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 Russian SFSR

Turkestan
Turkestan
ASSR

Khorezm SSR Bukharan PSR

 Soviet Union (from December 30, 1922)

Basmachi Khiva (1918–20) White Army (1919–20)[1] Bukhara (1920)

Afghanistan (1929)[2]

Commanders and leaders

Mikhail Frunze Grigori Sokolnikov Fayzulla Khodzhayev Aleksandr Cherepanov Vitaly Primakov Magaza Masanchi

Mohammed Nadir Shah

Enver Pasha † Ibrahim Bek † Irgash Bey Madamin Bey Junaid Khan Mohammed Alim Khan Konstantin Monstrov (ru)  †

Habibullāh Kalakāni †

Strength

120,000–160,000[3] Perhaps 30,000 at its height, over 20,000 (late 1919)[4]

Casualties and losses

Officially 516 killed and 925 wounded[5] Unknown

Tens of thousands of civilians killed.[6][7] Several hundred thousand Kazakh and Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
killed or evicted.[8] Unknown number killed by starvation.

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Central Asian

Basmachi

The Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
(Russian: Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim
Muslim
peoples of Central Asia. The movement's roots lay in the anti-conscription violence of 1916 that erupted when the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
began to draft Muslims for army service during World War I.[9] In the months following the October 1917 Revolution the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
seized power in many parts of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
began. Turkestani Muslim political movements attempted to form an autonomous government in the city of Kokand, in the Fergana Valley. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
launched an assault on Kokand
Kokand
in February 1918 and carried out a general massacre of up to 25,000 people.[6][7] The massacre rallied support to the Basmachi movements who waged a guerrilla and conventional war that seized control of large parts of the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
and much of Turkestan. The fortunes of the decentralized movement fluctuated throughout the early 1920s but by 1923 the Red Army's extensive campaigns had dealt the Basmachis many defeats. After major Red Army
Red Army
campaigns and concessions regarding economic and Islamic practices in the mid-1920s, the military fortunes and popular support of the Basmachi declined.[10] Resistance to Russian rule and Soviet leadership did flare up again, to a lesser extent, in response to collectivization campaigns in the pre- Second World War
Second World War
era.[11]

Contents

1 Background 2 The Kokand
Kokand
autonomy and the start of hostilities 3 First phase of the revolt in the Ferghana Valley 4 The Basmachi in Khiva
Khiva
and Bukhara 5 Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
and the height of the Basmachi movement 6 The defeat of the movement 7 Character of the movement 8 Aftermath

8.1 Intermittent Basmachi operations after the Soviet victory

9 In popular culture 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading

Background[edit] Main articles: Russian Turkestan
Russian Turkestan
and Central Asian revolt of 1916 Prior to World War I, Russian Turkestan
Russian Turkestan
was ruled from Tashkent
Tashkent
as a Krai or Governor-Generalship. To the east of Tashkent, the Ferghana Valley was an ethnically diverse, densely populated region that was divided between settled farmers (often called Sarts) and nomads (mostly Kyrgyz). Under Russian rule, it was converted into a major cotton-growing region.[12] The resulting economic development brought some small-scale industry to the region, but the native shop workers were worse off than their Russian counterparts, and the new wealth from cotton was spread very unevenly.[citation needed] On the whole, living standards did not improve, and many farmers became indebted. Many criminals organized into bands, forming the basis for the early Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
when it began in the Ferghana Valley.[13] Cotton
Cotton
price-fixing during the First World War
First World War
made matters worse, and a large, landless rural proletariat soon developed. Muslim
Muslim
clergy decried the gambling and alcoholism that became commonplace, and crime rose considerably.[14] Major violence in Russian Turkestan
Russian Turkestan
broke out in 1916, when the Tsarist government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service. This caused the Central Asian revolt of 1916, centered in modern-day Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Uzbekistan, which was put down by martial law. Tensions between Central Asians (especially Kazakhs) and Russian settlers led to large-scale massacres on both sides. Thousands died, and hundreds of thousands fled, most into the neighbouring Republic of China.[15] The Central Asian revolt of 1916 was the first anti-Russian incident on a mass scale in Central Asia, and it set the stage for native resistance after the fall of Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar Nicholas II
in the following year.[16] The suppression of the rebellion was a deliberate campaign of annihilation against the Kazakh and Kyrgyz tribes on the part of the Russian soldiers and settlers. Hundreds of thousands of Kazakh and Kyrgyz people
Kyrgyz people
were killed or expelled. The ethnic cleansing had its roots in the Tsarist government policy of ethnic homogenization.[17] The Kokand
Kokand
autonomy and the start of hostilities[edit] In the aftermath of the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917, Muslim
Muslim
political forces began to organize. Members of the All-Russian Muslim
Muslim
council formed the Shura-i Islam
Islam
(Islamic Council), a Jadidist body that sought a federated, democratic state with autonomy for Muslims.[18] More conservative religious scholars formed the Ulema Jemyeti (Board of Learned Men), more concerned with safeguarding Islamic institutions and Sharia law. Together, these Muslim
Muslim
nationalists formed a coalition, but it fell apart after the October Revolution, when the Jadids lent their support to the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
who had seized power. The Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies, an organization dominated by Russian railway workers and colonial proletarians, rejected Muslim
Muslim
participation in government. Stung by this apparent reaffirmation of colonial rule, the Shura-i Islam
Islam
reunited with Ulema Jemyeti to form the Kokand
Kokand
Autonomous Government. This was to be the nucleus of an autonomous[19] state in Turkestan, governed by Sharia law.[20]

The Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet's building in 1917

The Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet initially recognized the authority of Kokand, but restricted its jurisdiction to the Muslim
Muslim
old section of Tashkent, and demanded the final say in regional affairs. After violent riots in Tashkent, relations broke down, and despite the leftist leanings of many of its members, Kokand
Kokand
aligned itself with the Whites.[21] Politically and militarily weak, the Muslim
Muslim
government began looking around for protection. To this end, a band of armed robbers led by Irgash Bey were amnestied and recruited to defend Kokand.[when?][22] This force, however, was unable to resist an attack on Kokand
Kokand
by the forces of the Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet. In February, 1918 the Red Army
Red Army
soldiers and Armenian Dashnaks
Dashnaks
thoroughly pillaged Kokand, and carried out what was described as a "pogrom,"[23] in which as many as 25,000 people died.[6][7] This massacre, along with the execution of many Ferghana peasants who were suspected of hoarding cotton and food, incensed the Muslim
Muslim
population. Irgash Bey took up arms against the Soviets, declaring himself "Supreme Leader of the Islamic Army", and the Basmachi rebellion started in earnest.[24]

Emir Sayeed Alim Khan of Bukhara
Bukhara
(1880–1944), the last Emir of Bukhara.

Meanwhile, Soviet troops temporarily deposed Emir Sayeed Alim Khan of Bukhara
Bukhara
in favor of the leftist Young Bukharians faction led by Fayzulla Khodzhayev. Russian troops were repulsed by the Bukharan populace after a period of looting, and the Emir retained his throne for the time-being.[25] In the Khanate of Khiva, Basmachi leader Junaid Khan overthrew the Russian puppet and suppressed the modernizing movement of the leftist Young Khivans.[26] First phase of the revolt in the Ferghana Valley[edit] Irgash Bey's claims to leadership of an army of the faithful won recognition by the clergy of the Ferghana Valley, and he soon controlled a sizable fighting force. Widespread nationalization campaigns carried out from Tashkent
Tashkent
had caused economic collapse, and the Ferghana Valley
Ferghana Valley
faced famine in absence of grain imports. All these factors drove people to join the Basmachi. The Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet was unable to contain the insurgency, and the end of 1918 decentralized bands of fighters, totaling roughly 20,000, controlled Ferghana and the countryside surrounding Tashkent. Irgash Bey faced rival commanders such as Madamin Bey, who was supported by more moderate Muslim
Muslim
factions, but he secured formal, nominal leadership of the movement at a council in March 1919.[7] With the Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet in a vulnerable military position, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
left Russian settlers to organize their own defense by creating the Peasant Army of Fergana. This often involved brutal reprisals for Basmachi attacks by Soviet forces and Russian farmers both.[24] The harsh policies of War Communism, however, caused the peasants army to sour on the Tashkent
Tashkent
Soviet. In May 1919, Madamin Bey formed an alliance with the settlers, entailing a non-aggression pact and a coalition army. The new allies made plans for establishing a joint Russian- Muslim
Muslim
state, with power sharing arrangements and cultural rights for both groups.[27][28] Disputes over the Islamic orientation of the Basmachi led to the break-up of the alliance, however, and both Madamin and the settlers suffered defeats at the hands of the Muslim
Muslim
Volga Tatar
Volga Tatar
Red Brigade.[29] The inhabitants of the Ferghana Valley
Ferghana Valley
were exhausted after the punishing winter of 1919-20, and the Madamin Bey defected to the Soviet side in March.[30] Meanwhile, famine relief reached the region under the more liberal New Economic Policy, while land reform and amnesty placated Ferghana residents. As a result, the Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
lost control of most populated areas and shrank overall. The pacification of Ferghana did not last long. During the summer of 1920 the Soviets felt secure enough to requisition food and mobilize Muslim
Muslim
conscripts. The result was a renewed uprising and new Basmachi groups proliferated, fueled by religious slogans.[31] Renewed conflict would see the Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
spread across Turkestan. The Basmachi in Khiva
Khiva
and Bukhara[edit] In January 1920, the Red Army
Red Army
captured Khiva
Khiva
and set up a Young Khivan provisional government. Junaid Khan fled into the desert with his followers, and the Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
in the Khorezm Region was born.[32] Before the end of the year, the Soviets deposed the Young Khivans government, and the Muslim
Muslim
nationalists fled to join Junaid, strengthening his forces considerably.[33] In August of that year, the Emir of Bukhara
Bukhara
was finally deposed when the Red Army
Red Army
conquered Bukhara. From exile in Afghanistan, the Emir directed the Bokhara Basmachi movement, supported by the angry populace and clergy. Fighters operated on behalf of the Emir and were under the command of Ibrahim Bey, a tribal leader.[34] Basmachi forces operated with success in both Khiva
Khiva
and Bokhara for an extended period. The insurgency also began spreading to Kazakhstan, as well as the Tajik and Turkmen lands.[35] Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
and the height of the Basmachi movement[edit]

Negotiations with Basmachi, Fergana, 1921

In November 1921, General İsmail Enver, former Turkish war minister and one of the architects of the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
(along with other two members of the "Three Pashas" triumvirate - Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
and Djemal Pasha), arrived in Bukhara
Bukhara
to assist the Soviet war effort. Instead of doing so, he defected and became the single most important Basmachi leader, centralizing and revitalizing the movement.[34] Enver Pasha intended to create a pan-Turkic confederation encompassing all of Central Asia, as well as Anatolia
Anatolia
and Chinese lands.[34] His call for jihad attracted much support, and he managed to transform the Basmachi guerillas into an army of 16,000 men. By early 1922, a considerable part of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, including Samarkand and Dushanbe, was under Basmachi control. Meanwhile, Dungan Muslim
Muslim
Magaza Masanchi formed the Dungan Cavalry Regiment to fight for the Soviets against the Basmachi.[36] The defeat of the movement[edit]

Turkestan
Turkestan
front, 1922

Soviet Central Asia
Central Asia
in 1922

Now fearing the total loss of Turkestan, the Soviet authorities once again adopted a double strategy to crush the rebellion: political reconciliation and cultural concessions along with overwhelming military power. Religious concessions reinstated Sharia law, while Koran
Koran
schools and waqf lands were restored.[37] Moscow sought to indigenize the fight with the creation of a volunteer militia composed of Muslim
Muslim
peasants, called the Red Sticks, and it is estimated that 15-25 percent of Soviet troops in this region were Muslim.[3] The Soviets primarily relied on thousands of regular Red Army
Red Army
troops, veterans of the Civil War, now bolstered by air support. The strategy of concessions with airstrikes was successful, and when in May 1922 Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
rejected a peace offer and issued an ultimatum demanding that all Red Army
Red Army
troops be withdrawn from Turkestan
Turkestan
within fifteen days, Moscow was well prepared for a confrontation. In June 1922 Soviet units led by General Kakurin (ru) defeated the Basmachi forces in the Battle of Kafrun. The Red Army
Red Army
began to drive the rebels eastwards, retaking considerable territory. Enver himself was killed in a failed last-ditch cavalry charge on August 4, 1922, near Baldzhuan (in present-day Tajikistan). His successor, Selim Pasha, continued the struggle but finally fled to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1923. A Basmachi presence remained in the Ferghana Valley
Ferghana Valley
until 1924, and fighters there were led by Kurshirmat, who had renewed the revolt in 1920. British intelligence reported[38] that Kurshirmat possessed forces of 5,000-6,000 men. After years of war, however, popular support for the Basmachi cause was drying up. Peasants wanted to return to work, especially now that Soviet policies had made Turkestan livable again. Kurshirmat's forces shrank to around 2,000, many resorting to banditry,[38] and he soon fled to Afghanistan.[39] Turkestan
Turkestan
was at this point exhausted by war. 200,000 people had fled Tajik lands, leaving two-thirds of arable land abandoned. Lesser devastation could be observed in Ferghana.[39] Character of the movement[edit] The Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
has been characterized as a national liberation movement[40] that sought to end foreign rule over the Central Asian territories then known as Turkestan, and also the protectorates of Khiva
Khiva
and Bokhara. It is suggested that "basmacı" is a Turkic word which refers to a bandit or marauder, such as the bands of thieves that preyed on caravans in the region, derived from the word basmak - to raid, to press.[citation needed] The term Basmachi was often used in Soviet sources because of its pejorative meaning.[41] The Soviets portrayed the movement as being composed of brigands motivated by Islamic fundamentalism, waging a counterrevolutionary war with the support of British agents.[42] In reality, the Basmachi were a diverse and multi-faceted group that received negligible foreign aid.[citation needed] The Basmachi were not viewed favorably by Western Powers, who saw the Basmachi as potential enemies[citation needed] due to the Pan-Turkist and Pan-Islamist
Pan-Islamist
ideologies that some of their leaders ascribed to. However, some Basmachi groups received support from British and Turkish intelligence services and in order to cut off this outside help, special military detachments of the Red Army masqueraded as Basmachi forces and successfully intercepted supplies.[citation needed] Although many fighters were motivated by calls for jihad,[43] the Basmachi drew support from many ideological camps and major sectors of the population. At some point or another[vague][when?] the Basmachi attracted the support of Jadid
Jadid
reformers, pan-Turkic ideologues and leftist Turkestani nationalists.[44] Peasants and nomads, long opposed to Russian colonial rule, reacted with hostility to anti-Islamic policies and Soviet requisitioning of food and livestock. The fact that Bolshevism in Turkestan
Turkestan
was dominated by Russian colonists in Tashkent[45] made Tsarist and Soviet rule appear identical. The ranks of the Basmachi were filled with those left jobless by poor economic conditions, and those who felt that they were opposing an attack on their way of life.[46] The first Basmachi fighters were bandits, as their name suggests, and they reverted to brigandage as the movement fizzled later on.[39] Although the Basmachi were relatively united at certain points, the movement suffered from atomization overall.[citation needed] Rivalry between various leaders and more serious ethnic disputes between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks
Uzbeks
or Turkmen posed major problems to the movement.[citation needed] Aftermath[edit] Indigenous leaders began to cooperate with Soviet authorities and large numbers of Central Asians joined the Soviet Communist Party under Lenin
Lenin
and Stalin's
Stalin's
indigenization policy. Many gained high positions in the governments of the Uzbek, Tajik, Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republics, formed out of the Turkestani Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Soviet Socialist Republic
in 1924. During the Sovietization of Central Asia, Islam
Islam
became the focus of antireligious campaigns. The government closed most mosques, repressing Islamic clerics and targeting symbols of Islamic identity such as the veil.[47] Uzbeks
Uzbeks
who remained practicing Muslims were deemed nationalist and often targeted for imprisonment or execution. Stalinist collectivization and industrialization proceeded as elsewhere in the Soviet Union. Intermittent Basmachi operations after the Soviet victory[edit] After the Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
was destroyed as a political and military force, the fighters that remained hidden in mountainous areas conducted a guerrilla war. The Basmachi uprising had died out in most parts of Central Asia
Central Asia
by 1926. However, skirmishes and occasional fighting along the border with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
continued until the early 1930s. Junaid Khan threatened Khiva
Khiva
in 1926, but was finally exiled in 1928.[39] Two prominent commanders, Faizal Maksum and Ibrahim Bey, continued to operate out of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and conducted a number of raids into the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Soviet Socialist Republic
in 1929. Ibrahim Bek led a brief resurgence of the movement when collectivization fueled resistance and succeeded in delaying the policy until 1931 in Turkmenistan, but he was soon caught and executed. The movement then largely died out.[48][49] In Kyrgyzstan, the last strongholds of the Basmachi were destroyed by 1934. In popular culture[edit] The rebellion featured in several "Red Westerns", such as White Sun of the Desert, The Seventh Bullet and The Bodyguard, in the television series State Border. See also[edit]

Urkun

References[edit]

^ In Union with him and Bey Madamin counter-revolutionary robber bands with July 10, 1919, to January 1920. ^ Supporters of Habibullah had fought in alliance with such films only in northern Afghanistan ^ a b Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge: Soviet Central Asia, Michael Rywkin, page 35 ^ Soviet Disunion: A History of the Nationalities Problem in the USSR, By Bohdan Nahaylo,Victor Swoboda, p. 40, 1990. ^ Krivosheev, Grigori (Ed.), Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses in the Twentieth Century, p. 43, London: Greenhill Books, 1997. ^ a b c Uzbekistan, By Thomas R McCray, Charles F Gritzner, pg. 30, 2004, ISBN 1438105517. ^ a b c d Martha B. Olcott, The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24, 355. ^ Baberowski and Anselm Doering-Manteuffel 2009, p. 202. ^ Victor Spolnikov, "Impact of Afghanistan's War on the Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia," in Hafeez Malik, ed, Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 101. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge: Soviet Central Asia (Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, Inc, 1990), 41. ^ Martha B. Olcott, "The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24," Soviet Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1981), 361. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, in " Muslim
Muslim
Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspectives on Nationality, Politics, and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia", Editors: Andreas Kappeler, Gerhard Simon, Gerog Brunner, 1994, pg. 280. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, in " Muslim
Muslim
Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspectives on Nationality, Politics, and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia", Editors: Andreas Kappeler, Gerhard Simon, Gerog Brunner, 1994, pg. 282. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, in " Muslim
Muslim
Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspectives on Nationality, Politics, and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia", Editors: Andreas Kappeler, Gerhard Simon, Gerog Brunner, 1994, pg. 284. ^ Catherin Evtuhov, Richard Stites, A History of Russia: Peoples, Legends, Events, Forces (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004), 265 ^ Hafeez Malik, Central Asia, p.101. ^ Baberowski and Anselm Doering-Manteuffel 2009, pp. 201-202. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 186. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 290. ^ Martha B. Olcott, The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24, 354. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 22. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 290. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 291. ^ a b Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 293. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 32. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 24. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 295. ^ Martha B. Olcott, The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24, 356. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 34. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 296. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 35. ^ Fazal-Ur-Rahim Khan Marwat, The Basmachi Movement in Soviet Central Asia, 160. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 36. ^ a b c Martha B. Olcott, The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24, 358. ^ Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 36. ^ Joseph L. Wieczynski (1994). The Modern encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet history, Volume 21. Academic International Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-87569-064-5. Retrieved 2011-01-01.  ^ Martha B. Olcott, The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24, 357. ^ a b Yılmaz Şuhnaz, "An Ottoman Warrior Abroad: Enver Paşa as an Expatriate." Middle Eastern Studies 35, no. 4 (1999), pp. 47-30 ^ a b c d Michael Rywkin, Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge, 42. ^ Moscow's Muslim
Muslim
Challenge: Soviet Central Asia, Michael Rywkin, page 43. ^ Basmachis - Oxford Islamic Studies Online ^ Richard Lorenz, "Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley," in Andreas Kappelerm Gerhard Simon, Edward Allworth, ed, Muslim
Muslim
Communities Reemerge: Historical Perspectives on Nationality, Politics, and Opposition in the Former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Yugoslavia (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994), 277. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 293 ^ Martha B. Olcott, "The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan, 1918-24," Soviet Studies, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1981), 252. ^ Richard Lorenz, Economic Bases of the Basmachi Movement in the Ferghana Valley, 289. ^ Fazal-Ur-Rahim Khan Marwat, The Basmachi Movement in Soviet Central Asia (A Study in Political Development) (Peshawar, Emjay Books International: 1985), 151. ^ Pipes, Richard (1955). "Muslims of Soviet Central Asia: Trends and Prospects (Part I)". Middle East Journal. 9 (2): 149–150. JSTOR 4322692.  ^ Ritter, William S (1990). "Revolt in the Mountains: Fuzail Maksum and the Occupation of Garm, Spring 1929". Journal of Contemporary History 25: 547. doi:10.1177/002200949002500408. ^ Ritter, William S (1985). "The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek
Ibrahim Bek
and the Basmachi, 1924-31". Soviet Studies 37 (4).

Bibliography[edit]

Baberowski, Jörg; Doering-Manteuffel, Anselm (2009). Geyer, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Sheila, eds. Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism compared. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-89796-9. 

Further reading[edit]

Marie Broxup: The Basmachi. Central Asian Survey, Vol. 2 (1983), No. 1, pp. 57–81. Marco Buttino: "Ethnicité et politique dans la guerre civile: à propos du 'basmačestvo' au Fergana", 'Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, (1997) Sir Olaf Caroe: Soviet Empire: The Turks of Central Asia
Central Asia
and Stalinism 2nd ed., London, Macmillan (1967) ISBN 0-312-74795-0 Joseph Castagné. Les Basmatchis: le mouvement national des indigènes d'Asie Centrale depuis la Révolution d'octobre 1917 jusqu'en octobre 1924. Paris : Éditions E. Leroux, 1925. Mustafa Chokay: "The Basmachi Movement in Turkestan", The Asiatic Review Vol.XXIV (1928) Павел Густерин. История Ибрагим-бека. Басмачество одного курбаши с его слов. — Саарбрюккен: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2014. — 60 с. — ISBN 978-3-659-13813-3. Б.В. Лунин: Басмачество Tashkent
Tashkent
(1984) Glenda Fraser: "Basmachi (parts I and II)", Central Asian Survey, Vol. 6 (1987), No. 1, pp. 1–73, and No.2, pp. 7–42. Baymirza Hayit: Basmatschi. Nationaler Kampf Turkestans in den Jahren 1917 bis 1934. Köln, Dreisam-Verlag (1993) M. Holdsworth: "Soviet Central Asia, 1917-1940", Soviet Studies, Vol. 3 (1952), No. 3, pp. 258–277. Alexander Marshall: "Turkfront: Frunze and the Development of Soviet Counter-insurgency in Central Asia" in Tom Everett-Heath (Ed.) "Central Asia. Aspects of Transition", RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2003; ISBN 0-7007-0956-8 (cloth) ISBN 0-7007-0957-6 (pbk.) Яков Нальский: В горах Восточной Бухары. (Повесть по воспоминаниям сотрудников КГБ) Dushanbe (1984) Martha B. Olcott: "The Basmachi or Freemen's Revolt in Turkestan 1918-24", Soviet Studies, Vol. 33 (1981), No. 3, pp. 352–369. Hasan B. Paksoy, "BASMACHI": Turkish National Liberation Movement 1916-1930s, Modern Encyclopedia of Religions in Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union (FL: Academic International Press) 1991, Vol. 4, pp. 5–20. Zeki Velidi Togan, [1] Memoirs. Fazal-ur-Rahim Khan Marwat: The Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
in Soviet Central Asia: A study in political development., Peshawar, Emjay Books International (1985) Prof. Zeki Velidi Togan, Memoirs: National Existence and Cultural Struggles of Turkistan and Other Muslim
Muslim
Eastern Turks (2011) Full Text translation form the 1969 original. Translated by Paksoy. [2] Х. Турсунов: Восстание 1916 Года в Средней Азии и Казахстане. Tashkent
Tashkent
(1962)

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(1507–08) Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1534–37) Russo-Crimean Wars Russo-Kazan Wars Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) Livonian War Russian Conquest of Siberia (1580–1747) Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles Ingrian War Smolensk War Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

Great Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1710–11) Russo-Persian War (1722–23) War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Seven Years' War Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Bar Confederation Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Russo-Polish War (1792) Kościuszko Uprising Russo-Persian War (1796) War of the Second Coalition War of the Third Coalition Russo-Persian War (1804–13) War of the Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War (1806–12) Anglo-Russian War Finnish War War of the Fifth Coalition French invasion of Russia War of the Sixth Coalition War of the Seventh Coalition Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasian War

Russo-Circassian War Murid War

Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) November Uprising Russian conquest of Bukhara Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Crimean War January Uprising Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) Boxer Rebellion

Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

Russo-Japanese War Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 World War I Russian Civil War Ukrainian–Soviet War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian–Soviet War

Polish–Soviet War Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Azerbaijan Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Armenia Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Georgia Red Army
Red Army
intervention in Mongolia Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Xinjiang War (1937) World War II

Soviet invasion of Poland Winter War Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940) Continuation War Eastern Front (World War II) Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Soviet–Japanese War

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Ili Rebellion First Indochina War Korean War Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Eritrean War of Independence War of Attrition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Sino-Soviet border conflict Vietnam War Ogaden War South African Border War Soviet–Afghan War

Post-Soviet

Nagorno-Karabakh War Transnistria War Georgian Civil War Tajikistani Civil War Russo-Georgian War Intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea War in Donbass

Intervention in Syria

Military history of Russia Russian Winter Russian Revolution Cold War S

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