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The Info List - Castilian War





Spanish Empire

Philippines

pro-Spanish Bruneians

Commanders and leaders

Sultan Saiful Rijal Francisco de Sande Pengiran Seri Lela  † Pengiran Seri Ratna  †

Strength

1,000 Royal Guards 400 Spaniards 1,500 Filipinos 300 Borneans

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History of Brunei

Pre-Sultanate

Bruneian Empire

1368 to 1888

House of Bolkiah (15th century – present)

Sultanate of Sulu

1405 to 1578

Rajahnate of Maynila

1500s to 1571

Tondo

1500s to 1571

Castilian War 1578

Civil War 1660–1673

Sarawak

15th century to 1841

Labuan

15th century to 1846

Sabah (North Borneo)

15th century to 1865

British protectorate 1888–1984

Japanese occupation 1942–1945

Borneo
Borneo
campaign 1945

British Military Administration

1945–1946

Revolt 1962

Timeline Sultans

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Part of a series on the

History of the Philippines

Prehistory (pre–900) Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age

Awidon Mesa Formation Callao Limestone Formation

Neolithic
Neolithic
age

Callao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade culture

Iron age

Sa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangays

Events/Artifacts

Balangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery

Archaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)

Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of Cebu Kedatuan of Dapitan Rajahnate of Butuan Sultanate of Maguindanao Lanao confederacy Sultanate of Sulu

Legendary

Suwarnapumi Chryse Ophir Tawalisi Wāḳwāḳ Sanfotsi Zabag kingdom Ten Bornean Datus

Events/Artifacts

Maragtas Laguna Copperplate Inscription Butuan Ivory Seal Limestone tombs Batanes citadels Golden Tara Gold Kinnara Ticao Stone Inscription Butuan Silver Paleograph Buddhist art Majapahit conflict Brunei
Brunei
War

Colonial period (1521–1946) Spanish era

First Mass in the Philippines Catholic Church in the Philippines Santo Niño de Cebú Battle of Mactan Sandugo Spanish capture of Manila New Spain Captaincy General Spanish East Indies Manila galleon Revolts and uprisings Chinese invasion Castilian War Sulu
Sulu
Sea pirates Doctrina Christiana Dutch invasions Brunei
Brunei
Civil War Bohol secession British Invasion Silang Revolt Confradia de San Jose Florante at Laura Dutch invasions Brunei
Brunei
Civil War Bohol secession British Invasion Florante at Laura Propaganda Movement Gomburza Noli me tangere La Solidaridad El filibusterismo La Liga Filipina Katipunan Cry of Pugad Lawin Philippine Revolution Execution of Rizal Tejeros Convention Execution of Bonifacio Republic of Biak-na-Bato Spanish–American War Battle of Manila Bay American capture of Manila Declaration of Independence Siege of Baler Malolos Congress First Republic Philippine–American War Assassination of Gen. Antonio Luna Death of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar Capture of Pres. Aguinaldo

American colonial period

Tagalog Republic Negros Republic Zamboanga Republic Moro Rebellion Iglesia Filipina Independiente Execution of Sakay Philippine Constabulary Insular Government Philippine Assembly Flag Act of 1907 Rizal Monument Iglesia ni Cristo Bayan Ko Jones Law Tydings–McDuffie Act Commonwealth Japanese occupation Establishment of Hukbalahap Fall of Bataan and Corregidor Bataan Death March Second Republic Return of Gen. Douglas MacArthur Battle of Leyte
Battle of Leyte
Gulf Destruction of Manila

Post-colonial period (1946–1986)

Treaty of Manila Third Republic Cold War Hukbalahap
Hukbalahap
Rebellion SEATO Bandung Conference Magsaysay plane crash Filipino First policy Agricultural Land Reform Code North Borneo
Borneo
dispute Jabidah massacre Marcos dictatorship ASEAN Declaration CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Moro Conflict Spratly islands dispute Vietnamese boat people Assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. Escalante massacre 1986 Snap Presidential Elections

Contemporary history (1986–present)

People Power Revolution 1986–90 coup attempts MV Doña Paz
MV Doña Paz
Tragedy Pinatubo eruption Sarmenta-Gomez Rape-slay case Execution of Flor Contemplacion Ozone Disco Tragedy Sarah Balabagan case 1997 Asian financial crisis 2000 All-out war against MILF Second EDSA Revolution EDSA III War on Terror Oakwood mutiny Hello Garci scandal 2006 state of national emergency Manila Peninsula siege NBN–ZTE deal MV Princess of the Stars
MV Princess of the Stars
Tragedy South China Sea disputes Death of Corazon Aquino Tropical Storm Ondoy Maguindanao massacre Manila hostage crisis Corona Impeachment case K+12 Program Pork barrel scam Super Typhoon Yolanda Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement Mamasapano massacre Mary Jane Veloso
Mary Jane Veloso
case Valenzuela factory fire Philippine Drug War Battle of Marawi Shooting of Kian delos Santos Davao City mall fire Death of Joanna Demafelis

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The Spanish Expedition to Borneo, also known locally as the Castilian War (Malay: Perang Kastila; Jawi: ڤراڠ كستيلا; Spanish: Expedición española a Borneo; Filipino: Digmaang Kastila), was a military conflict between Brunei
Brunei
and Spain
Spain
in 1578.

Contents

1 Background 2 Spanish arrival in the Philippines 3 The war 4 The aftermath 5 Notes 6 References

Background[edit] Since the middle of the 16th century, Europeans were eager to gain a foothold in Southeast Asia, the source of supply for spices. Spain also wanted to forcibly spread the acceptance of Christianity, the overwhelmingly dominant faith in Europe. Since the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the land routes from the Eastern Mediterranean to Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
through Central Asia and the Middle East, were controlled by the Ottomans, Persians, Arabs, Indians and the Malays. The Portuguese and later the Spaniards, tried to find an alternative route by sea to Southeast Asia, so they could trade in spices and other products with the Malays. The Portuguese in particular did this by conquering Malacca in 1511, two years after its arrival in the region. The Spaniards arrived later in the mid-16th century. Their arrival to the archipelago now part of the modern day Philippines as well as the Spain's intention to spread Christianity
Christianity
caused a conflict with Brunei, then ruled by Sultan Saiful Rijal, which eventually led to the Castilian War. At the time, Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam was a loose empire extending from Borneo
Borneo
Island, also claiming but not rarely controlling parts of the Philippines. Spanish arrival in the Philippines[edit] From their ports in Mexico, Spain
Spain
sent several expeditions to the Philippines and in 1565 under Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, settled in Cebu. For a time Cebu
Cebu
became the capital of the archipelago and the main trading post. It was also the first city for spreading Christianity
Christianity
in the islands. Because of this, the Spanish aspirations came to clash with those of Brunei. Between 1485 and 1521, the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
led by Sultan Bolkiah had established the state of Kota Serudong
Kota Serudong
(otherwise known as the Kingdom of Maynila) as a Bruneian puppet state opposed to the local Kingdom of Tondo.[2] Islam was further strengthened by the arrival to the Philippines of traders and proselytisers from present-day Malaysia
Malaysia
and Indonesia.[3] Despite the influence of Brunei, the multiple states that existed in the Philippines simplified Spanish colonisation. In 1571, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi of Spain
Spain
attacked and Christianised Islamic Manila, which was made the capital of the Philippine Islands, also becoming a hub for trade and evangelisation. The Visayans, (people from the Kedatuan of Madja-as
Madja-as
and Rajahnate of Cebu) which before the Spaniards came, had waged war against the Sultanate of Sulu
Sulu
and the Kingdom of Maynila, now became allies of the Spaniards against the Sultanate of Brunei. The time the Castilian War
Castilian War
broke out was a time of religious fervor in Europe and many parts of the world, when a single state religion was followed. In Spain, the state religion was Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
obliging followers of other faiths such as Jews and Muslims to convert to this religion. Spain
Spain
had recently finished a 700-year-old war to reconquer and re-Christianise Spain, which had been invaded by the Muslims under the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
since the 8th century AD. The long process of reconquest, sometimes through treaties, mostly through war, is known as the Reconquista. The hatred of Spaniards against the Muslims that once invaded Spain
Spain
fuelled the Castilian War. This war also started the Spanish–Moro Wars
Spanish–Moro Wars
in the Philippines against the Sultanate of Sulu
Sulu
and Sultanate of Maguindanao. In 1576, the Spanish Governor in Manila Francisco de Sande
Francisco de Sande
had arrived from Mexico. He sent an official mission to neighbouring Brunei
Brunei
to meet Sultan Saiful Rijal. He explained to the Sultan that they wanted to have good relations with Brunei
Brunei
and also asked for permission to spread Christianity
Christianity
in Brunei
Brunei
( Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
in Brunei
Brunei
was a legacy brought by Spaniards). At the same time, he demanded an end to Brunei
Brunei
proselytism of Islam in the Philippines. Sultan Saiful Rijal would not agree to these terms and also expressed his opposition to the evangelisation of the Philippines, which he deemed part of Dar al-Islam. In reality, De Sande regarded Brunei
Brunei
as a threat to the Spanish presence in the region, claiming that "the Moros from Borneo preach the doctrine of Mahoma, converting all the Moros of the islands".[4] The war[edit] Spain
Spain
declared war in 1578. In March that year, the Spanish fleet, led by De Sande himself, acting as Capitán General, started their journey towards Brunei. The expedition consisted of 400 Spaniards, 1,500 Filipino natives and 300 Borneans.[5] The campaign was one of many, which also included action in Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu.[6][7] Spain
Spain
succeeded in invading the capital of Brunei
Brunei
at that time, Kota Batu, on 16 April 1578, with the help of two disgruntled Brunei noblemen Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The former had travelled to Manila to offer Brunei
Brunei
as a tributary of Spain
Spain
for help to recover the throne usurped by his brother, Saiful Rijal.[8] Spain agreed that if they succeeded in conquering Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela would indeed become the Sultan, while Pengiran Seri Ratna would be the new Bendahara. Sultan Saiful Rijal
Sultan Saiful Rijal
and Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar were forced to flee to Meragang then to Jerudong, where they made plans to chase the conquering army away from Brunei. In the meantime, Spain suffered heavy losses due to a cholera or dysentery outbreak.[9][10] They were so weakened by the illness that they decided to abandon Brunei
Brunei
to return to Manila on 26 June 1578, after just 72 days. Before doing so, they burned the mosque, a high structure with a five-tier roof.[11] Pengiran Seri Lela died in August–September 1578, probably from the same illness that had afflicted his Spanish allies, although there was suspicion he could have been poisoned by the ruling Sultan. Seri Lela's daughter, a princess of Brunei, left with the Spanish group and went on to marry a Christian Tagalog, named Agustín de Legazpi of Tondo and they had children in the Philippines.[12] The local Brunei
Brunei
accounts differ greatly from the generally accepted view of events. The Castilian War
Castilian War
entering the national conscience as a heroic episode, with the Spaniards being driven out by Bendahara Sakam, supposedly a brother of the ruling Sultan, and a thousand native warriors. This version, nevertheless, is disputed by most historians and considered a folk-hero recollection, probably created decades or centuries after.[13] The aftermath[edit] Notwithstanding their retreat from Brunei, Spain
Spain
managed to keep Brunei
Brunei
from regaining a foothold in Luzon.[14] A few years later, relations improved and Spain
Spain
begun trading with the Sultanate, as evidenced by a letter from Don Francisco de Tello de Guzmán, Governor General of Manila, dated 1599 asking for a return of normal relationship.[15] The end of the Castilian War
Castilian War
also allowed Spain
Spain
to focus their attention on the Spanish-Moro war. The Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
would cease to be an empire at sea, eventually turning into a city-state, letting aside any previous territorial expansion policies, even selling part of their own territory until becoming one of the smallest nations in the world today. This new policy of sustained caution in their dealings with European powers allowed it to survive and become the oldest continuous Islamic political state.[16] Notes[edit]

^ Ollé, Manel (2000). La invencion de China / The invention of China: Percepciones Y Estrategias Filipinas Respecto a China Durante El Siglo XVI / Philippine Perceptions and Strategies Towards China During the Sixteenth Century. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 94. ISBN 3447043369. Retrieved 29 December 2015.  ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2010.  ^ Agoncillo 1990, p. 22 ^ Nicholl 1975, p. 35 ^ United States
United States
War Dept 1903, p. 379 ^ McAmis 2002, p. 33 ^ "Letter from Francisco de Sande
Francisco de Sande
to Felipe II, 1578". Retrieved 17 October 2009.  ^ Melo Alip 1964, p. 201,317 ^ Frankham 2008, p. 278 ^ Atiyah 2002, p. 71 ^ Saunders 2002, pp. 54–60 ^ Saunders 2002, p. 57 ^ Saunders 2002, pp. 57–58 ^ Oxford Business Group 2009, p. 9 ^ "The era of Sultan Muhammad Hassan", The Brunei
Brunei
Times, 1 March 2009 ^ Donoso, Isaac (Autumn 2014). "Manila y la empresa imperial del Sultanato de Brunei
Brunei
en el siglo XVI". Revista Filipina, Segunda Etapa. Revista semestral de lengua y literatura hispanofilipina. 2 (1): 23. Retrieved 29 December 2015. 

References[edit]

Agoncillo, Teodoro A. (1990), History of the Filipino people, R.P. Garcia, ISBN 978-971-8711-06-4  McAmis, Robert Day (2002), Malay Muslims: the history and challenge of resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8028-4945-8  Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A history of Brunei, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-1698-2  United States. War Dept (1903), Annual reports, Volume 3, Government Printing Office  Nicholl, Robert (2002), European sources for the history of the Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
in the Sixteenth Century, Special
Special
Publications, no.9. Muzium Brunei  Melo Alip, Eufronio (1964), Political and cultural history of the Philippines, Volumes 1-2  Oxford Business Group (2009), The Report: Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam 2009, Oxford Business Group, ISBN 978-1-907065-09-5  Frankham, Steve (2008), Footprint Borneo, Footprint Guides, ISBN 978-1-906098-14-8  Atiyah, Jeremy (2002), Rough guide to Southeast Asia, Rough Guide, ISBN 978-1-85828-893-2 

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