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In English, Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish
Peninsular Spanish
spoken in northern and central Spain
Spain
or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.[1][2][3][4] In Spanish, the term castellano (Castilian) usually refers to the Spanish language as a whole, or to the medieval Old Spanish
Old Spanish
language, a predecessor to modern Spanish.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 Regional variations in Spain 3 Difference with Latin American Spanish

3.1 Vocabulary

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Terminology[edit]

Map of languages and dialects in Spain.

Main article: Names given to the Spanish language The term Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
can be used in English for the specific varieties of Spanish spoken in north and central Spain. Sometimes it is more loosely used to denote the Spanish spoken in all of Spain
Spain
as compared to Spanish spoken in Latin America. There are several different varieties of Spanish, which should not be confused with the other official and non official languages in Spain, of which Castilian is only the most prominent because it is the only one official throughout the whole national territory. The term in Spanish for varieties spoken in Northern and Central Spanish would be castellano septentrional ("Northern Castilian"). Español castellano, the literal translation of Castilian Spanish, while not being a common expression, would be understood literally and it would only refer to varieties found in Castile itself, so the varieties found for instance in Aragon
Aragon
and Navarra
Navarra
would be excluded even though they are a part of castellano septentrional. Regional variations in Spain[edit] Inside Spain, there are many regional variations of Spanish, which can be divided roughly into four major dialectal areas:

Northern Spanish (northern coast, Ebro and Duero valleys, upper Tajo and upper Júcar valleys). The dialects in this area are sometimes called Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
(only in English), but in fact it excludes quite a large portion in the historical region of Castile and includes areas not in it. Transitional area between North and South (Extremadura, Murcia, Madrid, La Mancha). The dialects in this area have traits which are often popularly associated with Andalusia, such as implosive s-aspiration (systematic or conditioned by context). Extremadura
Extremadura
and Murcia
Murcia
are often lumped into a Southern variety with Andalusian rather than being considered a part of the transitional area, since Southern traits are more pervasive there. Andalusian Spanish Canarian Spanish

Difference with Latin American Spanish[edit] See also: Spanish dialects and varieties The Real Academia Española
Real Academia Española
(Royal Spanish Academy or RAE) defines Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
as a standard language, and many speakers accept RAE as the governing body of the language. However, some traits of the Spanish spoken in Spain
Spain
are exclusive to that country, and for this reason, courses of Spanish as a second language often neglect them, preferring Mexican Spanish
Mexican Spanish
in the United States and Canada
Canada
whilst European Spanish
European Spanish
is taught in Europe. Spanish grammar and to a lesser extent pronunciation can vary sometimes between variants. The most striking difference between dialects in central and northern Spain
Spain
and Latin American Spanish
Latin American Spanish
is distinción (distinction), that is, the pronunciation of the letter z before all vowels, and of c only for e and i, as a voiceless dental fricative /θ/, English th in thing. Thus, in most variations of Spanish from Spain, cinco (five) is pronounced /ˈθinko/ as opposed to /ˈsinko/ in Latin American Spanish, and similarly for zapato, cerdo, zorro, Zurbarán. Distinción
Distinción
also occurs in the area around Cusco, Peru, where [θ] survives in a few words like the numbers doce, trece and, with some people, in the verb decir. Additionally, all Latin-American dialects drop the familiar (that is, informal) vosotros verb form for the second person plural, using ustedes in all contexts. In most of Spain, ustedes is used only in a formal context. Some other minor differences are:

The widespread use of le instead of lo as the masculine direct object pronoun, especially referring to people. This morphological variation, known as leísmo is typical of a strip of land in central Spain
Spain
which includes Madrid, and recently it has spread to other regions. In the past, the sounds for "y" and "ll" were phonologically different in most European Spanish
European Spanish
subvarieties, compared with only a few dialects in Latin America, but that difference is now disappearing in all Peninsular Spanish
Peninsular Spanish
dialects, including the standard (that is, Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
based on the Madrid
Madrid
dialect). A distinct phoneme for "ll" is still heard in the speech of older speakers in rural areas throughout Spain, but most Spanish-speaking adults and youngsters merge "ll" and "y". In Latin America, "ll" remains different from "y" in traditional dialects along the Andes range, especially in the Peruvian highlands, all of Bolivia and also in Paraguay. In the Philippines, speakers of Spanish and Filipino employ the distinction between "ll" /ʎ/ and "y" /ʝ/. In most of Latin America, usted is used more often than in mainland Spain; however, in Latin America, this tendency is less common among young people, especially in Caribbean dialects. In Castilian Spanish, the letter j as well as the letter g before the letters i and e are pronounced as a stronger velar fricative /x/ and very often the friction is uvular [χ], while in Latin America they are generally guttural as well, but not as strong and the uvular realizations of European Spanish
European Spanish
are not reported. In the Caribbean, Colombia, Venezuela, other parts of Latin America, the Canary Islands, Extremadura
Extremadura
and most of western Andalusia, as well as in the Philippines, it is pronounced as [h]. Characteristic of Spanish from Spain
Spain
(except from Andalusia
Andalusia
and the Canary Islands) is the voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant [s̺], also called apico-alveolar or grave, which is often perceived as intermediate between a laminal/dental [s] and [ʃ]. This sound is prevalent also in Colombian Paisa region, and Andean Spanish
Andean Spanish
dialects. Debuccalization of syllable-final /s/ to x, [h], or dropping it entirely, so that está [esˈta] ("s/he is") sounds like [ehˈta] or [eˈta], in different degrees and contexts, occurs in Castile–La Mancha (except North-East) and Madrid; this is most common in southern Spain
Spain
(Andalusia, Extremadura, Murcia, Canary Islands, Ceuta, and Melilla), and some parts of Latin America. Words containing these three letters together -atl- are pronounced in a different way in Castilian Spanish
Castilian Spanish
as compared to Mexican Spanish. In Spain, words like Atlántico and atleta are pronounced according to the syllabication At-lán-ti-co and at-le-ta. Instead, in Mexico, the pronunciation follows the syllabication A-tlán-ti-co and a-tle-ta.[dubious – discuss]

Vocabulary[edit] The meaning of certain words may differ greatly between both dialects of the language: carro refers to car in some Latin American dialects but to cart in Spain
Spain
and some Latin American dialects. Sometimes there also appear gender differences: el PC (personal computer) in Castilian Spanish and some Latin American Spanish, la PC in some Latin American Spanish, due to the widespread use of the gallicism ordenador (from l'ordinateur in French) for computer in Castilian Spanish, which is masculine, instead of the Latin-American-preferred computadora, which is feminine, from the English word computer (the exceptions being Colombia and Chile, where PC is known as computador, which is masculine). Also, speakers of the second dialect tend to use words and polite-set expressions that, even if recognized by the RAE, are not widely used nowadays (some of them are even deemed as anachronisms) by speakers of Castilian Spanish. For example, enojarse and enfadarse are verbs with the same meaning (to become angry), enojarse being used much more in the Americas than in Spain, and enfadarse more in Spain
Spain
than in the Americas.

Selected vocabulary differences

Castilian Spanish1 Latin American Spanish2 English

vale bien (universal), listo (Colombia), dale (Argentina, Chile) okay

gafas anteojos/lentes (mean spectacles or lenses in Spain), gafas (Mexico) eyeglasses/spectacles

patata papa (fem.) (also in Andalusia, the Canary Islands, Ceuta
Ceuta
and Melilla.) potato (papa also means poppet or child)

judía, alubia, etc. chícharo/frijol/habichuela/poroto bean

jersey/chaleco chaleco/suéter/saco jumper/sweater

coche auto/carro/coche car

conducir manejar, conducir to drive

aparcar/estacionar estacionar/parquear to park

ordenador computadora/computador computer

zumo jugo juice

chulo/guay chévere/chido/piola/bacán (depending on country) cool (slang)

cabezal cabeza, cabezal head (of an apparatus)

1Many of the vocabulary examples are used throughout Spain
Spain
and not necessarily specific to just Castilian Spanish. 2 Latin American Spanish
Latin American Spanish
consists of several varieties spoken throughout the Americas so the examples may not represent all dialects. They are meant to show contrast and comparing all variants of Latin America as a whole to one variant of Spain
Spain
would be impossible as the majority of the vocabulary will be reflected in other variant. See also[edit]

Spain
Spain
portal Language portal

Andalusian Spanish Canarian Spanish Murcian Spanish Castúo Standard Spanish
Standard Spanish
- the standard form that is very different from the medieval Spanish language-base

References[edit]

^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Random House Inc. 2006.  ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.  ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 1998.  ^ "Encarta World English Dictionary". Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCastilian Spanishat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

WordNet 3.0. Princeton University

v t e

Languages of Spain

Official / national

Spanish (aka Castilian)

Regional / minority languages

Co-official

Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician Occitan

Aranese

Recognised

Aragonese Asturian / Leonese

Unrecognised languages

Gomeran whistled language Hispano-Arabic Hispano-Berber Ibero-Romani

Caló Erromintxela

Judaeo-Spanish Varieties of the Spanish languages

Cultural languages

Classical Greek
Classical Greek
& Latin English French German

Immigrant / expatriate languages

Arabic Bulgarian Chinese English Italian French German Portuguese Romanian Russian Ukrainian, etc.

Standard forms

Castilian Spanish Asturian Basque Catalan / Valencian Galician

Sign languages

Spanish Sign Language Catalan Sign Language Valencian
Valencian
Sign Language

v t e

Varieties of Spanish by continent

Africa

Canarian Equatoguinean

Americas (Pan-American)

Caribbean

Cuban Dominican Puerto Rican

Central America

Belizean Costa Rican Guatemalan Honduran Nicaraguan Pachuco Panamanian Salvadoran

North America

American

Caló (Chicano) New Mexican Puerto Rican Isleño

Mexican

South America

Amazonic Andean Bolivian Chilean Chilote

Chiloé Archipelago

Colombian Cordobés

Central Argentina

Cuyano

Central western Argentina

Equatorial

Coastal Ecuador

Llanero

Los Llanos Colombia/Venezuela

Maracucho

Zulia State

Paisa

Paisa Region

Paraguayan Peruvian Ribereño

Coastal Peru

Rioplatense

Coastal Argentina Uruguayan

Venezuelan

Asia

Philippine

Europe (Peninsular)

Andalusian Canarian Castilian Castrapo (Galicia) Castúo (Extremadura) Murcian spoken by Catalan speakers

Other

Standard Caló (Para-Romani) Judaeo-Spanish Palenquero
Palenquero
(creole) Chavacano
Chavacano
(creole) Llanito Papiamento
Papiamento
(Portuguese-based creole with Spanish influence)

Extinct

Mediaeval Cocoliche
Cocoliche
and Lunfardo

Coastal Argentina, Uruguay

Malespín

Central America

.