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Carinus
Carinus
(Latin: Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Carinus
Carinus
Augustus;[1] died 285) was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 283 to 285. The elder son of emperor Carus, he was first appointed Caesar and in the beginning of 283 co-emperor of the western portion of the empire by his father. Official accounts of his character and career have been filtered through the propaganda of his successful opponent, Diocletian.

Contents

1 Reign

1.1 Death in 285 1.2 Character

2 References

2.1 Primary Sources 2.2 Secondary Sources 2.3 In Literature

3 External links

Reign[edit] Carinus
Carinus
fought with success against the Germanic Quadi
Quadi
tribes,[2] but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine
Rhine
to his legates and returned to Rome, where the surviving accounts, which demonize him, assert that he abandoned himself to all kinds of debauchery and excess. More certainly, he celebrated the annual ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence.[3][4] After the death of Carus, the army in the east demanded to return to Europe, and Numerian, the younger son of Carus, was forced to comply.[5] During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerian
Numerian
was found dead. Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, claimed that Numerian
Numerian
had been assassinated, and he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.[6][4] Carinus
Carinus
left Rome
Rome
at once and set out for the east to meet Diocletian. On his way through Pannonia he put down the usurper Sabinus Julianus and in July 285 he encountered the army of Diocletian
Diocletian
at the Margus River in Moesia.[2][4] Death in 285[edit] Historians differ on what then ensued. At the Battle of the Margus River (Morava), according to one account, the valour of his troops had gained the day, but Carinus
Carinus
was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced.[2] Another account represents the battle as resulting in a complete victory for Diocletian, and claims that Carinus' army deserted him. This account may be confirmed by the fact that Diocletian
Diocletian
kept in service Carinus' Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
commander, Titus Claudius
Claudius
Aurelius Aristobulus.[2][4] Character[edit] Carinus
Carinus
has a reputation as one of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy may have been supported by Diocletian
Diocletian
himself. For example, the (unreliable) Historia Augusta
Historia Augusta
has Carinus
Carinus
marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, Magnia Urbica, by whom he had a son, Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.[7] References[edit] Primary Sources[edit]

Anonymous, Epitome de Caesaribus Aurelius Victor Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita Historia Augusta, Life of Carus, Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian Joannes
Joannes
Zonaras, Compendium of History extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284

Secondary Sources[edit]

^ In Classical Latin, Carinus' name would be inscribed as MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS. ^ a b c d Leadbetter, William. Carinus
Carinus
(283–285 A.D.).  ^ Spence, H. Donald M. (2003). Early Christianity and Paganism. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 391–392. ISBN 0-7661-3068-1.  ^ a b c d Chisholm 1911. ^ Southern, Pat (2001). The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge. p. 133. ISBN 0-415-23944-3.  ^ Pohlsander, Hans A. (1996). Constantine. Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 0-415-31938-2.  ^ Varner, Eric R. (2004). Mutilation and Transformation : Damnatio Memoriae
Damnatio Memoriae
and Roman Imperial Portraiture. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 212. ISBN 90-04-13577-4. 

Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carinus, Marcus Aurelius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

In Literature[edit]

Mor Jokai's A Christian but a Roman is set in Carinus' Rome

External links[edit] Media related to Carinus
Carinus
at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Magnia Urbica
Magnia Urbica
at Wikimedia Commons

Regnal titles

Preceded by Carus Roman Emperor 283–285 Served alongside: Carus
Carus
(283) and Numerian
Numerian
(283-284) Succeeded by Diocletian

Political offices

Preceded by Probus , Victorinus Consul of the Roman Empire 283–285 with Carus, Numerian
Numerian
, Diocletian, Bassus, Titus
Titus
Claudius
Claudius
Aurelius Aristobulus Succeeded by Marcus Junius Maximus, Vettius Aquilinus

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 74647598 LCCN: no2014032

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