Governor of Georgia
1970 Georgia gubernatorial campaign
1972 presidential campaign
1976 Presidential Race
1976 presidential campaign
President of the United States
Camp David Accords
Israel Peace Treaty
Iran Hostage Crisis
Operation Eagle Claw
Moral Equivalent of
1979 Energy Crisis
Diplomatic Relations with China
One America Appeal
The presidency of
Jimmy Carter began at noon EST on January 20, 1977,
Jimmy Carter was inaugurated as 39th President of the United
States, and ended on January 20, 1981. Carter, a Democrat, took office
after defeating Republican incumbent President
Gerald Ford in the 1976
presidential election. His presidency ended with his defeat in the
1980 presidential election by Republican nominee Ronald Reagan.
Carter sought to make the government "competent and compassionate"
but, in the midst of an economic crisis produced by rising energy
prices and stagflation, met with difficulty in achieving its
objectives. His economic response centered on the taming of inflation
through government austerity and high interest rates. At the end of
his administration, Carter had seen a substantial decrease in
unemployment and a partial reduction of the deficit, but the recession
continued. He sought major reforms to the welfare and health care
systems of the United States, but was unable to win support for his
proposals. He presided over creation of the United States Department
of Education and United States Department of Energy, and his
administration established a national energy policy.
Carter reoriented U.S. foreign policy towards an emphasis on human
rights. In the hopes of encouraging reforms, he cut off aid and
criticized the governments of many traditional
Cold War allies. Taking
office during a period of relatively warm relations with both China
and the Soviet Union, Carter continued the conciliatory policies of
his predecessors until the start of the
Soviet–Afghan War in
December 1979. He normalized relations with China and continued the
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks with the Soviet Union. After the start
of the Soviet–Afghan War, he discarded his conciliatory policies
Soviet Union and began a period of military build-up. In
an effort to end the Arab–Israeli conflict, he helped arrange the
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords between
Israel and Egypt. Through the
Torrijos–Carter Treaties, Carter guaranteed the transfer of the
Panama Canal to
Panama in 1999.
The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by several major
crises, including the
Iran hostage crisis, serious fuel shortages, and
the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980 presidential election,
Carter defeated a primary challenge from Ted Kennedy, a prominent
liberal Democrat. However, Carter lost the general election in a
landslide to Reagan. In polls of historians and political scientists,
Carter is usually ranked as a below-average president.
1 Presidential election of 1976
4 Judicial appointments
5 Domestic policies
5.1 Relations with Congress
5.2 Budget and taxation policies
5.3 Health care and welfare
5.4 Decriminalization of cannabis
5.5 Energy crisis
5.5.1 "Malaise" speech
5.6 Economy: stagflation and the appointment of Volcker
5.9 Other initiatives
6 Foreign policies
Cold War era
6.1.1 Human rights
6.1.2 Rapprochement with China
6.1.3 SALT II
6.2 Middle East
Camp David Accords
Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis
6.3 Latin America
Panama Canal Treaties
6.4.1 South Korea
6.4.2 Indonesian occupation of East Timor
6.5 List of international trips
8 1980 presidential campaign
9 Allegations and investigations
9.1 Resignation of Bert Lance
Special counsel investigating campaign loans
9.3 The Marston affair
10 Personal and family matters during presidency
11 See also
13.1 Works cited
13.2 Further reading
Presidential election of 1976
Main article: United States presidential election, 1976
Carter and President
Gerald Ford debating at the Walnut Street Theatre
Carter, who served as
Governor of Georgia
Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975, decided
to run for president after seeing the success of George McGovern
during the 1972 presidential election campaign. Despite scant backing
from party leaders, McGovern had won the 1972 Democratic nomination,
largely due to his success at winning delegates in primary elections,
and Carter's campaign would follow a similar course. Carter
declared his candidacy for the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination
in December 1974. As Democratic leaders such as Walter Mondale,
Hubert Humphrey, and
Ted Kennedy declined to enter the race, there was
no clear favorite in the Democratic primaries. In addition to Carter,
Mo Udall, Sargent Shriver, Birch Bayh, Fred R. Harris, Terry Sanford,
Scoop Jackson, Lloyd Bentsen, and
George Wallace all sought the
nomination, and many of these candidates were better known than
Carter sought to appeal to various groups in the party; his advocacy
for cutting defense spending and reining in the CIA appealed to
liberals, while his emphasis on eliminating government waste appealed
Iowa held the first contest of the primary
season, and Carter campaigned heavily in the state, hoping that a
victory would show that he had serious chance of winning the
nomination. Carter won the most votes of any candidate in the Iowa
caucus, and he dominated media coverage in advance of the New
Hampshire primary, which he also won. Carter's subsequent defeat of
Wallace in the Florida and North Carolina primaries eliminated
Carter's main rival for Southern support. Despite the late entrance
Frank Church and Governor
Jerry Brown into the race, Carter
clinched the nomination on the final day of the primaries. The
Republicans experienced a contested convention that ultimately
nominated incumbent President Gerald Ford, who had succeeded to the
presidency in 1974 after the resignation of
Richard Nixon due to the
latter's involvement in the
Watergate scandal. Unlike the Republican
1976 Democratic National Convention
1976 Democratic National Convention proceeded
harmoniously and, after interviewing several candidates, Carter chose
Mondale as his running mate. The selection of Mondale was well
received by many liberal Democrats, who had been skeptical of
The electoral map of the 1976 election
In the presidential election campaign, Carter continued to promote a
centrist agenda, seeking to define new Democratic positions in the
aftermath of the tumultuous 1960s. Above all, Carter attacked the
political system, defining himself as an "outsider" who would reform
Washington in the post-
Watergate era. Carter and President Ford
faced off in three televised debates during the 1976 election, the
first such debates since 1960. Though Carter had led in the polls
by thirty points after the Democratic convention, the polls showed a
very close race by the end of October. On election day, Carter won
the election with 50.1% of the popular vote and 297 electoral votes,
while Ford won 48% of the popular vote and 240 electoral votes. The
1976 presidential election represents the lone Democratic presidential
election victory between the elections of 1964 and 1992. Carter fared
particularly well in the Northeast and the South, while Ford swept the
West and won much of the Midwest. In the concurrent Congressional
elections, Democrats increased their majorities in both the House and
Main article: Inauguration of Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter and
Rosalynn Carter walk down Pennsylvania
Avenue during Inauguration.
In his inaugural address, Carter said, "We have learned that more is
not necessarily better, that even our great nation has its recognized
limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all
Carter had campaigned on a promise to eliminate the trappings of the
"Imperial Presidency", and began taking action according to that
promise on Inauguration Day, breaking with recent history and security
protocols by walking up Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the
White House in his inaugural parade. His first steps in the White
House went further in this direction: Carter reduced the size of the
staff by one-third, cancelled government-funded chauffeuring for
Cabinet members, and also put the USS Sequoia, the presidential yacht,
up for sale. He also fulfilled a campaign promise by issuing an
executive order declaring unconditional amnesty for
The Carter Cabinet
Secretary of State
Secretary of Treasury
W. Michael Blumenthal
G. William Miller
Secretary of Defense
Benjamin R. Civiletti
Secretary of the Interior
Cecil D. Andrus
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
Juanita M. Kreps
Philip M. Klutznick
Secretary of Labor
Secretary of Health,
Education, and Welfare
Joseph A. Califano, Jr.*
Secretary of Health and
Patricia R. Harris*
Secretary of Education
Shirley M. Hufstedler*
Secretary of Housing and
Patricia R. Harris
Maurice "Moon" Landrieu
Secretary of Transportation
Neil E. Goldschmidt
Secretary of Energy
James R. Schlesinger
Charles W. Duncan
Chief of Staff
Jack H. Watson
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency
Douglas M. Costle
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget
James T. McIntyre
United States Trade Representative
Robert S. Strauss
The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) was renamed the
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in 1979, when its
education functions were transferred to the newly created Department
of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act
After his victory in the 1976 election, Carter offered the position of
White House Chief of Staff to two of his advisers,
Hamilton Jordan and
Charles Kirbo, but both declined. Rather than offer the position to
someone else, Carter chose not to have a chief of staff, instead
implementing a system in which Cabinet members would have more direct
access to the president. Though Carter had campaigned against
Washington, most of Carter's initial top appointees had served in
previous administrations or had known Carter in Georgia; the one major
exception to this rule was the appointment of
Ray Marshall as
Secretary of Labor. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, Secretary of
Defense Harold Brown, and
Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury W. Michael
Blumenthal were all high-ranking official in the Kennedy and Johnson
administrations. For the role of National Security Adviser, Carter
selected Zbigniew Brzezinski, who emerged as one of Carter's closest
advisers. In 1979, following his "
Malaise speech", Carter shook up
his cabinet, appointing Jordan as
White House Chief of Staff and
replacing Blumenthal with Federal Reserve Chairman G. William
Jimmy Carter Supreme Court candidates and Jimmy Carter
Among Presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only
one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court. Carter
appointed 56 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 203
judges to the United States district courts. Carter also experienced a
small number of judicial appointment controversies, as three of his
nominees for different federal appellate judgeships were not processed
by the Democratic-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee before
Carter's presidency ended. Two of his Court of Appeals appointees –
Stephen Breyer and
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg – were later appointed to the
Supreme Court by Bill Clinton.
Robert Templeton's portrait of President Carter, displayed in the
National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.
Relations with Congress
Carter successfully campaigned as a Washington "outsider" critical of
Gerald Ford and the Democratic Congress; as president,
Carter continued this theme. It was this refusal to play by the rules
of Washington, however, which contributed to the Carter
administration's difficult relationship with Congress. After the
election, Carter demanded the power to reorganize the executive
branch, alienating powerful Democrats like Speaker
Tip O'Neill and
Jack Brooks. During the Nixon administration, Congress had passed a
series of reforms that removed power from the president, and most
members of Congress were unwilling to restore that power even with a
Democrat now in office. Unreturned phone calls, verbal insults,
and an unwillingness to trade political favors soured many on Capitol
Hill and affected the president's ability to enact his agenda.
Carter attempted to woo O'Neill, Senate Majority Leader Robert Byrd,
and other members of Congress through personal engagement, but he was
generally unable to win rally support for his programs.
A few months after his term started, and thinking he had the support
of about 74 Congressmen, Carter issued a "hit list" of 19 projects
that he claimed were "pork barrel" spending. He said that he would
veto any legislation that contained projects on this list.
Congress responded by passing a bill that combined several of the
projects that Carter objected to with economic stimulus measures that
Carter favored. Carter chose to sign the bill, but his criticism of
the alleged "pork barrel" projects cost him support in Congress.
These struggles set a pattern for Carter's presidency, and he would
frequently clash with Congress for the remainder of his tenure.
On May 10, 1979, the House voted against giving Carter authority to
produce a standby gas rationing plan. The following day, Carter
delivered remarks in the Oval Office describing himself as shocked and
embarrassed for the American government due to the vote and concluding
"the majority of the House Members are unwilling to take the
responsibility, the political responsibility for dealing with a
potential, serious threat to our Nation." He furthered that a majority
of House members were placing higher importance on "local or parochial
interests" and challenged the lower chamber of Congress with composing
their own rationing plan in the next 90 days. Carter's remarks
were met with criticism by House Republicans who accused his comments
of not befitting the formality a president should have in their public
remarks. Others pointed to 106 Democrats voting against his proposal
and the bipartisan criticism potentially coming back to haunt him.
At the start of a July 25, 1979 news conference, Carter called on
believers in the future of the US and his proposed energy program to
speak with Congress as it bore the responsibility to impose his
proposals. Amid the energy proposal opposition, The New York Times
commented that "as the comments flying up and down Pennsylvania Avenue
illustrate, there is also a crisis of confidence between Congress and
the President, sense of doubt and distrust that threatens to undermine
the President's legislative program and become an important issue in
next year's campaign."
Budget and taxation policies
On taking office, Carter proposed a bill that would give each citizen
a $50 tax rebate, cut corporate taxes by $900 million, and implement a
modest stimulus package consisting of public works spending. Carter
hoped to avoid inflation by avoiding major increases in federal
spending, but his resistance to a larger stimulus drew attacks from
members of his own party, who derided what they saw as
half-measures. Carter also sought major tax reform that would
create a simpler, more progressive taxation system. He sought to tax
capital gains as ordinary income, eliminate tax shelters, limit
itemized tax deductions, and increase the standard deduction.
Carter's taxation proposals were rejected by Congress, and no major
tax bill was passed during Carter's presidency.
Federal budget deficits throughout Carter's term remained at around
the $70 billion level reached in 1976, while falling as a percent
of GDP from 4% to 2.5% by the 1980–81 Fiscal Year. The national
debt of the United States increased by about $280 billion, from
$620 billion in early-1977 to $900 billion in late 1980.
However, because economic growth outpaced the growth in nominal debt,
the federal government's debt as a percentage of gross domestic
product decreased slightly, from 33.6% in early-1977 to 31.8% in late
Health care and welfare
Carter sought a comprehensive overhaul of welfare programs that he
hoped would save money while providing better aid to the needy. In
early 1977, Joseph Califano, the Secretary of Health, Education, and
Welfare, presented Carter with several options for welfare reform.
Carter rejected these initial proposals, as they would require
increased spending. Proposals contemplated by the Carter
administration include a guaranteed minimum income, a federal job
guarantee for the unemployed, a negative income tax, and direct cash
payments to aid recipients. In August 1977, Carter proposed a major
jobs program for welfare recipients capable of working and an income
to those who were incapable, but this proposal died in Congress.
Carter was unable to win support for his welfare reform proposals, and
they never received a vote in Congress. In 1978, responding to
pressure from the
Congressional Black Caucus
Congressional Black Caucus and other groups, Carter
helped convince the Senate to pass the Humphrey–Hawkins Full
Employment Act, but the final version of the legislation lacked the
job guarantee of the original House bill.
In April 1976, while running for president, Carter proposed a health
care reform plan that included key features of a bipartisan bill for
universal national health insurance sponsored by Senator Ted
Kennedy. Though most Americans had health insurance through
Medicare, Medicaid, or private plans, approximately ten percent of the
population did not have coverage in 1977. Throughout 1977, Carter
delayed introduction of a national health insurance program due to
concerns about the deficit. In 1978, Kennedy met repeatedly with
White House staffers in an attempt to forge a healthcare
plan, but Kennedy and Carter were unable to find a compromise. Kennedy
and Carter had been on good terms prior to 1978, but differences over
health insurance led to an open break between the two Democratic
In June 1979, Carter proposed more limited health insurance
reform—an employer mandate to provide[a] private catastrophic health
insurance[b] plus coverage without cost sharing for pregnant women and
infants, federalization of Medicaid[c] with extension to the very
poor[d] without dependent minor children, and the addition of
catastrophic coverage to Medicare. In November 1979, Senator
Russell B. Long
Russell B. Long (D-LA) led a bipartisan conservative majority of his
Senate Finance Committee to support an employer mandate to provide[a]
catastrophic-only coverage[e] and the addition of catastrophic
coverage to Medicare, but abandoned efforts in 1980 due to budget
Some progress was made in the field of occupational health following
Carter's appointment of Dr.
Eula Bingham as Director of the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Bingham drew
from her experience as a physiologist working with carcinogens to
raise and simplify standards, redirect the office's resources to
industry groups with the worst records, while enacting occupational
particulate, lead, and benzene exposure standards and regulations on
workers' right to know about workplace hazards, including labeling of
toxic substances. Bingham enacted many of these provisions over the
opposition of not only Republicans, but also some in the Carter
Administration itself, notably Economic Advisers Council Chairman
Charles Schultze and her own boss, Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall;
ultimately, many of her proposed reforms were never enacted, or were
Decriminalization of cannabis
Main article: Cannabis policy of the
Jimmy Carter administration
Carter took a stance in support of decriminalization of cannabis,
citing the legislation passed in Oregon in 1973. In a 1977 address
to Congress, Carter submitted that penalties for cannabis use should
not outweigh the actual harms of cannabis consumption. Carter retained
Nixon-era (yet pro-decriminalization) advisor Robert Du Pont, and
appointed pro-decriminalization British physician
Peter Bourne as his
drug advisor (or "drug czar") to head up his newly-formed Office of
Drug Abuse Policy. However, law enforcement, conservative
politicians, and grassroots parents' groups opposed this measure. The
net result of the
Carter administration was the continuation of the
War on Drugs
War on Drugs and restrictions on cannabis, while at the same
time cannabis consumption in the United States reached historically
See also: 1979 energy crisis
Carter leaving Three Mile Island for Middletown, Pennsylvania, April
When Carter took office, energy policy was one of the greatest
challenges facing the United States, and oil imports had increased 65%
annually since 1973. In 1973, during the Nixon Administration, the
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced supplies
of oil available to the world market, in part because of deflation of
the dollars they were receiving as a result of Nixon leaving the gold
standard and in part as a reaction to America's sending of arms to
Israel during the Yom Kippur War. This sparked the 1973
Oil Crisis and
forced oil prices to rise sharply, spurring price inflation throughout
the economy and slowing growth. The U.S. government imposed price
controls on gasoline and oil following the announcement, which had the
effect of causing shortages and long lines at filling stations for
gasoline. The lines were quelled through the lifting of price controls
on gasoline, although oil controls remained until Reagan's presidency.
The crisis deepened in Carter told Americans that the energy crisis
was "a clear and present danger to our nation" and "the moral
equivalent of war" and drew out a plan he thought would address
The U.S. consumed over twice as much energy, per capita, as other
developed countries, and Carter sought to reduce energy waste.
Carter convinced Congress to create the United States Department of
Energy (DoE) with the goal of conserving energy. He had solar hot
water panels installed on the roof of the White House, had a wood
stove in his living quarters, ordered the General Services
Administration to turn off hot water in some federal facilities, and
requested that all
Christmas light decorations remain dark in 1979 and
1980. Nationwide, controls were put on thermostats in government and
commercial buildings to prevent people from raising heater
temperatures in the winter above 65 °F (18 °C) or cooling
in the summer below 78 degrees Fahrenheit (26 °C) through
Faced with the energy crisis and a stumbling economy, Carter asked
Congress to impose price controls on energy, medicine, and consumer
prices, but was unable to secure passage of such measures due to
strong opposition from Congress. One related measure approved by
Congress during the presidency of Gerald Ford, the Energy Policy and
Conservation Act of 1975, gave Presidents the authority to deregulate
prices of domestic oil, and Carter exercised this option on July 1,
1979, as a means of encouraging both oil production and
Oil imports, which had reached a record
2.4 billion barrels in 1977 (50% of supply), declined by half
from 1979 to 1983.
During 1979 and 1980, Carter began a process of deregulation of the
oil industry. Carter did this by phasing out government control of oil
allocation. During his "malaise" speech he asked Congress to
impose a "Windfall profits tax". One of the main reasons Carter called
for the tax was due to the deregulation of the oil industry, which in
the eyes of members of the Carter administration, would increase the
profits of oil companies to an "undeserving" level. Enacted in
1980 on domestic oil production, the tax would be repealed in 1988,
after prices had collapsed in the 1980s oil glut.
I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American
democracy... I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a
nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with
unmatched economic power and military might. The threat is nearly
invisible in ordinary ways. It is a crisis of confidence. It is a
crisis that strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of our
national will. We can see this crisis in the growing doubt about the
meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our
When the energy crisis set in, Carter was planning on delivering his
fifth major speech on energy; however, he felt that the American
people were no longer listening. Carter left for the presidential
retreat of Camp David, conferring with dozens prominent political
leaders and other individuals. His pollster, Pat Caddell, told him
that the American people simply faced a crisis of confidence stemming
from the assassination of major leaders in the 1960s, the
Watergate scandal. On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally
televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a
"crisis of confidence" among the American people. This came to be
known as his "malaise" speech, although Carter never used the word in
Carter juxtaposed "crisis" and "confidence" to explain how
overconsumption in the United States was leading to an energy crisis.
Although at first this resonated with the public and he went up in the
polls, there was a boomerang effect and the speech prompted a
public backlash against him. The "malaise" speech was criticized later
on; many perceived Carter as too reliant on the American people, and
as having made effort to fix the oil crisis himself. Others felt that
Carter was blaming the American people for the oil shortages and other
economic problems in the country instead of looking for a long-term
solution on how to fix them. Carter mentioned energy so much in the
speech that he may have overwhelmed the American public with it.
Three days after the speech, Carter asked for the resignations of all
of his Cabinet officers, and ultimately accepted those of five who had
clashed with the
White House the most, including Energy Secretary
James Schlesinger and Health, Education and Welfare chief Joseph
Califano. Carter also appointed
Hamilton Jordan as his first White
House Chief of Staff. The malaise speech and the subsequent Cabinet
shake-up were poorly received by the public and media.
Economy: stagflation and the appointment of Volcker
Carter in office, February 1977
The economic history of the Carter Administration can be divided in
two roughly equal periods that differed dramatically. The first two
years were a time of continuing recovery from the severe 1973–75
recession, which had left fixed investment at its lowest level since
the 1970 recession and unemployment at 9%. The second two years
were marked by double-digit inflation, coupled with very high interest
rates, oil shortages, and slow economic growth. The nation's
economy grew by an average of 3.4% (at par with the historical
average) and more private sector jobs were created per month
during the Carter Administration than during any other presidency
since 1950 except for the Clinton Administration.
The U.S. economy, which had grown by 5% in 1976, continued to grow at
a similar pace during 1977 and 1978.
Unemployment declined from
7.5% in January 1977 to 5.6% by May 1979, with over 9 million net
new jobs created during that interim, and real median household
income grew by 5% from 1976 to 1978. The recovery in business
investment in evidence during 1976 strengthened as well. Fixed private
investment (machinery and construction) grew by 30% from 1976 to 1979,
home sales and construction grew another one third by 1978, and
industrial production, motor vehicle output and sales did so by nearly
15%; with the exception of new housing starts, which remained slightly
below their 1972 peak, each of these benchmarks reached record levels
in 1978 or 1979.
1979 energy crisis
1979 energy crisis ended this period of growth, however, and as
both inflation and interest rates rose, economic growth, job creation,
and consumer confidence declined sharply. The relatively loose
monetary policy adopted by
Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve Board Chairman G. William
Miller, had already contributed to somewhat higher inflation,
rising from 5.8% in 1976 to 7.7% in 1978. The sudden doubling of crude
oil prices by OPEC, the world's leading oil exporting cartel,
forced inflation to double-digit levels, averaging 11.3% in 1979 and
13.5% in 1980. The sudden shortage of gasoline as the 1979 summer
vacation season began exacerbated the problem, and would come to
symbolize the crisis among the public in general; the acute
shortage, originating in the shutdown of
Amerada Hess refining
facilities, led to a lawsuit against the company that year by the
Following an August 1979 cabinet shakeup in which Carter asked for the
resignations of several cabinet members, Carter appointed G. William
Miller as Secretary of the Treasury, naming
Paul Volcker as Chairman
of the Federal Reserve Board. Volcker pursued a tight monetary
policy to bring down inflation, which he considered his mandate.
Volcker (and Carter) succeeded, but only by first going through an
unpleasant phase during which the economy slowed and unemployment
rose. Carter enacted an austerity program by executive order,
justifying these measures by observing that inflation had reached a
"crisis stage"; both inflation and short-term interest rates reached
18 percent in February and March 1980. Investments in fixed income
(both bonds held by Wall Street and pensions paid to retired people)
were becoming less valuable in real terms, and on March 14, 1980,
President Carter announced the first credit control measures since
The policies of Volcker and Carter led to a sharp recession in the
spring of 1980. The sudden fall in GDP during the second quarter
caused unemployment to jump from 6% to 7.5% by May, with output in the
auto and housing sectors falling by over 20% and to their weakest
level since the 1975 recession. Carter phased out credit controls
in May, and by July, the prime rate had fallen to 11%,. with
inflation breaking the earlier trend and easing to under 13% for the
remainder of 1980. The V-shaped recession coincided with Carter's
re-election campaign, however, and contributed to his unexpectedly
severe loss. GDP and employment totals regained pre-recession
levels by the first quarter of 1981.
A wide range of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment were
introduced during the presidency of Jimmy Carter, In reaction
to the energy crisis and growing concerns over air pollution, Carter
National Energy Act (NEA) and the Public Utilities
Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA). The purpose of these watershed laws was
to encourage energy conservation and the development of national
energy resources, including renewables such as wind and solar
energy. He also installed a 32-panel solar power heating system on
White House roof on June 20, 1979, to promote the use of solar
In 1977, Carter signed the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
of 1977, which regulates strip mining. In December 1980, he signed
into law "Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)," commonly known as Superfund, a United
States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with
hazardous substances. That same month, he signed into law Alaska
National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The law provided for the
creation or revision of 15 National Park Service properties, and set
aside other public lands for the United States Forest Service and
United States Fish and Wildlife Service. In all, the act provided for
the designation of 79.53 million acres (124,281 square miles;
321,900 km2) of public lands, fully a third of which was set
aside as wilderness area in Alaska.
Early into his term, Carter collaborated with Congress to assist in
fulfilling a campaign promise to create a cabinet level education
department. In a February 28, 1978 address at the White House, Carter
argued, "Education is far too important a matter to be scattered
piecemeal among various Government departments and agencies, which are
often busy with sometimes dominant concerns." In October 1979,
Carter signed the
Department of Education Organization Act
Department of Education Organization Act into
law, establishing the United States Department of Education.
Carter also expanded the Head Start program with the addition of
43,000 children and families, During his tenure, the percentage of
nondefense dollars spent on education was doubled. Another measure
passed during the Carter years, the Child Nutrition Amendments Act of
1978, introduced a national income standard for program eligibility
based on income standards prescribed for reduced-price school lunches.
The Act also strengthened the nutrition education component of the WIC
program by requiring the provision of nutritional education to all
The Housing and Community Development Act of 1977 set up Urban
Development Action Grants, extended handicapped and elderly
provisions, and established the Community Reinvestment Act, which
sought to prevent banks from denying credit and loans to poor
communities. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of
1977 was passed with the intention of enabling the coal industry to
develop coal resources without damaging other natural resources in the
process, while the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 was
aimed at safeguarding mineworkers from harm in the workplace.
Programs from the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
and women's programs were also strengthened and "common sense
priorities" led to focus on major health problems. The Pregnancy
Discrimination Act of 1978 prohibited companies or organizations from
discriminating against pregnant employees while providing protection
in the areas of childbirth and medical conditions related to pregnancy
or childbirth. The National Consumer Cooperative Bank Act of 1978
sought to put funds aside for low-interest loans to start
cooperatives. Minimum wage coverage was extended to farmworkers,
and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act Amendments of 1978
increased the upper age limit on coverage against age discrimination
in non-federal employment and in the private sector from 65 to 70 as a
means of extending safeguards against age discrimination. In
addition, the purchase requirement for food stamps was abolished, the
Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program was introduced to assist
families with their heating costs, and the first-ever national
youth employment law was enacted.
Also under Carter's watch, the
Airline Deregulation Act
Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 was
passed, which phased out the Civil Aeronautics Board. He also enacted
deregulation in the trucking, rail, communications, and finance
Carter signed into law legislation known as the Social Security
Amendments of 1977, which raised Social Security taxes and reduced
Social Security benefits. The act corrected a technical error made in
1972 and ensured the short-term solvency of Social Security.
Carter was the first president to address the topic of gay
rights. He opposed the Briggs Initiative, a
measure that would have banned gays and supporters of gay rights from
being public school teachers. His administration was the first to meet
with a group of gay rights activists. He has stated that he
"opposes all forms of discrimination on the basis of sexual
orientation and believes there should be equal protection under the
law for people who differ in sexual orientation".
Cold War era
Carter meeting with Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, in Washington,
D.C., September 6, 1977
Carter took office during the Cold War, a sustained period of
geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, relations between the two
superpowers had improved through a policy known as detente. Many of
the leading officials in the Carter administration, including Carter
himself, were members of the Trilateral Commission, which
de-emphasized the Cold War. The
Trilateral Commission instead
advocated a foreign policy focused on aid to
Third World countries and
improved relations with Western Europe and Japan. Reflecting the
waning importance of the Cold War, some of Carter's contemporaries
labeled him as the first post-
Cold War president, but relations with
Soviet Union would continue to be an important factor in American
foreign policy in the late 1970s and the 1980s. The central tension of
the Carter administration's foreign policy was reflected in the
division between Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who sought improved
relations with the
Soviet Union and the Third World, and National
Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski, who favored confrontation with
Soviet Union on a range of issues.
Carter promoted a foreign policy that put human rights at the
forefront. This was a break from the policies of several predecessors,
who often overlooked human rights abuses if they were committed by a
government that was allied, or purported to be allied, with the United
States. He nominated civil rights activist
Patricia M. Derian as
Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, and in August
1977, had the post elevated to that of Assistant Secretary of State.
Derian established the United States' Country Reports on Human Rights
Practices, published annually since 1977. The Carter administration's
human rights emphasis was part of a broader, worldwide focus on human
rights in the 1970s, as non-governmental organizations such as Amnesty
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch became increasingly
The Carter Administration ended support to the historically
U.S.-backed Somoza regime in Nicaragua and gave aid to the new
Sandinista National Liberation Front
Sandinista National Liberation Front government that assumed power
after Somoza's overthrow. Carter cut back or terminated military aid
Augusto Pinochet of Chile,
Ernesto Geisel of Brazil, and Jorge
Rafael Videla of Argentina, all of whom he criticized for human rights
violations. Generally, human rights in Latin America, which had
deteriorated sharply in the previous decade, improved following these
initiatives; a publisher tortured during Argentina's Dirty War, Jacobo
Timerman, credited these policies for the positive trend, stating that
they not only saved lives, but also "built up democratic consciousness
in the United States".
In 1978, Carter became the first sitting president to visit Africa, a
reflection of the continent's new importance to the Carter
administration's foreign policy. Carter's ambassador to the
United Nations, Andrew Young, was the first African-American to hold a
high-level diplomatic post. Along with Carter, he sought to change
U.S. policy towards Africa, emphasizing human rights concerns over
Cold War issues. Unlike his predecessors, Carter took a strong
stance against apartheid in
Rhodesia and South Africa. With Carter's
United Nations passed Resolution 418, which placed an
arms embargo on South Africa. Carter won the repeal of the Byrd
Amendment, which had undercut international sanctions on the Rhodesian
government of Ian Smith. He also pressured Smith to hold elections,
leading to the 1979
Rhodesia elections and the eventual creation of
The more assertive human rights policy championed by Derian and State
Department Policy Planning Director
Anthony Lake was blunted by the
opposition of Brzezinski. These policy disputes reached their most
contentious point during the 1979 fall of Pol Pot's genocidal regime
Democratic Kampuchea following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia,
when Brzezinski prevailed in having the administration refuse to
recognize the new Cambodian government due to its support by the
Soviet Union. Despite human rights concerns, Carter continued
U.S. support for
Joseph Mobutu of Zaire, who defeated Angolan-backed
insurgents in conflicts known as
Shaba I and Shaba II. His
administration also refrained from criticizing human rights abuses by
allied governments in the Philippines, South Korea, and Iran.
Rapprochement with China
See also: Sino-American relations
Deng Xiaoping with President Carter
Continuing a rapprochement begun during the Nixon administration,
Carter sought closer relations with the People's Republic of China
(PRC). The two countries increasingly collaborated against the Soviet
Union, and the
Carter administration tacitly consented to the Chinese
invasion of Vietnam. In 1979, Carter extended formal diplomatic
recognition to the PRC for the first time. This decision led to a boom
in trade between the United States and the PRC, which was pursuing
economic reforms under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping. After the
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter allowed the sale of military
supplies to China and began negotiations to share military
intelligence. In January 1980, Carter unilaterally revoked the
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty with the
Republic of China
Republic of China (ROC),
which had lost control of mainland China to the PRC in the Chinese
Civil War, but retained control the island of Taiwan. Carter's
abrogation of the treaty was challenged in court by conservative
Republicans, but the Supreme Court ruled that the issue was a
non-justiciable political question in Goldwater v. Carter. The U.S.
continued to maintain diplomatic contacts with the ROC through the
Taiwan Relations Act.
Jimmy Carter and Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 18,
1979, in Vienna
Ford and Nixon had sought to reach agreement on a second round of the
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), which had set upper limits on
the number of nuclear weapons possessed by both the United States and
the Soviet Union. Carter hoped to extend these talks by reaching an
agreement to reduce, rather than merely set upper limits on, the
nuclear arsenals of both countries. At the same time, he
criticized the Soviet Union's record with regard to human rights,
partly because he believed the public would not support negotiations
with the Soviets if the president seemed too willing to accommodate
the Soviets. Carter and Soviet Leader
Leonid Brezhnev reached an
agreement in June 1979 in the form of SALT II, but Carter's waning
popularity and the opposition of Republicans and neoconservative
Democrats made ratification difficult. The Soviet invasion of
Afghanistan severely damaged U.S.-Soviet relations and ended any hope
of ratifying SALT II.
Soviet–Afghan War § U.S. aid to
insurgents, and Operation Cyclone
Communists under the leadership of
Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power in
Afghanistan on April 27, 1978. The new regime—which was divided
between Taraki's extremist
Khalq faction and the more moderate
Parcham—signed a treaty of friendship with the
Soviet Union in
December of that year. Taraki's efforts to improve secular
education and redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions
(including of many conservative religious leaders) and political
oppression unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by
mujahideen rebels. Following a general uprising in April 1979,
Taraki was deposed by
Hafizullah Amin in
September. Amin was considered a "brutal psychopath" by
foreign observers; even the Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of
the Afghan communists, and suspected Amin of being an agent of the
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), although that was not the
case. By December, Amin's government had lost control
of much of the country, prompting the
Soviet Union to invade
Afghanistan, execute Amin, and install
Babrak Karmal as
Carter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the U.S.
intelligence community during 1978 and 1979—reiterated as late as
September 29, 1979—was that "Moscow would not intervene in force
even if it appeared likely that the
Khalq government was about to
collapse." Indeed, Carter's diary entries from November 1979 until the
Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to
Afghanistan, and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage
crisis in Iran. In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the
Persian Gulf. Moreover, the failure to accurately predict Soviet
intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat
Iran and Pakistan, although it is now known that those fears
were overblown. For example, U.S. intelligence closely followed Soviet
exercises for an invasion of
Iran throughout 1980, while an earlier
warning from Carter's national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski
that "if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan, they could promote
a separate Baluchistan ... [thus] dismembering Pakistan and Iran"
took on new urgency. These concerns were a major factor in
the unrequited efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations
to improve relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to
Pakistan's Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Zia's ties with the U.S. had been
strained during Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program
and the execution of
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter
told Brzezinski and secretary of state
Cyrus Vance as early as January
1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in
light of the unrest in Iran. One initiative Carter authorized to
achieve this goal was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's
Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); through the ISI, the CIA began
providing some $500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the
mujahideen on July 3, 1979—several months prior to the Soviet
invasion. The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely
influenced by the understanding, later recounted by CIA official
Robert Gates, "that a substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have
"raise[d] the stakes" thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more
directly and vigorously than otherwise intended".
In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was determined to respond
vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a
televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised
renewed aid to Pakistan, and committed the U.S. to the Persian Gulf's
defense. The U.S. military commitment to the Persian Gulf
became known as the Carter Doctrine. Carter also called for a
boycott of the
1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, which raised a bitter
controversy. British prime minister Margaret Thatcher
enthusiastically backed Carter's tough stance, although British
intelligence believed "the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet
threat to Pakistan". The thrust of U.S. policy for the duration
of the war was determined by Carter in early 1980: Carter initiated a
program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and secured a
Saudi Arabia to match U.S. funding for this purpose. U.S.
support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carter's successor,
Ronald Reagan, at a final cost to U.S. taxpayers of some
$3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and
withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the dissolution of
Soviet Union itself. However, the decision to route U.S. aid
through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons sent to
frequently sold on the local market rather than delivered to the
Karachi soon "became one of the most violent cities in
the world". Pakistan also controlled which rebels received assistance:
Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia's government, four
espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs—and these fundamentalists
received most of the funding. Despite this, Carter has expressed
no regrets over his decision to support what he still considers the
"freedom fighters" in Afghanistan.
Conspiracy theorists have alleged that
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda
were beneficiaries of CIA assistance. This is refuted by experts such
as Steve Coll—who notes that declassified CIA records and interviews
with CIA officers do not support such claims—and Peter Bergen, who
concludes: "The theory that bin Laden was created by the CIA is
invariably advanced as an axiom with no supporting
evidence." U.S. funding went to the Afghan mujahideen, not
the Arab volunteers who arrived to assist them. The Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan brought a significant change in Carter's
foreign policy and ended the period of detente that had begun in the
mid-1960s. Returning to a policy of containment, the United States
Cold War allies and increased the defense budget,
leading to a new arms race with the Soviet Union.
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords and Egypt–
Jimmy Carter and
Menachem Begin meet on the Aspen Lodge
Camp David on September 6, 1978.
Sadat, Carter and Begin shaking hands after signing Peace treaty
Israel in the White House, March 27, 1979
On taking office, Carter decided to emphasize a U.S. role in resolving
the long-running Arab–Israeli conflict. Carter sought a
comprehensive settlement between
Israel and its neighbors by
reconvening the 1973 Geneva Conference, but these efforts had
collapsed by the end of 1977. Though unsuccessful in reconvening
the conference, Carter convinced Egyptian leader
Anwar Sadat to visit
Israel in 1978. Sadat's visit drew the condemnation of other Arab
League countries, but Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin
each expressed an openness to bilateral talks. Begin sought security
guarantees; Sadat sought the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the
Sinai Peninsula and home rule for the
West Bank and Gaza,
Israeli-occupied territories that were largely populated by
Israel had taken control of the
West Bank and Gaza
in the 1967 Six-Day War, while the Sinai had been occupied by Israel
since the end of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
Seeking to further negotiations, Carter invited Begin and Sadat to the
presidential retreat of
Camp David in September 1978. Because direct
negotiations between Sadat and Begin proved unproductive, Carter began
meeting with the two leaders individually. While Begin was
willing to withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula, he refused to agree to
the establishment of a Palestinian state.
Israel had begun
constructing settlements in the West Bank, which emerged as an
important barrier to a peace agreement. Unable to come to definitive
agreements over an Israeli withdrawal, the two sides reached an
agreement in which
Israel made vague promises to allow the creation of
an elected government in the
West Bank and Gaza. In return, Egypt
became the first Arab state to recognize Israel's right to exist. The
Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords were the subject of intense domestic opposition in
Egypt and Israel, as well as the wider Arab World, but each side
agreed to negotiate a peace treaty on the basis of the accords.
On March 26, 1979,
Israel signed a peace treaty in
Washington, D.C. Carter's role in getting the treaty was
Aaron David Miller
Aaron David Miller interviewed many officials for his book
The Much Too Promised Land (2008) and concluded the following: "No
matter whom I spoke to — Americans, Egyptians, or Israelis — most
everyone said the same thing: no Carter, no peace treaty." Carter
himself viewed the agreement as his most important accomplishment in
Iranian Revolution and hostage crisis
Further information: Iranian Revolution,
Iran hostage crisis, and
United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war
The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, meeting with Arthur Atherton,
William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President
Jimmy Carter and Zbigniew
Brzezinski in Tehran, 1977
The main conflict between human rights and U.S. interests came in
Carter's dealings with the Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
The Shah had been a strong ally of the United States since World War
II and was, along with Saudi Arabia, one of the "twin pillars" upon
which U.S. strategic policy in the
Middle East was built. However, his
rule was widely perceived as autocratic and kleptocratic. On a 1978
state visit to Iran, Carter spoke out in favor of the Shah, calling
him a leader of supreme wisdom, and a pillar of stability in the
volatile Middle East. Poor economic conditions, the
unpopularity of Pahlavi's "White Revolution," and an Islamic revival
all led to increasing anger among Iranians, many of whom also despised
the United States for its support of Pahlavi and its role in the 1953
Iranian coup d'état.
Iranian Revolution broke out in 1978, the administration was
divided on how to help the Shah. Secretary of State Vance argued that
the Shah should institute a series of reforms to appease the voices of
discontent, while Brzezinski argued in favor of a crackdown on
dissent. Unable to receive a direct course of action from Carter, the
mixed messages that the Shah received from Vance and Brzezinski
contributed to his confusion and indecision. The Shah went into exile,
leaving a caretaker government in control. A popular religious figure,
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returned from exile in February 1979 to
popular acclaim; he would later become the Supreme Leader of Iran
under a new constitution. As the unrest continued, Carter agreed to
admit Pahlavi into the United States for medical treatment, which
proved to be an unpopular decision among the Iranian populace. In
reaction to this decision, a group of Iranians stormed the U.S.
Tehran and took 66 American captives, beginning the Iran
The crisis quickly became the subject of international and domestic
attention, and Carter vowed to secure the release of the hostages. He
refused the Iranian demand of the return of Pahlavi in exchange for
the release of the hostages. His approval ratings rose as Americans
rallied around his response, but the crisis became increasingly
problematic for his administration as it continued. In an attempt
to rescue the hostages, Carter launched
Operation Eagle Claw
Operation Eagle Claw in April
1980. The operation was a total disaster, and it ended in the death of
eight American soldiers. The failure of the operation strengthened
Ayatollah Khomenei's position in
Iran and badly damaged Carter's
domestic standing. The crisi would continue to plague Carter's
administration for the remainder of the year, and it impacted the 1980
In the days before President Reagan took office, Algerian diplomat
Abdulkarim Ghuraib opened negotiations between the U.S. and Iran. This
resulted in the "Algiers Accords" one day before the end of Carter's
presidency on January 19, 1981, which entailed Iran's commitment to
free the hostages immediately. Additionally, Executive Orders
12277 through 12285 were issued by Carter releasing all assets
belonging to the Iranian government and all assets belonging to the
Shah found within the United States and the guarantee that the
hostages would have no legal claim against the Iranian government that
would be heard in U.S. courts. Iran, however, also agreed to place
$1 billion of the frozen assets in an escrow account and both
Iran and the United States agreed to the creation of a tribunal to
adjudicate claims by U.S. Nationals against
Iran for compensation for
property lost by them or contracts breached by Iran. The tribunal,
known as the
Iran – United States Claims Tribunal, has awarded over
$2 billion to U.S. claimaints and has been described as one of
the most important arbitration bodies in the history of international
law. Although the release of the hostages was negotiated and secured
under the Carter administration, the hostages were released on January
20, 1981, moments after Reagan was sworn in as President.[citation
Panama Canal Treaties
See also: History of the
Statement on the
Panama Canal Treaty Signing
Jimmy Carter's speech upon signing the
Panama Canal treaty, September
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Omar Torrijos shake hands moments after the signing of the
Since the 1960s, the
Panama Canal had been a subject of dispute
Panama and the United States, as
Panama wanted to renegotiate
the treaty that had given the U.S. control of the
Zone. Hoping to ease tensions with Latin American countries,
Carter negotiated the Torrijos-Carter Treaties, two treaties which
Panama would gain control of the canal in 1999. Carter's
initiative faced wide resistance in the United States, and many in the
public, particularly conservatives, thought that Carter was "giving
away" a crucial U.S. asset. Conservatives formed groups such as
the Committee to Save the
Panama Canal in an attempt to defeat the
treaties in the Senate, and Carter made ratification of the treaties
his top priority. During the ratification debate, the Senate crafted
amendments that granted the U.S. the right to intervene militarily to
keep the canal open, which the Panamanians assented to after further
negotiations. In March 1978, the Senate ratified both treaties by
a margin of 68-to-32, narrowly passing the two-thirds margin necessary
Mariel boatlift was a mass emigration of Cubans who departed from
Cuba's Mariel Harbor for the United States, authorized by U.S.
president Jimmy Carter, between April 15 and October 31, 1980. The
event was precipitated by a sharp downturn in the Cuban economy which
led to internal tensions on the island and a bid by up to 10,000
Cubans to gain asylum in the Peruvian embassy. The Cuban government
subsequently announced that anyone who wanted to leave could do so,
and an exodus by boat started shortly afterward. The exodus was
organized by Cuban-Americans with the agreement of Cuban president
Fidel Castro. The exodus started to have negative political
implications for U.S. president
Jimmy Carter when it was discovered
that a number of the exiles had been released from Cuban jails and
mental health facilities. The
Mariel boatlift was ended by mutual
agreement between the two governments involved in October 1980. By
that point, as many as 125,000 Cubans had made the journey to Florida.
About fifty percent of the Mariel immigrants decided to reside in
Miami permanently and this resulted in a seven percent increase in
workers in the Miami labor market and a twenty percent increase in the
Cuban working population. Castro publicly stated "I
have flushed the toilets of Cuba on the United States."
One of Carter's first acts was to order the withdrawal of troops from
South Korea, which had hosted a large number of U.S. military
personnel since the end of the Korean War.
South Korea and
protested the move, as did many members of Congress, the military, and
the State Department. Carter believed that the soldiers could be put
to better use in Western Europe, but opponents of the withdrawal
feared that North Korea would invade
South Korea in the aftermath of
the withdrawal. After a strong backlash, Carter delayed the
withdrawal, and ultimately only a fraction of the U.S. forces left
South Korea. Carter's attempt to remove U.S. forces from South Korea
weakened the government of South Korean President Park Chung-hee, who
was assassinated in 1979.
Indonesian occupation of East Timor
Carter administration resumed and dramatically increased arms
sales to the Indonesian Suharto government during its occupation of
East Timor. In an interview, Carter's Assistant Secretary Richard
Holbrooke described its interest to the United States: "Indonesia
[...] is the fifth largest nation in the world, is a moderate member
of the Non-Aligned Movement, is an important oil producer – which
plays a moderate role within
OPEC – and occupies a strategic
position astride the sea lanes between the Pacific and Indian
Oceans." American arms sales to the Suharto regime averaged about
$60 million annually during Carter's term, more than double the
figure of Ford's yearly sales. According to the United Nations,
84,000-183,000 East Timorese civilians were killed during the
occupation, by methods including forced starvation, with Indonesian
forces being responsible for 70% of the 18,600 unlawful killings.
In a 2007 interview with Amy Goodman, Carter discussed the actions of
his administration regarding East Timor: "I have to say that I was
not, you know, as thoroughly briefed about what was going on in East
Timor as I should have been. I was more concerned about other parts of
the world then."
List of international trips
Countries visited by Carter during his presidency
Carter made 12 international trips to 25 nations during his
May 5–11, 1977
Attended the 3rd G7 summit. Also met with the prime ministers of
Greece, Belgium, Turkey, Norway, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, and
with the President of Portugal. Addressed NATO Ministers meeting.
May 9, 1977
Official visit. Met with President Kurt Furgler. Also met with Syrian
President Hafez al-Assad.
December 29–31, 1977
Official visit. Met with First Secretary Edward Gierek.
December 31, 1977 – January 1, 1978
Official visit. Met with Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and King Hussein
January 1–3, 1978
New Delhi, Daulatpur Nasirabad
Met with President
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy and Prime Minister Morarji
Desai. Addressed Parliament of India.
January 3–4, 1978
Met with King Khalid and Crown Prince Fahd.
January 4, 1978
Met with President
Anwar Sadat and German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt.
January 4–6, 1978
Met with President
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and Prime Minister
January 6, 1978
Met with King Baudouin and Prime Minister Leo Tindemans. Attended
meetings of the Commission of the European Communities and the North
March 28–29, 1978
Met with President Carlos Andrés Pérez. Addressed Congress and
signed maritime boundary agreement.
March 29–31, 1978
Rio de Janeiro
Official visit. Met with President
Ernesto Geisel and addressed
March 31 – April 3, 1978
State visit. Met with President Olusegun Obasanjo.
April 3, 1978
Met with President William R. Tolbert, Jr.
June 16–17, 1978
Invited by President
Demetrio B. Lakas and General
Omar Torrijos to
sign protocol confirming exchange of documents ratifying
treaties. Also met informally with Venezuelan President Carlos Andrés
Pérez, Colombian President Alfonso López Michelsen, Mexican
President José López Portillo, Costa Rican
Rodrigo Carazo Odio and
Jamaican Prime Minister
Michael Manley of Jamaica.
July 14–15, 1978
State visit. Met with President
Walter Scheel and Chancellor Helmut
Schmidt. Addressed U.S. and German military personnel.
July 15, 1978
Spoke at the Berlin Airlift Memorial.
July 16–17, 1978
Attended the 4th G7 summit.
January 4–9, 1979
Gua ! France
Met informally with President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, German
Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and British Prime Minister James Callaghan.
February 14–16, 1979
State visit. Met with President José López Portillo. Addressed the
March 7–9, 1979
State visit. Met with President Anwar Sadat. Addressed People's
Assembly of Egypt.
March 10–13, 1979
State visit. Met with President
Yitzhak Navon and Prime Minister
Menachem Begin. Addressed the Knesset.
March 13, 1979
Met with President Anwar Sadat.
June 14–18, 1979
State visit. Met with President
Rudolf Kirchschläger and Chancellor
Bruno Kreisky. Met with Soviet General Secretary
Leonid Brezhnev to
sign SALT II Treaty.
June 25–29, 1979
Attended the 5th G7 summit. State visit. Met with Emperor
Prime Minister Masayoshi Ōhira.
June 29 – July 1, 1979
State visit. Met with President
Park Chung-hee and Prime Minister Choi
June 19–24, 1980
Attended the 6th G7 summit. State Visit. Met with President Sandro
June 21, 1980
Audience with Pope John Paul II.
June 24–25, 1980
Official visit. Met with President Cvijetin Mijatović.
June 25–26, 1980
Official visit. Met with King Juan Carlos I and Prime Minister Adolfo
June 26–30, 1980
Official visit. Met with President
António Ramalho Eanes
António Ramalho Eanes and Prime
Minister Francisco de Sá Carneiro.
July 9–10, 1980
Official visit. Attended memorial services for former Prime Minister
Masayoshi Ōhira. Met with Emperor Hirohito, Bangla President Ziaur
Rahman, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser, Thai Prime Minister
Prem Tinsulanonda and Chinese Premier Hua Guofeng.
Further information: List of people pardoned by a United States
Besides unconditional amnesty for
Vietnam War era draft dodgers,
issued in his first full day in office (January 21, 1977), President
Carter used his power in other cases. He issued 566 pardons or
commutations as President, granting 20% of all requests that came
Most notable cases:
Oscar Collazo: Puerto Rican independence activist who in 1950
attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. His original death
sentence was commuted by Truman himself and Carter granted him full
Rafael Cancel Miranda
Rafael Cancel Miranda and Lolita Lebrón: Puerto Rican
independence activists involved in 1954 Assault on the House of
Peter Yarrow, singer-songwriter: clemency for a sexual offense in
G. Gordon Liddy, chief operative for the
White House Plumbers during
Watergate: sentence commuted.
1980 presidential campaign
Main article: United States presidential election, 1980
The electoral map of the 1980 election
As the 1980 presidential election approached, Carter faced mounting
opposition, even from within his own party. The energy crisis
contributed to a frustrating economic situation, while Senator Kennedy
was openly critical of Carter regarding health care and other
issues. Kennedy declared his candidacy against Carter in the 1980
Democratic primaries but made several early mistakes, while Carter
chose to focus on the Iranian hostage crisis and other matters rather
than actively campaigning. Carter won the first several
primaries, though Kennedy won victories in New York and other northern
states. As Carter built an unassailable delegate lead, Kennedy
refused to exit the race, and his victories in two of the final
primaries encouraged Kennedy to contest the presidential nomination at
the 1980 Democratic National Convention. The Republicans,
meanwhile, nominated Ronald Reagan, while Republican Congressman John
B. Anderson launched an independent campaign. At the Democratic
convention, Kennedy sought to win the support of delegates pledged to
Carter, but Kennedy's effort was defeated by a vote of the delegates,
and Carter won re-nomination. Despite Kennedy's defeat, he had
mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter
weak support in the fall election.
Polls taken in September, after the conclusion of the conventions,
showed a tied race between Reagan and Carter. Carter had
alienated many key Democratic constituencies, including labor unions
and Catholics, and Reagan also successfully appealed to evangelicals,
many of whom had supported Carter's 1976 candidacy. But the
Carter campaign felt confident that the country would reject the
conservative viewpoints espoused by Reagan, and there were hopeful
signs with regards to the economy and the Iranian hostage crisis.
Polling remained close throughout September and October, but Reagan's
performance in the October 28 debate and Carter's failure to win the
release of the Iranian hostages gave Reagan the momentum entering
election day. Reagan won 50.7 percent of the popular vote and 489
electoral votes, Carter won 41 percent of the popular vote and 49
electoral votes, and Anderson won 6.6 percent of the popular
vote. Republicans also won control of the Senate for the first
time since 1952.
Allegations and investigations
Resignation of Bert Lance
Bert Lance, the Director of the
Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget in the
Carter administration, resigned his position on September 21, 1977,
amid allegations of improper banking activities prior to his becoming
Director. Lance was one of Carter's closest friends, and served as
state highway director when Carter was Governor of Georgia. Carter
supported Lance in his bid to succeed Carter as governor, but Lance
was defeated in the primary. Lance was subsequently tried on various
bank-related charges, but was acquitted. The Lance affair was an
embarrassment to Carter, coming just a few years after the Watergate
Special counsel investigating campaign loans
In April 1979,
United States Attorney General
United States Attorney General
Griffin Bell appointed
Paul J. Curran as a special counsel to investigate loans made to the
peanut business owned by Carter by a bank controlled by Bert Lance, a
friend of the president and the director of the Office of Management
and Budget. Unlike
Archibald Cox and
Leon Jaworski who were named as
special prosecutors to investigate the
Watergate scandal, Curran's
position as special counsel meant that he would not be able to file
charges on his own, but would require the approval of Assistant
Attorney General Philip Heymann. Carter became the first sitting
president to testify under oath as part of an investigation of that
The investigation was concluded in October 1979, with Curran
announcing that no evidence had been found to support allegations that
funds loaned from the National Bank of Georgia had been diverted to
Carter's 1976 presidential campaign.
The Marston affair
David W. Marston was appointed by President
Gerald Ford to serve as
United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He
was investigating Joshua Eilberg, a Democratic member of the House of
Representatives, for money he received in connection with a federal
grant to Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia. Eilberg
White House and Marston was fired by Attorney General
Griffin Bell. Eilberg lost his 1978 reelection bid, and, three
months later, pleaded guilty to conflict of interest charges. He was
sentenced to five years of probation and a $10,000 fine.
Personal and family matters during presidency
Rosalynn Carter and
Amy Carter on the south lawn in front of the
White House, July 24, 1977
With his brother, Billy Carter, at the commencement ceremonies at
Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, February 20, 1979
Carter's youngest child Amy lived in the
White House while her father
served as president. She was the subject of much media attention
during this period as young children had not lived in the White House
since the early 1960s presidency of John F. Kennedy.
Carter's brother Billy generated a great deal of notoriety during
Carter's presidency for his colorful and often outlandish public
behavior. In 1977,
Billy Carter endorsed Billy Beer, capitalizing
upon his colorful image as a beer-drinking, Southern boy that had
developed in the press during President Carter's campaign. Billy
Carter's name was occasionally used as a gag answer for a Washington,
D.C. trouble-maker on 1970s episodes of The Match Game. Billy Carter
once urinated on an airport runway in full view of the press and
dignitaries. In late 1978 and early 1979,
Billy Carter visited Libya
with a contingent from Georgia three times. He eventually registered
as a foreign agent of the Libyan government and received a $220,000
loan. This led to a Senate hearing over alleged influence peddling,
which some in the press dubbed "Billygate".
Jimmy Carter rabbit incident
Raymond Lee Harvey, would-be presidential assassin
^ a b pay 75% of the premium for
^ after $2,500 cost sharing
Medicaid acute care; no change to
Medicaid long-term care for
elderly or disabled
^ income below 55% of federal poverty level
^ after $3,500 cost sharing
White House Biography of Jimmy Carter". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved
March 13, 2017.
^ Zelizer, pp. 27-28
^ Zelizer, p. 29
^ Zelizer, pp. 31-32
^ Zelizer, pp. 35-36
^ Zelizer, pp. 34-38
^ Zelizer, pp. 39-40
^ Zelizer, pp. 41-44
^ Zelizer, pp. 45-46
^ Zelizer, pp. 47-48
^ a b Howard, Adam (September 26, 2016). "10 Presidential Debates That
Actually Made an Impact". NBC News. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
^ Zelizer, pp. 50-51
^ Zelizer, p. 52
^ Alan Brinkley and Davis Dyer, ed. (2004). The American Presidency.
Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-618-38273-6.
^ "Congressional Record – House – 108th Congress". 150. Government
Printing Office. November 20, 2004: 25146.
ISBN 978-0-16-084508-6. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
^ "Executive Orders National Archives". archives.gov. Retrieved
March 13, 2017.
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^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 30–32
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 43–44
^ "Carter's Great Purge". Time. 1979-07-30. Retrieved
^ "U.S. Senate: Reference Home - Statistics & Lists - Supreme
Court Nominations, present-1789". senate.gov. February 8, 2017.
Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Zelizer, pp. 53-55
^ "The "Georgia Mafia" .
Jimmy Carter . WGBH American Experience
PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
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^ Pincus, Walter (April 1, 1977). "When a Campaign Vow Crashes into a
Pork Barrel". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2008.
^ Matthews, Dylan (4 August 2017). "Trump is wasting his congressional
majority — like
Jimmy Carter did". Vox. Retrieved 21 November
^ a b c d e Strong, Robert A. "JIMMY CARTER: DOMESTIC AFFAIRS". Miller
Center. University of Virginia.
^ Carter, Jimmy (May 11, 1979). "Standby
Gasoline Rationing Plan
Remarks on the House of Representatives Disapproval of the Plan".
American Presidency Project.
^ "Carter's Clash With Congress on Gas Plan". New York Times. May 15,
^ "The President's News Conference". American Presidency Project. July
^ Roberts, Steven V. (August 5, 1979). "Carter and the Congress: Doubt
and Distrust Prevail". New York Times.
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 33–34
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 71–72
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 122–123
^ a b c d e f "1988 Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF).
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^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February
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^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 65–68
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 121–122
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 134–135
^ Reinhold, Robert (April 17, 1976). "Carter proposes U.S. health
plan; says he favors mandatory insurance financed from wage and
general taxes". The New York Times. p. 1. Although Mr. Carter
left some details a bit vague today, his proposal seemed almost
identical to the so-called Kennedy-Corman health security plan. His
position on the issue is now substantially the same as that of his
chief rivals, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Senator Henry M. Jackson and
Representative Morris K. Udall. All three are co-sponsors of the
Auerbach, Stuart (April 17, 1976). "Carter gives broad outline for
national health plan; cost unknown". The Washington Post. p. A1.
The outlines of Carter's program are close to one sponsored by Sen.
Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and strongly supported by organized
labor. UPI (April 17, 1976). "Carter urges universal health
plan". Chicago Tribune. p. 4. Although Carter didn't provide an
estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features
many proposals similar to plans suggested by others, including Sen.
Edward Kennedy [D., Mass.] which are estimated to cost at least $40
Blumenthal, David; Morone, James A. (2009). "Jimmy Carter: The
Righteous Engineer". The Heart of Power: Health and Politics in the
Oval Office. Berkeley: University of
pp. 261–262. ISBN 978-0-520-26030-6.
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 122–126
^ a b . (1980). "National health insurance". Congressional Quarterly
Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979. 35. Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly. pp. 536–540. ISSN 0095-6007.
^ . (1981). "National health insurance". Congressional Quarterly
Almanac, 96th Congress 2nd Session....1980. 36. Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly. p. 462. ISSN 0095-6007.
^ "Eula Bingham: Of minnows, whales and "common sense"". Department of
^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary.
Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1975). Marijuana
Decriminalization: Hearing Before the Subcommittee to Investigate
Juvenile Delinquency of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States
Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, First Session ... May 14, 1975. U.S.
Government Printing Office. pp. 1101–.
^ a b Rudolph Joseph Gerber (2004). Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy
Reform and Prohibition Politics. Greenwood Publishing Group.
pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-275-97448-0.
^ John Hudak (25 October 2016). Marijuana: A Short History. Brookings
Institution Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8157-2907-5.
^ Kenneth J. Meier (16 September 2016). The Politics of Sin: Drugs,
Alcohol and Public Policy: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy. Taylor
& Francis. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-1-315-28727-0.
^ Mark A. R. Kleiman; James E. Hawdon (12 January 2011). Encyclopedia
of Drug Policy. SAGE Publications. pp. 142–.
^ Frum, p. 312
portlandpeakoil.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ "Carter extends rules on settings for thermostats". Eugene
Register-Guard: (Eugene, OR). Washington, DC. UPI (DC). April 16,
1980. p. A6. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
^ a b Frum, pp. 301–302
^ "U.S. Petroleum Dependency and
Oil Price Decontrol" (PDF).
^ a b "Rethinking Carter Mises Institute". mises.org. Retrieved
March 13, 2017.
^ "Jimmy Carter. Crisis of Confidence". WGBH American Experience.
^ "Jimmy Carter". American Experience. PBS.
^ ""Crisis of Confidence" Speech (July 15, 1979)". Miller Center,
University of Virginia. Archived from the original (text and video) on
July 22, 2009.
^ "American Experience". Retrieved October 22, 2013.
^ Weintraub, Walter (1986). Political Psychology 7: Profiles of
American Presidents as Revealed in Their Public Statements: The
Presidential News Conferences of
Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan.
International Society of Political Psychology.
^ a b c Frum, p. 292
^ Jim Jubak (April 1, 2008). "Is '70s-style stagflation returning?".
Jubak's Journal. MSN.com.
^ a b c "Percent Change From Preceding Period in Real GDP". Bureau of
^ "Job Creation by President", Politics That Work, March 29, 2015
^ a b "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey".
Bureau of Labor Statistics.
^ "Households by Median and Mean Income". United States Census
Inflation of the 1970s: November 21, 1978". University of
California at Berkeley and National Bureau of Economic Research.
December 19, 1995. Retrieved March 18, 2012. [permanent dead
^ "The Outlook for U.S.
Oil Dependence" (PDF). U.S. Department of
^ "United States v. Society of Independent
Gasoline Marketers of
America". [permanent dead link]
^ Erwin C. Hargrove,
Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the
Politics of the Public Good, London, 1988, p. 102.
^ "Educate Yourself: Paul Volcker". Retrieved December 6,
2007. [permanent dead link]
^ Biven, W. Carl (2002). Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of
Limits. ISBN 9780807827383.
Jimmy Carter vs. Inflation". Time. March 24, 1980.
^ Stacey L. Schreft. "Credit Controls: 1980" (PDF). Federal Reserve
Bank of Richmond.
^ "The downturn was precipitated by a rise in interest rates to levels
that exceeded the record rates recorded a year earlier." Congressional
Budget Office, "The Prospects for Economic Recovery", February 1982.
^ "Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis – Discount Rates". October
28, 2007. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007.
^ "Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject: CPI-U". Bureau of
^ Raven, P.H.; Berg, L.R.; Hassenzahl, D.M. (2012). Environment.
Wiley. p. 27. ISBN 9780470945704. Retrieved March 13,
^ a b Sohn, Darren Samuel (May 10, 2010). "
White House solar panels
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^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September
9, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
^ Biello, David (August 6, 2010). "Where Did the Carter White House's
Solar Panels Go?". Scientific American.
^ "Jimmy Carter: Elementary and Secondary Education Remarks Announcing
the Administration's Proposals to the Congress".
www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
^ "Jimmy Carter:
Department of Education Organization Act
Department of Education Organization Act Statement on
Signing S. 210 Into Law". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 27,
^ "Education Department Created". The Palm Beach Post, via Google
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p. 49. ISBN 9780313278488. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
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Harbor Point - a Community History. Northeastern University Press.
p. 91. ISBN 9781555534363. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Orleck, A.; Hazirjian, L.G. (2011). The
War on Poverty: A New
Grassroots History, 1964-1980. University of Georgia Press.
p. 444. ISBN 9780820331010. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Harvey, D.M.; United States. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation
and Enforcement (1978). Paradise regained? Surface mining control and
reclamation act of 1977. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Surface
Mining, [Reclamation, and Enforcement]. p. 1151. Retrieved March
^ "Summary of the Major Laws of the Department of Labor United
States Department of Labor". dol.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ "U.S. Department of Labor -- History -- Portraits: Ray Marshall".
dol.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Schneid, T.D. (2011). Discrimination Law Issues for the Safety
Professional. Taylor & Francis. p. 195.
ISBN 9781439867792. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
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Trap. University of Pennsylvania Press, Incorporated. p. 24.
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^ "U.S. Department of Labor -- History -- Employment
StandardsAdministration (ESA)". dol.gov. Retrieved March 13,
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Political History of the United States Since 1965". Hurst. Retrieved
March 27, 2018 – via Google Books.
^ "How Reaganism actually started with Carter". Salon.com.
^ Zelizer, pp. 71-72
^ Shilts, Randy (1993). Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the
gaywired.com. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ "Carter backs civil unions for gay couples – Southern Voice
Atlanta". sovo.com. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015.
Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Herring, pp. 830–833
^ Dubrell John. (1990). The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy. Manchester
University Press, 1990. ISBN 9780719031885.
^ Herring, pp. 845–846
^ Herring, pp. 846–847
^ American Foreign Relations: A history. Wadsworth, 2010.
^ Herring, p. 842
^ Herring, p. 833
^ Herring, pp. 842–844
^ Glad, Betty. An Outside in the White House. Cornell University
Press, 2009. [page needed]
^ Herring, pp. 844–845
^ Herring, p. 846
^ Herring, pp. 839–840
^ Herring, pp. 855–856
^ Strong, Robert A. "JIMMY CARTER: FOREIGN AFFAIRS". Miller Center.
University of Virginia. Retrieved 21 November 2017.
^ Herring, pp. 835–836
^ a b Zelizer, pp. 57-58
^ a b Zelizer, p. 103
^ a b c d e f Kaplan, Robert D. (2008). Soldiers of God: With Islamic
Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Knopf Doubleday.
pp. 115–117. ISBN 9780307546982.
^ a b c d e f Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political
Islam. I.B. Tauris. pp. 138–139, 142–144.
^ a b Blight, James G. (2012). Becoming Enemies: U.S.-
and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979-1988. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4422-0830-8.
^ a b c d e f g h Riedel, Bruce (2014). What We Won: America's Secret
War in Afghanistan, 1979–1989.
Brookings Institution Press.
pp. ix–xi, 21–22, 93, 98–99, 105.
^ a b Gates, Bob (2007). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's
Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon and
Schuster. pp. 145–147. ISBN 9781416543367. When
asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir (combined
with an apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski) would inspire "a
mind-bending number of conspiracy theories which adamantly—and
wrongly—accuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into
Afghanistan", Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact
for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into
Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John
Bernell White, Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in White, John Bernell
(May 2012). "The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native
Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland". pp. 45–46, 82.
^ a b Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA,
Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10,
2001. Penguin. pp. 87, 581. ISBN 9781594200076. Contemporary
memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet
invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront
the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very
worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given this evidence and
the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on
the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets
into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism.
^ Carter himself has stated that encouraging a Soviet invasion was
"not my intention." See: Alterman, Eric (2001-10-25). "'Blowback,' the
Prequel". The Nation. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
^ Toohey, Kristine (November 8, 2007). The Olympic Games: A Social
Science Perspective. CABI. p. 100.
^ a b Bergen, Peter (2006). The
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral
History of al Qaeda's Leader. Simon and Schuster. pp. 60–61.
^ Herring, pp. 855–857
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 53–56
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 104–106
^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 150–151
^ a b Herring, pp. 841–842
^ Bickerton and Klausner, pp. 190–193; 198–200.
^ Aaron David Miller, The Much Too Promised Land (Bantam Books, 2008),
^ Gerhard Peters; John T. Woolley. "Jimmy Carter: "Tehran, Iran
Remarks of the President and Mohammad Reza Palavi, Shahanshah of Iran
at the Welcoming Ceremony.," December 31, 1977". The American
Presidency Project. University of
California - Santa Barbara.
^ Gerhard Peters; John T. Woolley. "Jimmy Carter: "Tehran,
of the President and the Shah at a State Dinner.," December 31, 1977".
The American Presidency Project. University of
California - Santa
^ Herring, pp. 847–848
^ Herring, pp. 848–850
^ Herring, p. 850
^ Herring, pp. 858–859
^ Iranian Hostage Crisis
External link in title= (help)
^ Herring, pp. 836–837
^ Zelizer, pp. 69-70
^ Herring, pp. 837–838
^ Zelizer, pp. 74-76
^ "Judge rules Obama's aunt can stay in U.S."
http://news.blogs.cnn.com. External link in website= (help)
^ Herring, pp. 834–835
^ Sharma, Sunil. "200,000 Skeletons in Richard Holbrooke's Closet".
Dissident Voice. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
^ "Report: U.S. Arms Transfers to Indonesia 1975-1997 - World Policy
Institute - Research Project". World Policy Institute. Retrieved July
^ Powell, Sian. "UN Verdict on East Timor". Global Policy Forum.
Retrieved July 19, 2014.
^ "Fmr. President
Jimmy Carter on "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid",
Iraq, Greeting the Shah of
Iran at the White House, Selling Weapons to
Indonesia During the Occupation of East Timor, and More". Democracy
Now!. September 10, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office
of the Historian.
^ Joseph, Joel (November 4, 2010). "How Daulatpur Nasirabad became
Carterpuri". The Times of India. Retrieved October 21, 2013. Daulatpur
Nasirabad in Gurgaon was a sleepy nondescript village on the outskirts
of Delhi but it found a prominent place on the global map after Carter
paid a visit to this village...This village has since then been
^ "pardonspres1". jurist.law.pitt.edu. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ "pardons6". jurist.law.pitt.edu. Retrieved March 13, 2017.
^ Zelizer, p. 94
^ Zelizer, pp. 100-102
^ Zelizer, pp. 105-106
^ Zelizer, pp. 106-108
^ Zelizer, p. 108
^ Zelizer, pp. 109-110
^ Steven F. Hayward (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old
Liberal Order: 1964–1980. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 497.
^ Zelizer, p. 115
^ Zelizer, pp. 113-114
^ Zelizer, pp. 115-116
^ Zelizer, pp. 122-124
^ Zelizer, pp. 124-125
^ Kazin, Michael; Edwards, Rebecca; Rothman, Adam (November 9, 2009).
The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. (Two volume
set). Princeton University Press. p. 311.
^ Bert Lance, Carter Adviser, Dies at 82 New York Times August 15,
^ Staff. "I Have a Job to Do", Time (magazine), April 2, 1979.
Accessed September 7, 2008.
^ McFadden, Robert D. (September 6, 2008). "Paul Curran, 75,
Corruption Foe, Dies". The New York Times. p. A30. Retrieved
September 6, 2008. He also investigated President Jimmy Carter's
family peanut business for the Justice Department in 1979, and thus
became the first lawyer to examine a sitting president under
Special Counsel, Litigation[permanent dead link], Kaye Scholer.
Accessed September 6, 2008.
^ Pound, Edward T. (October 17, 1979). "Carter's Business Cleared in
Inquiry on Campaign Funds; Indictments Are Ruled Out: Investigator
Finds No Evidence of Diversion of Warehouse Profit to '76 Presidential
Race Insufficient Loan Collateral Loan Diversion Alleged Carter
Business Cleared in Inquiry on Bank Loans and Campaign Funds Errors in
the Records History of Loans Traced". The New York Times. p. A1.
Retrieved September 7, 2008.
^ Critics: The Administration 'Blew It' Washington Post January 31,
Joshua Eilberg (Obituary) Blog of Death. April 11, 2004.
^ "PBS's American Experience – Billy Carter". pbs.org. Retrieved
March 13, 2017.
Bickerton, Ian J.; Carla L. Klausner (2007). A history of the
Arab-Israeli conflict. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice
Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign
Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press.
Kaufman, Burton I.; Kaufman, Scott (2006). The Presidency of James
Earl Carter (2nd ed.). University Press of Kansas.
Zelizer, Julian (2010). Jimmy Carter. Times Books.
Main article: Bibliography of Jimmy Carter
Biven, W. Carl. Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits (U
of North Carolina Press. 2002) online
Bourne, Peter G. (1997). Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From
Plains to Post-Presidency. New York: Scribner.
Busch, Andrew E. (2005). Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election
of 1980 and the Rise of the Right. University Press of Kansas.
Campagna, Anthony S. Economic Policy in the Carter Administration
(Greenwood Press, 1995) online
Congressional Quarterly. Congress and the Nation V: 1977–1980 (1981)
in-depth detail on all major issues; 1240pp
Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd
ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Fink, Gary M.; Graham, Hugh Davis, eds. (1998). The Carter Presidency:
Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era. Lawrence: University Press of
Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0895-8.
Kaufman, Diane, and Scott Kaufman. Historical Dictionary of the Carter
Era (Scarecrow, 2013) 301 pp
Rosenbaum, Herbert D.; Ugrinsky, Alexej, eds. (1994). The Presidency
and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood
Press. pp. 83–116. ISBN 0-313-28845-3.
Strong, Robert A. (2000). Working in the World:
Jimmy Carter and the
Making of American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State
University Press. ISBN 0-8071-2445-1.
U.S. Presidential Administrations
President of the United States
President of the United States (1977–81)
Governor of Georgia
Governor of Georgia (1971–75)
Camp David Accords
Israel Peace Treaty
National Energy Policy
Iran hostage crisis
Operation Eagle Claw
Island of Stability speech
Moral Equivalent of
1979 energy crisis
Diplomatic Relations with China
1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics boycott
Department of Energy
Department of Education
Department of Health and Human Services
State of the Union Addresses (1978
Federal judicial appointments
Executive Order 12148
Executive Order 12170
Goldwater v. Carter
Presidential Library and Museum
Habitat for Humanity
Rosalynn Carter Work Project
Carter–Menil Human Rights Prize
Jimmy Carter National Historic Site
Nairobi Agreement, 1999
Georgia gubernatorial election, 1966
Democratic presidential primaries, 1976
Democratic National Convention, 1972
United States presidential election, 1976
The Hornet's Nest
The Hornet's Nest (2003 novel)
Our Endangered Values (2006)
Palestine: Peace Not
(reaction and commentary)
White House (2007)
We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land
We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land (2009)
White House Diary (2010)
A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power (2014)
A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2015)
Nobel Peace Prize
Presidential Medal of Freedom
Freedom of the City
Silver Buffalo Award
Philadelphia Liberty Medal
United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights
Man from Plains
Man from Plains (2007 documentary)
USS Jimmy Carter
Mary Prince (nanny)
Rosalynn Carter (wife)
Jack Carter (son)
Amy Carter (daughter)
James Earl Carter, Sr. (father)
Lillian Gordy Carter
Lillian Gordy Carter (mother)
Gloria Carter Spann
Gloria Carter Spann (sister)
Ruth Carter Stapleton (sister)
Billy Carter (brother)
Jason Carter (grandson)
Emily Dolvin (maternal aunt)
Hugh Carter (paternal first cousin)
← Gerald Ford
Ronald Reagan →
Presidents of the United States (list)
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William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison (1841)
John Tyler (1841–1845)
James K. Polk
James K. Polk (1845–1849)
Zachary Taylor (1849–1850)
Millard Fillmore (1850–1853)
Franklin Pierce (1853–1857)
James Buchanan (1857–1861)
Abraham Lincoln (1861–1865)
Andrew Johnson (1865–1869)
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant (1869–1877)
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes (1877–1881)
James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield (1881)
Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur (1881–1885)
Grover Cleveland (1885–1889)
Benjamin Harrison (1889–1893)
Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)
William McKinley (1897–1901)
Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909)
William H. Taft (1909–1913)
Woodrow Wilson (1913–1921)
Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding (1921–1923)
Calvin Coolidge (1923–1929)
Herbert Hoover (1929–1933)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933–1945)
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman (1945–1953)
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953–1961)
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy (1961–1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–1969)
Richard Nixon (1969–1974)
Gerald Ford (1974–1977)
Jimmy Carter (1977–1981)
Ronald Reagan (1981–1989)
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush (1989–1993)
Bill Clinton (1993–2001)
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (2001–2009)
Barack Obama (2009–2017)
Donald Trump (2017–present)
F. D. Roosevelt
L. B. Johnson
G. H. W. Bush
G. W. Bush