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Sir Carol Reed
Carol Reed
(30 December 1906 – 25 April 1976) was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out
Odd Man Out
(1947), The Fallen Idol (1948) and The Third Man
The Third Man
(1949).[1] For Oliver! (1968), he received the Academy Award for Best Director. Odd Man Out
Odd Man Out
was the first recipient of the BAFTA Award for Best British Film; filmmaker Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
has repeatedly cited it as his favourite film.[2] The Fallen Idol won the second BAFTA Award for Best British Film. The British Film Institute
British Film Institute
voted The Third Man
The Third Man
the greatest British film of the 20th century.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Early films 3 War years 4 Post-war 5 Later career 6 Personal life 7 Filmography 8 References 9 External links

Early life and career[edit] Carol Reed
Carol Reed
was born in Putney, south-west London.[3] He was the out-of-wedlock son of actor-producer Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree
Herbert Beerbohm Tree
and his mistress, May Pinney Reed.[4] He was educated at The King's School, Canterbury. He embarked on an acting career while still in his late teens. A period in the theatrical company of the thriller writer Edgar Wallace followed, and Reed became his personal assistant in 1927.[5] Apart from acting in a few Wallace derived films himself, Reed became involved in adapting his work for the screen during the day while he was a stage manager in the evenings. The connection with Wallace ended with his death in Hollywood during February 1932. Taken on by Basil Dean, Reed worked for his Associated Talking Pictures, successively for ATP as a dialogue director, second-unit director and then assistant director.[6] His films in the later role working under Dean were Autumn Crocus, Lorna Doone and Loyalties and (with Thorold Dickinson) Java Head. Early films[edit] His earliest films as director were "quota quickies".[citation needed] Of his experience making Midshipman Easy
Midshipman Easy
(1935) his first solo directorial project he was harsh on himself. "I was indefinite and indecisive", he said later. "I thought I had picked up a lot about cutting and camera angles, but now, when I had to make all the decisions myself and was not just mentally approving or criticising what somebody else decided, I was pretty much lost. Fortunately, I realised that this was the only way to learn – by making mistakes."[5] Graham Greene, then reviewing films for The Spectator, was much more forgiving, commenting that Reed "has more sense of the cinema than most veteran British directors".[7] Of Reed's comedy Laburnum Grove
Laburnum Grove
(1936), he wrote: "Here at last is an English film one can unreservedly praise". He was perceptive about Reed's potential, describing the film as "thoroughly workmanlike and unpretentious, with just the hint of a personal manner which makes one believe that Mr. Reed, when he gets the right script, will prove far more than efficient."[8] Reed's career began to develop with The Stars Look Down (1940), from the A. J. Cronin
A. J. Cronin
novel, which features Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
in the lead role. Greene wrote that Reed "has at last had his chance and magnificently taken it." He observed that "one forgets the casting altogether: he [Reed] handles his players like a master, so that one remembers them only as people."[9] War years[edit] The scripts of several of Reed's films in this period were written by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat, with the screenwriters and director working for producer Edward Black, who released through the British subsidiary of 20th Century Fox. The best known of these films are probably Night Train to Munich
Night Train to Munich
(1940), with Rex Harrison; Kipps (1941), again with Michael Redgrave; and The Young Mr Pitt
The Young Mr Pitt
(1942), with Robert Donat
Robert Donat
in the title role. The later film, although historically inaccurate, is set during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. From 1942, Reed served in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps: he was granted the rank of Captain and placed with the film unit, and then with the Directorate of Army Psychiatry.[10] For the latter body a training film, The New Lot (1943),was made, recounting the experiences of five new recruits. It had a script by Eric Ambler and Peter Ustinov, with contributions from Reed, and was produced by Thorold Dickinson. It was remade as The Way Ahead
The Way Ahead
(1944). Post-war[edit] Reed made his three most highly regarded films just after the war, beginning with Odd Man Out
Odd Man Out
(1947), with James Mason
James Mason
in the lead. It is the tale of an injured IRA leader's last hours in an unidentified Northern Irish city. In fact, Belfast
Belfast
was used for the location work, but it remains unnamed in the film. It was the producer Alexander Korda, to whom Reed was now signed, who introduced the director to the novelist Graham Greene.[11] The next two films were made from screenplays by Greene: The Fallen Idol (1948) and The Third Man
The Third Man
(1949). The Third Man
The Third Man
was co-produced by David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
and Korda, with the American actors Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Joseph Cotten
Joseph Cotten
in two of the leading roles. Reed insisted on casting Welles as Harry Lime, although Selznick had wanted Noël Coward
Noël Coward
for the role. The film required six weeks of location work in Vienna, during which time it was Reed himself who accidentally discovered Anton Karas, the zither player responsible for the film's music, in a courtyard outside a small Viennese restaurant.[11] Reed once said: "A picture should end as it has to. I don’t think anything in life ends 'right'". While Greene wanted Holly Martins (Cotten) and Anna Schmidt (Alida Valli) to reconcile at the end of the film, after Lime, her lover, is killed by Martins, Reed insisted that Anna should ignore him and walk on. "The whole point of the Valli character in that film is that she’d experienced a fatal love – and then comes along this silly American!"[11] According to the film critic Derek Malcolm, The Third Man
The Third Man
is the "best film noir ever made out of Britain".[1] The film won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival,[6] the predecessor of the Palme d'Or. Later career[edit] Outcast of the Islands
Outcast of the Islands
(1952), based on a novel by Joseph Conrad, is often thought to mark the start of his creative decline.[12] The Man Between (1953) is dismissed as a rehash of The Third Man.[3] It "makes no startling impact, such as we have learned to expect from its director, on either the mind or the heart", complained Virginia Graham in The Spectator.[13] While the fable A Kid for Two Farthings (1955), Reed's first colour film, set in the East End of London, has been claimed as one of very few authentic cinematic depictions of an Anglo-Jewish community,[14] it suffers from the stereotyping of Jews[15] and is no more than a "whimsical curiosity" according to Michael Brooke.[14] It was the last film Reed made for Korda's London Films; the producer died at the beginning of 1956. Trapeze (1956), was Reed's first venture into the then relatively new CinemaScope
CinemaScope
wide screen process, and, although largely shot in Paris, was made for the US Hecht-Hill-Lancaster Productions company and was a success at the box-office. Our Man in Havana (1959) reunited him with Graham Greene
Graham Greene
who adapted his own novel. He was contracted to direct a remake of Mutiny on the Bounty (1962) by MGM, but then Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
was cast as Fletcher Christian, and problems with the mock Bounty and the weather at the locations caused delays.[16] Brando had insisted on creative control,[17] and the two men argued incessantly. Reed left the production at a relatively early stage of production and was replaced by Lewis Milestone.[18] The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965), made in the United States, was a box-office failure, and was the last film over which Reed also served as producer. Oliver! (1968), made at Shepperton in Surrey, was financially backed by Columbia, and won the Academy Award for Best Director. "The movie may have been over-produced but it seemed everyone liked it that way", writes Thomas Hischak.[19] Personal life[edit]

213 King's Road

From 1943 until 1947, he was married to the British actress Diana Wynyard. After their divorce, he married, in 1948, the actress Penelope Dudley-Ward, also known as Pempie, the elder daughter of Freda Dudley Ward, who had been a mistress of the Duke of Windsor (Edward VIII) when he was Prince of Wales. They had one son, Max. His stepdaughter Tracy Reed, Ward's daughter, also had an acting career.[20] Actor Oliver Reed
Oliver Reed
was his nephew. In 1953, he became only the second British film director to be knighted for his craft. The first was Sir Alexander Korda
Alexander Korda
in 1942, who was the producer of some of Reed's most admired films. Reed died from a heart attack on 25 April 1976 at his home at 213 King's Road, Chelsea, aged 69. He had lived there since 1948. He is buried in Kensington Cemetery, Gunnersbury, West London, and there is a blue plaque on his former home in his honour. Filmography[edit]

Year Film Notes

1935 It Happened in Paris

Midshipman Easy

1936 Laburnum Grove

1937 Talk
Talk
of the Devil Also writer

Who's Your Lady Friend?

1938 Penny Paradise

Bank Holiday

1939 Climbing High

A Girl Must Live

1940 The Stars Look Down

Girl in the News

Night Train to Munich

1941 Kipps

A Letter from Home

1942 The Young Mr Pitt

We Serve Recruiting film produced by Verity Films for the ATS.[21]

1943 The New Lot

1944 The Way Ahead

1945 The True Glory Uncredited

1947 Odd Man Out Also producer BAFTA Award for Best British Film

1948 The Fallen Idol Also producer New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director BAFTA Award for Best British Film

1949 The Third Man Also producer Grand Prize of the Cannes Film Festival BAFTA Award for Best British Film

1952 Outcast of the Islands Also producer

1953 The Man Between Also producer

1955 A Kid for Two Farthings Also producer

1956 Trapeze

1958 The Key

1959 Our Man in Havana Also producer

1962 Mutiny on the Bounty Replaced by Lewis Milestone; uncredited

1963 The Running Man Also producer

1965 The Agony and the Ecstasy Also producer

1968 Oliver! Academy Award for Best Director 1969 BAFTA Award for Best Film 6th Moscow International Film Festival - Special
Special
Prize[22]

1970 Flap

1972 Follow Me!

[23][24] References[edit]

^ a b Malcolm, Derek (16 March 2000). "Carol Reed: The Third Man". The Guardian. Carol Reed
Carol Reed
directed films for 40 years, but his golden period was brief. It covered three years in the late '40s when he made Odd Man Out, The Fallen Idol and The Third Man. These three films alone put him in the forefront of British directors of the period, and the last-named, his second collaboration with Graham Greene, is probably the best film noir ever made out of Britain.  ^ Roman Polanski: Interviews. University Press of Mississippi, 2005. ISBN 978-1-57806-800-5. Pages 159, 189. ^ a b Philip Kemp "Reed, Carol (1906-1976)", Reference Guide to British and Irish Film Director, reprinted at BFI Screenonline. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography has Wandsworth, London
London
as Reed's place of birth. ^ "The Stars Look Down - Movie info: cast, reviews, trailer on". Mubi.com. 1999-02-22. Retrieved 2012-06-13.  ^ a b Trevor Hogg "A Great Reed: A Carol Reed
Carol Reed
Profile (Part 1)", Flickering Myth, 21 October 2009 ^ a b Freehan, Deirdre (15 December 2010). "Carol Reed". Senses of Cinema.  ^ Graham Greene
Graham Greene
"Stage And Screen: The Cinema", The Spectator, 3 January 1936, p.18 ^ Graham Greene
Graham Greene
"Stage And Screen: The Cinema", The Spectator, 30 July 1936, p.15 ^ Graham Greene
Graham Greene
"Stage and Screen: The Cinema", The Spectator, 26 January 1940, p.16 ^ Peter William Evans Carol Reed, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005, p.53 ^ a b c Trevor Hogg "A Great Reed: A Carol Reed
Carol Reed
Profile (Part 2)", Flickering Myths, 28 October 2009 ^ David Thomson seems to think that in The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, London: Little Brown, 2002, p.721, but ascribes this view to others in Have You Seen, London: Allen Lane, 2008, p.632 ^ Virginia Graham "Cinema", The Spectator, 24 September 1953, p.13 ^ a b Michael Brooke "Kid for Two Farthings, A (1955)", BFI Screenonline ^ Matthew Reisz "EastEnders - but not as we know it", The Guardian, 15 September 2006 ^ Cliff Goodwin Behaving Badly: Richard Harris, Random House, 2011, p.91 ^ David Thomson Have You Seen?, London: Allen Lane, 2008, p.585 ^ Robert Sellers Hollywood Hellraisers: The Wild Lives and Fast Times of Marlon Brando, Dennis Hopper, Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
and Jack Nicholson, Random House, 2010, p.34 ^ Thomas Hischak The Oxford Companion to the American Musical: Theatre, Film and Television, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008, p.547 ^ Tracy Reed on IMDb ^ Spicer, Andrew (2006). Sydney Box. British Film Makers. Manchester University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-7190-5999-5. Retrieved 13 April 2012.  ^ " 6th Moscow International Film Festival (1969)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-17.  ^ "Carol Reed, Filmography". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ "Carol Reed, Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 7 July 2009. 

External links[edit]

Biography portal

Carol Reed
Carol Reed
on IMDb Carol Reed
Carol Reed
at AllMovie Carol Reed
Carol Reed
at the British Film Institute's Screenonline Carol Reed
Carol Reed
at Find a Grave

v t e

Films directed by Carol Reed

It Happened in Paris (with Robert Wyler; 1935) Midshipman Easy (1935) Laburnum Grove (1936) Talk
Talk
of the Devil (1936) Who's Your Lady Friend? (1937) Bank Holiday (1938) Penny Paradise (1938) Climbing High (1938) A Girl Must Live (1939) The Stars Look Down (1940) Girl in the News (1940) Night Train to Munich (1940) Kipps (1941) A Letter from Home (1941) The Young Mr Pitt (1942) The New Lot (1943) The Way Ahead (1944) The True Glory (1945) Odd Man Out (1947) The Fallen Idol (1948) The Third Man (1949) Outcast of the Islands (1951) The Man Between (1953) A Kid for Two Farthings (1955) Trapeze (1956) The Key (1958) Our Man in Havana (1959) The Running Man (1963) The Agony and the Ecstasy (1965) Oliver! (1968) Flap (1970) Follow Me! (1972)

v t e

Academy Award for Best Director

1927–1950

Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1927) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1928) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1929) Lewis Milestone
Lewis Milestone
(1930) Norman Taurog
Norman Taurog
(1931) Frank Borzage
Frank Borzage
(1932) Frank Lloyd
Frank Lloyd
(1933) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1934) John Ford
John Ford
(1935) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1936) Leo McCarey (1937) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1938) Victor Fleming
Victor Fleming
(1939) John Ford
John Ford
(1940) John Ford
John Ford
(1941) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1942) Michael Curtiz
Michael Curtiz
(1943) Leo McCarey (1944) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1945) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1946) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1947) John Huston
John Huston
(1948) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1949) Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Joseph L. Mankiewicz
(1950)

1951–1975

George Stevens
George Stevens
(1951) John Ford
John Ford
(1952) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1953) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1954) Delbert Mann
Delbert Mann
(1955) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1956) David Lean
David Lean
(1957) Vincente Minnelli
Vincente Minnelli
(1958) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1959) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
and Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1961) David Lean
David Lean
(1962) Tony Richardson
Tony Richardson
(1963) George Cukor
George Cukor
(1964) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1965) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1966) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(1967) Carol Reed
Carol Reed
(1968) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1969) Franklin J. Schaffner
Franklin J. Schaffner
(1970) William Friedkin
William Friedkin
(1971) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1972) George Roy Hill (1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1975)

1976–2000

John G. Avildsen
John G. Avildsen
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1977) Michael Cimino
Michael Cimino
(1978) Robert Benton (1979) Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(1980) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1981) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1982) James L. Brooks
James L. Brooks
(1983) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1984) Sydney Pollack
Sydney Pollack
(1985) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1986) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1987) Barry Levinson
Barry Levinson
(1988) Oliver Stone
Oliver Stone
(1989) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(1990) Jonathan Demme
Jonathan Demme
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Robert Zemeckis
Robert Zemeckis
(1994) Mel Gibson
Mel Gibson
(1995) Anthony Minghella
Anthony Minghella
(1996) James Cameron
James Cameron
(1997) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1998) Sam Mendes
Sam Mendes
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000)

2001–present

Ron Howard
Ron Howard
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
(2003) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2004) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2005) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2006) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2007) Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) Tom Hooper
Tom Hooper
(2010) Michel Hazanavicius
Michel Hazanavicius
(2011) Ang Lee
Ang Lee
(2012) Alfonso Cuarón
Alfonso Cuarón
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2014) Alejandro G. Iñárritu (2015) Damien Chazelle
Damien Chazelle
(2016) Guillermo del Toro
Guillermo del Toro
(2017)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 2479546 LCCN: n85072254 ISNI: 0000 0001 1019 9808 GND: 118909428 SELIBR: 303091 SUDOC: 02798964X BNF: cb11991555m (data) ICCU: ITICCURAVV94410 BNE: XX1061166 SN

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