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Baron
Baron
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
(Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ ²ɡɵˌstav ˈeːmɪl ²manːɛrˌheɪm]; 4 June 1867 – 27 January 1951) was a Finnish military leader and statesman.[1] Mannerheim served as the military leader of the Whites in the Finnish Civil War, Regent
Regent
of Finland (1918–1919), commander-in-chief of Finland's defence forces during World War II, Marshal of Finland, and the sixth president of Finland (1944–1946). Mannerheim made a career in the Imperial Russian Army, rising to the rank of lieutenant general. He also had a prominent place in the ceremonies for Tsar Nicholas II's coronation and later had several private meetings with the Russian Tsar. After the Bolshevik revolution, Finland
Finland
declared its independence but was soon embroiled in civil war between the pro- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
"Reds" and the "Whites", who were the troops of the Senate of Finland, supported by troops of the German Empire. Mannerheim was appointed the military chief of the Whites. Twenty years later, when Finland
Finland
was twice at war with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from November 1939 until September 1944, Mannerheim successfully led the defence of Finland
Finland
as commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces. In 1944, when the prospect of Germany's defeat in World War II
World War II
became clear, Mannerheim was elected President of Finland
Finland
and oversaw peace negotiations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the United Kingdom. He resigned the presidency in 1946 and died in 1951. In a Finnish survey 53 years after his death, Mannerheim was voted the greatest Finn of all time.[2] Given the broad recognition in Finland and elsewhere of his unparalleled role in establishing and later preserving Finland's independence from Russia, Mannerheim has long been referred to as the father of modern Finland,[3][4][5][6][7] and the Finnish capital Helsinki's Mannerheim Museum
Mannerheim Museum
memorializing the leader's life and times has been called "the closest thing there is to a [Finnish] national shrine".[5] In addition, he is the only Finn to have held the rank of field marshal, an honorary rank bestowed upon especially distinguished generals.

Contents

1 Early life and military career

1.1 Ancestry 1.2 Education 1.3 Service in Russian Army

2 Political career

2.1 Regent
Regent
of Finland 2.2 Interwar period 2.3 Commander-in-Chief 2.4 Visit by Adolf Hitler 2.5 End of war and presidency

3 Final days and death 4 Legacy 5 Military ranks

5.1 Ranks

5.1.1 In the Russian Army 5.1.2 In the Finnish Army

5.2 Supreme Command

6 Awards 7 Genealogical tree 8 Works 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Early life and military career[edit]

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Ancestry[edit] The Mannerheim family descends from a German businessman, Heinrich Marhein (1618–1667), who emigrated to the Swedish Empire. His son Augustin Marhein changed his surname to Mannerheim and was raised to the nobility by King Charles XI in 1693. Augustin Mannerheim's son, Johan Augustin Mannerheim, was raised to the status of Baron
Baron
in 1768. The Mannerheim family came to Finland, then an integral part of Sweden, in the latter part of the 18th century.[8][9][10] Mannerheim's great-grandfather, Count
Count
Carl Erik Mannerheim (1759–1837) served as the first Prime Minister of Finland. In 1825, he was promoted to the rank of Count. Mannerheim's grandfather, Count Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (1797–1854), was an entomologist and served as President of the Viipuri
Viipuri
Court of Appeals.[citation needed] Mannerheim's father, Carl Robert, Count
Count
Mannerheim (1835–1914), was a playwright who held liberal and radical political ideas, but he was also an industrialist whose success varied. Mannerheim's mother, Hedvig Charlotta Helena von Julin (1842–1881), was the daughter of a wealthy industrialist. As the third child of the family, Mannerheim inherited the title of Baron
Baron
(only the eldest son would inherit the title of Count). His father went bankrupt in 1880; he was forced to sell the family home and his other landed estates to his sister, as well as his large art collection. Mannerheim's father left his wife, Countess Hélène, and moved to Paris with his mistress. He returned to Helsinki
Helsinki
and founded the Systema company in 1887, and was its manager until his death.[11][12] Countess Hélène, shaken by the bankruptcy and her husband's desertion, took their seven children to live with her aunt Louise at the aunt's estate in Sällvik. Hélène died the following year from a heart attack.[13] Her death left the children to be brought up by relatives, making Mannerheim's maternal uncle, Albert von Julin, his legal guardian.[14] Education[edit]

Mannerheim (right) with a fellow student, Antanas Ričardas Druvė,[15] in Nicholas Cavalry School, St Petersburg, late 1880s.

Because of the worsened family finances and Mannerheim's serious discipline problems in school, Julin decided to send him to the school of the Hamina Cadet School in 1882.[16] The Cadet Corps was a state-run military school educating boys of aristocratic families for careers in the Military of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Grand Duchy of Finland
and in the Russian Armed Forces. Besides his mother tongue, Swedish, Mannerheim learned to speak Finnish, Russian, French, German, and English.[17][18] The disciplinary problems continued.[14] Mannerheim heartily disliked the school and the narrow social circles in Hamina. He rebelled by going on leave without permission in 1886, for which he was expelled from the Finnish Cadet Corps.[19] Mannerheim next attended the Helsinki
Helsinki
Private Lyceum, and passed his university entrance examinations in June 1887.[20] Now he had a better school report to show than the one from the Finnish Cadet Corps. He wrote to his godmother, Baroness Alfhild Scalon de Coligny, who had connections at the Russian court, to help him enter the Nicholas Cavalry School. His real wish was to join the Chevalier Guard; but his relatives balked at the costs, so he dropped it. Mannerheim's godmother invited him to her husband's country house, Lukianovka, in summer 1887. There Gustaf worked to improve his Russian. While in Russia, he spent some time at a military camp at Chuguyev, which strengthened his decision to choose a career in the military.[20] From 1887 to 1889, Mannerheim attended the Nicholas Cavalry School in St. Petersburg,[21] In January 1891, Mannerheim was transferred to the Chevalier Guard
Chevalier Guard
Regiment in St Petersburg.[18] In 1892, Mannerheim's godmother, Countess Alfhild Scalon de Coligny, arranged for him to be married to a wealthy and beautiful noble lady of Russian-Serbian heritage,[22] Anastasia Arapova (1872–1936).[23] Anastasia and Mannerheim had two daughters, Anastasie (1893–1978) and Sophie (1895–1963). Mannerheim separated from his wife in 1902, and the couple divorced in 1919.[24] Mannerheim served in the Imperial Chevalier Guard
Chevalier Guard
until 1904. Mannerheim specialised as an expert on horses, buying stud stallions and horses for the army. In 1903, he was put in charge of a display squadron and became a member of the equestrian training board of the cavalry regiments.[25] Service in Russian Army[edit] Mannerheim volunteered for duty in the Russo-Japanese war
Russo-Japanese war
in 1904. In October 1904, he was transferred to the 52nd Nezhin Dragoon Regiment in Manchuria, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He was promoted to Colonel
Colonel
for his bravery in the Battle of Mukden
Battle of Mukden
in 1905[26] and briefly commanded an irregular unit of Hong Huzi, a local militia, on an exploratory mission into Inner Mongolia.[27] When Mannerheim returned to St. Petersburg, he was asked if he would like to make a journey through Turkestan
Turkestan
to Beijing
Beijing
as a secret intelligence-officer. General
General
Palitsyn, Chief of the Russian General Staff, wanted accurate, on-the-ground intelligence about the reform and modernization of the Qing dynasty. The Russians wanted to know the military feasibility of invading Western China, including the provinces of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and Gansu, in their struggles with Britain for control of Inner Asia
Asia
known as "The Great Game".[28] After much deliberation, Mannerheim, disguised as an ethnographic collector, joined the French archeologist Paul Pelliot's expedition in Samarkand in Russian Turkestan
Turkestan
(now Uzbekistan). From the terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway in Andijan, the expedition started in July 1906, but Mannerheim spent the greater part of the expedition alone, after quarrelling with Pelliot over several logistic issues[29] on their way to Kashgar
Kashgar
in China's Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province.[28]

Gustaf Mannerheim's route across Asia
Asia
from St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
to Peking, 1906–1908.[30]

With a small caravan, including a Cossack guide, Chinese interpreter, and Uyghur cook, Mannerheim first trekked to Khotan
Khotan
in search of British and Japanese spies. Upon returning to Kashgar, he headed north into the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
range, surveying passes and gauging the attitudes of Kalmyk, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz tribes towards the Han Chinese. Mannerheim arrived in the provincial capital of Urumqi, and then headed east to Turpan, Hami, and Dunhuang
Dunhuang
in Gansu
Gansu
province. He followed the Great Wall of China through the Hexi Corridor, and investigated a mysterious tribe known as Yugurs.[31] From Lanzhou, the provincial capital, Mannerheim headed south into Tibetan territory and to the lamasery of Labrang, where he was stoned by xenophobic monks.[32] Mannerheim eventually arrived in Beijing
Beijing
in July 1908, where he worked on his military intelligence report. He returned to St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
via Japan
Japan
and the Trans-Siberian Express. His military report was a detailed account of modernization in the late Qing Dynasty, covering education, military reforms, Han colonization of ethnic borderlands, mining and industry, railway construction, the influence of Japan, and opium smoking.[32] Mannerheim's report outlined the likely tactical uses of a Russian invasion of Xinjiang, and Xinjiang's possible role as a bargaining chip in a putative future war with China.[33] After Mannerheim's return to Russia in 1909, he was appointed to command the 13th Vladimir Uhlan
Uhlan
Regiment at Mińsk Mazowiecki
Mińsk Mazowiecki
in Poland. The following year, Mannerheim was promoted to major general and was posted as the commander of the Life Guard Uhlan
Uhlan
Regiment of His Majesty in Warsaw. Eventually, Mannerheim became part of the Imperial entourage and was appointed cavalry brigade commander.[34] At the beginning of World War I, Mannerheim served as commander of the Guards Cavalry Brigade, and fought on the Austro-Hungarian and Romanian fronts. In December 1914, after distinguishing himself in combat against the Austro-Hungarian forces, Mannerheim was awarded the Order of St. George, 4th class. He said after receiving this award, "Now I can die in peace." In March 1915, Mannerheim was appointed to command the 12th Cavalry Division.[citation needed] Mannerheim received leave to visit Finland
Finland
and St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
in early 1917, and witnessed the outbreak of the February Revolution. After returning to the front, he was promoted to lieutenant general in April 1917 (the promotion was backdated to February 1915), and took command of the 6th Cavalry Corps in the summer of 1917. However, Mannerheim fell out of favour with the new government, who regarded him as not supporting the revolution, and was relieved of his duties. He decided to retire and returned to Finland.[34] Political career[edit] Regent
Regent
of Finland[edit]

Mannerheim as Regent
Regent
(seated), with his adjutants (left) Lt. Col. Lilius, Capt. Kekoni, Lt. Gallen-Kallela, Ensign Rosenbröijer.

See also: Finnish Civil War In January 1918, the senate of the newly independent Finland, under Pehr Evind Svinhufvud, appointed Mannerheim Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of Finland's almost nonexistent army, which was then not much more than some locally organised White Guards. Mannerheim's mission was to defend the government and its forces during the Finnish Civil War
Finnish Civil War
(or War of Liberty, as it was known among the "Whites") that broke out in Finland, inspired by the October Revolution
October Revolution
in Russia. He established his headquarters in Vaasa
Vaasa
and began to disarm the Russian garrisons and their 42,500 men.[citation needed] After the Whites' victory, Mannerheim resigned as commander-in-chief. He left Finland
Finland
in June 1918 to visit relatives in Sweden.[citation needed]

Mannerheim's day order no 1 which established the first headquarters of the modern military of Finland
Finland
on 2 February 1918

In Sweden, Mannerheim conferred with Allied diplomats in Stockholm, stating his opposition to the Finnish government's pro-German policy, and his support for the Allies. In October 1918, he was sent to Britain and France
France
on behalf of the Finnish government, to attempt to gain Britain's and the United States's recognition of Finland's independence. In December, he was summoned back to Finland
Finland
after he had been elected temporary Regent
Regent
of Finland. As Regent, Mannerheim often signed official documents using Kustaa, the Finnish form of his Christian name, in an attempt to emphasise his Finnishness to some sections of the Finnish population who were suspicious of his background in the Russian armed forces.[35][18] Mannerheim disliked his last Christian name, Emil, and wrote his signature as C.G. Mannerheim, or simply Mannerheim. Among his relatives and close friends Mannerheim was called Gustaf.[36] After Frederick Charles of Hesse
Frederick Charles of Hesse
renounced the throne, Mannerheim secured recognition of Finnish independence from Britain and the United States. In July 1919, after he had confirmed a new republican constitution, Mannerheim stood as a candidate in the first presidential election, supported by the National Coalition Party
National Coalition Party
and the Swedish People's Party. He lost the election to Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg and left public life.[34] Interwar period[edit] In the interwar years, Mannerheim held no public office. This was largely due to his being seen by many politicians of the centre and left as a controversial figure for his outspoken opposition to the Bolsheviks, his supposed desire for Finnish intervention on the side of the Whites during the Russian Civil War, and Finnish socialists' antipathy toward him. They saw him as the bourgeois "White General". Mannerheim also doubted that the modern party-based politics would produce principled and high-quality leaders in Finland
Finland
or elsewhere. In his gloomy opinion, the fatherland's interests were too often sacrificed by the democratic politicians for partisan benefit.[37][38][39] [check quotation syntax] During the interwar years, Mannerheim's pursuits were mainly humanitarian. He headed the Finnish Red Cross
Red Cross
(Chairman 1919–1951), was member of the board of the International Red Cross, and founded the Mannerheim League for Child Welfare. He was also the chairman of the supervisory board of a commercial bank, the Liittopankki-Unionsbanken, and after its merger with the Bank of Helsinki, the chairman of the supervisory board of that bank until 1934. He was also a member of the board of Nokia Corporation.[40] In the 1920s and 1930s, Mannerheim returned to Asia, where he travelled and hunted extensively. On his first trip in 1927, to avoid going through the Soviet Union, he went by ship from London
London
to Calcutta. From there he travelled overland to Burma, where he spent a month at Rangoon; then he went on to Gangtok, in Sikkim. He returned home by car and aeroplane, through Basra, Baghdad, Cairo, and Venice.[40][41] His second voyage, in 1936, was to India, by ship via Aden
Aden
to Bombay. During his stay in India, Mannerheim met old friends and acquaintances from Europe. During his travels and hunting expeditions, he visited Madras, Delhi
Delhi
and Nepal. While in Nepal, Mannerheim was invited to join a tiger hunt by the King of Nepal. In 1929, Mannerheim refused the right-wing radicals' plea to become a de facto military dictator, although he did express some support for the right-wing Lapua Movement.[18] After President Pehr Evind Svinhufvud was elected in 1931, he appointed Mannerheim as chairman of Finland's Defence Council. At the same time, Mannerheim received a written promise that in the event of war, he would become the Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Finnish Army. (Svinhufvud's successor Kyösti Kallio
Kyösti Kallio
renewed this promise in 1937). In 1933, Mannerheim received the rank of Field Marshal (sotamarsalkka, fältmarskalk). By this time, Mannerheim had come to be seen by the public, including some former socialists, as less of a "White General", and more of a national figure. This feeling was enhanced by his public statements urging reconciliation between the opposing sides in the Civil War and the need to focus on national unity and defence.[citation needed] Mannerheim supported Finland's military industry and sought in vain to establish a military defence union with Sweden. However, rearming the Finnish army did not occur as swiftly or as well as he hoped, and he was not enthusiastic about a war. He had many disagreements with various Cabinets, and signed many letters of resignation.[37][42] Commander-in-Chief[edit] See also: Winter War, Continuation War, and Lapland War

Mannerheim in 1940

When negotiations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
failed in 1939, Mannerheim withdrew his resignation on 17 October. At age 72, he became commander-in-chief of the Finnish armed forces after the Soviet attack on 30 November. In a letter to his daughter Sophie, he stated, "I had not wanted to undertake the responsibility of commander-in-chief, as my age and my health entitled me, but I had to yield to appeals from the President of the Republic and the government, and now for the fourth time I am at war."[35] He addressed the first of his often controversial orders of the day to the Defence Forces on the same day the war began:

The President of the Republic has appointed me on 30 November 1939 as Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the armed forces of the country. Brave soldiers of Finland! I enter on this task at a time when our hereditary enemy is once again attacking our country. Confidence in one's commander is the first condition for success. You know me and I know you and know that everyone in the ranks is ready to do his duty even to death. This war is nothing other than the continuation and final act of our War of Independence. We are fighting for our homes, our faith, and our country.[35]

Mannerheim quickly organised his headquarters in Mikkeli. His chief of staff was Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Aksel Airo, while his close friend, General
General
Rudolf Walden, was sent as a representative of the headquarters to the cabinet from 3 December 1939 until 27 March 1940, after which he became defence minister.[37][42] Mannerheim spent most of the Winter War
Winter War
and Continuation War
Continuation War
in his Mikkeli
Mikkeli
headquarters but made many visits to the front. Between the wars, he remained commander-in-chief, which strictly should have returned to the presidents ( Kyösti Kallio
Kyösti Kallio
and Risto Ryti) after the Moscow Peace, on 12 March 1940.[42] Before the Continuation War, the Germans offered Mannerheim command over 80,000 German troops in Finland. Mannerheim declined so as to not tie himself and Finland
Finland
to Nazi
Nazi
war aims.[43] Mannerheim kept relations with Adolf Hitler's government as formal as possible and successfully opposed proposals for an alliance. If Mannerheim had not also firmly refused to allow his troops participate in the Siege of Leningrad, they would have ended up becoming an integral part of the siege.[37] Mannerheim's 75th birthday, 4 June 1942, was a major occasion. The government granted him the unique title of Marshal of Finland
Marshal of Finland
(Suomen Marsalkka in Finnish, Marskalk av Finland
Finland
in Swedish). So far he is the only person to receive the title. A surprise visit by Hitler in honour of Mannerheim's birthday was less pleasing to him and caused some embarrassment. Hitler did not travel much, but he wished to visit the "brave Finns" (die tapferen Finnen) and their leader Mannerheim.[37][42] Visit by Adolf Hitler[edit]

Mannerheim with Hitler

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
decided to visit Finland
Finland
on 4 June 1942, ostensibly to congratulate Mannerheim on his 75th birthday. But Mannerheim did not want to meet him in his headquarters in Mikkeli
Mikkeli
or in Helsinki, as it would have seemed like an official state visit. The meeting took place near Imatra, in south-eastern Finland, and was arranged in secrecy.[37] From Immola Airfield, Hitler, accompanied by President Ryti, was driven to the place where Mannerheim was waiting at a railway siding. After a speech from Hitler, and following a birthday meal and negotiations between him and Mannerheim, Hitler returned to Germany. President Ryti and other high-ranking Finns and Germans were also present. Overall, Hitler spent about five hours in Finland; he reportedly intended to ask the Finns to step up military operations against the Soviets, but apparently made no specific demands.[37] During the visit, an engineer of the Finnish broadcasting company YLE, Thor Damen, succeeded in recording the first eleven minutes of Hitler's and Mannerheim's private conversation. This had to be done secretly, as Hitler never allowed others to record him off-guard. Damen was given the assignment to record the official birthday speeches and Mannerheim's responses and, following those orders, added microphones to certain railway cars.

Discussion with Hitler, Mannerheim and President Ryti. Hitler visited Mannerheim on his 75th birthday.

However, Mannerheim and his guests chose to go to a car that did not have a microphone in it. Damen acted quickly, pushing a microphone through one of the car windows to a net shelf just above where Hitler and Mannerheim were sitting. After eleven minutes of Hitler's and Mannerheim's private conversation, Hitler's SS bodyguards spotted the cords coming out of the window and realized that the Finnish engineer was recording the conversation. They gestured to him to stop recording immediately, and he complied. The SS bodyguards demanded that the tape be immediately destroyed, but YLE
YLE
was allowed to keep the reel, after promising to keep it in a sealed container. It was given to Kustaa Vilkuna, head of the state censors' office, and in 1957 returned to YLE. It was made available to the public a few years later. It is the only known recording of Hitler speaking in an unofficial tone.[44][45] There is an unsubstantiated story that during his meeting with Hitler, Mannerheim lit a cigar. Mannerheim supposed that Hitler would ask Finland
Finland
for help against the Soviet Union, which Mannerheim was unwilling to give. When Mannerheim lit up, all in attendance gasped, for Hitler's aversion to smoking was well known. Yet Hitler continued the conversation calmly, with no comment. In this way, Mannerheim could judge if Hitler was speaking from a position of strength or weakness. He was able to refuse Hitler, knowing that Hitler was in a weak position, and could not dictate to him.[37][42] End of war and presidency[edit]

Mannerheim leaves the Presidential Palace, Helsinki
Helsinki
on 4 March 1946 after his short presidency

In June 1944, Gustaf Mannerheim, to ensure German support while a major Soviet offensive was threatening Finland, thought it necessary to agree to the pact the German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop demanded. But even then Mannerheim managed to distance himself from the pact, and it fell to President Risto Ryti
Risto Ryti
to sign it, so it came to be known as the Ryti-Ribbentrop Agreement. This allowed Mannerheim to revoke the agreement upon the resignation of President Ryti at the start of August 1944. Mannerheim succeeded Ryti as president.[37][46] When Germany
Germany
was deemed sufficiently weakened, and the USSR's summer offensive was fought to a standstill (see Battle of Tali-Ihantala) thanks to the June agreement with the Germans, Finland's leaders saw a chance to reach a peace with the Soviet Union.[citation needed] At first, attempts were made to persuade Mannerheim to become prime minister, but he rejected them because of his age and lack of experience running a civil government. The next suggestion was to elect him Head of State. Risto Ryti
Risto Ryti
would resign as President, and parliament would appoint Mannerheim as Regent. The use of the title "Regent" would have reflected the exceptional circumstances of Mannerheim's election. Mannerheim and Ryti both agreed, and Ryti submitted a notice of resignation on 1 August. The Parliament of Finland
Finland
passed a special act conferring the presidency on Mannerheim on 4 August 1944. He took the oath of office the same day.[37][46] A month after Mannerheim took office, the Continuation War
Continuation War
was concluded on harsh terms, but ultimately far less harsh than those imposed on the other states bordering the Soviet Union. Finland retained its sovereignty, its parliamentary democracy, and its market economy. Territorial losses were considerable; all Karelia
Karelia
and Petsamo were lost. Numerous Karelian refugees needed to be relocated. The war reparations were very heavy. Finland
Finland
also had to fight the Lapland War against withdrawing German troops in the north, and at the same time demobilize its own army, making it harder to expel the Germans.[47] It is widely agreed that only Mannerheim could have guided Finland through these difficult times, when the Finnish people
Finnish people
had to come to terms with the severe conditions of the armistice, their implementation by a Soviet-dominated Allied Control Commission, and the task of post-war reconstruction.[46] Before deciding to accept the Soviet demands, Mannerheim wrote a missive directly to Hitler:[48]

Our German brothers-in-arms will forever remain in our hearts. The Germans in Finland
Finland
were certainly not the representatives of foreign despotism but helpers and brothers-in-arms. But even in such cases foreigners are in difficult positions requiring such tact. I can assure you that during the past years nothing whatsoever happened that could have induced us to consider the German troops intruders or oppressors. I believe that the attitude of the German Army in northern Finland
Finland
towards the local population and authorities will enter our history as a unique example of a correct and cordial relationship ... I deem it my duty to lead my people out of the war. I cannot and I will not turn the arms which you have so liberally supplied us against Germans. I harbour the hope that you, even if you disapprove of my attitude, will wish and endeavour like myself and all other Finns to terminate our former relations without increasing the gravity of the situation.

Mannerheim's term as president was difficult for him. Although he was elected for a full six-year term, he was 77 years old in 1944 and had accepted the office reluctantly after being urged to do so. The situation was exacerbated by frequent periods of ill-health, the demands of the Allied Control Commission, and the war responsibility trials. He was afraid throughout most of his presidency that the commission would request that he be prosecuted for crimes against peace. This never happened. One of the reasons for this was Stalin's respect for and admiration of the Marshal. Stalin told a Finnish delegation in Moscow in 1947 that the Finns owe much to their old Marshal. Due to Mannerheim, Finland
Finland
was not occupied.[49] Despite Mannerheim's criticisms of some of the demands of the Control Commission, he worked hard to carry out Finland's armistice obligations. He also emphasised the necessity of further work on reconstruction in Finland
Finland
after the war.[37][46] Mannerheim was troubled by recurring health problems during 1945, and was absent on medical leave from his duties as president from November until February 1946. He spent six weeks in Portugal
Portugal
to restore his health. After the announcement of the verdicts in the war crimes trials were announced in February, Mannerheim decided to resign. He believed that he had accomplished the duties he had been elected to carry out: The war was ended, the armistice obligations carried out, and the war crimes trial finished.[citation needed] Mannerheim resigned as president on 11 March 1946, giving as his reason his declining health and his view that the tasks he had been selected to carry out had been accomplished. Even the Finnish communists, his enemies in 1918, appreciated his efforts and his role in maintaining the unity of the country during a difficult period. He was succeeded by his conservative Prime Minister Juho Kusti Paasikivi.[46] Final days and death[edit]

Mannerheim's funeral parade in Helsinki
Helsinki
Senate Square on 4 February 1951.

After his resignation, Mannerheim bought Kirkniemi Manor in Lohja, intending to spend his retirement there. In June 1946, he underwent an operation for a perforated peptic ulcer, and in October of that year he was diagnosed with a duodenal ulcer. In early 1947, it was recommended that he should travel to the Valmont Sanatorium in Montreux, Switzerland, to recuperate and write his memoirs. Valmont was to be Mannerheim's main residence for the remainder of his life, although he regularly returned to Finland, and also visited Sweden, France
France
and Italy.[citation needed] Because Mannerheim was old and sickly, he personally wrote only certain passages of his memoirs. Some other parts he dictated and described. The remaining parts were written by Mannerheim's various assistants, such as Colonel
Colonel
Aladár Paasonen; General
General
Erik Heinrichs; Generals Grandell, Olenius and Martola; and Colonel
Colonel
Viljanen, a war historian. As long as Mannerheim was able to read, he proofread the typewritten drafts of his memoirs. He was almost totally silent about his private life, and focused instead on Finland's events, especially on those between 1917 and 1944. When Mannerheim suffered a fatal stomach attack[citation needed] in January 1951, his memoirs were not yet in their finished form. They were published after his death.[39] Mannerheim died on 27 January 1951, 28 January Finland
Finland
time, in the Cantonal Hospital in Lausanne
Lausanne
(French: L'Hôpital cantonal à Lausanne; modern Lausanne
Lausanne
University Hospital[50]), Switzerland. He was buried on 4 February 1951 in the Hietaniemi Cemetery
Hietaniemi Cemetery
in Helsinki in a state funeral with full military honours. Legacy[edit]

Mannerheim Square in Helsinki
Helsinki
with an equestrian statue of Mannerheim.

Today, Mannerheim retains respect as Finland's greatest statesman. This may be partly due to his refusal to enter partisan politics (although his sympathies were more right-wing than left-wing), his claim always to serve the fatherland without selfish motives, his personal courage in visiting the frontlines, his ability to work diligently into his late seventies, and his foreign political farsightedness in preparing for the Soviet invasion of Finland
Finland
years before it occurred.[37] (See, for example, Jägerskiöld, "Mannerheim 1867–1951"; "The Republic's Presidents 1940–1956" / Tasavallan presidentit 1940–1956, published in Finland
Finland
in 1993–1994). Mannerheim's birthday, 4 June, is celebrated as Flag Day
Flag Day
by the Finnish Defence Forces. This decision was made by the Finnish government on the occasion of his 75th birthday in 1942, when he was also granted the title of Marshal of Finland. Flag Day
Flag Day
is celebrated with a national parade, and rewards and promotions for members of the defence forces. The life and times of Mannerheim are memorialized in the Mannerheim Museum.[40] The most prominent boulevard in the Finnish capital was renamed Mannerheimintie
Mannerheimintie
(Mannerheim Road) in the Marshal's honour during his lifetime. Various landmarks across Finland
Finland
honor Mannerheim, including most famously the Equestrian statue
Equestrian statue
located on Helsinki's Mannerheimintie in front of the later-built Kiasma
Kiasma
museum of modern art. Turku's Mannerheim Park includes a statue of him. Tampere's Mannerheim statue depicting the victorious Civil War general of the Whites was eventually placed in the forest some kilometres outside the city (in part due to lingering controversy over Mannerheim's Civil War role). Other statues, for examples, were erected in Mikkeli
Mikkeli
and Lahti.[51] On 5 December 2004, Mannerheim was voted the greatest Finnish person of all time in the Suuret suomalaiset (Great Finns) contest.[2] From 1937 to 1967, at least five different Finnish postage stamps or stamp series were issued in honour of Mannerheim; and in 1960 the United States honoured Mannerheim as the "Liberator of Finland" with regular first-class envelope domestic and international stamps (at the time four cents and eight cents respectively) as part of its Champions of Liberty series that included other notable figures such as Mahatma Gandhi and Simon Bolivar.[52][53][54] Military ranks[edit]

Finnish postal stamp 1941

Ranks[edit] In the Russian Army[edit]

1888: Non-commissioned officer 1889: Cornet 1891: Cornet of the Guard 1893: Lieutenant
Lieutenant
of the Guard 1902: Captain of the Guard 1904: Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel 1905: Colonel 1911: Major General 1917: Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General

In the Finnish Army[edit]

1918: General
General
of Cavalry 1933: Field Marshal 1942: Marshal of Finland

Supreme Command[edit]

1918: Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the White Guard: from January to May 1918 1918: Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Finnish Defence Forces: from December 1918 to July 1919 1931: Chairman of the Defence Council: from 1931 to 1939 1939: Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Finnish Defence Forces
Finnish Defence Forces
[bis]: from 1939 to 1946

Awards[edit] ‹ The template below (Infobox coat of arms) is being considered for merging. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

Coat of Arms of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Details

Armiger Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Motto "Candida pro causa ense candido"[55]("With an honourable sword for an honourable cause")

In the course of his lifetime, Mannerheim received 82 military and civilian decorations.[56]

Mannerheim was honored by the US Mail with a postage stamp

Finnish

Commander Grand Cross with Swords and Diamonds of the Order of the Cross of Liberty (1940; Commander Grand Cross with Swords: 1918) Knight of the Mannerheim Cross, 1st and 2nd class, the Order of the Cross of Liberty (1941) Commander Grand Cross, with Collar, Swords and Diamonds, of the Order of the White Rose (1944) Commander Grand Cross, with Swords and Diamonds, of the Order of the Lion of Finland
Finland
(1944)

Russian Empire

Order of St. Anna, 2nd degree (1906) Order of St. Stanislaus, 2nd class (1906) Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree (1906) Order of St. George, Knight 4th class (1914)

Others

France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
(1939; Officer: 1910; Knight: 1902) Sweden: Knight of the Royal Order of the Seraphim
Royal Order of the Seraphim
(1919) Sweden: Knight Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of the Sword
Order of the Sword
(1942; Commander Grand Cross: 1918) Denmark: Knight of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
(1919) Japan: Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
with Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon.[57] Nazi
Nazi
Germany: Golden Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle Nazi
Nazi
Germany: Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
with Oak Leaves (1944; Knight's Cross: 1942; Iron Cross
Iron Cross
1st Class with 1939 bar: 1942) German Empire: Iron Cross
Iron Cross
1st and 2nd Class (1918) Estonia: Military Order of the Cross of the Eagle, 1st Class with Swords (1930) Estonia: Grand Cross of Order of the Estonian Red Cross
Red Cross
(1933) United Kingdom: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) (1938) Kingdom of Hungary: Order of Merit of the Kingdom of Hungary, Grand Cross with the Holy Crown of St. Stephen (1941) Kingdom of Romania: Order of Michael the Brave, 1st class (1941)

Genealogical tree[edit]

Ancestors of Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

16. Baron
Baron
Johan Augustin Mannerheim

8. Count
Count
Carl Erik Mannerheim

17. Helene Maria Söderhjälm

4. Count
Count
Carl Gustaf Mannerheim

18. Ernst von Willebrand

9. Vendla Sofia von Willebrand

19. Vendla Gustava von Wright

2. Count
Count
Carl Robert Mannerheim

20. Anton Wilhelm von Schantz

10. Carl Constantin von Schantz

21. Catharina Elisabeth de Carnall

5. Eva Vilhelmina von Schantz

22. Karl Johan Weissmann von Weissenstein

11. Karolina Lovisa Weissmann von Weissenstein

23. Margareta Bergenfelt

1. Baron
Baron
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

24. Erik Julin

12. Johan Julin

25. Anna Maria Törngren

6. John Jacob von Julin

26. Jakob Karberg

13. Albertina Jakobintytär Karberg

27. Elisabeth Zachariaksentytär Bonge

3. Hedvig Charlotta Hélène von Julin

28. Carl Ludvig Jägerskjöld

14. Christer Ludvig Jägerskjöld

29. Catarina Pellew

7. Charlotta Johanna Ottiliana Jägerskjöld

30. Johan Reinhold Taube

15. Hedvig Gustava Christina Taube

31. Fredrika Lovisa Sofia Gjös

Works[edit]

C.G. Mannerheim, Across Asia
Asia
From West to East in 1906–1908. (1969) Anthropological Publications. Oosterhout N.B. – The Netherlands

Across Asia : Vol. 1 – digital images

See also[edit]

Biography portal Finland
Finland
portal World War II
World War II
portal

Hitler and Mannerheim recording List of Finnish Wars Mannerheim Cross Mannerheim Line Mannerheim Museum Mannerheimintie The Marshal of Finland
Marshal of Finland
(film) Marskin ryyppy Vorschmack

Notes[edit]

^ Klinge, Matti. "Mannerheim, Gustaf (1867 – 1951)". National Biography of Finland. Retrieved 21 April 2017.  ^ a b (in Finnish) Suuret suomalaiset at YLE.fi ^ Robert Edwards, White Death: Russia's War on Finland, 1939–40 , Phoenix, an Imprint of The Orion Publishing Group Ltd, (2007), p. 21 ^ Oliver Warner, Marshal Mannerheim and the Finns , Weidenfeld & Nicolson, (1967), pp.154 et seq. ^ a b Binder, David (16 October 1983). "Finland's Heritage on parade". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ "Field Marshal Mannerheim, THE FATHER OF FINLAND". 15 November 1945. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ " Finland
Finland
Country Profile – Timeline". BBC News. 25 September 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2013.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2007.  ^ "Wayback Machine". 30 September 2007. [dead link] ^ "Mannerheimin suku onkin lähtöisin Saksasta".  ^ Meri (1990), pp. 107–108. ^ Hynninen-Keitele-Lehti: "Neljä kertaa nopeammin kuin pännällä – Konttoritekniikan historia" (2008) ^ Meri (1990), p. 108. ^ a b Mannerheim – Marshal of Finland, TV8, 2006 ^ Visuotinė lietuvių enciklopedija, V t. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas, 2004. T.V: Dis-Fatva., 163 psl. ^ Jägerskiöld (1965), pp. 68–70. ^ Jägerskiöld (1986). ^ a b c d Screen (2000). ^ Jägerskiöld (1965), pp. 93–94. ^ a b Meri (1990), p. 123. ^ Meri (1990), p. 129. ^ "Краткие сведения об офицерах-Александрийцах: Великая война, Гражданская война, эмиграция. Часть 2-я (фамилии К - Р). - Статьи - Каталог статей - 5-й Гусарский Александрийский полк". blackhussars.ucoz.ru.  ^ Meri (1990), pp. 145–147. ^ Meri (1990), pp. 148–149. ^ Screen (2000), p. 333. ^ Screen (2000), pp. 43–49. ^ Clements (2009), pp. 80–81. ^ a b "Horse That Leaps Through Clouds - Retracing Mannerheim's Journey Across Asia". horsethatleaps.com.  ^ Clements (2009), pp. 100–103. ^ Tamm, Eric Enno. The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2010. ^ "Horse That Leaps Through Clouds - Retracing Mannerheim's Journey Across Asia". horsethatleaps.com.  ^ a b "Horse That Leaps Through Clouds - Retracing Mannerheim's Journey Across Asia". horsethatleaps.com.  ^ Clements (2009), p. 155. ^ a b c Putensen, Dörte (2017). "Der größte Finne aller Zeiten?". Damals
Damals
(in German). No. 5. pp. 72–76.  ^ a b c Jagerskiold (1986). ^ Meri (1990), p. 104. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sakari Virkkunen, "Presidents of Finland
Finland
II" (Suomen presidentit II), published in Finland
Finland
in 1994 ^ Kallio – Ryti – Mannerheim" / Suomen presidentit II: Kallio – Ryti – Mannerheim, Helsinki: Otava Publications Ltd., 1994 ^ a b Jägerskiöld (1983). ^ a b c Mannerheim-Museo.fi Archived 13 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mannerheim, Memoirs (1953). ^ a b c d e Turtola (1994). ^ Jacobsson (1999). ^ Helsingin Sanomat International Web-Edition – "Conversation secretly recorded in Finland
Finland
helped a German actor prepare for Hitler role" Helsingin Sanomat / First published in print 15.9.2004 in Finnish. ^ Recording available YLE's web-archive ^ a b c d e Seppo Zetterberg et al., eds., "A Small Giant of Finnish History" (Suomen historian pikkujättiläinen), 2003 ^ Kinnunen et al, eds. (2011). Finland
Finland
in World War II: History, Memory, Interpretations. p. 87. Retrieved 31 January 2014. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Nenye, Vesa; Munter, Peter; Wirtanen, Toni; Birks, Chris (2016). Finland
Finland
at War: the Continuation and Lapland Wars 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1472815262.  ^ Meri (1990), p. 397. ^ "Historique". Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois. Retrieved 2018-02-24.  ^ Matti Klinge, transl. Roderick Fletcher. "Mannerheim, Gustaf (1867–1951) President of Finland, Marshal of Finland". Biografiakeskus. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "MANNERHEIM - Special
Special
Topics - Stamps". www.mannerheim.fi.  ^ "8-cent Mannerheim". 12 December 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ "50th Anniversary USA Champions of Liberty Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Stamp". 9 March 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2013.  ^ http://www.mannerheim-museo.fi/gustaf-mannerheim-3/ ^ Mannerheim Internetprojekti, kunniamerkit valokuvineen (Finnish) ^ No. 77, Nousevan Auringon Ritarikunnan I luokka Paulovniakukkasin, Japani, mannerheim.fi.

Bibliography[edit]

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf Emil (1953). The Memoirs of Marshal Mannerheim. London: Cassell. OCLC 12424452.  Clements, Jonathan (2009). Mannerheim: President, Soldier, Spy. London: Haus Publishing. ISBN 978-1907822575.  1999: Petteri Koskikallio, Asko Lehmuskallio, and Harry Halén. C. G. Mannerheim in Central Asia
Asia
1906–1908. Helsinki: National Board of Antiquities. ISBN 951-616-048-4. Jacobsson, Max (1999). Century of Violence.  Jägerskiöld, Stig (1965). Nuori Mannerheim.  Jägerskiöld,, Stig (1983). Mannerheim 1867–1951. Helsinki: Otava Publications.  Jägerskiöld, Stig (1986). Mannerheim: Marshal of Finland. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1527-6.  Meri, Veijo (1990). Suomen marsalkka C. G. Mannerheim.  Screen, J. E. O. (1993). Mannerheim: The Years of Preparation. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-900966-22-X.  Screen, J. E. O. (2000). Mannerheim: The Finnish Years. London: Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-573-1.  2010: Tamm, Eric Enno. The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 978-1-55365-269-4. 2000: William R. Trotter. A Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish Winter War of 1939–1940. ISBN 1-56512-249-6. Turtola, Martti (1994). Risto Ryti: A Life for the Fatherland. Risto Ryti: Elämä isänmaan puolesta. Helsinki: Otava. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim.

Mannerheim's Journey Across Asia
Asia
including interactive Google maps, slide shows, videos and more C. G. E. Mannerheim in the history of Finland Mannerheim Museum Audio recordings of Hitler and Mannerheim's public and private talk (w/English text on YouTube), 4 Jun 1942 (in Finnish) and (in Swedish) [1][permanent dead link] Mannerheim's 1944 inauguration address On Mannerheim's role in defending Jews Валентин Рянжин. Маршал Финляндии Маннергейм (russian) Русский офицер у Далай-ламы (russian) Маннергейм – русский генерал, финский маршал (russian) Mannerheim League for Child Welfare English website Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
at Find a Grave

Regnal titles

Preceded by Pehr Evind Svinhufvud Regent
Regent
of Finland 1918–1919 Succeeded by Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg
Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg
as President of the Republic

Political offices

Preceded by Risto Ryti President of Finland 1944–1946 Succeeded by Juho Kusti Paasikivi

v t e

Presidents of Finland

K. J. Ståhlberg (1919–1925) Lauri Kr. Relander (1925–1931) P. E. Svinhufvud (1931–1937) Kyösti Kallio
Kyösti Kallio
(1937–1940) Risto Ryti
Risto Ryti
(1940–1944) C. G. E. Mannerheim (1944–1946) J. K. Paasikivi (1946–1956) Urho Kekkonen
Urho Kekkonen
(1956–1982) Mauno Koivisto
Mauno Koivisto
(1982–1994) Martti Ahtisaari
Martti Ahtisaari
(1994–2000) Tarja Halonen
Tarja Halonen
(2000–2012) Sauli Niinistö
Sauli Niinistö
(2012–present)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7439077 LCCN: n80082619 ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 3831 GND: 118881574 SELIBR: 195577 SUDOC: 027578267 BNF: cb122078956 (data) BIBSYS: 90213836 HDS: 42928 NDL: 00621060 NKC: xx0001462 BNE: XX1014039 SN

.