HOME
The Info List - Camerlengo Of The Holy Roman Church


--- Advertisement ---



The Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church
is an office of the Papal household that administers the property and revenues of the Holy See. Formerly, his responsibilities included the fiscal administration of the Patrimony of St. Peter. As regulated in the Apostolic Constitution Pastor Bonus (1988),[1] the Camerlengo is always a cardinal, though this was not the case prior to the 15th century.[2] His heraldic arms are ornamented with two keys – one gold, one silver – in saltire surmounted by an ombrellino, a canopy or umbrella of alternating red and yellow stripes. These are also the arms of the Holy See
Holy See
during a Papal interregnum.

Contents

1 History 2 Responsibilities 3 List of Camerlengos 4 In popular culture 5 Notes 6 References

History[edit] Until the 11th century, the Archdeacon
Archdeacon
of the Roman Church was responsible for the administration of the property of the Church (i.e., the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome), but its numerous ancient privileges and rights had come to make it a frequent hindrance to independent action on the part of the Pope; as a result, when the last Archdeacon Hildebrand was elected to the papacy as Gregory VII in 1073, he suppressed the Archdiaconate and the prelate entrusted with the supervision of the Apostolic Camera (Camera Apostolica), i.e., the possessions of the Holy See, became known as the Camerarius ("Chamberlain"). Prior to the 18th century,[3] the Camerlengo enjoyed an income of 10,000 to 12,000 scudi a year out of the Apostolic Camera. He had jurisdiction over all suits involving the Apostolic Camera, and could judge separately or in association with the Clerics of the Apostolic Camera; he was not impeded by Consistory. He has appellate jurisdiction over suits decided by the Masters of the Roads. In a narration of the 18th century, the Camerlengo is the chief officer in the Apostolic Camera, the Financial Council of the Pope. In his office are the Governor of Rome
Rome
(who is Vice-Chancellor), The Treasurer, the Auditor, the President, the Advocate General, the Fiscal Procurator, the Commissary, and twelve Clerks of the Chamber (one with the special title of Prefect of the Grain Supply, another Prefect of Provisions, another Prefect of Prisons, and another Prefect of Roads). Each Clerk of the Chamber received around 8,000 scudi a year, representing 10% of the business that passes through his office.[4] The powers and functions of the Camerlengo were diminished considerably in the 19th century, first by the reorganisation of the Papal government after the election of Pope
Pope
Pius VII (30 October 1800); then by the reorganization of the Papal government after the return of Pope
Pope
Pius IX from exile in 1850; and then by the loss of the Papal States
Papal States
in 1860 and the City of Rome
Rome
in 1870. The chief beneficiary of these changes was the Cardinal Secretary of State.[5] In the last century, the offices of Secretary of State and Camerlengo were held concurrently by Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
(from 1916–1930), Eugenio Pacelli (from 1935–1939), Jean-Marie Villot
Jean-Marie Villot
(from 1970–1979), and by Tarcisio Bertone
Tarcisio Bertone
(from 2007 until 2013). On 20 December 2014, Pope
Pope
Francis appointed Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran as Camerlengo, succeeding Cardinal Bertone.[6] Responsibilities[edit]

Coat of arms of the Cardinal Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church during Sede Vacante Jean-Louis Pierre Cardinal Tauran.

The Camerlengo is responsible for the formal determination of the death of the reigning Pope; the traditional procedure–abandoned centuries ago–was to call his baptismal name (e.g. "Albine, dormisne?", meaning "[name], are you sleeping?").[a] After the Pope
Pope
is declared dead, the Camerlengo takes possession of the Ring of the Fisherman and cuts it with shears in the presence of the Cardinals. This act symbolizes the end of the late Pope's authority and prevents its use in forging documents. The Camerlengo then notifies the appropriate officers of the Roman Curia
Roman Curia
and the Dean of the College of Cardinals. He then participates in the preparations for the conclave and the Pope's funeral. Until a successor Pope
Pope
can be elected, the Camerlengo serves as Vatican City's acting head of state. He is no longer, however, responsible for the government of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
when the papacy is vacant; that task was placed in the hands of the College of Cardinals by Universi Dominici gregis
Universi Dominici gregis
(1996). His power is extremely limited, being merely enough to allow Church institutions to continue to operate and perform some basic functions without making any definitive decisions or appointments that are normally reserved to other powers delegated by the Pope. Unlike the rest of Roman Curia, the Camerlengo retains his office during the sede vacante and functions as the executive director of the Vatican's operations, answerable to the College of Cardinals. This is primarily to carry out the College's decisions with regard to the funeral of the late Pope and the events leading up to the conclave. The only other people who keep their offices during this time are the Major Penitentiary, the Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, the Papal Almoner, and the Vicars General for Rome
Rome
and for the Vatican City
Vatican City
State.[8] List of Camerlengos[edit] Those who have held the office of Camerlengo are:[9][10]

Jordan of S. Susanna (documented 1147–1151) Franchus (1151) Rainierus (documented 1151) Yngo (documented 1154) Boso Breakspeare (1154/55 – 1159) Bernard the Templar (documented 1163) Teodino de Arrone (documented 1163) Franco Gaufridus Fulchier (documented 1175–1181) Gerardo Allucingoli (ca.1182/84) Melior le Maitre (documented 1184–1187) Cencio Savelli (1188–1198), later Pope
Pope
Honorius III Riccardo (documented 1198)[11] Ottaviano Conti di Segni (1200–1206) Stefano di Ceccano (1206–1216) Pandolfo Verraclo
Pandolfo Verraclo
(1216–1222) Sinibaldo (ca.1222 – ca.1227) Rinaldo Conti di Segni (1227–1231), later Pope
Pope
Alexander IV (1231–1236 – no information found) Giovanni da Ferentino (1236–1238) (1238–1243 – no information found) Martino (ca. 1243 – ca. 1251) Boetius (1251–1254) Niccolo da Anagni (1254–1261) Pierre de Roncevault (1261–1262) Pierre de Charny (1262–1268) Odo of Châteauroux
Odo of Châteauroux
(occupied the post in 1270) Pietro de Montebruno (occupied the post in 1272)[12] Guglielmo di San Lorenzo (occupied the post in 1274)[12] Raynaldus Marci (occupied the post in 1277)[12] Angelo de Vezzosi (occupied the post in 1278)[12] Berardo di Camerino (1279–1288)[12] Niccolo (occupied the post in 1289)[12] Tommaso d'Ocra (1294) Teodorico Ranieri (ca. 1295 – 1299) Giovanni (1301–1305) Arnaud Frangier de Chanteloup (1305–1307) Bertrand des Bordes (1307–1311) Arnaud d'Aux (1311–1319) Gasbert de Valle (1319–1347) Stefano Aldebrandi Cambaruti (1347–1360) Arnaud Aubert (1361–1371) Pierre du Cros
Pierre du Cros
(1371–1383) Marino Giudice (documented 1380–1382) Marino Bulcani (documented 1386–1394) Corrado Caraccioli (documented 1396–1405) Leonardo de Sulmona (named in 1405) Antonio Correr (1406–1415) François de Conzie (1415[b]–1431) Francesco Condulmer
Francesco Condulmer
(1432–1440) Ludovico Trevisan
Ludovico Trevisan
(1440–1465) Latino Orsini (1471–1477) Guillaume d'Estouteville
Guillaume d'Estouteville
(1477–1483) Raffaele Riario
Raffaele Riario
(1483–1521) Innocenzo Cibo
Innocenzo Cibo
(1521) Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici
Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici
(1521–1527) Agostino Spinola
Agostino Spinola
(1528–1537) Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora
(1537–1564) Vitellozzo Vitelli
Vitellozzo Vitelli
(1564–1568) Michele Bonelli (1568–1570) Luigi Cornaro
Luigi Cornaro
(1570–1584) Filippo Guastavillani
Filippo Guastavillani
(1584–1587) Enrico Caetani
Enrico Caetani
(1587–1599) Pietro Aldobrandini
Pietro Aldobrandini
(1599–1621) Ludovico Ludovisi
Ludovico Ludovisi
(1621–1623) Ippolito Aldobrandini (1623–1638) Antonio Barberini
Antonio Barberini
(1638–1671) Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
(1671–1698) Galeazzo Marescotti, pro-camerlengo (1698) Giovanni Battista Spinola (1698–1719) Annibale Albani
Annibale Albani
(1719–1747) Silvio Valenti Gonzaga
Silvio Valenti Gonzaga
(1747–1756) Girolamo Colonna di Sciarra (1756–1763) Carlo Rezzonico (1763–1799) Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti
Romoaldo Braschi-Onesti
(1800–1801) Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphili, pro-camerlengo (1801–1814) Bartolomeo Pacca
Bartolomeo Pacca
(1814–1824) Pietro Francesco Galeffi
Pietro Francesco Galeffi
(1824–1837) Giacomo Giustiniani (1837–1843) Tommaso Riario Sforza
Tommaso Riario Sforza
(1843–1857) Lodovico Altieri
Lodovico Altieri
(1857–1867) Filippo de Angelis (1867–1877) Gioacchino Pecci (1877–1878), later Pope
Pope
Leo XIII Camillo di Pietro
Camillo di Pietro
(1878–1884) Domenico Consolini (1884) Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano
Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano
(1885–1913) Francesco Salesio Della Volpe
Francesco Salesio Della Volpe
(1914–1916) Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
(1916–1934) Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
(1935–1939), later Pope
Pope
Pius XII Lorenzo Lauri
Lorenzo Lauri
(1939–1941) Benedetto Aloisi Masella
Benedetto Aloisi Masella
(1958–1970) Jean-Marie Villot
Jean-Marie Villot
(1970–1979) Paolo Bertoli
Paolo Bertoli
(1979–1985) Sebastiano Baggio (1985–1993) Eduardo Martínez Somalo
Eduardo Martínez Somalo
(1993–2007) Tarcisio Bertone
Tarcisio Bertone
(2007–2014) Jean-Louis Tauran
Jean-Louis Tauran
(2014–present)

Two Camerlengos have been elected Pope: Gioacchino Pecci ( Pope
Pope
Leo XIII) in 1878 and Eugenio Pacelli
Eugenio Pacelli
( Pope
Pope
Pius XII) in 1939. Two others, Cencio Savelli (elected Pope
Pope
Honorius III in 1216) and Rinaldo Conti di Segni (elected Pope
Pope
Alexander IV in 1254) were not Camerlengo at the time of their election to the papacy, Cencio having served from 1188 until 1198 and Rinaldo from 1227 until 1231.[c]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category:Coats of arms of cardinals camerlengo.

In popular culture[edit] Dan Brown's novel Angels & Demons and its film adaptation featured a Camerlengo as a principal character. Notes[edit]

^ According to Hartwell de la Garde Grissell, Chamberlain of Honor di numero to Pope
Pope
Pius IX, Pope
Pope
Leo XIII, and Pope
Pope
Pius X, who was present at the ceremony of recognition in 1903: "It may also be here mentioned that no such ceremony as striking the dead Pope's forehead with a silver hammer takes place, and that the exact method of calling aloud his name is not tied down to any determinate form, but is left to the discretion of the Cardinal Camerlengo.... In an original [manuscript] diary in my possession written by Domenico Cappelli of Ascoli, who was Master of Ceremonies to five Popes—Alexander VII., Clement IX., Clement X., Innocent XI., and Alexander VIII.—he states that the custom of calling aloud three times the words 'Pater Sancte' was discontinued on the death of Clement X. in 1676.[7] ^ 1383–1415 camerlengo of the obediences of Avignon and Pisa in the Great Western Schism. ^ It is sometimes claimed that Cosimo Gentile Migliorati (Pope Innocent VII from 1404 until 1406) was also Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.[13] but no document mentioning him in this capacity has been found.[14]

References[edit]

This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (February 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

^ Pastor Bonus ^ Miranda, Salvador. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Reverend Apostolic Chamber". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University. Retrieved 22 February 2010. The camerlengo was often a cardinal, but it became a cardinalitial office only from the XV century.  ^ Girolamo Lunadoro Gregorio Leti, Relatione della Corte di Roma, e de' Riti che si osservano in esta, suoi Magistrati, Officii, e loro giurisdittione (Genoa: Il Calenzani 1656), pp. 39, 318–320. ^ Jean Aymon, Tableau de la cour de Rome
Rome
seconde edition (La Haye: Jean Neaulme, 1726), Chapitre IX–XIV, pp. 256–265. ^ The Camerlengo. Notes by Prof. J. P. Adams ^ "Francis names new Camerlengo, interim leader of Vatican at pope's death". National Catholic Reporter. 20 December 2014.  ^ Hartwell de la Garde Grissell, Sede Vacante, being a Diary written during the Conclave of 1903, with additional Notes on the Accession and Coronation of Pius X (Oxford and London: James Parker and Co. 1903), page 2. ^ http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis.html ^  Benigni, U. (1913). "Camerlengo". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  ^ S. Miranda, Apostolic Chamber ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 423 note 347 ^ a b c d e f Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 99. pp. 127–128.  ^ MIGLIORATI, Cosmato Gentile de', accessed 11 April 2015 ^ H. Kochendörfer, "Päpstliche Kurialen während des grossen Schismas" in Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für Ältere Deutsche Geschichtskunde, Volume 30 (1905), pp. 598–599, esp. 599

Frances Andrews, Brenda Bolton, Christoph Egger, Constance M. Rousseau, Pope, Church And City: Essays In Honour Of Brenda M. Bolton, BRILL, 2004. Konrad Eubel: Hierarchia Catholica, vol. I–VI, Mü

.