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The presidency of Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
began at noon EST on January 20, 1977, when Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
was inaugurated as 39th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1981. Carter, a Democrat, took office after defeating Republican incumbent President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
in the 1976 presidential election. His presidency ended with his defeat in the 1980 presidential election by Republican nominee Ronald Reagan. Carter sought to make the government "competent and compassionate" but, in the midst of an economic crisis produced by rising energy prices and stagflation, met with difficulty in achieving its objectives. His economic response centered on the taming of inflation through government austerity and high interest rates. At the end of his administration, Carter had seen a substantial decrease in unemployment and a partial reduction of the deficit, but the recession continued.[1] He sought major reforms to the welfare and health care systems of the United States, but was unable to win support for his proposals. He presided over creation of the United States Department of Education and United States Department of Energy, and his administration established a national energy policy. Carter reoriented U.S. foreign policy towards an emphasis on human rights. In the hopes of encouraging reforms, he cut off aid and criticized the governments of many traditional Cold War
Cold War
allies. Taking office during a period of relatively warm relations with both China and the Soviet Union, Carter continued the conciliatory policies of his predecessors until the start of the Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
in December 1979. He normalized relations with China and continued the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
with the Soviet Union. After the start of the Soviet–Afghan War, he discarded his conciliatory policies towards the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and began a period of military build-up. In an effort to end the Arab–Israeli conflict, he helped arrange the Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
between Israel
Israel
and Egypt. Through the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, Carter guaranteed the transfer of the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
to Panama
Panama
in 1999. The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by several major crises, including the Iran
Iran
hostage crisis, serious fuel shortages, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In the 1980 presidential election, Carter defeated a primary challenge from Ted Kennedy, a prominent liberal Democrat. However, Carter lost the general election in a landslide to Reagan. In polls of historians and political scientists, Carter is usually ranked as a below-average president.

Contents

1 Presidential election of 1976 2 Inauguration 3 Administration 4 Judicial appointments 5 Domestic policies

5.1 Relations with Congress 5.2 Budget and taxation policies 5.3 Health care and welfare 5.4 Decriminalization of cannabis 5.5 Energy crisis

5.5.1 "Malaise" speech

5.6 Economy: stagflation and the appointment of Volcker 5.7 Environment 5.8 Education 5.9 Other initiatives

6 Foreign policies

6.1 Cold War
Cold War
era

6.1.1 Human rights 6.1.2 Rapprochement with China 6.1.3 SALT II 6.1.4 Afghanistan

6.2 Middle East

6.2.1 Camp David
Camp David
Accords 6.2.2 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
and hostage crisis

6.3 Latin America

6.3.1 Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Treaties 6.3.2 Cuba

6.4 Asia

6.4.1 South Korea 6.4.2 Indonesian occupation of East Timor

6.5 List of international trips

7 Pardons 8 1980 presidential campaign 9 Allegations and investigations

9.1 Resignation of Bert Lance 9.2 Special
Special
counsel investigating campaign loans 9.3 The Marston affair

10 Personal and family matters during presidency 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References

13.1 Works cited 13.2 Further reading

Presidential election of 1976[edit] Main article: United States presidential election, 1976

Carter and President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
debating at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia

Carter, who served as Governor of Georgia
Governor of Georgia
from 1971 to 1975, decided to run for president after seeing the success of George McGovern during the 1972 presidential election campaign. Despite scant backing from party leaders, McGovern had won the 1972 Democratic nomination, largely due to his success at winning delegates in primary elections, and Carter's campaign would follow a similar course.[2] Carter declared his candidacy for the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination in December 1974.[3] As Democratic leaders such as Walter Mondale, Hubert Humphrey, and Ted Kennedy
Ted Kennedy
declined to enter the race, there was no clear favorite in the Democratic primaries. In addition to Carter, Mo Udall, Sargent Shriver, Birch Bayh, Fred R. Harris, Terry Sanford, Scoop Jackson, Lloyd Bentsen, and George Wallace
George Wallace
all sought the nomination, and many of these candidates were better known than Carter.[4] Carter sought to appeal to various groups in the party; his advocacy for cutting defense spending and reining in the CIA appealed to liberals, while his emphasis on eliminating government waste appealed to conservatives.[5] Iowa
Iowa
held the first contest of the primary season, and Carter campaigned heavily in the state, hoping that a victory would show that he had serious chance of winning the nomination. Carter won the most votes of any candidate in the Iowa caucus, and he dominated media coverage in advance of the New Hampshire primary, which he also won.[6] Carter's subsequent defeat of Wallace in the Florida and North Carolina primaries eliminated Carter's main rival for Southern support.[7] Despite the late entrance of Senator Frank Church
Frank Church
and Governor Jerry Brown
Jerry Brown
into the race, Carter clinched the nomination on the final day of the primaries.[8] The Republicans experienced a contested convention that ultimately nominated incumbent President Gerald Ford, who had succeeded to the presidency in 1974 after the resignation of Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
due to the latter's involvement in the Watergate
Watergate
scandal. Unlike the Republican convention, the 1976 Democratic National Convention
1976 Democratic National Convention
proceeded harmoniously and, after interviewing several candidates, Carter chose Mondale as his running mate. The selection of Mondale was well received by many liberal Democrats, who had been skeptical of Carter.[9]

The electoral map of the 1976 election

In the presidential election campaign, Carter continued to promote a centrist agenda, seeking to define new Democratic positions in the aftermath of the tumultuous 1960s. Above all, Carter attacked the political system, defining himself as an "outsider" who would reform Washington in the post- Watergate
Watergate
era.[10] Carter and President Ford faced off in three televised debates during the 1976 election,[11] the first such debates since 1960.[11] Though Carter had led in the polls by thirty points after the Democratic convention, the polls showed a very close race by the end of October.[12] On election day, Carter won the election with 50.1% of the popular vote and 297 electoral votes, while Ford won 48% of the popular vote and 240 electoral votes. The 1976 presidential election represents the lone Democratic presidential election victory between the elections of 1964 and 1992. Carter fared particularly well in the Northeast and the South, while Ford swept the West and won much of the Midwest. In the concurrent Congressional elections, Democrats increased their majorities in both the House and Senate.[13] Inauguration[edit] Main article: Inauguration of Jimmy Carter

President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Rosalynn Carter
Rosalynn Carter
walk down Pennsylvania Avenue during Inauguration.

In his inaugural address, Carter said, "We have learned that more is not necessarily better, that even our great nation has its recognized limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all problems."[14] Carter had campaigned on a promise to eliminate the trappings of the "Imperial Presidency", and began taking action according to that promise on Inauguration Day, breaking with recent history and security protocols by walking up Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House
White House
in his inaugural parade. His first steps in the White House went further in this direction: Carter reduced the size of the staff by one-third, cancelled government-funded chauffeuring for Cabinet members, and also put the USS Sequoia, the presidential yacht, up for sale.[15] He also fulfilled a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring unconditional amnesty for Vietnam
Vietnam
War-era draft evaders.[16][17] Administration[edit]

The Carter Cabinet

Office Name Term

President Jimmy Carter 1977–1981

Vice President Walter Mondale 1977–1981

Secretary of State Cyrus Vance 1977–1980

Edmund Muskie 1980–1981

Secretary of Treasury W. Michael Blumenthal 1977–1979

G. William Miller 1979–1981

Secretary of Defense Harold Brown 1977–1981

Attorney General Griffin Bell 1977–1979

Benjamin R. Civiletti 1979–1981

Secretary of the Interior Cecil D. Andrus 1977–1981

Secretary of Agriculture Robert Bergland 1977–1981

Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps 1977–1979

Philip M. Klutznick 1979–1981

Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall 1977–1981

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Joseph A. Califano, Jr.* 1977–1979

Secretary of Health and Human Services Patricia R. Harris* 1979–1981

Secretary of Education Shirley M. Hufstedler* 1979–1981

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Patricia R. Harris 1977–1979

Maurice "Moon" Landrieu 1979–1981

Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams 1977–1979

Neil E. Goldschmidt 1979–1981

Secretary of Energy James R. Schlesinger 1977–1979

Charles W. Duncan 1979–1981

Chief of Staff none 1977–1979

Hamilton Jordan 1979–1980

Jack H. Watson 1980–1981

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Douglas M. Costle 1977–1981

Director of the Office of Management and Budget Bert Lance 1977

James T. McIntyre 1977–1981

United States Trade Representative Robert S. Strauss 1977–1979

Reubin Askew 1979–1981

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) was renamed the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in 1979, when its education functions were transferred to the newly created Department of Education under the Department of Education Organization Act (1979).

After his victory in the 1976 election, Carter offered the position of White House
White House
Chief of Staff to two of his advisers, Hamilton Jordan
Hamilton Jordan
and Charles Kirbo, but both declined. Rather than offer the position to someone else, Carter chose not to have a chief of staff, instead implementing a system in which Cabinet members would have more direct access to the president.[18] Though Carter had campaigned against Washington, most of Carter's initial top appointees had served in previous administrations or had known Carter in Georgia; the one major exception to this rule was the appointment of Ray Marshall
Ray Marshall
as Secretary of Labor. Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, Secretary of Defense Harold Brown, and Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
W. Michael Blumenthal were all high-ranking official in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.[19] For the role of National Security Adviser, Carter selected Zbigniew Brzezinski, who emerged as one of Carter's closest advisers.[20] In 1979, following his " Malaise speech", Carter shook up his cabinet, appointing Jordan as White House
White House
Chief of Staff and replacing Blumenthal with Federal Reserve Chairman G. William Miller.[21] Judicial appointments[edit] Main articles: Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
Supreme Court candidates and Jimmy Carter judicial appointments Among Presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court.[22] Carter appointed 56 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 203 judges to the United States district courts. Carter also experienced a small number of judicial appointment controversies, as three of his nominees for different federal appellate judgeships were not processed by the Democratic-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee before Carter's presidency ended. Two of his Court of Appeals appointees – Stephen Breyer
Stephen Breyer
and Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
– were later appointed to the Supreme Court by Bill Clinton. Domestic policies[edit]

Robert Templeton's portrait of President Carter, displayed in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.

Relations with Congress[edit] Carter successfully campaigned as a Washington "outsider" critical of both President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
and the Democratic Congress; as president, Carter continued this theme. It was this refusal to play by the rules of Washington, however, which contributed to the Carter administration's difficult relationship with Congress. After the election, Carter demanded the power to reorganize the executive branch, alienating powerful Democrats like Speaker Tip O'Neill
Tip O'Neill
and Jack Brooks. During the Nixon administration, Congress had passed a series of reforms that removed power from the president, and most members of Congress were unwilling to restore that power even with a Democrat now in office.[23] Unreturned phone calls, verbal insults, and an unwillingness to trade political favors soured many on Capitol Hill and affected the president's ability to enact his agenda.[24] Carter attempted to woo O'Neill, Senate Majority Leader Robert Byrd, and other members of Congress through personal engagement, but he was generally unable to win rally support for his programs.[25] A few months after his term started, and thinking he had the support of about 74 Congressmen, Carter issued a "hit list" of 19 projects that he claimed were "pork barrel" spending. He said that he would veto any legislation that contained projects on this list.[26] Congress responded by passing a bill that combined several of the projects that Carter objected to with economic stimulus measures that Carter favored. Carter chose to sign the bill, but his criticism of the alleged "pork barrel" projects cost him support in Congress.[27] These struggles set a pattern for Carter's presidency, and he would frequently clash with Congress for the remainder of his tenure.[28] On May 10, 1979, the House voted against giving Carter authority to produce a standby gas rationing plan. The following day, Carter delivered remarks in the Oval Office describing himself as shocked and embarrassed for the American government due to the vote and concluding "the majority of the House Members are unwilling to take the responsibility, the political responsibility for dealing with a potential, serious threat to our Nation." He furthered that a majority of House members were placing higher importance on "local or parochial interests" and challenged the lower chamber of Congress with composing their own rationing plan in the next 90 days.[29] Carter's remarks were met with criticism by House Republicans who accused his comments of not befitting the formality a president should have in their public remarks. Others pointed to 106 Democrats voting against his proposal and the bipartisan criticism potentially coming back to haunt him.[30] At the start of a July 25, 1979 news conference, Carter called on believers in the future of the US and his proposed energy program to speak with Congress as it bore the responsibility to impose his proposals.[31] Amid the energy proposal opposition, The New York Times commented that "as the comments flying up and down Pennsylvania Avenue illustrate, there is also a crisis of confidence between Congress and the President, sense of doubt and distrust that threatens to undermine the President's legislative program and become an important issue in next year's campaign."[32] Budget and taxation policies[edit] On taking office, Carter proposed a bill that would give each citizen a $50 tax rebate, cut corporate taxes by $900 million, and implement a modest stimulus package consisting of public works spending. Carter hoped to avoid inflation by avoiding major increases in federal spending, but his resistance to a larger stimulus drew attacks from members of his own party, who derided what they saw as half-measures.[33] Carter also sought major tax reform that would create a simpler, more progressive taxation system. He sought to tax capital gains as ordinary income, eliminate tax shelters, limit itemized tax deductions, and increase the standard deduction.[34] Carter's taxation proposals were rejected by Congress, and no major tax bill was passed during Carter's presidency.[35] Federal budget deficits throughout Carter's term remained at around the $70 billion level reached in 1976, while falling as a percent of GDP from 4% to 2.5% by the 1980–81 Fiscal Year.[36] The national debt of the United States increased by about $280 billion, from $620 billion in early-1977 to $900 billion in late 1980.[37] However, because economic growth outpaced the growth in nominal debt, the federal government's debt as a percentage of gross domestic product decreased slightly, from 33.6% in early-1977 to 31.8% in late 1980. Health care and welfare[edit] Carter sought a comprehensive overhaul of welfare programs that he hoped would save money while providing better aid to the needy. In early 1977, Joseph Califano, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, presented Carter with several options for welfare reform. Carter rejected these initial proposals, as they would require increased spending. Proposals contemplated by the Carter administration include a guaranteed minimum income, a federal job guarantee for the unemployed, a negative income tax, and direct cash payments to aid recipients. In August 1977, Carter proposed a major jobs program for welfare recipients capable of working and an income to those who were incapable, but this proposal died in Congress.[38] Carter was unable to win support for his welfare reform proposals, and they never received a vote in Congress.[39] In 1978, responding to pressure from the Congressional Black Caucus
Congressional Black Caucus
and other groups, Carter helped convince the Senate to pass the Humphrey–Hawkins Full Employment Act, but the final version of the legislation lacked the job guarantee of the original House bill.[40] In April 1976, while running for president, Carter proposed a health care reform plan that included key features of a bipartisan bill for universal national health insurance sponsored by Senator Ted Kennedy.[41] Though most Americans had health insurance through Medicare, Medicaid, or private plans, approximately ten percent of the population did not have coverage in 1977. Throughout 1977, Carter delayed introduction of a national health insurance program due to concerns about the deficit. In 1978, Kennedy met repeatedly with Carter and White House
White House
staffers in an attempt to forge a healthcare plan, but Kennedy and Carter were unable to find a compromise. Kennedy and Carter had been on good terms prior to 1978, but differences over health insurance led to an open break between the two Democratic leaders.[42] In June 1979, Carter proposed more limited health insurance reform—an employer mandate to provide[a] private catastrophic health insurance[b] plus coverage without cost sharing for pregnant women and infants, federalization of Medicaid[c] with extension to the very poor[d] without dependent minor children, and the addition of catastrophic coverage to Medicare.[43] In November 1979, Senator Russell B. Long
Russell B. Long
(D-LA) led a bipartisan conservative majority of his Senate Finance Committee to support an employer mandate to provide[a] catastrophic-only coverage[e] and the addition of catastrophic coverage to Medicare,[43] but abandoned efforts in 1980 due to budget constraints.[44] Some progress was made in the field of occupational health following Carter's appointment of Dr. Eula Bingham as Director of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA). Bingham drew from her experience as a physiologist working with carcinogens to raise and simplify standards, redirect the office's resources to industry groups with the worst records, while enacting occupational particulate, lead, and benzene exposure standards and regulations on workers' right to know about workplace hazards, including labeling of toxic substances. Bingham enacted many of these provisions over the opposition of not only Republicans, but also some in the Carter Administration itself, notably Economic Advisers Council Chairman Charles Schultze
Charles Schultze
and her own boss, Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall; ultimately, many of her proposed reforms were never enacted, or were later rescinded.[45] Decriminalization of cannabis[edit] Main article: Cannabis policy of the Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
administration Carter took a stance in support of decriminalization of cannabis, citing the legislation passed in Oregon in 1973.[46] In a 1977 address to Congress, Carter submitted that penalties for cannabis use should not outweigh the actual harms of cannabis consumption. Carter retained Nixon-era (yet pro-decriminalization) advisor Robert Du Pont, and appointed pro-decriminalization British physician Peter Bourne as his drug advisor (or "drug czar") to head up his newly-formed Office of Drug Abuse Policy.[47][48] However, law enforcement, conservative politicians, and grassroots parents' groups opposed this measure. The net result of the Carter administration
Carter administration
was the continuation of the War on Drugs
War on Drugs
and restrictions on cannabis,[47][49] while at the same time cannabis consumption in the United States reached historically high levels.[50] Energy crisis[edit] See also: 1979 energy crisis

Carter leaving Three Mile Island for Middletown, Pennsylvania, April 1, 1979

When Carter took office, energy policy was one of the greatest challenges facing the United States, and oil imports had increased 65% annually since 1973.[28] In 1973, during the Nixon Administration, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) reduced supplies of oil available to the world market, in part because of deflation of the dollars they were receiving as a result of Nixon leaving the gold standard and in part as a reaction to America's sending of arms to Israel
Israel
during the Yom Kippur War. This sparked the 1973 Oil
Oil
Crisis and forced oil prices to rise sharply, spurring price inflation throughout the economy and slowing growth. The U.S. government imposed price controls on gasoline and oil following the announcement, which had the effect of causing shortages and long lines at filling stations for gasoline. The lines were quelled through the lifting of price controls on gasoline, although oil controls remained until Reagan's presidency. The crisis deepened in Carter told Americans that the energy crisis was "a clear and present danger to our nation" and "the moral equivalent of war"[51] and drew out a plan he thought would address it.[52] The U.S. consumed over twice as much energy, per capita, as other developed countries, and Carter sought to reduce energy waste.[28] Carter convinced Congress to create the United States Department of Energy (DoE) with the goal of conserving energy. He had solar hot water panels installed on the roof of the White House, had a wood stove in his living quarters, ordered the General Services Administration to turn off hot water in some federal facilities, and requested that all Christmas
Christmas
light decorations remain dark in 1979 and 1980. Nationwide, controls were put on thermostats in government and commercial buildings to prevent people from raising heater temperatures in the winter above 65 °F (18 °C) or cooling in the summer below 78 degrees Fahrenheit (26 °C) through 1980.[53] Faced with the energy crisis and a stumbling economy, Carter asked Congress to impose price controls on energy, medicine, and consumer prices, but was unable to secure passage of such measures due to strong opposition from Congress.[54] One related measure approved by Congress during the presidency of Gerald Ford, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, gave Presidents the authority to deregulate prices of domestic oil, and Carter exercised this option on July 1, 1979, as a means of encouraging both oil production and conservation.[55] Oil
Oil
imports, which had reached a record 2.4 billion barrels in 1977 (50% of supply), declined by half from 1979 to 1983.[36] During 1979 and 1980, Carter began a process of deregulation of the oil industry. Carter did this by phasing out government control of oil allocation.[56] During his "malaise" speech he asked Congress to impose a "Windfall profits tax". One of the main reasons Carter called for the tax was due to the deregulation of the oil industry, which in the eyes of members of the Carter administration, would increase the profits of oil companies to an "undeserving" level.[56] Enacted in 1980 on domestic oil production, the tax would be repealed in 1988, after prices had collapsed in the 1980s oil glut. "Malaise" speech[edit]

I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American democracy... I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with unmatched economic power and military might. The threat is nearly invisible in ordinary ways. It is a crisis of confidence. It is a crisis that strikes at the very heart and soul and spirit of our national will. We can see this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation...

Jimmy Carter[57]

When the energy crisis set in, Carter was planning on delivering his fifth major speech on energy; however, he felt that the American people were no longer listening. Carter left for the presidential retreat of Camp David, conferring with dozens prominent political leaders and other individuals. His pollster, Pat Caddell, told him that the American people simply faced a crisis of confidence stemming from the assassination of major leaders in the 1960s, the Vietnam
Vietnam
War, the Watergate
Watergate
scandal.[58] On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people. This came to be known as his "malaise" speech, although Carter never used the word in the speech.[59] Carter juxtaposed "crisis" and "confidence" to explain how overconsumption in the United States was leading to an energy crisis. Although at first this resonated with the public and he went up in the polls, there was a boomerang effect[60] and the speech prompted a public backlash against him. The "malaise" speech was criticized later on; many perceived Carter as too reliant on the American people, and as having made effort to fix the oil crisis himself. Others felt that Carter was blaming the American people for the oil shortages and other economic problems in the country instead of looking for a long-term solution on how to fix them. Carter mentioned energy so much in the speech that he may have overwhelmed the American public with it.[61] Three days after the speech, Carter asked for the resignations of all of his Cabinet officers, and ultimately accepted those of five who had clashed with the White House
White House
the most, including Energy Secretary James Schlesinger and Health, Education and Welfare chief Joseph Califano. Carter also appointed Hamilton Jordan
Hamilton Jordan
as his first White House Chief of Staff. The malaise speech and the subsequent Cabinet shake-up were poorly received by the public and media.[28] Economy: stagflation and the appointment of Volcker[edit]

Carter in office, February 1977

The economic history of the Carter Administration can be divided in two roughly equal periods that differed dramatically. The first two years were a time of continuing recovery from the severe 1973–75 recession, which had left fixed investment at its lowest level since the 1970 recession and unemployment at 9%.[36] The second two years were marked by double-digit inflation, coupled with very high interest rates,[62] oil shortages, and slow economic growth.[63] The nation's economy grew by an average of 3.4% (at par with the historical average)[64] and more private sector jobs were created per month during the Carter Administration than during any other presidency since 1950 except for the Clinton Administration.[65] The U.S. economy, which had grown by 5% in 1976, continued to grow at a similar pace during 1977 and 1978.[64] Unemployment
Unemployment
declined from 7.5% in January 1977 to 5.6% by May 1979, with over 9 million net new jobs created during that interim,[66] and real median household income grew by 5% from 1976 to 1978.[67] The recovery in business investment in evidence during 1976 strengthened as well. Fixed private investment (machinery and construction) grew by 30% from 1976 to 1979, home sales and construction grew another one third by 1978, and industrial production, motor vehicle output and sales did so by nearly 15%; with the exception of new housing starts, which remained slightly below their 1972 peak, each of these benchmarks reached record levels in 1978 or 1979.[36] The 1979 energy crisis
1979 energy crisis
ended this period of growth, however, and as both inflation and interest rates rose, economic growth, job creation, and consumer confidence declined sharply.[62] The relatively loose monetary policy adopted by Federal Reserve Board
Federal Reserve Board
Chairman G. William Miller, had already contributed to somewhat higher inflation,[68] rising from 5.8% in 1976 to 7.7% in 1978. The sudden doubling of crude oil prices by OPEC, the world's leading oil exporting cartel,[69] forced inflation to double-digit levels, averaging 11.3% in 1979 and 13.5% in 1980.[36] The sudden shortage of gasoline as the 1979 summer vacation season began exacerbated the problem, and would come to symbolize the crisis among the public in general;[62] the acute shortage, originating in the shutdown of Amerada Hess
Amerada Hess
refining facilities, led to a lawsuit against the company that year by the Federal Government.[70] Following an August 1979 cabinet shakeup in which Carter asked for the resignations of several cabinet members, Carter appointed G. William Miller as Secretary of the Treasury, naming Paul Volcker
Paul Volcker
as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board.[71] Volcker pursued a tight monetary policy to bring down inflation, which he considered his mandate.[72] Volcker (and Carter) succeeded, but only by first going through an unpleasant phase during which the economy slowed and unemployment rose.[73] Carter enacted an austerity program by executive order, justifying these measures by observing that inflation had reached a "crisis stage"; both inflation and short-term interest rates reached 18 percent in February and March 1980.[74] Investments in fixed income (both bonds held by Wall Street and pensions paid to retired people) were becoming less valuable in real terms, and on March 14, 1980, President Carter announced the first credit control measures since World War
War
II.[75] The policies of Volcker and Carter led to a sharp recession in the spring of 1980.[76] The sudden fall in GDP during the second quarter caused unemployment to jump from 6% to 7.5% by May, with output in the auto and housing sectors falling by over 20% and to their weakest level since the 1975 recession.[36] Carter phased out credit controls in May, and by July, the prime rate had fallen to 11%,.[77] with inflation breaking the earlier trend and easing to under 13% for the remainder of 1980.[78] The V-shaped recession coincided with Carter's re-election campaign, however, and contributed to his unexpectedly severe loss.[54] GDP and employment totals regained pre-recession levels by the first quarter of 1981.[64][66] Environment[edit] A wide range of measures aimed at safeguarding the environment were introduced during the presidency of Jimmy Carter,[79][80] In reaction to the energy crisis and growing concerns over air pollution, Carter signed the National Energy Act (NEA) and the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA). The purpose of these watershed laws was to encourage energy conservation and the development of national energy resources, including renewables such as wind and solar energy.[81] He also installed a 32-panel solar power heating system on the White House
White House
roof on June 20, 1979,[80] to promote the use of solar energy.[82] In 1977, Carter signed the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, which regulates strip mining.[28] In December 1980, he signed into law "Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)," commonly known as Superfund, a United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances. That same month, he signed into law Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The law provided for the creation or revision of 15 National Park Service properties, and set aside other public lands for the United States Forest Service and United States Fish and Wildlife Service. In all, the act provided for the designation of 79.53 million acres (124,281 square miles; 321,900 km2) of public lands, fully a third of which was set aside as wilderness area in Alaska. Education[edit] Early into his term, Carter collaborated with Congress to assist in fulfilling a campaign promise to create a cabinet level education department. In a February 28, 1978 address at the White House, Carter argued, "Education is far too important a matter to be scattered piecemeal among various Government departments and agencies, which are often busy with sometimes dominant concerns."[83] In October 1979, Carter signed the Department of Education Organization Act
Department of Education Organization Act
into law,[84] establishing the United States Department of Education.[85] Carter also expanded the Head Start program with the addition of 43,000 children and families,[86] During his tenure, the percentage of nondefense dollars spent on education was doubled.[87] Another measure passed during the Carter years, the Child Nutrition Amendments Act of 1978, introduced a national income standard for program eligibility based on income standards prescribed for reduced-price school lunches. The Act also strengthened the nutrition education component of the WIC program by requiring the provision of nutritional education to all program participants.[88] Other initiatives[edit] The Housing and Community Development Act of 1977 set up Urban Development Action Grants, extended handicapped and elderly provisions, and established the Community Reinvestment Act,[89] which sought to prevent banks from denying credit and loans to poor communities.[90] The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 was passed with the intention of enabling the coal industry to develop coal resources without damaging other natural resources in the process,[91] while the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 was aimed at safeguarding mineworkers from harm in the workplace.[92] Programs from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) and women's programs were also strengthened and "common sense priorities" led to focus on major health problems.[93] The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 prohibited companies or organizations from discriminating against pregnant employees while providing protection in the areas of childbirth and medical conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth.[94] The National Consumer Cooperative Bank Act of 1978 sought to put funds aside for low-interest loans to start cooperatives.[95] Minimum wage coverage was extended to farmworkers, and the Age Discrimination in Employment Act Amendments of 1978 increased the upper age limit on coverage against age discrimination in non-federal employment and in the private sector from 65 to 70 as a means of extending safeguards against age discrimination.[96] In addition, the purchase requirement for food stamps was abolished, the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program was introduced to assist families with their heating costs,[97] and the first-ever national youth employment law was enacted.[98] Also under Carter's watch, the Airline Deregulation Act
Airline Deregulation Act
of 1978 was passed, which phased out the Civil Aeronautics Board. He also enacted deregulation in the trucking, rail, communications, and finance industries.[99] Carter signed into law legislation known as the Social Security Amendments of 1977, which raised Social Security taxes and reduced Social Security benefits. The act corrected a technical error made in 1972 and ensured the short-term solvency of Social Security.[100] Carter was the first president to address the topic of gay rights.[101] He opposed the Briggs Initiative, a California
California
ballot measure that would have banned gays and supporters of gay rights from being public school teachers. His administration was the first to meet with a group of gay rights activists.[102] He has stated that he "opposes all forms of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and believes there should be equal protection under the law for people who differ in sexual orientation".[103] Foreign policies[edit] Cold War
Cold War
era[edit]

Carter meeting with Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, in Washington, D.C., September 6, 1977

Carter took office during the Cold War, a sustained period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, relations between the two superpowers had improved through a policy known as detente. Many of the leading officials in the Carter administration, including Carter himself, were members of the Trilateral Commission, which de-emphasized the Cold War. The Trilateral Commission
Trilateral Commission
instead advocated a foreign policy focused on aid to Third World
Third World
countries and improved relations with Western Europe and Japan. Reflecting the waning importance of the Cold War, some of Carter's contemporaries labeled him as the first post- Cold War
Cold War
president, but relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would continue to be an important factor in American foreign policy in the late 1970s and the 1980s. The central tension of the Carter administration's foreign policy was reflected in the division between Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, who sought improved relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the Third World, and National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski, who favored confrontation with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on a range of issues.[104] Human rights[edit] Carter promoted a foreign policy that put human rights at the forefront. This was a break from the policies of several predecessors, who often overlooked human rights abuses if they were committed by a government that was allied, or purported to be allied, with the United States.[105] He nominated civil rights activist Patricia M. Derian as Coordinator for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, and in August 1977, had the post elevated to that of Assistant Secretary of State. Derian established the United States' Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, published annually since 1977. The Carter administration's human rights emphasis was part of a broader, worldwide focus on human rights in the 1970s, as non-governmental organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
became increasingly prominent.[106] The Carter Administration ended support to the historically U.S.-backed Somoza regime in Nicaragua and gave aid to the new Sandinista National Liberation Front
Sandinista National Liberation Front
government that assumed power after Somoza's overthrow. Carter cut back or terminated military aid to Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
of Chile, Ernesto Geisel
Ernesto Geisel
of Brazil, and Jorge Rafael Videla of Argentina, all of whom he criticized for human rights violations.[107] Generally, human rights in Latin America, which had deteriorated sharply in the previous decade, improved following these initiatives; a publisher tortured during Argentina's Dirty War, Jacobo Timerman, credited these policies for the positive trend, stating that they not only saved lives, but also "built up democratic consciousness in the United States".[108] In 1978, Carter became the first sitting president to visit Africa, a reflection of the continent's new importance to the Carter administration's foreign policy.[109] Carter's ambassador to the United Nations, Andrew Young, was the first African-American to hold a high-level diplomatic post. Along with Carter, he sought to change U.S. policy towards Africa, emphasizing human rights concerns over Cold War
Cold War
issues.[110] Unlike his predecessors, Carter took a strong stance against apartheid in Rhodesia
Rhodesia
and South Africa. With Carter's support, the United Nations
United Nations
passed Resolution 418, which placed an arms embargo on South Africa. Carter won the repeal of the Byrd Amendment, which had undercut international sanctions on the Rhodesian government of Ian Smith. He also pressured Smith to hold elections, leading to the 1979 Rhodesia
Rhodesia
elections and the eventual creation of Zimbabwe.[111] The more assertive human rights policy championed by Derian and State Department Policy Planning Director Anthony Lake
Anthony Lake
was blunted by the opposition of Brzezinski. These policy disputes reached their most contentious point during the 1979 fall of Pol Pot's genocidal regime of Democratic Kampuchea
Democratic Kampuchea
following the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia, when Brzezinski prevailed in having the administration refuse to recognize the new Cambodian government due to its support by the Soviet Union.[112] Despite human rights concerns, Carter continued U.S. support for Joseph Mobutu
Joseph Mobutu
of Zaire, who defeated Angolan-backed insurgents in conflicts known as Shaba I
Shaba I
and Shaba II.[113] His administration also refrained from criticizing human rights abuses by allied governments in the Philippines, South Korea, and Iran.[114] Rapprochement with China[edit] See also: Sino-American relations

Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
with President Carter

Continuing a rapprochement begun during the Nixon administration, Carter sought closer relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC). The two countries increasingly collaborated against the Soviet Union, and the Carter administration
Carter administration
tacitly consented to the Chinese invasion of Vietnam. In 1979, Carter extended formal diplomatic recognition to the PRC for the first time. This decision led to a boom in trade between the United States and the PRC, which was pursuing economic reforms under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping.[115] After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter allowed the sale of military supplies to China and began negotiations to share military intelligence.[116] In January 1980, Carter unilaterally revoked the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty
with the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC), which had lost control of mainland China to the PRC in the Chinese Civil War, but retained control the island of Taiwan. Carter's abrogation of the treaty was challenged in court by conservative Republicans, but the Supreme Court ruled that the issue was a non-justiciable political question in Goldwater v. Carter. The U.S. continued to maintain diplomatic contacts with the ROC through the 1979 Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act.[117] SALT II[edit]

President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT II) treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna

Ford and Nixon had sought to reach agreement on a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT), which had set upper limits on the number of nuclear weapons possessed by both the United States and the Soviet Union. Carter hoped to extend these talks by reaching an agreement to reduce, rather than merely set upper limits on, the nuclear arsenals of both countries.[118] At the same time, he criticized the Soviet Union's record with regard to human rights, partly because he believed the public would not support negotiations with the Soviets if the president seemed too willing to accommodate the Soviets.[119] Carter and Soviet Leader Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
reached an agreement in June 1979 in the form of SALT II, but Carter's waning popularity and the opposition of Republicans and neoconservative Democrats made ratification difficult.[119] The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan severely damaged U.S.-Soviet relations and ended any hope of ratifying SALT II.[120] Afghanistan[edit] Further information: Soviet–Afghan War
Soviet–Afghan War
§ U.S. aid to insurgents, and Operation Cyclone Communists under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki
Nur Muhammad Taraki
seized power in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978.[121] The new regime—which was divided between Taraki's extremist Khalq
Khalq
faction and the more moderate Parcham—signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in December of that year.[121][122] Taraki's efforts to improve secular education and redistribute land were accompanied by mass executions (including of many conservative religious leaders) and political oppression unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by mujahideen rebels.[121] Following a general uprising in April 1979, Taraki was deposed by Khalq
Khalq
rival Hafizullah Amin
Hafizullah Amin
in September.[121][122] Amin was considered a "brutal psychopath" by foreign observers; even the Soviets were alarmed by the brutality of the Afghan communists, and suspected Amin of being an agent of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), although that was not the case.[121][122][123] By December, Amin's government had lost control of much of the country, prompting the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to invade Afghanistan, execute Amin, and install Parcham leader Babrak Karmal
Babrak Karmal
as president.[121][122] Carter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the U.S. intelligence community during 1978 and 1979—reiterated as late as September 29, 1979—was that "Moscow would not intervene in force even if it appeared likely that the Khalq
Khalq
government was about to collapse." Indeed, Carter's diary entries from November 1979 until the Soviet invasion in late December contain only two short references to Afghanistan, and are instead preoccupied with the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran.[124] In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf.[122] Moreover, the failure to accurately predict Soviet intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat to both Iran
Iran
and Pakistan, although it is now known that those fears were overblown. For example, U.S. intelligence closely followed Soviet exercises for an invasion of Iran
Iran
throughout 1980, while an earlier warning from Carter's national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski that "if the Soviets came to dominate Afghanistan, they could promote a separate Baluchistan ... [thus] dismembering Pakistan and Iran" took on new urgency.[123][124] These concerns were a major factor in the unrequited efforts of both the Carter and Reagan administrations to improve relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to Pakistan's Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Zia's ties with the U.S. had been strained during Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program and the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
in April 1979, but Carter told Brzezinski and secretary of state Cyrus Vance
Cyrus Vance
as early as January 1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the unrest in Iran.[124] One initiative Carter authorized to achieve this goal was a collaboration between the CIA and Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI); through the ISI, the CIA began providing some $500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3, 1979—several months prior to the Soviet invasion. The modest scope of this early collaboration was likely influenced by the understanding, later recounted by CIA official Robert Gates, "that a substantial U.S. covert aid program" might have "raise[d] the stakes" thereby causing "the Soviets to intervene more directly and vigorously than otherwise intended".[124][125][126][127] In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was determined to respond vigorously to what he considered a dangerous provocation. In a televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, promised renewed aid to Pakistan, and committed the U.S. to the Persian Gulf's defense.[124][125] The U.S. military commitment to the Persian Gulf became known as the Carter Doctrine.[120] Carter also called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
in Moscow, which raised a bitter controversy.[128] British prime minister Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter's tough stance, although British intelligence believed "the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan".[124] The thrust of U.S. policy for the duration of the war was determined by Carter in early 1980: Carter initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan's ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to match U.S. funding for this purpose. U.S. support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carter's successor, Ronald Reagan, at a final cost to U.S. taxpayers of some $3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself.[124] However, the decision to route U.S. aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons sent to Karachi
Karachi
were frequently sold on the local market rather than delivered to the Afghan rebels; Karachi
Karachi
soon "became one of the most violent cities in the world". Pakistan also controlled which rebels received assistance: Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia's government, four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs—and these fundamentalists received most of the funding.[122] Despite this, Carter has expressed no regrets over his decision to support what he still considers the "freedom fighters" in Afghanistan.[124] Conspiracy theorists have alleged that Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and al Qaeda were beneficiaries of CIA assistance. This is refuted by experts such as Steve Coll—who notes that declassified CIA records and interviews with CIA officers do not support such claims—and Peter Bergen, who concludes: "The theory that bin Laden was created by the CIA is invariably advanced as an axiom with no supporting evidence."[126][129] U.S. funding went to the Afghan mujahideen, not the Arab volunteers who arrived to assist them.[129] The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan brought a significant change in Carter's foreign policy and ended the period of detente that had begun in the mid-1960s. Returning to a policy of containment, the United States reconciled with Cold War
Cold War
allies and increased the defense budget, leading to a new arms race with the Soviet Union.[130] Middle East[edit] Camp David
Camp David
Accords[edit] Further information: Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
and Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty

Anwar Sadat, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
meet on the Aspen Lodge patio of Camp David
Camp David
on September 6, 1978.

Sadat, Carter and Begin shaking hands after signing Peace treaty between Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
in the White House, March 27, 1979

On taking office, Carter decided to emphasize a U.S. role in resolving the long-running Arab–Israeli conflict. Carter sought a comprehensive settlement between Israel
Israel
and its neighbors by reconvening the 1973 Geneva Conference, but these efforts had collapsed by the end of 1977.[131] Though unsuccessful in reconvening the conference, Carter convinced Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
to visit Israel
Israel
in 1978. Sadat's visit drew the condemnation of other Arab League countries, but Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin each expressed an openness to bilateral talks. Begin sought security guarantees; Sadat sought the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
and home rule for the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza, Israeli-occupied territories that were largely populated by Palestinian Arabs. Israel
Israel
had taken control of the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza in the 1967 Six-Day War, while the Sinai had been occupied by Israel since the end of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.[132] Seeking to further negotiations, Carter invited Begin and Sadat to the presidential retreat of Camp David
Camp David
in September 1978. Because direct negotiations between Sadat and Begin proved unproductive, Carter began meeting with the two leaders individually.[133] While Begin was willing to withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula, he refused to agree to the establishment of a Palestinian state. Israel
Israel
had begun constructing settlements in the West Bank, which emerged as an important barrier to a peace agreement. Unable to come to definitive agreements over an Israeli withdrawal, the two sides reached an agreement in which Israel
Israel
made vague promises to allow the creation of an elected government in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza. In return, Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel's right to exist. The Camp David Accords
Camp David Accords
were the subject of intense domestic opposition in both Egypt
Egypt
and Israel, as well as the wider Arab World, but each side agreed to negotiate a peace treaty on the basis of the accords.[134] On March 26, 1979, Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
signed a peace treaty in Washington, D.C.[135] Carter's role in getting the treaty was essential. Aaron David Miller
Aaron David Miller
interviewed many officials for his book The Much Too Promised Land (2008) and concluded the following: "No matter whom I spoke to — Americans, Egyptians, or Israelis — most everyone said the same thing: no Carter, no peace treaty."[136] Carter himself viewed the agreement as his most important accomplishment in office.[134] Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
and hostage crisis[edit] Further information: Iranian Revolution, Iran
Iran
hostage crisis, and United States support for Iraq during the Iran–Iraq war

The Iranian Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, meeting with Arthur Atherton, William H. Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and Zbigniew Brzezinski in Tehran, 1977

The main conflict between human rights and U.S. interests came in Carter's dealings with the Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran. The Shah had been a strong ally of the United States since World War II and was, along with Saudi Arabia, one of the "twin pillars" upon which U.S. strategic policy in the Middle East
Middle East
was built. However, his rule was widely perceived as autocratic and kleptocratic. On a 1978 state visit to Iran, Carter spoke out in favor of the Shah, calling him a leader of supreme wisdom, and a pillar of stability in the volatile Middle East.[137][138] Poor economic conditions, the unpopularity of Pahlavi's "White Revolution," and an Islamic revival all led to increasing anger among Iranians, many of whom also despised the United States for its support of Pahlavi and its role in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état.[139] When the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
broke out in 1978, the administration was divided on how to help the Shah. Secretary of State Vance argued that the Shah should institute a series of reforms to appease the voices of discontent, while Brzezinski argued in favor of a crackdown on dissent. Unable to receive a direct course of action from Carter, the mixed messages that the Shah received from Vance and Brzezinski contributed to his confusion and indecision. The Shah went into exile, leaving a caretaker government in control. A popular religious figure, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returned from exile in February 1979 to popular acclaim; he would later become the Supreme Leader of Iran under a new constitution. As the unrest continued, Carter agreed to admit Pahlavi into the United States for medical treatment, which proved to be an unpopular decision among the Iranian populace. In reaction to this decision, a group of Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran
Tehran
and took 66 American captives, beginning the Iran hostage crisis.[140] The crisis quickly became the subject of international and domestic attention, and Carter vowed to secure the release of the hostages. He refused the Iranian demand of the return of Pahlavi in exchange for the release of the hostages. His approval ratings rose as Americans rallied around his response, but the crisis became increasingly problematic for his administration as it continued.[141] In an attempt to rescue the hostages, Carter launched Operation Eagle Claw
Operation Eagle Claw
in April 1980. The operation was a total disaster, and it ended in the death of eight American soldiers. The failure of the operation strengthened Ayatollah Khomenei's position in Iran
Iran
and badly damaged Carter's domestic standing. The crisi would continue to plague Carter's administration for the remainder of the year, and it impacted the 1980 presidential election.[142] In the days before President Reagan took office, Algerian diplomat Abdulkarim Ghuraib opened negotiations between the U.S. and Iran. This resulted in the "Algiers Accords" one day before the end of Carter's presidency on January 19, 1981, which entailed Iran's commitment to free the hostages immediately.[143] Additionally, Executive Orders 12277 through 12285 were issued by Carter[144] releasing all assets belonging to the Iranian government and all assets belonging to the Shah found within the United States and the guarantee that the hostages would have no legal claim against the Iranian government that would be heard in U.S. courts. Iran, however, also agreed to place $1 billion of the frozen assets in an escrow account and both Iran
Iran
and the United States agreed to the creation of a tribunal to adjudicate claims by U.S. Nationals against Iran
Iran
for compensation for property lost by them or contracts breached by Iran. The tribunal, known as the Iran
Iran
– United States Claims Tribunal, has awarded over $2 billion to U.S. claimaints and has been described as one of the most important arbitration bodies in the history of international law. Although the release of the hostages was negotiated and secured under the Carter administration, the hostages were released on January 20, 1981, moments after Reagan was sworn in as President.[citation needed] Latin America[edit] Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Treaties[edit] See also: History of the Panama
Panama
Canal

Statement on the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Treaty Signing

Jimmy Carter's speech upon signing the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
treaty, September 7, 1977.

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Carter and Omar Torrijos
Omar Torrijos
shake hands moments after the signing of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties.

Since the 1960s, the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
had been a subject of dispute between Panama
Panama
and the United States, as Panama
Panama
wanted to renegotiate the treaty that had given the U.S. control of the Panama
Panama
Canal Zone.[145] Hoping to ease tensions with Latin American countries, Carter negotiated the Torrijos-Carter Treaties, two treaties which provided that Panama
Panama
would gain control of the canal in 1999. Carter's initiative faced wide resistance in the United States, and many in the public, particularly conservatives, thought that Carter was "giving away" a crucial U.S. asset.[146] Conservatives formed groups such as the Committee to Save the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
in an attempt to defeat the treaties in the Senate, and Carter made ratification of the treaties his top priority. During the ratification debate, the Senate crafted amendments that granted the U.S. the right to intervene militarily to keep the canal open, which the Panamanians assented to after further negotiations.[147] In March 1978, the Senate ratified both treaties by a margin of 68-to-32, narrowly passing the two-thirds margin necessary for ratification.[148] Cuba[edit] The Mariel boatlift
Mariel boatlift
was a mass emigration of Cubans who departed from Cuba's Mariel Harbor for the United States, authorized by U.S. president Jimmy Carter, between April 15 and October 31, 1980. The event was precipitated by a sharp downturn in the Cuban economy which led to internal tensions on the island and a bid by up to 10,000 Cubans to gain asylum in the Peruvian embassy. The Cuban government subsequently announced that anyone who wanted to leave could do so, and an exodus by boat started shortly afterward. The exodus was organized by Cuban-Americans with the agreement of Cuban president Fidel Castro. The exodus started to have negative political implications for U.S. president Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
when it was discovered that a number of the exiles had been released from Cuban jails and mental health facilities. The Mariel boatlift
Mariel boatlift
was ended by mutual agreement between the two governments involved in October 1980. By that point, as many as 125,000 Cubans had made the journey to Florida. About fifty percent of the Mariel immigrants decided to reside in Miami permanently and this resulted in a seven percent increase in workers in the Miami labor market and a twenty percent increase in the Cuban working population.[citation needed] Castro publicly stated "I have flushed the toilets of Cuba on the United States."[149] Asia[edit] South Korea[edit] One of Carter's first acts was to order the withdrawal of troops from South Korea, which had hosted a large number of U.S. military personnel since the end of the Korean War. South Korea
South Korea
and Japan
Japan
both protested the move, as did many members of Congress, the military, and the State Department. Carter believed that the soldiers could be put to better use in Western Europe, but opponents of the withdrawal feared that North Korea would invade South Korea
South Korea
in the aftermath of the withdrawal. After a strong backlash, Carter delayed the withdrawal, and ultimately only a fraction of the U.S. forces left South Korea. Carter's attempt to remove U.S. forces from South Korea weakened the government of South Korean President Park Chung-hee, who was assassinated in 1979.[150] Indonesian occupation of East Timor[edit] The Carter administration
Carter administration
resumed and dramatically increased arms sales to the Indonesian Suharto government during its occupation of East Timor. In an interview, Carter's Assistant Secretary Richard Holbrooke described its interest to the United States: "Indonesia [...] is the fifth largest nation in the world, is a moderate member of the Non-Aligned Movement, is an important oil producer – which plays a moderate role within OPEC
OPEC
– and occupies a strategic position astride the sea lanes between the Pacific and Indian Oceans."[151] American arms sales to the Suharto regime averaged about $60 million annually during Carter's term, more than double the figure of Ford's yearly sales.[152] According to the United Nations, 84,000-183,000 East Timorese civilians were killed during the occupation, by methods including forced starvation, with Indonesian forces being responsible for 70% of the 18,600 unlawful killings.[153] In a 2007 interview with Amy Goodman, Carter discussed the actions of his administration regarding East Timor: "I have to say that I was not, you know, as thoroughly briefed about what was going on in East Timor as I should have been. I was more concerned about other parts of the world then."[154] List of international trips[edit]

Countries visited by Carter during his presidency

Carter made 12 international trips to 25 nations during his presidency.[155]

Dates Country Locations Details

1 May 5–11, 1977  United Kingdom London, Newcastle Attended the 3rd G7 summit. Also met with the prime ministers of Greece, Belgium, Turkey, Norway, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, and with the President of Portugal. Addressed NATO Ministers meeting.

May 9, 1977   Switzerland Geneva Official visit. Met with President Kurt Furgler. Also met with Syrian President Hafez al-Assad.

2 December 29–31, 1977  Poland Warsaw Official visit. Met with First Secretary Edward Gierek.

December 31, 1977 – January 1, 1978  Iran Tehran Official visit. Met with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
and King Hussein of Jordan.

January 1–3, 1978  India New Delhi, Daulatpur Nasirabad[156] Met with President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy and Prime Minister Morarji Desai. Addressed Parliament of India.

January 3–4, 1978  Saudi Arabia Riyadh Met with King Khalid and Crown Prince Fahd.

January 4, 1978  Egypt Aswan Met with President Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
and German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt.

January 4–6, 1978  France Paris, Normandy, Bayeux, Versailles Met with President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
and Prime Minister Raymond Barre.

January 6, 1978  Belgium Brussels Met with King Baudouin and Prime Minister Leo Tindemans. Attended meetings of the Commission of the European Communities and the North Atlantic Council.

3 March 28–29, 1978  Venezuela Caracas Met with President Carlos Andrés Pérez. Addressed Congress and signed maritime boundary agreement.

March 29–31, 1978  Brazil Brasília Rio de Janeiro Official visit. Met with President Ernesto Geisel
Ernesto Geisel
and addressed National Congress.

March 31 – April 3, 1978  Nigeria Lagos State visit. Met with President Olusegun Obasanjo.

April 3, 1978  Liberia Monrovia Met with President William R. Tolbert, Jr.

4 June 16–17, 1978  Panama Panama
Panama
City Invited by President Demetrio B. Lakas and General Omar Torrijos
Omar Torrijos
to sign protocol confirming exchange of documents ratifying Panama
Panama
Canal treaties. Also met informally with Venezuelan President Carlos Andrés Pérez, Colombian President Alfonso López Michelsen, Mexican President José López Portillo, Costa Rican Rodrigo Carazo Odio and Jamaican Prime Minister Michael Manley
Michael Manley
of Jamaica.

5 July 14–15, 1978  West Germany Bonn, Wiesbaden-Erbenheim, Frankfurt State visit. Met with President Walter Scheel
Walter Scheel
and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt. Addressed U.S. and German military personnel.

July 15, 1978  West Germany West Berlin Spoke at the Berlin Airlift Memorial.

July 16–17, 1978  West Germany Bonn Attended the 4th G7 summit.

6 January 4–9, 1979 Gua ! France Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe Met informally with President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and British Prime Minister James Callaghan.

7 February 14–16, 1979  Mexico Mexico
Mexico
City State visit. Met with President José López Portillo. Addressed the Mexican Congress.

8 March 7–9, 1979  Egypt Cairo, Alexandria, Giza State visit. Met with President Anwar Sadat. Addressed People's Assembly of Egypt.

March 10–13, 1979  Israel Tel Aviv, Jerusalem State visit. Met with President Yitzhak Navon
Yitzhak Navon
and Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Addressed the Knesset.

March 13, 1979  Egypt Cairo Met with President Anwar Sadat.

9 June 14–18, 1979  Austria Vienna State visit. Met with President Rudolf Kirchschläger
Rudolf Kirchschläger
and Chancellor Bruno Kreisky. Met with Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
to sign SALT II Treaty.

10 June 25–29, 1979  Japan Tokyo, Shimoda Attended the 5th G7 summit. State visit. Met with Emperor Hirohito
Hirohito
and Prime Minister Masayoshi Ōhira.

June 29 – July 1, 1979  South Korea Seoul State visit. Met with President Park Chung-hee
Park Chung-hee
and Prime Minister Choi Kyu-hah.

11 June 19–24, 1980  Italy Rome, Venice Attended the 6th G7 summit. State Visit. Met with President Sandro Pertini.

June 21, 1980   Vatican City Apostolic Palace Audience with Pope John Paul II.

June 24–25, 1980  Yugoslavia Belgrade Official visit. Met with President Cvijetin Mijatović.

June 25–26, 1980  Spain Madrid Official visit. Met with King Juan Carlos I and Prime Minister Adolfo Suárez.

June 26–30, 1980  Portugal Lisbon Official visit. Met with President António Ramalho Eanes
António Ramalho Eanes
and Prime Minister Francisco de Sá Carneiro.

12 July 9–10, 1980  Japan Tokyo Official visit. Attended memorial services for former Prime Minister Masayoshi Ōhira. Met with Emperor Hirohito, Bangla President Ziaur Rahman, Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser, Thai Prime Minister Prem Tinsulanonda
Prem Tinsulanonda
and Chinese Premier Hua Guofeng.

Pardons[edit] Further information: List of people pardoned by a United States president Besides unconditional amnesty for Vietnam War
Vietnam War
era draft dodgers, issued in his first full day in office (January 21, 1977), President Carter used his power in other cases. He issued 566 pardons or commutations as President,[157] granting 20% of all requests that came before him.[158] Most notable cases:[159]

Oscar Collazo: Puerto Rican independence activist who in 1950 attempted to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. His original death sentence was commuted by Truman himself and Carter granted him full pardon. Irving Flores, Rafael Cancel Miranda
Rafael Cancel Miranda
and Lolita Lebrón: Puerto Rican independence activists involved in 1954 Assault on the House of Representatives. Peter Yarrow, singer-songwriter: clemency for a sexual offense in 1969. G. Gordon Liddy, chief operative for the White House
White House
Plumbers during Watergate: sentence commuted.

1980 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: United States presidential election, 1980

The electoral map of the 1980 election

As the 1980 presidential election approached, Carter faced mounting opposition, even from within his own party. The energy crisis contributed to a frustrating economic situation, while Senator Kennedy was openly critical of Carter regarding health care and other issues.[160] Kennedy declared his candidacy against Carter in the 1980 Democratic primaries but made several early mistakes, while Carter chose to focus on the Iranian hostage crisis and other matters rather than actively campaigning.[161] Carter won the first several primaries, though Kennedy won victories in New York and other northern states.[162] As Carter built an unassailable delegate lead, Kennedy refused to exit the race, and his victories in two of the final primaries encouraged Kennedy to contest the presidential nomination at the 1980 Democratic National Convention.[163] The Republicans, meanwhile, nominated Ronald Reagan, while Republican Congressman John B. Anderson launched an independent campaign.[164] At the Democratic convention, Kennedy sought to win the support of delegates pledged to Carter, but Kennedy's effort was defeated by a vote of the delegates, and Carter won re-nomination.[165] Despite Kennedy's defeat, he had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter weak support in the fall election.[166] Polls taken in September, after the conclusion of the conventions, showed a tied race between Reagan and Carter.[167] Carter had alienated many key Democratic constituencies, including labor unions and Catholics, and Reagan also successfully appealed to evangelicals, many of whom had supported Carter's 1976 candidacy.[168] But the Carter campaign felt confident that the country would reject the conservative viewpoints espoused by Reagan, and there were hopeful signs with regards to the economy and the Iranian hostage crisis.[169] Polling remained close throughout September and October, but Reagan's performance in the October 28 debate and Carter's failure to win the release of the Iranian hostages gave Reagan the momentum entering election day.[170] Reagan won 50.7 percent of the popular vote and 489 electoral votes, Carter won 41 percent of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes, and Anderson won 6.6 percent of the popular vote.[171] Republicans also won control of the Senate for the first time since 1952.[172] Allegations and investigations[edit] Resignation of Bert Lance[edit] Bert Lance, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
in the Carter administration, resigned his position on September 21, 1977, amid allegations of improper banking activities prior to his becoming Director. Lance was one of Carter's closest friends, and served as state highway director when Carter was Governor of Georgia. Carter supported Lance in his bid to succeed Carter as governor, but Lance was defeated in the primary. Lance was subsequently tried on various bank-related charges, but was acquitted. The Lance affair was an embarrassment to Carter, coming just a few years after the Watergate scandal.[173] Special
Special
counsel investigating campaign loans[edit] In April 1979, United States Attorney General
United States Attorney General
Griffin Bell
Griffin Bell
appointed Paul J. Curran as a special counsel to investigate loans made to the peanut business owned by Carter by a bank controlled by Bert Lance, a friend of the president and the director of the Office of Management and Budget. Unlike Archibald Cox
Archibald Cox
and Leon Jaworski
Leon Jaworski
who were named as special prosecutors to investigate the Watergate
Watergate
scandal, Curran's position as special counsel meant that he would not be able to file charges on his own, but would require the approval of Assistant Attorney General Philip Heymann.[174] Carter became the first sitting president to testify under oath as part of an investigation of that president.[175][176] The investigation was concluded in October 1979, with Curran announcing that no evidence had been found to support allegations that funds loaned from the National Bank of Georgia had been diverted to Carter's 1976 presidential campaign.[177] The Marston affair[edit] David W. Marston was appointed by President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
to serve as United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He was investigating Joshua Eilberg, a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, for money he received in connection with a federal grant to Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia. Eilberg contacted the White House
White House
and Marston was fired by Attorney General Griffin Bell.[178] Eilberg lost his 1978 reelection bid, and, three months later, pleaded guilty to conflict of interest charges. He was sentenced to five years of probation and a $10,000 fine.[179] Personal and family matters during presidency[edit]

With Rosalynn Carter
Rosalynn Carter
and Amy Carter
Amy Carter
on the south lawn in front of the White House, July 24, 1977

With his brother, Billy Carter, at the commencement ceremonies at Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology
in Atlanta, February 20, 1979

Carter's youngest child Amy lived in the White House
White House
while her father served as president. She was the subject of much media attention during this period as young children had not lived in the White House since the early 1960s presidency of John F. Kennedy. Carter's brother Billy generated a great deal of notoriety during Carter's presidency for his colorful and often outlandish public behavior.[180] In 1977, Billy Carter
Billy Carter
endorsed Billy Beer, capitalizing upon his colorful image as a beer-drinking, Southern boy that had developed in the press during President Carter's campaign. Billy Carter's name was occasionally used as a gag answer for a Washington, D.C. trouble-maker on 1970s episodes of The Match Game. Billy Carter once urinated on an airport runway in full view of the press and dignitaries. In late 1978 and early 1979, Billy Carter
Billy Carter
visited Libya with a contingent from Georgia three times. He eventually registered as a foreign agent of the Libyan government and received a $220,000 loan. This led to a Senate hearing over alleged influence peddling, which some in the press dubbed "Billygate". See also[edit]

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
rabbit incident Raymond Lee Harvey, would-be presidential assassin

Notes[edit]

^ a b pay 75% of the premium for ^ after $2,500 cost sharing ^ for Medicaid
Medicaid
acute care; no change to Medicaid
Medicaid
long-term care for elderly or disabled ^ income below 55% of federal poverty level ^ after $3,500 cost sharing

References[edit]

^ " White House
White House
Biography of Jimmy Carter". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Zelizer, pp. 27-28 ^ Zelizer, p. 29 ^ Zelizer, pp. 31-32 ^ Zelizer, pp. 35-36 ^ Zelizer, pp. 34-38 ^ Zelizer, pp. 39-40 ^ Zelizer, pp. 41-44 ^ Zelizer, pp. 45-46 ^ Zelizer, pp. 47-48 ^ a b Howard, Adam (September 26, 2016). "10 Presidential Debates That Actually Made an Impact". NBC News. Retrieved 31 December 2016.  ^ Zelizer, pp. 50-51 ^ Zelizer, p. 52 ^ Alan Brinkley and Davis Dyer, ed. (2004). The American Presidency. Mariner Books. ISBN 978-0-618-38273-6.  ^ "Congressional Record – House – 108th Congress". 150. Government Printing Office. November 20, 2004: 25146. ISBN 978-0-16-084508-6. Retrieved June 9, 2010.  ^ "Executive Orders National Archives". archives.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ " Vietnam War
Vietnam War
Era Pardon Instructions PARDON Department of Justice". justice.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 30–31 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 30–32 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 43–44 ^ "Carter's Great Purge". Time. 1979-07-30. Retrieved 2007-12-06.  ^ "U.S. Senate: Reference Home - Statistics & Lists - Supreme Court Nominations, present-1789". senate.gov. February 8, 2017. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Zelizer, pp. 53-55 ^ "The "Georgia Mafia" . Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
. WGBH American Experience PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 40–41 ^ Pincus, Walter (April 1, 1977). "When a Campaign Vow Crashes into a Pork Barrel". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2008.  ^ Matthews, Dylan (4 August 2017). "Trump is wasting his congressional majority — like Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
did". Vox. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ a b c d e Strong, Robert A. "JIMMY CARTER: DOMESTIC AFFAIRS". Miller Center. University of Virginia.  ^ Carter, Jimmy (May 11, 1979). "Standby Gasoline
Gasoline
Rationing Plan Remarks on the House of Representatives Disapproval of the Plan". American Presidency Project.  ^ "Carter's Clash With Congress on Gas Plan". New York Times. May 15, 1979.  ^ "The President's News Conference". American Presidency Project. July 25, 1979.  ^ Roberts, Steven V. (August 5, 1979). "Carter and the Congress: Doubt and Distrust Prevail". New York Times.  ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 33–34 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 71–72 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 122–123 ^ a b c d e f "1988 Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). Department of Commerce.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 11, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2015. , CRS Report RL33305, The Crude Oil
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Windfall Profit Tax of the 1980s: Implications for Current Energy Policy, by Salvatore Lazzari. p. 5. ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 65–68 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 121–122 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 134–135 ^ Reinhold, Robert (April 17, 1976). "Carter proposes U.S. health plan; says he favors mandatory insurance financed from wage and general taxes". The New York Times. p. 1. Although Mr. Carter left some details a bit vague today, his proposal seemed almost identical to the so-called Kennedy-Corman health security plan. His position on the issue is now substantially the same as that of his chief rivals, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Senator Henry M. Jackson and Representative Morris K. Udall. All three are co-sponsors of the Kennedy-Corman bill.  Auerbach, Stuart (April 17, 1976). "Carter gives broad outline for national health plan; cost unknown". The Washington Post. p. A1. The outlines of Carter's program are close to one sponsored by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) and strongly supported by organized labor.  UPI (April 17, 1976). "Carter urges universal health plan". Chicago Tribune. p. 4. Although Carter didn't provide an estimate of what his health plan would cost taxpayers, it features many proposals similar to plans suggested by others, including Sen. Edward Kennedy [D., Mass.] which are estimated to cost at least $40 billion annually.  Blumenthal, David; Morone, James A. (2009). "Jimmy Carter: The Righteous Engineer". The Heart of Power: Health and Politics in the Oval Office. Berkeley: University of California
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Press. pp. 261–262. ISBN 978-0-520-26030-6.  ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 122–126 ^ a b . (1980). "National health insurance". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 1st Session....1979. 35. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. pp. 536–540. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784.  ^ . (1981). "National health insurance". Congressional Quarterly Almanac, 96th Congress 2nd Session....1980. 36. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly. p. 462. ISSN 0095-6007. OCLC 1564784.  ^ "Eula Bingham: Of minnows, whales and "common sense"". Department of Labor.  ^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1975). Marijuana Decriminalization: Hearing Before the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, First Session ... May 14, 1975. U.S. Government Printing Office. pp. 1101–.  ^ a b Rudolph Joseph Gerber (2004). Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 32–. ISBN 978-0-275-97448-0.  ^ John Hudak (25 October 2016). Marijuana: A Short History. Brookings Institution Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8157-2907-5.  ^ Kenneth J. Meier (16 September 2016). The Politics of Sin: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy: Drugs, Alcohol and Public Policy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-1-315-28727-0.  ^ Mark A. R. Kleiman; James E. Hawdon (12 January 2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy. SAGE Publications. pp. 142–. ISBN 978-1-5063-3824-8.  ^ Frum, p. 312 ^ "www.portlandpeakoil.org/discussion/aggregator/categories/2?page=4". portlandpeakoil.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "Carter extends rules on settings for thermostats". Eugene Register-Guard: (Eugene, OR). Washington, DC. UPI (DC). April 16, 1980. p. A6. Retrieved July 1, 2016.  ^ a b Frum, pp. 301–302 ^ "U.S. Petroleum Dependency and Oil
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Jimmy Carter
and Ronald Reagan. International Society of Political Psychology. pp. 285–295.  ^ a b c Frum, p. 292 ^ Jim Jubak (April 1, 2008). "Is '70s-style stagflation returning?". Jubak's Journal. MSN.com.  ^ a b c "Percent Change From Preceding Period in Real GDP". Bureau of Economic Analysis.  ^ "Job Creation by President", Politics That Work, March 29, 2015 ^ a b "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau of Labor Statistics.  ^ "Households by Median and Mean Income". United States Census Bureau.  ^ "The Inflation
Inflation
of the 1970s: November 21, 1978". University of California
California
at Berkeley and National Bureau of Economic Research. December 19, 1995. Retrieved March 18, 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ "The Outlook for U.S. Oil
Oil
Dependence" (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy.  ^ "United States v. Society of Independent Gasoline
Gasoline
Marketers of America". [permanent dead link] ^ Erwin C. Hargrove, Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good, London, 1988, p. 102. ^ "Educate Yourself: Paul Volcker". Retrieved December 6, 2007. [permanent dead link] ^ Biven, W. Carl (2002). Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits. ISBN 9780807827383.  ^ " Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
vs. Inflation". Time. March 24, 1980.  ^ Stacey L. Schreft. "Credit Controls: 1980" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.  ^ "The downturn was precipitated by a rise in interest rates to levels that exceeded the record rates recorded a year earlier." Congressional Budget Office, "The Prospects for Economic Recovery", February 1982. ^ "Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis – Discount Rates". October 28, 2007. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007.  ^ "Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject: CPI-U". Bureau of Labor Statistics.  ^ Raven, P.H.; Berg, L.R.; Hassenzahl, D.M. (2012). Environment. Wiley. p. 27. ISBN 9780470945704. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ a b Sohn, Darren Samuel (May 10, 2010). " White House
White House
solar panels bring Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
comparisons". Politico.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2008.  ^ Biello, David (August 6, 2010). "Where Did the Carter White House's Solar Panels Go?". Scientific American.  ^ "Jimmy Carter: Elementary and Secondary Education Remarks Announcing the Administration's Proposals to the Congress". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ "Jimmy Carter: Department of Education Organization Act
Department of Education Organization Act
Statement on Signing S. 210 Into Law". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2018.  ^ "Education Department Created". The Palm Beach Post, via Google News. United Press International. October 18, 1979.  ^ "ilheadstart.org/about-ihsa/history-goals-and-values/head-start-a-historical-perspective/". ilheadstart.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ Berube, M.R. (1991). American Presidents and Education. Greenwood. p. 49. ISBN 9780313278488. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "media/327914/fanrr27c_1_" (PDF). ers.usda.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Roessner, J. (2000). A Decent Place to Live: From Columbia Point to Harbor Point - a Community History. Northeastern University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9781555534363. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Orleck, A.; Hazirjian, L.G. (2011). The War
War
on Poverty: A New Grassroots History, 1964-1980. University of Georgia Press. p. 444. ISBN 9780820331010. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Harvey, D.M.; United States. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (1978). Paradise regained? Surface mining control and reclamation act of 1977. Dept. of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, [Reclamation, and Enforcement]. p. 1151. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "Summary of the Major Laws of the Department of Labor United States Department of Labor". dol.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Department of Labor -- History -- Portraits: Ray Marshall". dol.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Schneid, T.D. (2011). Discrimination Law Issues for the Safety Professional. Taylor & Francis. p. 195. ISBN 9781439867792. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Williams, B. (2011). Debt for Sale: A Social History of the Credit Trap. University of Pennsylvania Press, Incorporated. p. 24. ISBN 9780812200782. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "U.S. Department of Labor -- History -- Employment StandardsAdministration (ESA)". dol.gov. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Social welfare in today's world by William H. Whitaker and Ronald C. Federico ^ Morgan, Iwan W. (March 27, 1994). "Beyond the Liberal Consensus: A Political History of the United States Since 1965". Hurst. Retrieved March 27, 2018 – via Google Books.  ^ "How Reaganism actually started with Carter". Salon.com.  ^ Zelizer, pp. 71-72 ^ Shilts, Randy (1993). Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the US Military.  ^ "www.gaywired.com/article.cfm?section=66&id=14671". gaywired.com. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ "Carter backs civil unions for gay couples – Southern Voice Atlanta". sovo.com. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Herring, pp. 830–833 ^ Dubrell John. (1990). The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy. Manchester University Press, 1990. ISBN 9780719031885.  ^ Herring, pp. 845–846 ^ Herring, pp. 846–847 ^ American Foreign Relations: A history. Wadsworth, 2010.  ^ Herring, p. 842 ^ Herring, p. 833 ^ Herring, pp. 842–844 ^ Glad, Betty. An Outside in the White House. Cornell University Press, 2009. [page needed] ^ Herring, pp. 844–845 ^ Herring, p. 846 ^ Herring, pp. 839–840 ^ Herring, pp. 855–856 ^ Strong, Robert A. "JIMMY CARTER: FOREIGN AFFAIRS". Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved 21 November 2017.  ^ Herring, pp. 835–836 ^ a b Zelizer, pp. 57-58 ^ a b Zelizer, p. 103 ^ a b c d e f Kaplan, Robert D. (2008). Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Knopf Doubleday. pp. 115–117. ISBN 9780307546982.  ^ a b c d e f Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B. Tauris. pp. 138–139, 142–144. ISBN 9781845112578.  ^ a b Blight, James G. (2012). Becoming Enemies: U.S.- Iran
Iran
Relations and the Iran-Iraq War, 1979-1988. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4422-0830-8.  ^ a b c d e f g h Riedel, Bruce (2014). What We Won: America's Secret War
War
in Afghanistan, 1979–1989. Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
Press. pp. ix–xi, 21–22, 93, 98–99, 105. ISBN 978-0815725954.  ^ a b Gates, Bob (2007). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 145–147. ISBN 9781416543367.  When asked whether he expected that the revelations in his memoir (combined with an apocryphal quote attributed to Brzezinski) would inspire "a mind-bending number of conspiracy theories which adamantly—and wrongly—accuse the Carter Administration of luring the Soviets into Afghanistan", Gates replied: "No, because there was no basis in fact for an allegation the administration tried to draw the Soviets into Afghanistan militarily." See Gates, email communication with John Bernell White, Jr., October 15, 2011, as cited in White, John Bernell (May 2012). "The Strategic Mind Of Zbigniew Brzezinski: How A Native Pole Used Afghanistan To Protect His Homeland". pp. 45–46, 82. Retrieved 2017-10-10.  ^ a b Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin. pp. 87, 581. ISBN 9781594200076. Contemporary memos—particularly those written in the first days after the Soviet invasion—make clear that while Brzezinski was determined to confront the Soviets in Afghanistan through covert action, he was also very worried the Soviets would prevail. ... Given this evidence and the enormous political and security costs that the invasion imposed on the Carter administration, any claim that Brzezinski lured the Soviets into Afghanistan warrants deep skepticism.  ^ Carter himself has stated that encouraging a Soviet invasion was "not my intention." See: Alterman, Eric (2001-10-25). "'Blowback,' the Prequel". The Nation. Retrieved 2017-02-16.  ^ Toohey, Kristine (November 8, 2007). The Olympic Games: A Social Science Perspective. CABI. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-84593-355-5.  ^ a b Bergen, Peter (2006). The Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda's Leader. Simon and Schuster. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9780743295925.  ^ Herring, pp. 855–857 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 53–56 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 104–106 ^ Kaufman and Kaufman, 2006, pp. 150–151 ^ a b Herring, pp. 841–842 ^ Bickerton and Klausner, pp. 190–193; 198–200. ^ Aaron David Miller, The Much Too Promised Land (Bantam Books, 2008), page 159. ^ Gerhard Peters; John T. Woolley. "Jimmy Carter: "Tehran, Iran Remarks of the President and Mohammad Reza Palavi, Shahanshah of Iran at the Welcoming Ceremony.," December 31, 1977". The American Presidency Project. University of California
California
- Santa Barbara.  ^ Gerhard Peters; John T. Woolley. "Jimmy Carter: "Tehran, Iran
Iran
Toasts of the President and the Shah at a State Dinner.," December 31, 1977". The American Presidency Project. University of California
California
- Santa Barbara.  ^ Herring, pp. 847–848 ^ Herring, pp. 848–850 ^ Herring, p. 850 ^ Herring, pp. 858–859 ^ Iranian Hostage Crisis ^ "http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/executive_orders.php?year=1981".  External link in title= (help) ^ Herring, pp. 836–837 ^ Zelizer, pp. 69-70 ^ Herring, pp. 837–838 ^ Zelizer, pp. 74-76 ^ "Judge rules Obama's aunt can stay in U.S." http://news.blogs.cnn.com.  External link in website= (help) ^ Herring, pp. 834–835 ^ Sharma, Sunil. "200,000 Skeletons in Richard Holbrooke's Closet". Dissident Voice. Retrieved July 19, 2014.  ^ "Report: U.S. Arms Transfers to Indonesia 1975-1997 - World Policy Institute - Research Project". World Policy Institute. Retrieved July 19, 2014.  ^ Powell, Sian. "UN Verdict on East Timor". Global Policy Forum. Retrieved July 19, 2014.  ^ "Fmr. President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
on "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid", Iraq, Greeting the Shah of Iran
Iran
at the White House, Selling Weapons to Indonesia During the Occupation of East Timor, and More". Democracy Now!. September 10, 2007. Retrieved July 19, 2014.  ^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian.  ^ Joseph, Joel (November 4, 2010). "How Daulatpur Nasirabad became Carterpuri". The Times of India. Retrieved October 21, 2013. Daulatpur Nasirabad in Gurgaon was a sleepy nondescript village on the outskirts of Delhi but it found a prominent place on the global map after Carter paid a visit to this village...This village has since then been renamed Carterpuri.  ^ "pardonspres1". jurist.law.pitt.edu. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ http://www.rvc.cc.il.us/faclink/pruckman/pardoncharts/fiscact_files/image002.gif ^ "pardons6". jurist.law.pitt.edu. Retrieved March 13, 2017.  ^ Zelizer, p. 94 ^ Zelizer, pp. 100-102 ^ Zelizer, pp. 105-106 ^ Zelizer, pp. 106-108 ^ Zelizer, p. 108 ^ Zelizer, pp. 109-110 ^ Steven F. Hayward (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order: 1964–1980. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-307-45370-9.  ^ Zelizer, p. 115 ^ Zelizer, pp. 113-114 ^ Zelizer, pp. 115-116 ^ Zelizer, pp. 122-124 ^ Zelizer, pp. 124-125 ^ Kazin, Michael; Edwards, Rebecca; Rothman, Adam (November 9, 2009). The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. (Two volume set). Princeton University Press. p. 311. ISBN 1-4008-3356-6.  ^ Bert Lance, Carter Adviser, Dies at 82 New York Times August 15, 2013 [1] ^ Staff. "I Have a Job to Do", Time (magazine), April 2, 1979. Accessed September 7, 2008. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (September 6, 2008). "Paul Curran, 75, Corruption Foe, Dies". The New York Times. p. A30. Retrieved September 6, 2008. He also investigated President Jimmy Carter's family peanut business for the Justice Department in 1979, and thus became the first lawyer to examine a sitting president under oath.  ^ Special
Special
Counsel, Litigation[permanent dead link], Kaye Scholer. Accessed September 6, 2008. ^ Pound, Edward T. (October 17, 1979). "Carter's Business Cleared in Inquiry on Campaign Funds; Indictments Are Ruled Out: Investigator Finds No Evidence of Diversion of Warehouse Profit to '76 Presidential Race Insufficient Loan Collateral Loan Diversion Alleged Carter Business Cleared in Inquiry on Bank Loans and Campaign Funds Errors in the Records History of Loans Traced". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved September 7, 2008.  ^ Critics: The Administration 'Blew It' Washington Post January 31, 1978 [2] ^ Joshua Eilberg
Joshua Eilberg
(Obituary) Blog of Death. April 11, 2004. ^ "PBS's American Experience – Billy Carter". pbs.org. Retrieved March 13, 2017. 

Works cited[edit]

Bickerton, Ian J.; Carla L. Klausner (2007). A history of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.  Herring, George C. (2008). From Colony to Superpower; U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1776. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507822-0.  Kaufman, Burton I.; Kaufman, Scott (2006). The Presidency of James Earl Carter (2nd ed.). University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0700614714.  Zelizer, Julian (2010). Jimmy Carter. Times Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-8957-8. 

Further reading[edit] Main article: Bibliography of Jimmy Carter

Biven, W. Carl. Jimmy Carter's Economy: Policy in an Age of Limits (U of North Carolina Press. 2002) online Bourne, Peter G. (1997). Jimmy Carter: A Comprehensive Biography From Plains to Post-Presidency. New York: Scribner. ISBN 0-684-19543-7.  Busch, Andrew E. (2005). Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right. University Press of Kansas.  Campagna, Anthony S. Economic Policy in the Carter Administration (Greenwood Press, 1995) online Congressional Quarterly. Congress and the Nation V: 1977–1980 (1981) in-depth detail on all major issues; 1240pp Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed.). Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4693-9.  Fink, Gary M.; Graham, Hugh Davis, eds. (1998). The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0895-8.  Kaufman, Diane, and Scott Kaufman. Historical Dictionary of the Carter Era (Scarecrow, 2013) 301 pp Rosenbaum, Herbert D.; Ugrinsky, Alexej, eds. (1994). The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 83–116. ISBN 0-313-28845-3.  Strong, Robert A. (2000). Working in the World: Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and the Making of American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-2445-1. 

U.S. Presidential Administrations

Preceded by Ford Carter Presidency 1977–1981 Succeeded by Reagan

v t e

Jimmy Carter

39th President of the United States
President of the United States
(1977–81) 76th Governor of Georgia
Governor of Georgia
(1971–75)

Presidency

Presidency Inauguration Camp David
Camp David
Accords

Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty

Torrijos–Carter Treaties National Energy Policy Iran
Iran
hostage crisis

Operation Eagle Claw

Island of Stability speech Moral Equivalent of War
War
speech 1979 energy crisis Carter Doctrine Diplomatic Relations with China 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
boycott SALT Department of Energy Department of Education Department of Health and Human Services State of the Union Addresses (1978 1979 1980) Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

controversies

Executive Order 12148 Executive Order 12170 Rabbit incident Goldwater v. Carter

Life and activities

Carter Center Presidential Library and Museum Habitat for Humanity

Jimmy & Rosalynn Carter
Rosalynn Carter
Work Project

The Elders Carter–Menil Human Rights Prize Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
National Historic Site Nairobi Agreement, 1999 UFO incident

Elections

Georgia gubernatorial election, 1966 1970 Democratic presidential primaries, 1976 1980 Democratic National Convention, 1972 1976 1980 United States presidential election, 1976 1980

Books

(Complete bibliography) The Hornet's Nest
The Hornet's Nest
(2003 novel) Our Endangered Values (2006) Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid
Apartheid
(2006) (reaction and commentary) Beyond the White House
White House
(2007) We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land
We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land
(2009) White House
White House
Diary (2010) A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power (2014) A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2015)

Honors

(Complete list) Nobel Peace Prize Presidential Medal of Freedom Freedom of the City Silver Buffalo Award Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Liberty Medal United Nations
United Nations
Prize in the Field of Human Rights Hoover Medal Christopher Award Grammy Award

Legacy

Man from Plains
Man from Plains
(2007 documentary) USS Jimmy Carter

Related

Mary Prince (nanny)

Family

Rosalynn Carter
Rosalynn Carter
(wife) Jack Carter (son) Amy Carter
Amy Carter
(daughter) James Earl Carter, Sr. (father) Lillian Gordy Carter
Lillian Gordy Carter
(mother) Gloria Carter Spann
Gloria Carter Spann
(sister) Ruth Carter Stapleton (sister) Billy Carter
Billy Carter
(brother) Jason Carter (grandson) Emily Dolvin
Emily Dolvin
(maternal aunt) Hugh Carter (paternal first cousin)

← Gerald Ford Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan

Category

v t e

Presidents of the United States (list)

George Washington
George Washington
(1789–1797) John Adams
John Adams
(1797–1801) Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
(1801–1809) James Madison
James Madison
(1809–1817) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1817–1825) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1825–1829) Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
(1829–1837) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1837–1841) William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison
(1841) John Tyler
John Tyler
(1841–1845) James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–1849) Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
(1849–1850) Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
(1850–1853) Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
(1853–1857) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1857–1861) Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
(1861–1865) Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(1865–1869) Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869–1877) Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877–1881) James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
(1881) Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
(1881–1885) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1885–1889) Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison
(1889–1893) Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
(1893–1897) William McKinley
William McKinley
(1897–1901) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1901–1909) William H. Taft (1909–1913) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1913–1921) Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
(1921–1923) Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
(1923–1929) Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–1945) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–1953) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1953–1961) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961–1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1963–1969) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–1974) Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
(1974–1977) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1977–1981) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1989–1993) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1993–2001) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2001–2009) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2009–2017) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017–present)

Presidency timelines

Wilson Harding Coolidge Hoover F. D. Roosevelt Truman Eisenhower Kennedy L. B. Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan G. H. W. Bush Clinton G. W. Bush Obama Trump

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