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Ceuta
Ceuta
(assimilated pronunciation /ˈsjuːtə/ SEW-tə; also /ˈseɪʊtə/ SAY-uu-tə;[2] Spanish: [ˈθeuta]; Berber language: Sebta; Arabic: سبتة‎) is an 18.5-square-kilometre (7.1 sq mi) Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province
Cadiz province
on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture
M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture
in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa
Africa
and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa. It was part of Cádiz
Cádiz
province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga
Málaga
province. Ceuta, like Melilla
Melilla
and the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain
Spain
joined the European Union.[3] As of 2011, it has a population of 82,376.[1] Its population consists of Christians, Muslims and small minorities of Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
and ethnic Sindhi Hindus. Spanish is the official language, while Darija Arabic is also spoken by 40–50% of the population, which is of Moroccan origin.[4][5]

Contents

1 History

1.1 15th to 16th century 1.2 17th to 19th century 1.3 20th to 21st century 1.4 Ecclesiastical history

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Politics

3.1 Subdivisions 3.2 Dispute with Morocco

4 Economy

4.1 Transport

5 Demographics

5.1 Religion 5.2 Education

6 Migrants 7 Notable people from Ceuta

7.1 1083 to 1700 7.2 1700 to 1800 7.3 1800 to 1950 7.4 1950 to date

8 Twin towns and sister cities 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

Phoenician archeological site, dated in the 7th century BC, next to the Cathedral of Ceuta

Ceuta's location has made it an important commercial trade and military way-point for many cultures, beginning with the Carthaginians in the 5th century BC, who called the city Abyla; initially, this was also its name in Greek and Latin. It was known variously in Ancient Greek as: Ἀβύλη, Ἀβύλα, Ἀβλύξ, or Ἀβίλη στήλη (Abyle-Latn, Abila-Latn, Ablyx or Abile Stele, "Pillar of Abyle")[6] and in the Latin derivation from Greek as Abyla
Abyla
Mons Columna ("Mount Abyla" or "Column of Abyla"). Together with Gibraltar on the European side, it formed one of the famous "Pillars of Hercules".[6][7] Later, it was renamed for a formation of seven surrounding smaller mountains, collectively referred to as Septem Fratres ('[The] Seven Brothers') by Pomponius Mela, which lent their name to a Roman fortification known as Castellum ad Septem Fratres.[6] It changed hands again approximately 400 years later, when Vandal tribes ousted the Romans.[citation needed] After being controlled by the Visigoths, it then became an outpost of the Byzantine Empire. Ceuta
Ceuta
was an important Christian
Christian
center since the fourth century (as recent discovered ruins of a Roman basilica show[8]). In the 7th century the Umayyads tried to conquer the region but were unsuccessful. Byzantine governor, Julian (described as King of the Ghomara) who was a vassal of the Visigothic kings of Iberia changed his allegiance after the king Roderic
Roderic
raped his daughter, and exhorted the Muslims to invade the Iberian Peninsula. Under the leadership of the Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Muslims used Ceuta
Ceuta
as a staging ground for an assault on Visigothic Iberian Peninsula. After Julian's death, the Berbers
Berbers
took direct control of the city, which the indigenous Berber tribes resented. They destroyed Ceuta
Ceuta
during the Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellion led by Maysara al-Matghari in 740.

Arab Baths of Ceuta, built between the 11th and 13th centuries.

Ceuta
Ceuta
lay in ruins until it was resettled in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dynasty.[9] His great-grandson briefly allied his tribe with the Idrisids, but the Banu Isam rule ended in 931 when he abdicated in favor of Abd ar-Rahman III, the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph of Cordoba. Ceuta
Ceuta
reverted to Moorish
Moorish
Andalusian rule in 927 along with Melilla, and later Tangier, in 951.

Marinid Walls of Ceuta
Marinid Walls of Ceuta
built by Abu Sa'id Uthman II
Abu Sa'id Uthman II
in 1328

Chaos ensued with the fall of the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate in 1031. Following this Ceuta
Ceuta
and the rest of Muslim
Muslim
Iberia were controlled by successive North African dynasties. Starting in 1084, the Almoravid
Almoravid
Berbers
Berbers
ruled the region until 1147, when the Almohads conquered the land. Apart from Ibn Hud's rebellion of 1232, they ruled until the Tunisian Hafsids established control. The Hafsids' influence in the west rapidly waned, and Ceuta's inhabitants eventually expelled them in 1249. After this, a period of political instability persisted, under competing interests from the Kingdom of Fez
Kingdom of Fez
and the Kingdom of Granada. The Kingdom of Fez
Kingdom of Fez
finally conquered the region in 1387, with assistance from the Crown of Aragon. 15th to 16th century[edit]

Prince Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
during the Conquest of Ceuta

On the morning of 21 August 1415, king John I of Portugal
John I of Portugal
led his sons and their assembled forces in a surprise assault that would come to be known as the Conquest of Ceuta. The battle was almost anti-climactic, because the 45,000 men who traveled on 200 Portuguese ships caught the defenders of Ceuta
Ceuta
off guard and only suffered eight casualties. By nightfall the town was captured. On the morning of August 22, Ceuta was in Portuguese hands. Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches was asked to hoist what was to become the flag of Ceuta, which is identical to the flag of Lisbon, but in which the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
was added to the center, the original Portuguese flag and coat of arms of Ceuta
Ceuta
remained unchanged, and the modern-day Ceuta
Ceuta
flag features the configuration of the Portuguese shield.

Prince Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
Statue in Ceuta
Ceuta
Port

John's son Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
distinguished himself in the battle, being wounded during the conquest. The looting of the city proved to be less profitable than expected for John I; he decided to keep the city to pursue further enterprises in the area.[10] From 1415 to 1437 Pedro de Meneses, 1st Count of Vila Real
Pedro de Meneses, 1st Count of Vila Real
became the first governor of Ceuta. The Benemerine sultan started the Siege of Ceuta (1418) but was defeated by the first governor of Ceuta
Ceuta
before reinforcements arrived in the form of John, Constable of Portugal
John, Constable of Portugal
and his brother Henry the Navigator who were sent with troops to defend Ceuta. Under King John I of Portugals son, Duarte, the colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury. Trans-Saharan trade journeyed instead to Tangier. It was soon realised that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta
Ceuta
was worthless. In 1437, Duarte's brothers Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator
and Fernando, the Saint Prince
Fernando, the Saint Prince
persuaded him to launch an attack on the Marinid
Marinid
sultanate. The resulting Battle of Tangier
Tangier
(1437), led by Henry, was a debacle. In the resulting treaty, Henry promised to deliver Ceuta
Ceuta
back to the Marinids in return for allowing the Portuguese army to depart unmolested, which he reneged on.

1572 depiction of Ceuta

Possession of Ceuta
Ceuta
would indirectly lead to further Portuguese expansion. The main area of Portuguese expansion, at this time, was the coast of Magreb, where there was grain, cattle, sugar, and textiles, as well as fish, hides, wax, and honey.[11] Ceuta
Ceuta
had to endure alone for 43 years, until the position of the city was consolidated with the taking of Ksar es-Seghir
Ksar es-Seghir
(1458), Arzila
Arzila
and Tangier
Tangier
(1471) by the Portuguese. The city was recognized as a Portuguese possession by the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479) and by the Treaty of Tordesilhas
Treaty of Tordesilhas
(1494). In the 1540s the Portuguese began building the Royal Walls of Ceuta
Royal Walls of Ceuta
as they are today including bastions, a navigable moat and a drawbridge. Some of these bastions are still standing, like the bastions of Coraza Alta, Bandera and Mallorquines.[12]

The Royal Walls of Ceuta, built from 962 to the 18th century, and navigable moats.

Luís de Camões
Luís de Camões
lived in Ceuta
Ceuta
between 1549 and 1551, losing his right eye in battle, which influenced his work of poetry Os Lusíadas. In 1578 king Sebastian of Portugal
Sebastian of Portugal
died at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir (known as the Battle of Three Kings) in what is today northern Morocco, without descendants, triggering the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henry, succeeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders. When the Cardinal-King died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of king Manuel I of Portugal claimed the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato, and Philip II of Spain
Spain
(Uncle of former King Sebastian of Portugal), who would go on to be crowned king Philip I of Portugal in 1581, uniting the two crowns and overseas empires known as the Iberian Union.[13], which allowed the two kingdoms to continue without being merged. 17th to 19th century[edit] During the Iberian Union
Iberian Union
1580 to 1640, Ceuta
Ceuta
attracted many residents of Spanish origin.[14] Ceuta
Ceuta
became the only city of the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain
Spain
when Portugal
Portugal
regained its independence in the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640. On 1 January 1668 by the Treaty of Lisbon, King Afonso VI of Portugal recognized the formal allegiance of Ceuta
Ceuta
to Spain
Spain
and formally ceded Ceuta
Ceuta
to King Carlos II of Spain. The city was attacked by Moroccan forces under Moulay Ismail
Moulay Ismail
during the Siege of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1694-1727). During the longest siege in the history, the city underwent changes leading to the loss of its Portuguese character. While most of the military operations took place around the Royal Walls of Ceuta, there were also small-scale penetrations by Spanish forces at various points on the Moroccan coast, and seizure of shipping in the Strait of Gibraltar.

Fort of the Desnarigado, built in the 19th century. It houses a museum.

Disagreements regarding the border of Ceuta
Ceuta
resulted in the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60), which ended at the Battle of Tetuán.

20th to 21st century[edit]

A street in Ceuta, c. 1905–1910

In July 1936, General Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
took command of the Spanish Army of Africa
Africa
and rebelled against the Spanish republican government; his military uprising led to the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
of 1936–1939. Franco transported troops to mainland Spain
Spain
in an airlift using transport aircraft supplied by Germany and Italy. Ceuta
Ceuta
became one of the first casualties of the uprising: General Franco's rebel nationalist forces seized Ceuta, while at the same time the city came under fire from the air and sea forces of the official republican government.[15] The Llano Amarillo monument was erected to honor Francisco Franco, it was inaugurated on 13 July 1940. The tall obelisk has since been abandoned, but the shield symbols of the Falange
Falange
and Imperial Eagle remain visible.[16]

Bastion of la Coraza Alta on the shore of the Playa del Chorrillo beach.

When Spain
Spain
recognized the independence of Spanish Morocco
Morocco
in 1956, Ceuta
Ceuta
and the other plazas de soberanía remained under Spanish rule. Spain
Spain
considered them integral parts of the Spanish state, but Morocco has disputed this point. Culturally, modern Ceuta
Ceuta
is part of the Spanish region of Andalusia. It was attached to the province of Cádiz
Cádiz
until 1925, the Spanish coast being only 20 km (12.5 miles) away. It is a cosmopolitan city, with a large ethnic Arab Muslim
Muslim
minority as well as Sephardic Jewish and Hindu
Hindu
minorities.[17] On 5 November 2007, King Juan Carlos I
Juan Carlos I
visited the city, sparking great enthusiasm from the local population and protests from the Moroccan government.[18] It was the first time a Spanish head of state had visited Ceuta
Ceuta
in 80 years. Since 2010, Ceuta
Ceuta
(and Melilla) have declared the Muslim
Muslim
holiday of Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
or Feast of the Sacrifice, as an official public holiday. It is the first time a non- Christian
Christian
religious festival has been officially celebrated in Spain
Spain
since the Reconquista.[19][20] Ecclesiastical history[edit] The Catholic Diocese of Ceuta existed from 1417 to 1879. It was a suffragan of the Patriarchate of Lisbon
Patriarchate of Lisbon
until 1675 and the end of the Iberian Union, when Ceuta
Ceuta
chose to remain linked to the king of Spain. Since then it has been a suffragan of the archbishopric of Seville.[21] The Diocese of Tanger
Diocese of Tanger
was suppressed and incorporated to that of Ceuta
Ceuta
in 1570.[22] In 1851, upon the signature of the concordat between the Holy See
Holy See
and Spain, the diocese of Ceuta
Ceuta
was agreed to be suppressed, being combined into the Diocese of Cádiz
Cádiz
y Ceuta.[23] Until then in the Diocese of Cádiz
Cádiz
y Algeciras, the bishop was usually the apostolic administrator of Ceuta. The agreement was not implemented until 1879. Geography[edit]

Map of Ceuta
Ceuta
(Perejil islet is just off the coast, in the upper left of this map)

Perspective view of the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
facing eastwards; Spain and Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on the left; Morocco
Morocco
and Ceuta
Ceuta
on the right

Ceuta
Ceuta
is dominated by Monte Anyera, a hill along its western frontier with Morocco. The mountain is guarded by a military fort. Monte Hacho
Monte Hacho
on the Peninsula of Almina
Peninsula of Almina
overlooking the port is one of the possible locations for the southern pillar of the Pillars of Hercules of Greek legend (the other possibility being Jebel Musa).[24] Climate[edit] Ceuta
Ceuta
has a maritime-influenced Subtropical/Mediterranean climate, similar to nearby Spanish and Moroccan cities such as Tarifa, Algeciras
Algeciras
or Tangiers.[25] The average diurnal temperature variation is relatively low; the average annual temperature is 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) with average yearly highs of 21.4 °C (70.5 °F) and lows of 15.7 °C (60.3 °F) though the Ceuta
Ceuta
weather station has only been in operation since 2003.[26] Ceuta has relatively mild winters for the latitude, while summers are warm yet milder than in the interior of Southern Spain, due to the moderating effect of the Straits of Gibraltar. Summers are very dry, but yearly precipitation is still at 849 millimetres (33.4 in),[26] which could be considered a humid climate if the summers were not so arid.

Climate data for Ceuta
Ceuta
city (1m altitude)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.7 (71.1) 25.5 (77.9) 27.9 (82.2) 28.4 (83.1) 33.7 (92.7) 35.3 (95.5) 40.2 (104.4) 38.9 (102) 34.8 (94.6) 33.1 (91.6) 27.2 (81) 25.6 (78.1) 40.2 (104.4)

Average high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 16.7 (62.1) 17.8 (64) 19.4 (66.9) 22.5 (72.5) 25.8 (78.4) 28.9 (84) 28.5 (83.3) 26.1 (79) 22.9 (73.2) 18.9 (66) 16.7 (62.1) 21.7 (71.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6 (56.5) 14.2 (57.6) 15.0 (59) 16.5 (61.7) 19.2 (66.6) 22.3 (72.1) 25.0 (77) 25.1 (77.2) 23.0 (73.4) 20.2 (68.4) 16.5 (61.7) 14.4 (57.9) 18.8 (65.8)

Average low °C (°F) 11.1 (52) 11.6 (52.9) 12.2 (54) 13.6 (56.5) 15.9 (60.6) 18.8 (65.8) 21.1 (70) 21.7 (71.1) 19.9 (67.8) 17.5 (63.5) 14.0 (57.2) 12.2 (54) 15.8 (60.4)

Record low °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 4.4 (39.9) 7.2 (45) 9.0 (48.2) 10.5 (50.9) 13.2 (55.8) 16.3 (61.3) 18.0 (64.4) 15.3 (59.5) 12.2 (54) 7.4 (45.3) 6.3 (43.3) 1.3 (34.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 122 (4.8) 145 (5.71) 90 (3.54) 57 (2.24) 21 (0.83) 3 (0.12) 1 (0.04) 3 (0.12) 37 (1.46) 82 (3.23) 127 (5) 161 (6.34) 849 (33.43)

Average precipitation days 7 8 6 5 3 1 0 1 2 5 7 9 54

Average relative humidity (%) 72 75 68 71 66 67 61 70 72 75 73 73 70.3

Source: Weather.com,[27] WorldWeatherOnline,[28][26] and Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[29]

Politics[edit]

The Palacio de la Asamblea de Ceuta
Ceuta
is the seat of the Assembly of Ceuta.

Since 1995, Ceuta
Ceuta
is, along with Melilla, one of the two autonomous cities of Spain.[30] Ceuta
Ceuta
is known officially in Spanish as Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (English: Autonomous City of Ceuta), with a rank between a standard Spanish city and an autonomous community. Ceuta
Ceuta
is part of the territory of the European Union. The city was a free port before Spain joined the European Union
European Union
in 1986. Now it has a low-tax system within the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. As of 2006, its population was 75,861. Ceuta
Ceuta
has held elections every four years since 1979, for its 25-seat assembly. The leader of its government was the Mayor until the Autonomy Statute had the title changed to the Mayor-President. As of 2011[update], the People's Party (PP) won 18 seats, keeping Juan Jesús Vivas as Mayor-President, which he has been since 2001. The remaining seats are held by the regionalist Caballas Coalition
Caballas Coalition
(4) and the Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE, 3).[31] Due to its small population, Ceuta
Ceuta
elects only one member of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Spanish legislature. As of 2011[update] election, this post is held by Francisco Márquez de la Rubia of the PP.[32] Subdivisions[edit] Ceuta
Ceuta
is subdivided into 63 barriadas (neighbourhoods), such as Barriada de Berizu, Barriada de P. Alfonso, Barriada del Sarchal, and El Hacho.[33][34][35] Dispute with Morocco[edit] The government of Morocco
Morocco
has repeatedly called for Spain
Spain
to transfer the sovereignty of Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla, together with the rest of the Spanish plazas de soberanía on the North African coast, on the grounds of asserting its territorial integrity. Morocco
Morocco
has claimed the territories are colonies.[36] Economy[edit]

The Moroccan mountain of Jebel Musa, as viewed from Benzú

A sign welcoming visitors to Ceuta, showing the flags of Ceuta, Spain and the European Union

The official currency of Ceuta
Ceuta
is the euro. It is part of a special low tax zone in Spain.[37] Ceuta
Ceuta
is one of two Spanish port cities on the northern shore of Africa, along with Melilla. They are historically military strongholds, free ports, oil ports, and also fishing ports.[38] Today the economy of the city depends heavily on its port (now in expansion) and its industrial and retail centres.[37] Ceuta Heliport
Ceuta Heliport
is now used to connect the city to mainland Spain
Spain
by air. Lidl, Decathlon Group
Decathlon Group
and El Corte Inglés
El Corte Inglés
(hardware) have branches in Ceuta. There is also a casino. Transport[edit] The city receives high numbers of ferries each day from Algeciras
Algeciras
in Andalusia
Andalusia
in the south of Spain, along with Melilla
Melilla
and the Canary Islands. The closest airport is Sania Ramel Airport
Sania Ramel Airport
in Morocco. There is a bus service throughout the city which does not pass into neighbouring Morocco. A single road border checkpoint allows for cars to travel between Morocco
Morocco
and Ceuta. The rest of the border is closed and inaccessible. Demographics[edit] Due to its location, Ceuta
Ceuta
is home to a mixed ethnic and religious population. The two main religious groups are Christians and Muslims. As of 2006 approximately 50% of the population was Spanish/Christian and approximately 49% Arab-Berber/Muslims.[39] As of 2012, the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
was 68.0%, while the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Muslim
Muslim
was 28.3%.[40] Spanish is the primary and official language of the enclave.[41] Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
is widely spkoen,[42] as are Berber and French.[43] Religion[edit]

Remains of the Late Roman Christian
Christian
Basilica and Necropolis of Ceuta dated to the mid-4th century AC or the beginning of the 5th century AD.

Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption, completed in 1726.

Christianity has been present in Ceuta
Ceuta
(called in Roman times Septem[44] or Septum[45]) continuously since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The ruins of a basilica in downtown Ceuta
Ceuta
confirm this reality.[46]

Muley El Mehdi mosque (built in 1940)

In 1415, on conquering the city from the Muslims, the Portuguese started the construction of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Assumption. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Ceuta was established two years later, and in 1851 was merged into the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Cadiz y Ceuta. The present cathedral, dating from the late 17th century, combines baroque and neoclassical elements. Education[edit] The University of Granada offers undergraduate programs at their campus in Ceuta. Like all areas of Spain, Ceuta
Ceuta
is also served by the National University of Distance Education (UNED). Primary and secondary education is possible only in Spanish however a growing number of schools are entering the Bilingual Education Program. Migrants[edit] Main article: Ceuta
Ceuta
border fence As in Melilla, Ceuta
Ceuta
is attractive to migrants who try to use it as an entry to Europe. As a result the enclave is surrounded by double fences that are 6 meters high and hundreds of migrants congregate near the fences waiting for a chance to cross them. The fences are regularly stormed by migrants trying to claim asylum once they enter Ceuta. [47] Notable people from Ceuta[edit]

Eclectic House of the Dragons, built in 1905.

1083 to 1700[edit]

Qadi Ayyad
Qadi Ayyad
(1083 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1149) born in Ceuta, then belonging to the Almoravids
Almoravids
was the great imam of that city Al-Idrisi (1100 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1165 in Ceuta) was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist. He lived in Palermo
Palermo
at the court of King Roger II of Sicily, known for the "Tabula Rogeriana" Abu al-Abbas as-Sabti ( Ceuta
Ceuta
1129 - Marrakesh
Marrakesh
1204) is the patron saint of Marrakesh Joseph ben Judah of Ceuta (c. 1160–1226) was a Jewish physician and poet, and disciple of Moses Maimonides Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi
Abu al-Abbas al-Azafi
(1162 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1236) a religious and legal scholar, member of the Banu al-Azafi who ruled Ceuta Mohammed ibn Rushayd
Mohammed ibn Rushayd
(1259 in Sabta – 1321) was a judge, writer and scholar of Hadith Alvaro of Braganza ( 1440 - 1504) was a president of Council of Castile.

1700 to 1800[edit]

Don Fernando de Leyba (1734 in Ceuta
Ceuta
- 1780) was a Spanish officer who served as the third governor of Upper Louisiana
Upper Louisiana
from 1778 until his death. Brigadier General Francisco Antonio García Carrasco
Francisco Antonio García Carrasco
Díaz (1742 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1813 in Lima, Peru ) was a Spanish soldier and Royal Governor of Chile Sebastián Kindelán y O'Regan
Sebastián Kindelán y O'Regan
(1757 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1826 Santiago de Cuba) was a colonel in the Spanish Army who served as governor of East Florida 1812/1815, of Santo Domingo 1818/1821 and was provisional governor of Cuba 1822/1823 Isidro de Alaix Fábregas
Isidro de Alaix Fábregas
Count of Vergara and Viscount of Villarrobledo, (1790 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1853 in Madrid) was a Spanish general of the First Carlist War
First Carlist War
who backed Isabella II of Spain

1800 to 1950[edit]

General Francisco Llano de la Encomienda
Francisco Llano de la Encomienda
(1879 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 1963 in Mexico
Mexico
City) was a Spanish soldier. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) he remained loyal to the Second Spanish Republic General Antonio Escobar Huertas (1879 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– executed 1940 in Barcelona) was a Spanish military officer África de las Heras Gavilán (Ceuta, 1909 – Moscow, 1988) was a Spanish Communist, naturalized Soviet citizen, and KGB
KGB
spy who went by the code name Patria Eugenio Martín (born 1925 in Ceuta) is a Spanish film director and screenwriter Jacob Hassan, PhD (1936 in Ceuta
Ceuta
– 2006 in Madrid) was a Spanish-Jewish philologist José Martínez Sánchez (born 1945 in Ceuta), nicknamed Pirri, is a retired Spanish footballer, mainly played for Real Madrid, appearing in 561 competitive games and scoring 172 goals Manuel Chaves González
Manuel Chaves González
(born 1945 in Ceuta) is a Spanish politician of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. He served as the Third Vice President of the Spanish Government from 2009 to 2011 Ramón Castellano de Torres (born 1947 in Ceuta) is a Spanish artist, thought by some to be an expressionist painter José Ramón López (1950) was a sprint canoer. He won the silver medal in the 1976 Summer Olympics.

1950 to date[edit]

Miguel Bernardo Bianquetti (born 1951 in Ceuta), known as Migueli is a * Spanish retired footballer who played central defender. Francisco Lesmes and Rafael Lesmes Bobed brothers and Spanish footballers. Ignacio Velázquez Rivera (born 1953), first Mayor-President of Melilla Juan Jesús Vivas
Juan Jesús Vivas
Lara ( Ceuta
Ceuta
1953) became the Mayor-President of Ceuta
Ceuta
in Spain
Spain
in 2001 Pedro Aviles Gutiérrez (Ceuta, 1956) is a Spanish novelist from Madrid. Nayim (Ceuta, 1966) is a retired Spanish footballer; he scored a last-minute goal for Real Zaragoza
Zaragoza
in the 1995 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. Eva María Isanta Foncuberta (born 1971 in Ceuta) is a Spanish actress [48] Mohamed Taieb Ahmed (1975, Ceuta) is a Spanish-Moroccan drug lord [49] responsible for trafficking hashish across the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and into Spain. Lorena Miranda (Ceuta, 1991) is a Spanish female water polo player. She won the silver medal in Water polo at the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Spain Ceuta
Ceuta
is twinned with:

Aci Catena, Italy Algeciras, Spain Barstow, US Buenos Aires, Argentina Cádiz, Spain Guadalajara, Mexico Malacca
Malacca
City, Malacca, Malaysia Maseru, Lesotho Melilla, Spain Monte Carlo, Monaco Montevideo, Uruguay Santarém, Portugal

See also[edit]

AD Ceuta, former football club Arab Baths in Ceuta Benzú Hotel Tryp Ceuta Ceuta
Ceuta
border fence Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla
Melilla
(other) Plazas de soberanía – Spanish exclaves on the Moroccan coast Porteadoras – mule ladies, bale workers Royal Walls of Ceuta Spanish Morocco

Spain
Spain
portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b "Decision Spain
Spain
>> Resources >> Municipalities without testimony >> Ceuta
Ceuta
+ Melilla". Decision Espana. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ Ceuta. Oxford Dictionaries. ^ Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier. "The Spanish–Moroccan border complex: Processes of geopolitical, functional and symbolic rebordering". Political Geography. 27 (3): 301–321. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.12.004.  ^ Verónica Rivera (December 2006). "IMPORTANCIA Y VALORACIÓN SOCIOLINGÜÍSTICA DEL DARIJA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA PÚBLICA EN CEUTA" [Importance and Socio-Linguistic Valuation of Darija in the Context of Public Secondary Education in Ceuta]. REVISTA ELECTRÓNICA DE ESTUDIOS FILOLÓGICOS (in Spanish) (12). ISSN 1577-6921.  ^ Fernández García, Alicia (2016). "Nacionalismo y representaciones lingüísticas en Ceuta
Ceuta
y en Melilla". Revista de Filología Románica. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 33 (1): 23–46. doi:10.5209/RFRM.55230. ISSN 0212-999X.  ^ a b c Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood. William Smith, LLD (London:Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1854), Abyla
Abyla
[1]) ^ A Latin Dictionary. Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. revised, enlarged, and in great part rewritten by. Charlton T. Lewis, Ph.D. and. Charles Short, LL.D. (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1879), "Abyla" [2] ^ Publiceuta. "Basílica Tardorromana de Ceuta. Guía turística de Ceuta". www.ceutaturistica.com. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Bernard Lewis; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1994). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 690. Retrieved 8 July 2013.  ^ López de Coca Castañer, José Enrique (1998). "Granada y la expansión portuguesa en el Magreb
Magreb
extremo". Historia. Instituciones. Documentos. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla
Universidad de Sevilla
(25): 351. ISSN 0210-7716.  ^ Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain
Spain
and Portugal, Vol.1, Chap.10 "The Expansion" ^ "Ceuta". fortified-places.com. Retrieved 17 September 2015.  ^ *Kamen, Henry (1999). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780300078008.  ^ Griffin, H (2010). Ceuta
Ceuta
Mini Guide. Mirage. ISBN 978-0-9543335-3-9.  ^ "History of Ceuta". Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-01.  ^ "Franco monument now part of a rubbish dump in Ceuta". Archived from the original on 7 December 2012.  ^ "Resistir en el monte del Renegado". El País. 22 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ " Ceuta
Ceuta
y Melilla
Melilla
son España, dice Juan Carlos I; Sebta y Melilia son nuestras, responde Mohamed VI". Blogs.periodistadigital.com. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
Holiday in Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla". Spainforvisitors.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-03.  ^ "Public Holidays and Bank Holidays for Spain". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved 2011-09-03.  ^ "Diocese of Ceuta". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Tingis". Newadvent.org. 1 July 1912. Retrieved 2010-08-08.  ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Cadiz". Newadvent.org. 1 November 1908. Retrieved 2010-08-08.  ^ H. Micheal Tarver, Emily Slape, eds. (25 July 2016). The Spanish Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. I. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-61069-422-3. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ "Ceuta, Spain
Spain
— Climate Summary". weatherbase. Retrieved 8 December 2014.  ^ a b c "Valores climatológicos normales. Ceuta" [Normal climate values. Ceuta]. AEMET (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 11 August 2015.  ^ "Monthly Averages for Ceuta, Spain". Weather.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ " Ceuta
Ceuta
Monthly Climate Averages". World Weather Online. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ "Valores extremos. Ceuta
Ceuta
— Selector" [Extreme values. Ceuta
Ceuta
- Selector]. AEMET (in Spanish). Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ "Ley Orgánica 1/1995, de 13 de marzo, Estatuto de Autonomía de Ceuta". Noticias.juridicas.com. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ "Resultados Electorales en Ceuta: Elecciones Municipales 2011 en EL PAÍS" (in Spanish). EDICIONES EL PAÍS S.L. 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ "Congress / Listing of Members by electoral district". Congreso de los Diputados (in Spanish). 2011-01-12. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24.  ^ "El servicio de Policia de Barriadas podria funcionar a partir del 15 de septiembre" [The Police Service of Barriadas could work from September 15]. El Pueblo de Ceuta
Ceuta
(in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ "Map of Ceuta". planetware.  ^ "Códigos postales de Ceuta
Ceuta
en Ceuta". Codigo-postal.info. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ Gold, Peter (2000). Europe
Europe
or Africa? A contemporary study of the Spanish North African enclaves of Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla. Liverpool University Press. pp. XII–XIII. ISBN 0-85323-985-1.  ^ a b "Economic Data of Ceuta, de ceutna digital". Ceuta.es. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ O'Reilly, Gerry; O'Reilly, J. G. (1994). IBRU, Boundary and Territory
Territory
Briefing. Ceuta
Ceuta
and the Spanish Sovereign Territories: Spanish and Moroccan. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781897643068. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  ^ Roa, J. M. (2006). "Scholastic achievement and the diglossic situation in a sample of primary-school students in Ceuta". Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. 8 (1).  ^ "Interactivo: Creencias y prácticas religiosas en España". lavanguardia.com. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Languages Across Europe
Europe
– Spanish". BBC. 2014-10-14. Archived from the original on 2018-04-05.  ^ Sayahi, Lotfi (2011). "Spanish in Contact with Arabic". In Díaz-Campos, Manuel. The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics. Chichester, UK: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 476–477. ISBN 978-1-4051-9500-3.  ^ Roa-Venegas, José María (2006). "Scholastic Achievement and the Diglossic Situation in a Sample of Primary-School Students in Ceuta". Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa. 8 (1): 3, 12 – via ResearchGate.  ^ Walter E. Kaegi (4 November 2010). Muslim
Muslim
Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-521-19677-2.  ^ A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature. 2. John Kitto, William Lindsay Alexander. 1864. p. 350.  ^ Villada, Fernando. " Ceuta
Ceuta
huellas del cristianismo en Ceuta". academia.edu. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ "Hundreds of migrants storm fence to reach Spanish enclave of Ceuta". BBC.  ^ IMDb retrieved 19 October 2017 ^ "Vuelve 'El Nene'". Interviu. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 

References[edit]

Turismo de Ceuta

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ceuta.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ceuta.

 "Ceuta". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  (in Spanish) Official Ceuta
Ceuta
government website www.ceuta.si Ceuta
Ceuta
tourism website Web Oficial Servicios Turísticos de Ceuta Ceuta
Ceuta
Pictures

v t e

Ceuta

Architecture

Anyera Arab Baths Bienes de interés cultural in Ceuta Casa de los Dragones Cathedral of St Mary of the Assumption Ceuta
Ceuta
border fence Ceuta
Ceuta
Heliport Church of San Francisco Shrine of Our Lady of Africa Ermita de San Antonio Estadio Alfonso Murube Hotel Tryp Ceuta Lighthouse of Punta Almina Military Museum of the Legion Monumento del Llano Amarillo Mosque of Muley El Mehdi Palace of Assembly of Ceuta Parque Marítimo del Mediterráneo Plaza de África Royal Walls of Ceuta Marinid
Marinid
Walls of Ceuta

Geography

Bay of Ceuta Benzú Isla de Santa Catalina Monte Hacho Peninsula of Almina Perejil Island Pillars of Hercules Playa Benítez Playa Calamocarro Playa del Chorillo Playa El Desnarigado Playa El Tarajal Playa Miramar Playa de la Ribera Playa del Sarchal Playa San Amaro Playa Tramaguera Port of Ceuta Príncipe Punta Blanca Tingitana Peninsula

History

Roman Ceuta Banu Isam Battle of Ceuta Daniel and Companions Julian, Count of Ceuta Kingdom of the Algarve Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Diocese of Ceuta Siege of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1419) Sieges of Ceuta
Ceuta
(1694–1727) Taifa of Ceuta Treaty of Lisbon
Lisbon
(1668) Vidal Marín del Campo

Politics

2007 Morocco– Spain
Spain
diplomatic conflict Caballas Coalition Ceuta
Ceuta
(Spanish Congress Electoral District) Ceutan Democratic Union Movement for Dignity and Citizenship Elections to the Ceuta
Ceuta
Assembly, 2011 List of governors of Ceuta Mayor-President of Ceuta Statute of Autonomy of Ceuta Democratic and Social Party of Ceuta Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta Union of Muslims of Ceuta

Sport

AD Ceuta AD Ceuta
AD Ceuta
FC AgD Ceuta Ceuta
Ceuta
Football Federation Ceuta- Melilla
Melilla
derby Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla Estadio Alfonso Murube

Other

Africa
Africa
Star Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Ceuta Flag of Ceuta Haketia Medalla de la Autonomía de Ceuta Radio Televisión Ceuta Victimes de nos richesses

v t e

Autonomous communities of Spain

Autonomous communities

 Andalusia  Aragon  Asturias  Balearic Islands  Basque Country  Canary Islands  Cantabria  Castilla–La Mancha  Castile and León  Catalonia  Extremadura  Galicia  La Rioja  Community of Madrid  Murcia  Navarre  Valencian Community

Autonomous cities

 Ceuta  Melilla

Plazas de soberanía

Alhucemas Chafarinas Vélez de la Gomera

v t e

Capitals of autonomous communities of Spain

Seville
Seville
(Andalusia) Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(Aragon) Oviedo
Oviedo
(Asturias) Palma (Balearic Islands) Vitoria-Gasteiz
Vitoria-Gasteiz
(Basque Country) Santa Cruz & Las Palmas
Las Palmas
(Canary Islands) Santander (Cantabria)

Toledo (Castile–La Mancha) Valladolid
Valladolid
(de facto, Castile and León) Barcelona
Barcelona
(Catalonia) Mérida (Extremadura) Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela
(Galicia) Logroño
Logroño
(La Rioja)

Madrid
Madrid
(Community of Madrid) Murcia
Murcia
(Region of Murcia) Pamplona
Pamplona
(Navarre) Valencia
Valencia
(Valencian Community) Ceuta1 Melilla1

1 Autonomous cities.

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila
Arzila
(Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila
Arzila
(Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Outlying territories of European countries

Territories under European sovereignty but closer to or on continents other than Europe
Europe
(see inclusion criteria for further information).

Denmark

Greenland

France

Clipperton Island French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Adélie Land Crozet Islands Île Amsterdam Île Saint-Paul Kerguelen Islands Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean

Guadeloupe Martinique Mayotte New Caledonia Réunion Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Lampedusa Lampione Linosa

Netherlands

Aruba Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire Saba Sint Eustatius

Curaçao Sint Maarten

Norway

Bouvet Island Peter I Island Queen Maud Land

Portugal

Azores Madeira

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta Melilla Plazas de soberanía

Chafarinas Islands Alhucemas Islands Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera

United Kingdom

Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

v t e

Countries and territories of North Africa

Sovereign states

 Algeria  Egypt  Libya  Morocco  Sudan  Tunisia

Partially recognized state

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Territories

Morocco/SADR

Western Sahara1

Spain

Canary Islands Ceuta2 Melilla2 Alboran Alhucemas2 Chafarinas2 Vélez de la Gomera2

Portugal

Madeira Savage Islands3

Sudan/Egypt

Hala'ib Triangle4 Wadi Halfa Salient4 Bir Tawil5

Sudan/South Sudan

Abyei6 Kafia Kingi6

Italy

Pantelleria Pelagie Islands

Libya/Chad

Aouzou Strip7

Morocco/Spain

Perejil8

1Entirely claimed by both Morocco
Morocco
and the SADR. 2Spanish exclaves claimed by Morocco. 3Portuguese archipelago claimed by Spain. 4Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and Egypt. 5 Terra nullius
Terra nullius
located between Egypt
Egypt
and Sudan. 6Disputed between Sudan
Sudan
and South Sudan. 7Part of Chad, formerly claimed by Libya. 8Disputed between Morocco
Morocco
and Spain

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Romano-Berber cities in Roman North Africa

Morocco

Anfa Iulia Constantia Zilil Iulia Valentia Banasa Iulia Campestris Babba Lixus 2 Mogador Sala 1 Tamuda
Tamuda
1 Thamusida Tingi Volubilis
Volubilis
1

Algeria

Aquae Calidae Albulae Altava Auzia Calama Caesarea Cartennas Castellum Dimmidi Castellum Tingitanum Castra Nova Cirta Civitas Popthensis Collo Cohors Breucorum Cuicul
Cuicul
1 Diana Veteranorum Gemellae Gunugus Hippo Regius Icosium
Icosium
1 Igilgili Iomnium Lamasba Lambaesis Madauros Mascula Mesarfelta Milevum Numerus Syrorum Oppidum Novum Parthenia Pomaria Portus Divinus Portus Magnus Quiza Xenitana Rapidum Rusazu Rusguniae Rusucurru Saldae Setifis Siga Thagaste Thamugadi
Thamugadi
1 Theveste Thibilis Thubursicum Tiddis Tingartia Tipasa
Tipasa
1 Tubusuctu Tubunae Unica Colonia Uzinaza Vescera Zaraï Zuccabar

Tunisia

Althiburos Bulla Regia Capsa Carthago 1 Cillium Dougga
Dougga
1 Gightis Hadrumetum
Hadrumetum
1 Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Leptis Parva Mactaris Pheradi Majus Pupput Rucuma Ruspae Scillium Sicca Simitthus Sufetula Tacapae Taparura Sufes Thabraca Thanae Thapsus Thuburbo Majus Thuburnica Thysdrus Turris Tamalleni Utica Uthina Vaga Zama Regia

Libya

Cydamus
Cydamus
1 Gerisa Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
1 Oea Sabratha
Sabratha
1

Spain

Septem Rusadir

Kingdoms and Provinces

Mauretania Mauretania
Mauretania
Tingitana Mauretania
Mauretania
Caesariensis Numidia Roman Africa Creta et Cyrenaica Roman Egypt Diocese of Africa Zeugitana Byzacena Vandal
Vandal
Kingdom Praetorian prefecture of Africa Exarchate of Africa

Related articles

North Africa
Africa
during Antiquity African Romance Limes Tripolitanus Christianity in Roman Africa

1 UNESCO World Heritag

.