. [not in citation given] ^ "Address by Professor Alan Dershowitz". Oxford Chabad
Chabad
Society. 2005-11-27. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ a b Maya Balakirsky Katz (2010). The Visual Culture of Chabad. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Zaleski, Jeffrey P. (June 1997). The Soul of Cyberspace: How New Technology Is Changing Our Spiritual Lives. Harpercollins. ISBN 0-06-251451-2. Retrieved April 7, 2007.  ^ Our Founding Director Archived August 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Chabad.org ^ Harmon, Ami (December 13, 1998). "Yosef Kazen, Hasidic Rabbi
Rabbi
And Web Pioneer, Dies at 44". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2010.  ^ "Beliefs". The New York Times. January 22, 2000. Retrieved January 13, 2015.  ^ Golan, Oren (2012). "Frontiers of online religious communities: The case of Chabad
Chabad
Jews". In Heidi Campbell. Digital Religion: Understanding Religious Practice in New Media Worlds. Routledge. p. 160. ISBN 9780415676106. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2014.  ^ Shaer, Matthew (2011). Among Righteous Men: A Tale of Vigilantes and Vindication in Hasidic Crown Heights. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118095201. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 17, 2014. [page needed] ^ Julie Wiener (September 1, 2000). " Chabad
Chabad
camps electrify many Jews, not just Lubavitch". j. Jewish Telegraphic Agency.  ^ "Camp Gan Israel
Israel
Directory". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ "When Silence is a Sin". Sichos in English. Letter to Zalman Shazar Archived November 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Based on Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
Orach Chayim, 328 ^ Essentially his argument sought merely the position that would prevent loss of life, rather than taking a stance in the nature of the Land of Israel
Israel
and Zionism. Freeman, Tzvi. "Should I Pray for the Death of Terrorists?". Chabad. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ Hayom Yom, p. A29 ^ "Website video link". chabad.org. April 15, 1981. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ " Chabad.org website video link". chabad.org. 1981-04-15. Retrieved 2010-05-12.  ^ Avital Chizhik (30 September 2013). "Putin refuses to let the Lubavitcher Rebbe's library leave Moscow". Tablet. Retrieved 4 June 2017.  ^ Ehrlich, Avrum M.; Ehrlich, Mark Avrum (2000). "11: The Leadership of Dov Ber". Leadership in the HaBaD Movement: A critical evaluation of HaBaD leadership, history, and succession. Jason Aronson. ISBN 076576055X. [page needed] ^ Ehrlich, Leadership in the HaBaD Movement, pp. 160–192, esp. pp. 167–172. ^ Encyclopedia of Hasidism, entry: Schneersohn, Shmaryahu Noah. Naftali Lowenthal. Aronson, London 1996. ISBN 1-56821-123-6 ^ Kaminetzky, Yosef Y. (2005). Days in Chabad. Brooklyn: Kehot Publication Society. p. 19. ISBN 978-0826604897.  ^ " Rabbi
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Chaim Schneur Zalman of Liadi" (PDF). L'maan Yishmeu (128). 2012.  ^ Zevin, Shelomoh Yosef; Kaploun, Uri (1980). A Treasury of Chassidic Tales on the Torah: A Collection of Inspirational Chassidic Stories Relevant to the Weekly Torah
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Readings. 1. Mesorah Publications. p. 115. ISBN 0899069002.  ^ Dalfin, Chaim (1998). The Seven Chabad-Lubavitch Rebbes. Jason Aronson. ISBN 1461710138.  ^ B. Sobel, The M'lochim ^ Ehrlich, Leadership in the HaBaD Movement, pp. 269–271 ^ Mintz, Jerome R. (1992). Hasidic People: A Place in the New World. Harvard University Press. pp. 21–26. ISBN 0674041097.  ^ "Dissidents Name 'Rebbe'," The Forward, December 6, 1996 ^ Heinon, Herb, "Bigger than Death," Jerusalem Post, August 15, 1997 ^ Segall, Rebecca, "Holy Daze The problems of young Lubavitcher Hasidim in a world without the Rebbe," The Village Voice, September 30, 2000 ^ Eisenberg, Charles. The Book
Book
of Daniel: A Well Kept Secret. Xulon Press. 2007. Page 103. ^ "IDF Says 'No' to Meshichist 'Yechi' Yarmulkes". The Yeshiva
Yeshiva
World News. July 31, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ Posner, Zalman I. (Rabbi) (Fall 2002). The Splintering of Chabad (PDF) (Jewish Action-The Magazine of the Orthodox Union
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ed.). Orthodox Union. Retrieved 16 December 2014.  ^ "'Under the Black Hat' Pop Art in Jerusalem Focuses on Chassidim - Rabbi
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Yitzchok Moully brings spiritual and emotional depth to a new exhibit". www.chabad.org.  ^ "Hirsch Succeeds with Theatrical Production of "My Name is Asher Lev"".  ^ https://uta-ir.tdl.org/uta-ir/bitstream/handle/10106/5378/Cochrum_uta_2502M_10893.pdf?sequence=1 ^ a b c Documentary Films about Hasidism. PBS
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Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(1994). Hayom Yom. Kehot Publication Society. ISBN 0-8266-0669-5. 

Further reading[edit]

Telushkin, Joseph. Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Shneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi
Rabbi
in Modern History. Harperwave, 2014. Miller, Chaim. Turning Judaism
Judaism
Outward: A Biography of Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson the Seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe. Kol Menachem, 2014. Steinzaltz, Adin Even Israel. My Rebbe. Koren Publishers, 2014. Oberlander, Boruch and Elkanah Shmotkin. Early Years: The formative years of the Rebbe, Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem M. Schneerson, as told by documents and archival data, Kehot Publication Society. 2016. (ISBN 978-1-932349-04-7). Drake, Carolyn. "A Faith Grows in Brooklyn". National Geographic (February 2006). Ehrlich, Avrum M. Leadership in the Habad Movement: a Critical Evaluation of Habad Leadership, History, and Succession, Jason Aronson, 2000. (ISBN 0-7657-6055-X) Feldman, Jan L. Lubavitchers As Citizens: A Paradox of Liberal Democracy, Cornell University Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-8014-4073-4) Fishkoff, Sue. The Rebbe's Army: Inside the World of Chabad-Lubavitch, Schocken, 2003 (ISBN 0-8052-4189-2) Heilman, Samuel and Menachem Friedman. The Rebbe: The Life and Afterlife of Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
(Princeton University Press; 2010) 400 pages Hoffman, Edward. Despite All Odds: The Story of Lubavitch. Simon & Schuster, 1991 (ISBN 0-671-67703-9) Jacobson, Simon. Toward A Meaningful Life: The Wisdom of the Rebbe, William Morrow, 2002 (ISBN 0-06-051190-7) Katz, Maya Balakirsky, "Trademarks of Faith: " Chabad
Chabad
and Chanukah
Chanukah
in America", Modern Judaism, 29,2 (2009), 239–267. Challenge: an encounter with Lubavitch-Chabad, Lubavitch Foundation of Great Britain, 1973 ISBN 0-8266-0491-9 Mindel, Nissan. The Philosophy of Chabad. Chabad
Chabad
Research Center, 1973 (ISBN 082660417X) Schneerson, Menachem Mendel. On the Essence of Chasidus: A Chasidic Discourse by Rabbi
Rabbi
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
Menachem Mendel Schneerson
of Chabad-Lubavitch. Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch, 2003 (ISBN 0-8266-0466-8) Weiss, Steven I. "Orthodox Rethinking Campus Outreach" The Jewish Daily Forward (January 20, 2006)

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