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Mariology
Mariology
of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, and of her place in the Economy of Salvation, within Catholic theology.[1][2][3] Mary is seen as having a singular dignity above the saints. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
teaches that she was conceived without original sin therefore receiving a higher level of veneration than all other saints. Catholic Mariology
Mariology
thus studies not only her life but also the veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art, music, and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.[4][5][6][7] The four dogmas of perpetual virginity, Mother of God, Immaculate Conception and Assumption form the basis of Mariology. However, a number of other Catholic doctrines about the Virgin Mary have been developed by reference to sacred scripture, theological reasoning and Church tradition. The development of Mariology
Mariology
is ongoing and since the beginnings it has continued to be shaped by theological analyses, writings of saints, and papal statements, e.g. while two Marian dogmas are ancient, the other two were defined in the 19th and 20th centuries; and papal teachings on Mary have continued to appear in recent times.[8][9][10] In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Catholic Mariology. Other Christian views see Mariology
Mariology
as unbiblical and a denial of the uniqueness of Christ
Christ
as redeemer and mediator[11] to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Kwan Yin.[12][13][14] Many different notions similar to these have been addressed in the 1988 John Paul II
John Paul II
Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
Mulieris dignitatem ("on the Dignity and Vocation of Women",[not verified in body] for the occasion of the Marian Year. John Paul II
John Paul II
also defines the feminine genius in this writing as well, referencing the life of the Mother of God.

Contents

1 Study of Mary and her place in the Church

1.1 Context and components 1.2 Maximalism and minimalism

2 Mariology
Mariology
and Christology 3 History and development 4 Dogmatic teachings

4.1 Mother of God 4.2 Assumption of Mary 4.3 Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of Mary 4.4 Perpetual virginity
Perpetual virginity
of Mary

5 Other Marian doctrines

5.1 Mary as Mother of all Christians 5.2 Queen of Heaven 5.3 Co-Redemptrix 5.4 Mediatrix

6 Encyclicals 7 Marian devotions
Marian devotions
and traditions

7.1 Marian Processions

8 Differing perspectives

8.1 Traditional views 8.2 Liberal perspectives

9 Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
differences from Latin
Latin
Church

9.1 Assumption of Mary 9.2 Immaculate Conception

10 Centers for Mariological studies 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading

Study of Mary and her place in the Church[edit] Context and components[edit] The study of Mary and her place in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has been undertaken from a number of perspectives and within a number of contexts, and in his address to the 2012 Mariological congress, Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
stated that this study must be "understood and deeply examined from different and complementary viewpoints".[15] Pope Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
also emphasized that the study of Mary cannot be performed in isolation from other disciplines and that Mariology
Mariology
is inherently related to the study of Christ
Christ
and of the Church, and expresses the inner coherence of these disciplines.[16] Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
has stated that Marian studies have three separate characteristics: first personalizing the Church so it is not seen just as a structure but as a person, secondly the incarnational aspect and the relation to God, and third Marian piety which involves the heart and the emotional component.[17] Mary's position in Church can be compared to the aspect of the Petrine office in a dual sense.[18] This perspective on the duality of the roles of Mary and Peter highlights the subjective holiness of the heart and the holiness of the structure of the Church. In this duality the Petrine office
Petrine office
logically examines the charisms for their theological soundness, while the Marian dual provides a balance in the spiritual and emotional sense via the service of love that the office can never encompass. Mariology
Mariology
and the doctrine of office are thus not "side chapels" in Roman Catholic teachings, but are central and integrating elements of it.[19] As referenced in the encyclical on the Mystical Body of Christ, Pius XII, 1943, her fiat gave consent for a spiritual marriage between the Son of God and human nature, thus giving humanity the means to salvation. Mary's rights (wedding feast at Cana), and Mary's love (fiat) are essential to salvation. Maximalism and minimalism[edit] Mariology
Mariology
is a field in which deeply felt pious beliefs of the faithful and hagiography may conflict with theological and critical historical reviews of beliefs and practices.[20] This conflict was recognized as early as the year 1300 by William of Ware who described the tendency of some believers to attribute almost everything to Mary.[21] Bonaventura warned against Marian maximalism. "One has to be careful as to not to minimize the honour of our Lord, Jesus Christ."[22] Both minimalist and maximalist have always seen in Mary a sign of the Church and viewed her as a model for all Catholics.[23] In the 20th century, Pope
Pope
Pius XII, "the most Marian Pope
Pope
in Church history"[24] warned against both exuberant exaggerations and timid minimalism in the presentation of Mary.[25][26] The Vatican II dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
was specifically written in 1964 to avoid both Marian maximalism and minimalism.[27][28] Pope
Pope
John Paul II was also careful to avoid both maximalism and minimalism in his Mariology
Mariology
and avoided taking personal positions on issues which were subject to theological debate.[29] Mariology
Mariology
and Christology[edit]

A Christ
Christ
and Mary, mosaic, Chora Church, 12-14th century. "To Christ through Mary", taught by St. Louis de Montfort

Mariology
Mariology
(the study of Mary) has been related to Christology
Christology
(the study of Christ) and in the Roman Catholic theological and papal writings has been viewed as interwoven with the mystery of Christ.[30] Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
discussed the "precise place of Mary" in the plan of salvation in the encyclical Redemptoris Mater
Redemptoris Mater
and stated: "Following the line of the Second Vatican Council, I wish to emphasize the special presence of the Mother of God
Mother of God
in the mystery of Christ
Christ
and his Church. For this is a fundamental dimension emerging from the Mariology
Mariology
of the Council".[31] Roman Catholic theologians have also explored the interwoven natures of Mariology
Mariology
and Christology.[30] Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
characterized the relationship by stating that " Christology
Christology
and Mariology
Mariology
are inseparably interwoven" from their very beginnings.[32] In his view Mariology
Mariology
underscores the nexus of the mysteries of Christology
Christology
and ecclesiology, and reflects they are intrinsically interwoven.[33] Early Christians
Christians
and numerous saints focused on this connection[34] and popes highlighted the inner link between Marian doctrines and a fuller understanding of Christological
Christological
themes.[35] Given the Catholic perspective that the Church lives in its relation to Christ, being the Body of Christ, it also has a relation to his mother, whose study is the subject of Roman Catholic Mariology.[36] Pope Saint Pius X
Pope Saint Pius X
in Ad diem illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ."[37] In Roman Catholic theology
Catholic theology
the study of Mary, while contributing to the study of Christ, is also a separate discipline in its own right, with an understanding of the figure of Mary contributing to a fuller understanding of who Christ
Christ
is and what he did.[38] The Congregation for Catholic Education has characterized the situation as follows: "The history of theology shows that an understanding of the mystery of the Virgin contributes to a more profound understanding of the mystery of Christ, of the Church and of the vocation of man."[39] Referring to this, Cardinal Raymond Burke stated that the promotion of a fuller knowledge of the Virgin Mary is the "constant work of the Church".[40] History and development[edit] Main article: History of Roman Catholic Mariology

Santa Maria Antiqua, in the Forum Romanum, 5th century, seat of Pope John VII.

Early Christians
Christians
focused their piety at first more upon the martyrs; but following that, they saw in Mary a bridge between the old and the new.[41] The earliest recorded prayer to Mary, the sub tuum praesidium, is dated to around the year 250.[42] In Egypt the veneration of Mary had started in the 3rd century and the term Theotokos
Theotokos
was used by Church Father
Church Father
Origen.[43] The Renaissance
Renaissance
period witnessed a dramatic growth in Marian art.[44] Masterpieces by Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Raphael
Raphael
were produced in this period. In the 16th century, the Council of Trent confirmed the Catholic tradition of paintings and artworks in churches, resulting in a great development of Marian art and Mariology during the Baroque Period.[7] During the Reformation, the Catholic Church defended its Mariology
Mariology
against Protestant
Protestant
views. With the victory at Battle of Lepanto (1571)
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
accredited to her, it "signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions."[45] The baroque literature on Mary experienced unforeseen growth. More than 500 pages of Mariological writings were published during the 17th century alone.[46] Popes have fostered the veneration of the Blessed Virgin through the promotion of Marian devotions, feast days, prayers, initiatives, the acceptance and support of Marian congregations, and, the formal recognition of Marian apparitions such as in Lourdes
Lourdes
and Fátima. Popes have at times followed on paths initiated by previous popes, for instance popes Alexander VII
Alexander VII
and Clement X
Clement X
both promulgated the veneration of the Heart of Jesus
Jesus
and the Heart of Mary, a concept which was embraced by pope John Paul II
John Paul II
in the 20th century as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary.[47][48][49][50] The two Marian dogmas of Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
and Assumption were established by popes in the 19th and 20th century. Pope
Pope
Pius XII issued the Dogma of the Assumption
Dogma of the Assumption
and the Second Vatican Council declared Mary to be the Mother of the Church.[51] In his 2002 Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope
Pope
John Paul II emphasized Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort's approach of viewing the study of Mary as a path to gaining a better understanding of the mystery of Christ.[52] Dogmatic teachings[edit] Main article: Roman Catholic dogma Marian Roman Catholic dogmas present infallible Church teachings about Mary and her relation to Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and reflect the role of Mary in the economy of salvation.[53][54] De Fide Definita or De Fide Credenda doctrines have the highest degree of dogmatic certainty. These doctrines come in several forms, namely the sacred scriptures and apostolic tradition[55] and teachings which have been specifically defined as revealed by an extraordinary definition by a Pope
Pope
or Ecumenical council (extraordinary universal Magisterium), or those teachings infallibly taught to be revealed by the ordinary universal Magisterium. As in the case of the Immaculate Conception or the Assumption, these doctrines were held by the Church prior to the date of official definition, but open for discussion. The date of definition must be accepted by all faithful members of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as contained specifically in the Deposit of Faith and owed supernatural faith in itself (de fide credenda).[53][54][56] There are four Marian dogmas specifically defined by the Magisterium among a large number of other dogmas and doctrines about the Virgin Mary - for example, the Annunciation of Mary
Annunciation of Mary
is dogma because it is in the scriptures, but it has not been specifically defined by the Magisterium. These four Marian dogmas include:[56]

Name First Magisterial Definition Dogma content

Mother of God Council of Ephesus
Ephesus
(431) Mother of God, not that the nature of the Word or his divinity received the beginning of its existence from the holy Virgin, but that, since the holy body, animated by a rational soul, which the Word of God united to himself according to the hypostasis, was born from her, the Word is said to be born according to the flesh.

Assumption into heaven Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
(1950) Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory

Immaculate Conception Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
(1854) Mary, at her conception, was preserved immaculate from Original Sin

Perpetual virginity Baptismal symbols since the 3rd century ' Perpetual virginity
Perpetual virginity
of Mary', means that Mary was a virgin before, during and after giving birth

Although there are only four Marian dogmas, popular support for a "fifth Marian dogma" which establishes Mary as Co-Redemptrix
Co-Redemptrix
and Mediatrix
Mediatrix
appeared in the 20th century both from lay groups and the clergy.[56] According to L'Osservatore Romano, in 1996 the Holy See formed a commission to seek the opinion of scholars regarding the possibility and the opportuneness of establishing a fifth Marian dogma on Mary as Coredemptrix, Mediatrix
Mediatrix
and Advocate.[57] A lay movement called Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici is promoting the doctrine of Mary as Mediatrix
Mediatrix
and provides petitions that can be signed by Roman Catholics at large and sent to the Pope
Pope
in support of a formal dogmatic definition.[58][59][60] Mother of God[edit] See also: Theotokos
Theotokos
and First Council of Ephesus

Madonna and Child
Madonna and Child
from Saint
Saint
Catherine's Monastery, c. 600.

Mary's mothership of God is a dogma of the Catholic Church.[61] The term "Mother of God" appears within the oldest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium, which dates to around 250 AD: "Under thy protection we seek refuge, Holy Mother of God". This was the first specifically Marian doctrine to be formally defined by the Church, formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council
Third Ecumenical Council
held at Ephesus
Ephesus
in 431. This refuted the objection raised by Patriarch
Patriarch
Nestorius
Nestorius
of Constantinople.[62] Scriptural basis for the dogma is found in John 1:14 which states "And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us" and in Galatians 4:4 which states "God sent forth his Son, born of a woman, born under the law".[63] Luke 1:35 further affirms divine maternity by stating: "The Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
shall come upon thee ... wherefore also the holy thing which is begotten shall be called the Son of God."[64] The dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
at the Second Vatican Council affirmed Mary as the Mother of God. "The Virgin Mary, who at the message of the angel received the Word of God in her heart and in her body and gave Life to the world, is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God
Mother of God
and Mother of the Redeemer." [65] This dogma is inherently related to the Christological
Christological
dogma of the hypostatic union which relates the divine and human natures of Jesus Christ.[61] The Catechism teaches that "Mary is truly 'Mother of God' since she is the mother of the eternal Son of God made man, who is God himself."[66] According to Saunders, Mary did not create the divine person of Jesus, who existed with the Father from all eternity.[62] Assumption of Mary[edit] Main articles: Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
and Munificentissimus Deus

The Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
by Charles Le Brun, 1835.

This dogma states that Mary was assumed into heaven with body and soul (de fide). The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(item 966) states:

"the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all stain of original sin, when the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things."[67]

Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
discussed the Assumption in Deiparae Virginis Mariae (1946) and in declared it a dogma in Munificentissimus Deus (1950).[68][69][70] Although the Assumption was only recently defined as dogma, accounts of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since at least the 5th century and by the 8th century saints Andrew of Crete and John of Damascus
John of Damascus
had declared belief in it.[71][72] The Book
Book
of Revelation (12:1) has been interpreted as referring to it; with her coronation implying her previous bodily assumption to heaven.[68] Before declaring the Assumption a dogma in Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
in 1950, in the encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae
Deiparae Virginis Mariae
"" (1946) Pope
Pope
Pius XII obtained the opinion of Catholic bishops, and based on their overwhelming support (1210 among the 1232 bishops) proceeded with the dogmatic definition.[68][73] Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility
Papal Infallibility
by Vatican I
Vatican I
in 1870, this declaration by Pius XII has been the only ex cathedra use of Papal Infallibility. While Pope Pius XII
Pius XII
deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption, the more common teaching of the early Fathers is that she did.[74][75] When responding to Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
following the circulation of Deiparae Virginis Mariae a large number of Catholic bishops pointed the Book
Book
of Genesis (3:15) as a scriptural basis.[71] In Munificentissimus Deus (item 39) Pius XII
Pius XII
referred to the "struggle against the infernal foe" as in Genesis 3:15 and to "complete victory over the sin and death" as in the Letters of Paul
Letters of Paul
as a scriptural basis for the dogmatic definition, Mary being assumed to heaven as in 1 Corinthians 15:54: "then shall come to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory".[71][76][77] Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of Mary[edit] Main article: Immaculate Conception

Altar of the Immaculata by Joseph Lusenberg, 1876. Saint
Saint
Antony's Church, Urtijëi, Italy.

This dogma states that Mary was conceived without original sin (de fide). This means that the conception of Mary in her mother's womb was without any stain of original sin and from the first moment of her existence, she was preserved by God from the lack of sanctifying grace that afflicts mankind, and that she was instead filled with divine grace.[78] The dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
is distinct from and should not be confused with the perpetual virginity of Mary or the virgin birth of Jesus; for this dogma refers to the conception of Mary by her mother, Saint Anne
Saint Anne
and not the conception of Jesus. The feast of the Immaculate Conception, celebrated on December 8, was established in 1476 by Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV, but the dogmatic definition was performed by Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus, on December 8, 1854.[78][79] The dogmatic definition in Ineffabilis Deus (which is Latin
Latin
for "Ineffable God"), was made ex cathedra by the exercise of papal authority by Pope
Pope
Pius IX.[80] The dogma states that Mary possessed sanctifying grace from the first instant of her existence and by a special and unique gift of God was free from the lack of grace caused by the original sin at the beginning of human history.[81] In Fulgens corona
Fulgens corona
(item 10) Pope
Pope
Pius XII reaffirmed the concept by stating: "Who will dare to doubt that she, who was purer than the angels and at all times pure, was at any moment, even for the briefest instant, not free from every stain of sin?"[82] Ineffabilis Deus
Ineffabilis Deus
(as well as Pope
Pope
Pius XII's Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
on the Assumption) also teaches the predestination of Mary, in that she was preserved from sin due to the role reserved for her in the economy of salvation.[79] This predetermination of Mary's role in salvation was referred to in Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
(item 61) which stated that she was "Predestined from eternity by that decree of divine providence which determined the incarnation of the Word to be the Mother of God."[79] [28] The definition in Ineffabilis Deus
Ineffabilis Deus
confirms the uniqueness of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
as a gift from God to Mary to allow her to become the stainless Mother of God.[78] Perpetual virginity
Perpetual virginity
of Mary[edit] Main articles: Perpetual virginity
Perpetual virginity
of Mary and Virgin birth of Jesus

The Annunciation
The Annunciation
by Paolo de Matteis, 1712.

This dogma states that Mary was a virgin before, during and after giving birth (de fide). This oldest Marian doctrine, (also held by Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox, and many other Christians) affirms Mary's "real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man."[83] Thus, by the teaching of this dogma, the faithful believe that Mary was ever-Virgin (Greek ἀειπάρθενος) for the whole of her life, making Jesus
Jesus
her only biological son, whose conception and birth are held to be miraculous.[84][85] The doctrine of perpetual virginity is distinct from the dogma of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of Mary, which relates to the conception of the Virgin Mary herself without any stain (macula in Latin) of original sin.[86] Virginity
Virginity
before birth This means that Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
without participation of any man (de fide). The Greek term Aeiparthenos
Aeiparthenos
(i.e. "Ever Virgin") is attested to from the early 4th century.[87] The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(item 499) includes the term Aeiparthenos
Aeiparthenos
and referring to the dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium (item 57) states: "Christ's birth did not diminish his mother's virginal integrity but sanctified it."[88][89][90] Virginity
Virginity
during birth This means that Mary gave birth without losing her corporal virginity (de fide) and her corporal integrity was not affected by giving birth.[89] The Church does not teach how this occurred physically, but insists that virginity during child birth is different from virginity of conception; Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
stating in Mystici corporis
Mystici corporis
"Within her virginal womb Christ
Christ
our Lord already bore the exalted title of Head of the Church; in a marvelous birth she brought Him forth as the source of all supernatural life".[89][91] Virginity
Virginity
after birth This means that Mary remained a virgin after giving birth (de fide).[89] This belief of the Church was questioned in its early years.[92] The scriptures say little about this, mentioning the brothers of Jesus, but never "sons of Mary," suggesting to the patristical writers a broader family relationship.[89][92][93] Other Marian doctrines[edit] Apart from the four Marian dogmas listed above, the Catholic Church holds a number of other doctrines about the Virgin Mary which have been developed by references to Sacred Scripture, theological reasoning and Church tradition.[94] Mary as Mother of all Christians[edit] Main article: Mother of the Church

Federico Barocci, Madonna del Popolo (Madonna of the people) 1579.

The title Mother of the Church
Mother of the Church
(in Latin
Latin
Mater Ecclesiae) was officially given to the Virgin Mary during the Second Vatican Council by Pope
Pope
Paul VI.[95] This title goes back to St. Ambrose of Milan
Ambrose of Milan
in the 4th century, but this use was not known until its 1944 rediscovery by Hugo Rahner.[95][96] Rahner's Mariology, following Ambrose, saw Mary in her role within the Church, his interpretation being based solely on Ambrose
Ambrose
and the early Fathers.[96] The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
states that the Virgin Mary is mother of the Church and of all its members, namely all Christians:[97]

"The Virgin Mary . . . is acknowledged and honoured as being truly the Mother of God
Mother of God
and of the redeemer.... since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church, who are members of its head." "Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church."

Pope
Pope
Paul VI's "Credo of the People of God" states:[98][99]

"The Mother of the Church, carries on in heaven her maternal role with regard to the members of Christ, cooperating in the birth and development of divine life in the souls of the redeemed."

In Redemptoris Mater
Redemptoris Mater
Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
referred to Paul VI's "Credo of the People of God" as a reaffirmation of the statement that Mary is the "mother of the entire Christian people, both faithful and pastors" and wrote that the Credo "restated this truth in an even more forceful way":[98] Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
also referred to the Credo of Paul VI
Paul VI
and stated that it sums up all of the scriptural texts that relate to the matter.[99] In his homily on 2015 New Year’s Day, Pope
Pope
Francis said that Jesus and his mother Mary are “inseparable,” just like Jesus
Jesus
and the Church, who is the mother of all humanity that guides her children to God.[100] Queen of Heaven[edit] Main articles: Ad Caeli Reginam
Ad Caeli Reginam
and Queen of Heaven

Statue (detail) of the Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
in Attard, Malta.

The doctrine that the Virgin Mary has been crowned Queen of Heaven goes back to the early patristic writers of the Church such as St. Gregory Nazianzen
Gregory Nazianzen
"the Mother of the King of the universe," and the "Virgin Mother who brought forth the King of the whole world,"[101] Prudentius, the Mother marvels "that she has brought forth God as man, and even as Supreme King."[102] and, St. Ephrem, "Let Heaven sustain me in its embrace, because I am honored above it. For heaven was not Thy mother, but Thou hast made it Thy throne. How much more honorable and venerable than the throne of a king is her mother."[103] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
often sees Mary as queen in heaven, bearing a crown of twelve stars in Revelation[104] Despite arguments by many Pentecostal, Protestant
Protestant
and a few churches that say that that Mother Mary isn't depicted as the 'Queen of Heaven and the world' in the Bible.The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and many others point out the verses from the Book
Book
of Revelations in Chapter 12 which states clearly Mother Mary as a Queen, with a crown of twelve stars and the Moon under her feet and cloaked with the Sun. 12 A great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet and a crown of twelve stars on her head. 2 She was pregnant and cried out in pain as she was about to give birth. Many Popes have given tribute to it. Mary is the Queen of Heaven
Queen of Heaven
and Earth, (Pius IX), Queen and Ruler of the Universe (Leo XIII) and Queen of the World (Pius XII)[105] The theological and logical foundation of these titles rests in the dogma of Mary as the Mother of God. As mother of God, she participates in his salvation plan. The Catholic faith teaches that Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, reigns with a mother's solicitude over the entire world, just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen:[106]

Certainly, in the full and strict meaning of the term, only Jesus Christ, the God-Man, is King; but Mary, too, as Mother of the divine Christ, as His associate in the redemption, in his struggle with His enemies and His final victory over them, has a share, though in a limited and analogous way, in His royal dignity. For from her union with Christ
Christ
she attains a radiant eminence transcending that of any other creature; from her union with Christ
Christ
she receives the royal right to dispose of the treasures of the Divine Redeemer's Kingdom; from her union with Christ
Christ
finally is derived the inexhaustible efficacy of her maternal intercession before the Son and His Father.[106]

Co-Redemptrix[edit] Main article: Co-Redemptrix

Pietro Lorenzetti, 1310.

Co-Redemptrix
Co-Redemptrix
refers to the participation of Mary in the salvation process. Already, Irenaeus, the Church Father
Church Father
(died 200), referred to Mary as "causa salutis" [cause of our salvation] given her "fiat."[107] It is teaching, which has been considered since the 15th century[108] but never declared a dogma. The Roman Catholic view of Co-Redemptrix
Co-Redemptrix
does not imply that Mary participates as equal part in the redemption of the human race, since Christ
Christ
is the only redeemer.[109] Mary herself needed redemption and was redeemed by Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
her son. Being redeemed by Christ, implies that she cannot be his equal part in the redemption process.[110] Co-redemptrix refers to an indirect or unequal but important participation by Mary in the redemption process. She gave free consent to give life to the redeemer, to share his life, to suffer with him under the cross and to sacrifice him for the sake of the redemption of mankind. Co-redemption is not something new. Papal teaching began to mention this aspect in official Church documents during the pontificate of Pope
Pope
Pius X[111] Pius X referred to it in his encyclical Ad diem illum.[112] Pope Benedict XV
Pope Benedict XV
first described the term in his own right in his Apostolic Letter, Inter Soldalica, issued March 22, 1918.[113][113] Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
repeated this argument with slightly different accents in his encyclical Mystici Corporis.[114] In the Papal bull Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
on dogma of the assumption, Pope
Pope
Pius declares that “the revered Mother of God, from all eternity joined in a hidden way with Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
in one and the same decree of predestination, immaculate in her conception, a most perfect virgin in her divine motherhood, as the noble associate of the divine Redeemer[115] Mediatrix[edit] Main article: Mediatrix In Catholic teachings, Jesus
Jesus
Christ
Christ
is the only mediator between God and man.[116] He alone reconciled through his death on the Cross creator and creation. But this does not exclude a secondary mediating role for Mary, preparatory, supportive, in the view of several prominent, but not all Catholics. The teaching that Mary intercedes for all believers and especially those who request her intercession through prayer has been held in the Church since early times, for example by Ephraim, the Syrian “after the mediater a mediatrix for the whole world[117] Intercession is something that may be done by all the heavenly saints, but Mary is seen as having the greatest intercessionary power. The earliest surviving recorded prayer to Mary is the Sub tuum praesidium, written in Greek.[118] Mary has increasingly been seen as a principal dispenser of God's graces and Advocate for the people of God and is mentioned as such in several official Church documents. Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX
used the title in Ineffabilis Deus. In the first of his so-called Rosary
Rosary
encyclicals, Supremi apostolatus officio (1883), Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
calls Our Lady the guardian of our peace and the dispensatrix of heavenly graces. The following year, 1884, his encyclical Superiore anno speaks of the prayers presented to God through her whom He has chosen to be the dispenser of all heavenly graces. Pope Pius X
Pope Pius X
employed this title in Ad diem illum
Ad diem illum
in 1904, Pope Benedict XV
Pope Benedict XV
introduced it into the Marian liturgy when he created the Marian feast of Mary, Mediatrix
Mediatrix
of all Graces in 1921, In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam, Pope
Pope
Pius XII calls Mary the Mediatrix
Mediatrix
of peace.[119] Encyclicals[edit] Main article: Mariology
Mariology
of the popes Popes have been important in shaping both the theological and the devotional aspects of the Roman Catholic perspective on the Virgin Mary.[120] Theologically, popes have highlighted the inner link between Virgin Mary and Jesus
Jesus
Christ, in the encyclicals Mystici corporis,[121] Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
and Redemptoris Mater.[122]

Pope
Pope
Pius X

Ad diem illum[123]

Pope
Pope
Pius XII

Fulgens corona[124] Ad Caeli Reginam[125]

Marian devotions
Marian devotions
and traditions[edit] Main article: Marian devotions See also: Rosary, Consecration to Mary, and Rosary
Rosary
and scapular

Our Lady of Peñafrancia
Our Lady of Peñafrancia
in Naga City, Philippines

Marian devotions
Marian devotions
are highly prominent within the Roman Catholic tradition and a wide variety of devotions ranging from Consecration to Mary, to the wearing of scapular, to multi-day prayers such as Rosary Novenas are practiced by Catholics.[126][127][128][129] The spread of Marian devotions, such as the Rosary
Rosary
via lay organizations, has also influenced popular interest in Mariology, the growth of Marian devotions
Marian devotions
building sensus fidelium, which influences the public interest in specific aspects of Mariology.[130] Marian devotions generally begin at the level of popular piety, often in connection with the religious experiences and visions of simple and modest individuals (in some cases children), and the recounting of their experiences in time creates strong emotions among numerous Roman Catholics to build sensus fidelium.[131][132] Theologians have at times cited in support of their Mariology
Mariology
this constant sensus fidelium, e.g. Saint
Saint
Alphonsus Liguori
Alphonsus Liguori
valued texts and traditions of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
as expressions of the sensus fidelium of the past and attributed great weight to the argument that "the greater part of the faithful have always had recourse to the intercession of the divine mother for all the graces which they desire".[133] Speaking of the witness of the Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in attributing certain titles to Mary, in Fulgens corona
Fulgens corona
Pope
Pope
Pius XII wrote:

If the popular praises of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
be given the careful consideration they deserve, who will dare to doubt that she, who was purer than the angels and at all times pure, was at any moment, even for the briefest instant, not free from every stain of sin?[134]

The Marian dogmas of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
and the Assumption of Mary were defined in part on the basis of the sensus fidei, "the supernatural appreciation of faith on the part of the whole people, when, from the bishops to the last of the faithful, they manifest a universal consent in matters of faith and morals".[135] In the case of the dogmas of Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
and Assumption, the two popes concerned consulted the Catholic bishops worldwide about the faith of the community before proceeding to define the dogma.[136] Referring to these dogmas, in 2010 Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
called the People of God the "teacher that goes first" and stated:

"Faith both in the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
and in the bodily Assumption of the Virgin was already present in the People of God, while theology had not yet found the key to interpreting it in the totality of the doctrine of the faith. The People of God therefore precede theologians and this is all thanks to that supernatural sensus fidei, namely, that capacity infused by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
that qualifies us to embrace the reality of the faith with humility of heart and mind. In this sense, the People of God is the 'teacher that goes first' and must then be more deeply examined and intellectually accepted by theology."[137]

Marian devotions
Marian devotions
have been encouraged by popes, and in Marialis Cultus Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
stated:"From the moment when we were called to the See of Peter, we have constantly striven to enhance devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary.[138] In Rosarium Virginis Mariae, Pope
Pope
John Paul II stated: "Among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary.[139] Devotion to the Virgin Mary does not, however, amount to worship - which is reserved for God; Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. In 787 the Second Council of Nicaea
Second Council of Nicaea
affirmed a three-level hierarchy of latria, hyperdulia and dulia that applies to God, the Virgin Mary and then to the other saints.[140][141][142] Marian Processions[edit]

The annual Grand Marian Procession through Downtown Los Angeles.

In Los Angeles, California, a Marian procession took place annually for roughly the first 100 years following the founding of the city. In an attempt to revive the custom of religious processions, in September 2011 the Queen of Angels Foundation, founded by Mark Anchor Albert, inaugurated an annual "Grand Marian Procession" in the heart of Downtown Los Angeles' historic core.[143][144] This yearly procession, intended to coincide with the anniversary of the founding of the City of Los Angeles, begins outside of the parish of La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles which is part of the Los Angeles Plaza Historic District, better known as "La Placita". By way of city streets, the procession eventually terminates at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels where a public Rosary
Rosary
and Mass in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
are offered.[145] Subsequent years have seen the involvement and participation of numerous chivalric, fraternal, and religious orders, parishes, lay groups, political figures, as well as other religious and civic organizations. Differing perspectives[edit] Throughout the centuries, Catholics have viewed the Virgin Mary from a number of perspectives, at times derived from specific Marian attributes ranging from queenship to humility and at other times based on cultural preferences of events taking place at specific points in history.[146][147] In parallel with the traditional approaches to Mariology, opposing views based on progressive interpretations of have been presented by feminists, psychologists and liberal Catholics.[148][149] Traditional views[edit]

A statue of John Paul II
John Paul II
with Our Lady of Guadalupe, by Pacho Cárdenas, made entirely with keys donated by Mexicans to symbolize that they had given him the keys to their hearts.[150]

Traditional views on Mary have emphasized the Marian dogmas and doctrines, accompanied by devotions and venerations. Yet these views have changed and been transformed over time. An example of the changing perspectives on the Virgin Mary based on specific spiritual views, and its adoption within a culture a world away is the transformation of the image of Mary from a Heavenly Queen to a mother of humility, and the construction of views to accommodate both perspectives. While depictions of the Virgin Mary as the Queen of Heaven or Coronation of the Virgin
Coronation of the Virgin
by artists such as Paolo Veneziano or Giuliano da Rimini
Giuliano da Rimini
were common in the early part of the 14th century, they did not fit with the virtue of humility which was a key tenet of the spirituality of Saint
Saint
Francis of Assisi. The concept of the Virgin of humility
Virgin of humility
was developed in the 14th century in order to accommodate Franciscan piety, by depicting the Madonna sitting on the ground, rather than a throne. It offered a view of the Virgin Mary (often barefoot) as a mother nursing a child, rather than a Queen in a coronation scene.[151][152][153] As the Franciscans
Franciscans
began to preach in China, the notion of the Virgin of humility resonated well with the Chinese, partly due to the cultural acceptance of humility as a virtue in China, and partly due to its similarity to the motherly, merciful figure of Kuanyin, which was much admired in south China.[154][155][156] However, by the middle of the 15th century, a dual view had emerged in Europe, as represented by Domenico di Bartolo's 1433 Madonna of humility
Madonna of humility
which expressed the symbolic duality of her nature: an earthly barefoot woman, as well as a heavenly queen. Despite her low, sitting position, the depiction of star and the gems, as well as a halo, signify the regal status of the Virgin, as she is being attended to while she holds the Child Jesus.[157] Saint
Saint
Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe to him in 1531 on Tepeyac Hill
Tepeyac Hill
in Mexico provides another example of the cultural adaptation of the view of the Virgin Mary. Juan Diego
Juan Diego
did not describe the Virgin Mary as either European or Middle Eastern, but as a tanned Aztec
Aztec
princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language, and not in Spanish. The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe that is highly venerated in Mexico has the appearance of an Indigenous Central American, rather than a European woman, and the clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe has been identified as that of an Aztec
Aztec
princess. The Virgin of Guadalupe was a turning point in the conversion of Latin
Latin
America to Catholicism, and is the primary view of Mary among millions of Catholics in Mexico in the 21st century.[158][159][160] Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
reinforced the localization of this view by permitting local Aztec
Aztec
dances during the ceremony in which he declared Juan Diego
Juan Diego
a saint, spoke in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
as part of the ceremony, called Juan Diego
Juan Diego
"the talking eagle" and asked him to show "the way that leads to the Dark Virgin of Tepeyac".[159] [161][162] The view of the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" has existed for centuries and is still held by many Catholics in the 21st century.[163][164] The legends of the miracles of the Maddona of Orsanmichele
Orsanmichele
in Florence
Florence
go back to the Renaissance.[165] The legends of miracles performed by the image of the Black Madonna
Black Madonna
of Częstochowa also go back for centuries, and it continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland.[166][167] Every year, millions of Catholic pilgrims visit the Basilica at Our Lady of Lourdes
Lourdes
in search of miraculous cures.[168][169] Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis.[170] Liberal perspectives[edit] Since the end of the 19th century, a number of progressive and liberal perspectives of Mariology
Mariology
have been presented, ranging from feminist criticisms to interpretations based on modern psychology and liberal Catholic viewpoints. These views are generally critical of the Roman Catholic approach to Mariology
Mariology
as well as the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
church, which has even more Marian emphasis within its official liturgy.[148][149][171] Some feminists contend that, as with other women saints such as Joan of Arc, the image of Mary is a construct of the patriarchal mind. They argue that Marian dogmas and doctrines and the typical forms of Marian devotion reinforce patriarchy by offering women temporary comfort from the ongoing oppression inflicted on them by male dominated churches and societies.[149] In the feminist view, old gender stereotypes persist within traditional Marian teachings and theological doctrines. To that end books on feminist Mariology
Mariology
have been published to present opposing interpretations and perspectives.[12] The psychological analysis of Marian teachings dates back to Sigmund Freud, who used the title of a poem by Goethe
Goethe
in his 1911 paper Great is Diana of the Ephesians.[13] Carl Jung, on the other hand, viewed the Virgin Mary as a spiritual and more loving goddess version of Eros.[172] A large number of other psychological interpretations have been presented through the years, ranging from the study of the similarities of the Virgin Mary and the Buddhist Goddess Tara, or the humble and loving figure presented by the East Asian
East Asian
Goddess Kwan Yin.[14] Since the Reformation
Reformation
many Christians
Christians
have opposed Marian venerations, and that trend has continued into the 21st century among progressive and liberal Christians, who see the high level of attention paid to the Virgin Mary both as being without sufficient grounding in Scripture
Scripture
and as distracting from the worship due to Christ.[11][173] Groups of liberal Catholics view the traditional image of the Virgin Mary as presented by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as an obstacle towards realization of the goal of womanhood, and as a symbol of the systemic patriarchal oppression of women within the Church. Moreover, some liberal Catholics view the cultivation of the traditional image of Mary as a method of manipulation of Catholics at large by the Church hierarchy.[174] Other liberal Christians
Christians
argue that the modern concepts of equal opportunity for men and women does not resonate well with the humble image of Mary, obediently and subserviently kneeling before Christ.[175] Eastern Catholic
Eastern Catholic
differences from Latin
Latin
Church[edit] While Eastern-Rite Catholics belong to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and are also under the Pope's authority and hold the same theological beliefs as Latin-Rite Catholics, Eastern theology has a notably different emphasis on specific Marian beliefs. Furthermore, much of the literature and publications on Mariology
Mariology
and centers for its study have been related to the Latin
Latin
Rite of the Church. Assumption of Mary[edit] The traditional Eastern expression of this doctrine is the Dormition of the Theotokos
Theotokos
which emphasises her falling asleep to be later assumed into heaven. The differences in these observances is for some Eastern Catholics superficial.[176] However, Latin
Latin
Catholics in general disagree with this eastern understanding.[177] Immaculate Conception[edit] The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
is a teaching of Eastern origin but expressed in the terminology of the Western Church.[178] The Western concept of the Virgin Mary being free from original sin as defined by St. Augustine of Hippo
St. Augustine of Hippo
is not accepted in the East. However, Eastern Catholics recognized from ancient times that Mary was preserved by God from the contagion of original sin. Eastern Catholics while not observing the Latin-Rite holy day, have no difficulty affirming it or even dedicating their churches to the Virgin Mary under this title.[179] Centers for Mariological studies[edit] The formal study of Mariology
Mariology
within the circles associated with the Holy See
Holy See
took a major step forward between the Holy Year
Holy Year
1950 and 1958 based on the actions of Pope
Pope
Pius XII, who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Pontifical Marian International Academy The PAMI is an international pontifical organization connecting all Promoters of Mariology, Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants and Muslim. John XXIII with the Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
Maiora in Dies defined the purpose of the PAMI: to promote and animate studies of Mariology
Mariology
through International Mariological Marian Congresses and other academic meetings and to see to the publication of their studies. The PAMI has the task of coordinating the other Marian Academies and Societies that exist all over the world and to exercise vigilance against any Marian excess or minimalism. For this reason the Pope
Pope
determined that in the Academy there be a Council that assures the organization of Congresses and the coordination of the Mariological Societies, Promoters and Teachers of Mariology. Academia Mariana Salesiana - He granted the foundation of the Academia Mariana Salesiana, which is a part of a papal university. The Academy supports Salesian studies to further the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the tradition of Saint
Saint
John Bosco.[180] Centro Mariano Montfortano- Also in 1950, the Centro Mariano Montfortano was moved from Bergamo
Bergamo
to Rome. The Centro promulgates the teachings of Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort, who was earlier canonized by Pius XII. It publishes the monthly Madre e Regina, which promulgates the Marian orientation of Montfort.[181] Marianum
Marianum
was created in 1950 and entrusted to the Order of Servites. It is authorized to grant all academic degrees, including a doctorate in theology. Since 1976, every two years the Marianum
Marianum
organizes international conferences to find modern formulations which approximate the mystery of Mary.[181] Collegamento Mariano Nazionale (1958)- the last Marian initiative of Pope
Pope
Pius XII. It coordinates activities of Marian centres in Italy, and organizes Marian pilgrimages and Marian study weeks for priests. In addition it started Marian youth gatherings and publishes the journal Madonna.[180]

Of these organizations, the Marianum
Marianum
Pontifical Theological Faculty is the most active marilogical centre in Rome (www.marianum.it).[182] This Pontifical Catholic Faculty was founded by Father Gabriel Roschini (who directed it for several years) under the direction of Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
in 1950. At the Marianum, one can get a master's degree in Mariology
Mariology
(2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. This mariological facility has a library with more than 85,000 volumes on Mariology
Mariology
and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern. Marianum
Marianum
is also the name of the prestigious journal of Marian theology, founded by Father Roschini in 1939.[181] In 1975, the University of Dayton
University of Dayton
in Ohio formed the International Marian Research Institute in affiliation with the Marianum
Marianum
to offer a doctorate in sacred theology (S.T.D.) and a licentiate in sacred theology (S.T.L.).[183] See also[edit]

Catholicism portal

Book: Mary and Mariology

Anglican Marian theology Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission Josephology Luciano Alimandi Mariology
Mariology
of the saints Protestant
Protestant
views of Mary

Notes[edit]

^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3 (2005) defines Mariology
Mariology
as "the systematic study of the person of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
and of her place in the economy of the Incarnation" ^ Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Encyclopedia (ISBN 978-0-87973-669-9 page 649) defines Mariology
Mariology
as "The study of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
in Christian theology, especially in the Roman Catholic Church" ^ Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints ISBN 978-1-931709-75-0 page 917 defines Mariology
Mariology
as "Branch of theology that focuses on the Blessed Virgin. It examines her life, virtues, and important role in the economy of salvation." ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0-87779-044-2 page 696 ^ Symbolic scores: studies in the music of the Renaissance
Renaissance
by Willem Elders 1997 ISBN 90-04-09970-0 page 151 ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret M. Miles 2001 ISBN 0-86012-305-7 page vii ^ a b From Trent to Vatican Two by Raymond F. Bulman, Frederick J. Parrella 2006 Oxford UP ISBN 0-19-517807-6 pages 179-180 ^ Mary in the New Testament by Raymond E. Brown 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 28, "in the course of centuries, Mariology
Mariology
has had an enormous development" ^ Luigi Gambro in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1-57918-355-7, 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, pages 142-145 ^ Trent Pomplun in The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism by James Buckley, Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt and Trent Pomplun (Dec 21, 2010) ISBN 1-4443-3732-7 pages 319-320 ^ a b Christianity: the first two thousand years by David Lawrence Edwards 2001 ISBN 0-304-70127-0 pages 438-439 ^ a b A feminist companion to Mariology
Mariology
by Amy-Jill Levine, Maria Mayo Robbins 2005 ISBN 0-8264-6661-3 page 147 ^ a b Sigmund Freud's Christian unconscious by Paul C. Vitz 1993 ISBN 0-8028-0690-2 page 191 ^ a b Encyclopedia of psychology and religion: L - Z by David Adams Leeming 2009 ISBN 0-387-71801-X page 900 ^ Vatican website: Benedict XVI
Benedict XVI
Address to the 23 Mariological Congress, September 8, 2012 ^ Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, p. 30. ^ Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, pp. 34-35. ^ Avery Cardinal Dulles, SJ: A Model Theologian, by Patrick W. Carey (September 1, 2010) ISBN 0-8091-0571-3 page 553 ^ Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, pp. 173-174. ^ Michael Schmaus in the Encyclopedia of Theology: a Concise Sacramentum Mundi edited by Karl Rahner (31 Dec 1999) ISBN 0-86012-006-6 pages 900-904 ^ C. Balic, "The Marian rules of Dun Scotus", Euntes Docete, 9, 1956, 110 ^ Bonaventura, Opera VI, 497 ^ The Blackwell Companion to Catholicism by James Buckley, Frederick Christian Bauerschmidt and Trent Pomplun (December 21, 2010) ISBN 1-4443-3732-7 page 324 ^ Bäumer, Kirchenlexikon, Pius XII ^ Encyclical
Encyclical
Ad Caeli Reginam
Ad Caeli Reginam
item 44, at the Vatican website ^ Edward Sri "Advocate and Queen" in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons, Queenship Publishing ISBN 1-57918-355-7 pages 498-499 ^ Contemporary Catholic Theology by Liam Gearon and Michael A. Hayes (Mar 1, 1999) ISBN 0-8264-1172-X page 283 ^ a b "Lumen gentium".  ^ Church and Society: The Laurence J. McGinley Lectures by Avery Dulles (March 14, 2008) ISBN 0-8232-2862-2 page 256 ^ a b See John Henry Newman: Mariology
Mariology
is always christocentric, in Michael Testa, Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life and Writings of John Henry Newman 2001; " Mariology
Mariology
Is Christology", in Vittorio Messori, The Mary Hypothesis, Rome: 2005 ^ Encyclical
Encyclical
Redemptoris Mater, by Pope
Pope
John Paul II, items 1, 48 and 51 Text at the Vatican web site ^ Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, pp. 51-52. ^ Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, p. 29. ^ Msgr. Charles Mangan in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1-57918-355-7, 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, pages 520-529 ^ see Pius XII, Mystici corporis, also John Paul II
John Paul II
in Redemptoris Mater: The Second Vatican Council, by presenting Mary in the mystery of Christ, also finds the path to a deeper understanding of the mystery of the Church. Mary, as the Mother of Christ, is in a particular way united with the Church, "which the Lord established as his own body."11 "one cannot think of the reality of the Incarnation without referring to Mary, the Mother of the Incarnate Word." Redemptoris Mater
Redemptoris Mater
item 44 ^ "If we look at the Church, we have to have to consider the miraculous deeds which God performed with his mother." ( Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Vatican II, November 21, 1964) ^ Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
Pius X, in Ad diem illum, section 5, 1904 ^ Paul Haffner, 2004 The mystery of Mary Gracewing Press ISBN 0-85244-650-0 page 17 ^ The Virgin Mary in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation, Congregation for Catholic Education Rome, March 25, 1988, item 18 Text at the University of Dayton ^ Raymond Burke, in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, ISBN 1-57918-355-7 pages xvii-xx "The Virgin Mary in Intellectual and Spiritual Formation, issued during the heart of the Marian Year, on the first anniversary of the publication of Redemptoris Mater, reminds us that the promotion of the fuller knowledge of and more fervent devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
is the constant work of the Church." ^ Michael Schmaus, Katholische Dogmatik: Mariologie, 1955, p. 174 ^ Matthewes-Green, Frederica (2007). The Lost Gospel of Mary: The Mother of Jesus
Jesus
in Three Ancient Texts. Brewster MA: Paraclete Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-1-55725-536-5.  ^ Benz, Ernst The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church: Its Thought and Life 2009 ISBN 0-202-36298-1 page 62 ^ Renaissance
Renaissance
Art: A Very Short Introduction by Geraldine A. Johnson 2005 ISBN 0-19-280354-9 pages 103-104 ^ Otto Stegmüller, Barock, in Marienkunde, 1967 566 ^ A Roskovany, conceptu immacolata ex monumentis omnium seculrorum demonstrate III, Budapest: 1873 ^ Leo Cardinal Scheffczyk, Vaticanum II, in Marienlexikon, 567 ^ Murphy, John Mary's Immaculate Heart 2007 ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 page 37 and pages 59–60 ^ " Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
1986 Speech at the Vatican Website". Vatican.va. Retrieved 2010-11-20.  ^ Arthur Calkins, The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration, Miles Immaculatae
Miles Immaculatae
XXXI (July/December 1995) 389–407. [1] ^ Bäumer 534 ^ Pope
Pope
John Paul II. " Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
of the Supreme Pontiff on the Most Holy Rosary". Rosarium Virginis Mariae. Vatican. Retrieved 4 Oct 2010.  ^ a b Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 5-11 ^ a b Raymond Burke, in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, ISBN 1-57918-355-7 pages xvii-xx ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
- The Transmission of Divine Revelation".  ^ a b c Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 page 51 ^ L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English 25 June 1997, page 10 ^ "Voice of the People for Mary Mediatrix". Retrieved 2008-10-09.  ^ "VoxPopuli.org Old Site - See details for the new site at FifthMarianDogma.com". voxpopuli.org.  ^ Robert Moynihan, Is the Time Ripe for a 5th Marian Dogma? Zenit, March 1, 2010 Archived May 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Hauke 2008, pp. 167-168. ^ a b Saunders, William. "Mary, Mother of God", The Arlington Catholic Herald, December 22, 1994 ^ Hauke 2008, pp. 170-171. ^ Hauke 2008, p. 170. ^ Pope
Pope
Paul VI. Lumen gentium, Vatican, November 21, 1964 ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church". usccb.org.  ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
- Mary - Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church".  ^ a b c Introduction to Mary by Mark Miravalle (1993) Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 72-75 ^ Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton 207 ISBN 0-8160-5455-X page 267 ^ Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
item 44 at the Vatican web site ^ a b c Introduction to Mary by Mark Miravalle (1993) Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 75-78 ^ Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations by J. Gordon Melton ISBN 1-59884-205-6 page 50 ^ Encyclical
Encyclical
Deiparae Virginis Mariae
Deiparae Virginis Mariae
at the Vatican web site ^ As the Virgin Mary remained an ever-virgin and sinless, it is viewed that the Virgin Mary could not thus suffer the consequences of Original Sin, which is chiefly Death. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3819.htm Nicea II Session 6 Decree ^ "During time of Adrian I Nicaea-2". ewtn.com.  ^ Paul Haffner in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1-57918-355-7, 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, pages 328-350 ^ Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
item 39at the Vatican web site ^ a b c Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 64 and 70 ^ a b c Fr. Peter Fehlner, "The Predestination
Predestination
of the Virgin Mother and Her Immaculate Conception" in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons, Queenship Publishing ISBN 1-57918-355-7 pages 215-217 ^ The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff 2009 ISBN 1-115-46834-0 page 211 ^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 page 64-70 ^ Encyclical
Encyclical
Fulgens corona, item 10 at the Vatican web site ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
§499 ^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 56-64 ^ Mary in the New Testament edited by Raymond Edward Brown 1978 ISBN 0-8091-2168-9 page 273 ^ A history of the church in the Middle Ages by F. Donald Logan, 2002, ISBN 0-415-13289-4, p150 ^ Joseph, Mary, Jesus
Jesus
by Lucien Deiss, Madeleine Beaumont 1996 ISBN 0-8146-2255-0 page 30 ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
by the Vatican, 2002 ISBN 0-86012-324-3 page 112 ^ a b c d e "Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
- "Conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
and born of the Virgin Mary"".  ^ Vatican website: Lumen gentium
Lumen gentium
item 57 ^ Encyclical
Encyclical
Mystici corporis
Mystici corporis
item 110 Mystici corporis
Mystici corporis
at the Vaican website ^ a b E.g. by Tertullian, Eunomius, Helvisius, Bonosus of Sardica; see Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma ISBN 0-89555-009-1 page 249 ^ J D Aldama, La vergenidad in partu en la exegesis patristica, Salamanca, 1962, page 113 ^ Introduction to Mary by Mark Miravalle (1993) Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 10-11 ^ a b International Theological Commission, Vol II: 1986-2007 edited by Michael Sharkey and Thomas Weinandy (Aug 21, 2009) ISBN 1-58617-226-3 page 208 ^ a b Hugo Rahner, "Mater Ecclesia - Lobpreis der Kirche aus dem ersten Jahrtausend", Einsiedeln/Köln 1944 ^ "Mary, Mother of Christ, Mother of the Church." Catechism item 963 at the Vatican web site ^ a b John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, no. 47, citing Pope
Pope
Paul VI, Solemn Profession of Faith (30 June 1968), 15: Acta Apostolicae Sedis 60 (1968) 438f. ^ a b Benedict XVI, Walker & Von Balthasar 2005, pp. 58-59. ^ "Without the Church, Jesus
Jesus
'is at the mercy of our imagination,' Pope
Pope
says". Catholic News Agency.  ^ S. Gregorius Naz., Poemata dogmatica, XVIII, v. 58; PG XXXVII, 485. ^ Prudentius, Dittochaeum, XXVII: PL LX, 102 A. ^ S. Ephraem, Hymni de B. Maria, ed. Th. J. Lamy, t. II, Mechliniae, 1886, hymn. XIX, p. 624. ^ 12, verses 1-5. ^ in:enyclical Ad caeli reginam ^ a b Ad Caeli reginam 39 ^ "Why It's Not the Right Time for a Dogma on Mary as Co-redemptrix". ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome. Archived from the original on 2008-09-28.  ^ Ott 256 ^ 1Tim 2,5 ^ Ott Dogmatics 256 ^ Ott 256. ^ Ad diem illum, 14 ^ a b AAS, 1918, 181 ^ Mystici corporis, 110 ^ Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
40 ^ 1 Tim, 2,5 ^ Oratio IV ad Deiparem ^ and dating from approximately AD 250 ^ Ad Caeli Reginam, 51 ^ Magnan, Charles. "The Spiritual Maternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary" in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons, 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, Queenship Publishing ISBN 1-57918-355-7 pages 530-541 ^ Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Mystici corporis
Mystici corporis
Christi, 29 June 1943, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Pope
Pope
John Paul II, Redemptoris Mater, 25 March, 1987, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Pope
Pope
Pius X. Ad diem illum, 2 February 1904, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Pope
Pope
Pius XII, Fulgens corona, 8 September 1953, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Pope
Pope
Pius XII. Ad Caeli Reginam, 11 October 1954, Libreria Editrice Vaticana ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 341 ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 168 ^ Miravalle, Mark Introduction to Mary 1993, ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7, pages 13-23 ^ Fr. Etienne Richter "Marian Devotion, the Rosary
Rosary
and the Scapular" in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons 2008 edited by M. Miravalle ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 pages 667-679 ^ Stefano Manelli in Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 1-57918-355-7, 2008 edited by M. Miravalle, page 12 ^ John T. Ford "Newman on 'Sensus Fidelium' and Mariology," Marian Studies, Vol. 28 (1977), pp. 144-45 ^ The Cult of the Mother of God
Mother of God
in Byzantium by Leslie Brubaker and Mary Cunningham 2011 ISBN 0-7546-6266-7 pages 201-203 ^ Alphonsus De Liguori: Selected Writings by Saint
Saint
Alfonso Maria de' Liguori 1999 ISBN 0-8091-3771-2 pages 243 and 43 ^ Pope
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Pius XII, encyclical Fulgens corona
Fulgens corona
Encyclical
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Fulgens corona, item 10 at the Vatican web site ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church
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- IntraText".  ^ William Henn, "Interpreting Marian Doctrine" in Gregorianum 70/3 (1989), p. 431 ^ Pope
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Benedict XVI, General Audience 7 July 2010 at the Vatican web site ^ " Marialis Cultus
Marialis Cultus
(February 2, 1974) - Paul VI".  ^ Vatican web site: Rosarium Virginis Mariae ^ The History of the Christian Church by Philip Smith 2009 ISBN 1-150-72245-2 page 288 ^ Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary. 1993 ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 pages 92–93 ^ Trigilio, John and Brighenti, Kenneth The Catholicism Answer Book 2007 ISBN 1-4022-0806-5 page 58 ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/tidings-online20110906.pdf ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/marian_procession_seeks_prayer_for_los_angeles_on_citys_birthday___ewtn_n.pdf ^ http://www.thequeenofangels.com/wp-content/media/tidings-online20110902.pdf ^ The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0-8146-5914-4 pages vii–viii and 81 ^ Catholic beliefs and traditions: ancient and ever new by John F. O'Grady 2002 ISBN 0-8091-4047-0 page 183 ^ a b Encyclopedia of feminist literature by Mary Ellen Snodgrass 2006 ISBN 0-8160-6040-1 page 547 ^ a b c The thousand faces of the Virgin Mary by George Henry Tavard 1996 ISBN 0-8146-5914-4 page 253 ^ The Next Pope
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Anura Guruge 2010 ISBN 0-615-35372-X page 227 ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0-06-433317-5 page 223 ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN B0023VMZMA page 112 ^ Renaissance
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art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0-313-24658-0 page 174 ^ Lauren Arnold, 1999 Princely Gifts & Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China by ISBN 0-9670628-0-2 page 151 ^ Lauren Arnold in Atlantic Monthly, September 2007 ^ The great encounter of China and the West by David E. Mungello 1999 ISBN 0-8476-9439-9 page 27 ^ Art and music in the early modern period by Franca Trinchieri Camiz, Katherine A. McIver ISBN 0-7546-0689-9 page 15 ^ Mujer del maiz by Angel Vigil 1994 ISBN 1-56308-194-6 pages 16–19 ^ a b Empire of the Aztecs by Barbara A. Somervill 2009 ISBN 1-60413-149-7 page 132 ^ Our Lady of Guadalupe
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Cuauhtlatoatzin". Retrieved November 18, 2010.  ^ The image of Guadalupe by Jody Brant Smith 1995 ISBN 0-86554-421-2 pages 1–2 ^ Miracles of Our Lady by Gonzalo de Berceo, Richard Terry Mount, Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0-8131-2019-5 page 6–7 ^ Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary
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by Johannes Herolt, C. C. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1-4191-7308-1 pages 4–6 ^ Piety and charity in late medieval Florence
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References[edit]

Benedict XVI; Walker, Adrian; Von Balthasar, Hans Urs (October 1, 2005). Mary: The Church at the Source. ISBN 1-58617-018-X.  Hauke, Manfred (2008). "The Mother of God". Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. Queenship Publishing. ISBN 1-57918-355-7.  Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort
Louis de Montfort
True Devotion to Mary ISBN 1-59330-470-6, also available as online text [2] Luigi Gambero, 1999, Mary and the Fathers of the Church, Ignatius Press ISBN 0-89870-686-6 Michael Schmaus, Mariologie, Katholische Dogmatik, München Vol V, 1955 K Algermissen, Boes, Egelhard, Feckes, Michael Schmaus, Lexikon der Marienkunde, Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg, 1967 Remigius Bäumer, Leo Scheffczyk
Leo Scheffczyk
(Hrsg.) Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe, Institutum Marianum
Marianum
Regensburg, 1994, ISBN 3-88096-891-8 (cit. Bäumer) Stefano De Fiores, (Marianum) Maria, sintesi di valori. Storia culturale di mariologia. Cinisello Balsamo 2005; Stefano de Fiores, (Marianum), Maria. Nuovissimo dizionario. 2 Vols. Bologna 2006; Mariology Society of America
Mariology Society of America
[3] Acta Apostolicae Sedis, referenced as AAS by year. Pope
Pope
Pius IX, Apostolic Constitution

Apostolic Constitution Ineffabilis Deus

Pope
Pope
Pius XII:Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus
Munificentissimus Deus
on the Vatican Website Pope
Pope
John Paul II, apostolic letters and addresses

Apostolic Letter
Apostolic Letter
Rosarium Virginis Mariae
Rosarium Virginis Mariae
on the Vatican Website Pope
Pope
John Paul II
John Paul II
on Saint
Saint
Louis de Montfort Pope
Pope
John Paul II, Address to the Mariology
Mariology
Forum

Further reading[edit]

Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons. Goleta, California: Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4. OCLC 225875371.  Haffner, Paul (2004). The Mystery of Mary. Hillenbrand Books studies series. Leominster, Herefordshire: Gracewing Press. ISBN 0-85244-650-0. OCLC 58964281.  Miravalle, Mark I. (1993). Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion. Santa Barbara, California: Queenship Pub. Co. ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7. OCLC 28849399.  Pohle, Joseph (1948) [1914]. Preuss, Arthur, ed. Mariology; A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God. St. Louis, Mo: Herder Book. OCLC 1453529.  Schroedel, Jenny; Schroedel, John (2006). The Everything Mary Book. Everything profiles series. Avon, Mass: Adams Media. ISBN 1-59337-713-4. OCLC 70167611. 

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