Cambridgeshire (/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /-ʃɪər/; abbreviated
Cambs.), is an East Anglian county in England, bordering
Lincolnshire to the north,
Norfolk to the north-east,
Suffolk to the
Hertfordshire to the south, and
Northamptonshire to the west. The city of
Cambridge is the county
Cambridgeshire was formed in 1974 as an amalgamation of
the counties of
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely and
Peterborough, the former covering the historic county of
Cambridgeshire (including the Isle of Ely), and the latter covering
the historic county of
Huntingdonshire and the Soke of Peterborough
area of historic Northamptonshire. It contains most of the region
known as Silicon Fen.
Local government is divided between
Cambridgeshire County Council
Cambridgeshire County Council and
Peterborough City Council, which is a separate unitary authority.
Under the county council, there are five district councils, Cambridge
South Cambridgeshire District Council, East
Cambridgeshire District Council,
Huntingdonshire District Council and
Fenland District Council.
2.1 Green belt
5.1 Primary and secondary
8.2 Contemporary Art
9 Places of interest
10 Notable people from Cambridgeshire
11 See also
14 External links
Main article: History of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of
Flag Fen in Fengate, one of the
Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom,
compared in importance to
Balbridie in Aberdeen, Scotland. A great
quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age
Iron Age were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were
found in Isleham.
Cambridgeshire was recorded in the
Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire"
(or rather Grentebrigescire) (related to the river Granta).
Covering a large part of East Anglia,
Cambridgeshire today is the
result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county
councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the
traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for
the area in the south around Cambridge, and
the liberty of the Isle of Ely.
In 1965, these two administrative counties were merged to form
Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. Under the Local Government Act
1972 this merged with the county to the west,
Peterborough. (The latter had been organised in 1965 by the merger of
Huntingdonshire with the Soke of
Peterborough – previously a part of
Northamptonshire which had its own county council). The resulting
county was called simply Cambridgeshire.
Since 1998, the City of
Peterborough has been a separately
administered area, as a unitary authority. It is associated with
Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy, and joint
functions such as policing and the fire service.
In 2002, the conservation charity
Plantlife unofficially designated
Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower.
Cambridgeshire Regiment (or Fen Tigers), the county-based army
unit, fought in the
Boer War of South Africa, the First World War and
Second World War.
Due to the county's flat terrain and proximity to the continent,
during the Second World War the military built many airfields here for
RAF Bomber Command, RAF Fighter Command, and the allied USAAF. In
recognition of this collaboration, the
Cambridge American Cemetery and
Memorial is located in Madingley. It is the only WWII burial ground in
England for American servicemen who died during that event.
Most English counties have nicknames for their people, such as a
Yorkshire and a "Yellowbelly" from Lincolnshire. The
traditional nicknames for people from
Cambridgeshire Camel" or "
Cambridgeshire Crane", referring to the
wildfowl that were once abundant in the fens. The term "Fenners" was
often applied to those who come from the flat country to the north of
Cambridge. Since the late 20th century, this term is considered to be
derogatory and has been discouraged in use.
Original historical documents relating to
Cambridgeshire are held by
Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies.
See also Geology of Cambridgeshire
Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying and Holme Fen is
notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2.75 m
(9 ft) below sea level. The highest point is in the village of
Great Chishill at 146 m (480 ft) above sea level. Other
prominent hills are
Little Trees Hill
Little Trees Hill and
Wandlebury Hill (both at
74 m (243 ft)) in the Gog Magog Hills,
Rivey Hill above
Rowley's Hill and the
Cambridge Green Belt
Cambridgeshire contains all its green belt around the city of
Cambridge, extending to places such as Waterbeach, Lode, Duxford,
Great Abingdon and other communities a few miles away in
nearby districts, to afford a protection from the conurbation. It was
first drawn up in the 1950s.
Flag of Cambridgeshire
Flag of Cambridgeshire County Council
Cambridgeshire contains seven Parliamentary constituencies:
Member of Parliament
North East Cambridgeshire
North West Cambridgeshire
South East Cambridgeshire
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of
Cambridgeshire at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253)
by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English
Regional Gross Value Added
AWG plc is based in Huntingdon. The RAF has several stations in the
Huntingdon and St Ives area. RAF Waterbeach, 6 miles north of
Cambridge, is a former RAF airfield, now used as an army barracks. RAF
Alconbury, 3 miles north of Huntingdon, is being reorganised after a
period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF, to be the
focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations, with activities at Upwood
and Molesworth being transferred there. Most of
agricultural. Close to
Cambridge is the so-called
Silicon Fen area of
high-technology (electronics, computing and biotechnology) companies.
ARM Limited is based in Cherry Hinton.
Primary and secondary
See also: List of schools in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire has a completely comprehensive education system with 12
independent schools and over 240 state schools, not including sixth
Some of the secondary schools act as Village Colleges, institutions
unique to Cambridgeshire. For example, Bottisham Village College.
Cambridgeshire is home to a number of institutes of higher education:
The University of
Cambridge – second-oldest university in the
English-speaking world, and regarded as one of the most prestigious
academic institutions in the world
Anglia Ruskin University
Anglia Ruskin University – has a campus located in
Cambridge and a
base at Fulbourn
Open University – has a regional centre located in Cambridge
The University Centre
Peterborough – operated by Anglia Ruskin
Peterborough Regional College, located in Peterborough
College of West Anglia
College of West Anglia has a campus at Milton, on the northern
outskirts of Cambridge
Cambridge Regional College and
College both offer a limited range of higher education courses in
conjunction with partner universities.
Map of the
Cambridgeshire area (1904)
Civil parishes in Cambridgeshire
Civil parishes in Cambridgeshire and List of Cambridgeshire
settlements by population
These are the settlements in
Cambridgeshire with a town charter, city
status or a population over 5,000; for a complete list of settlements
see list of places in Cambridgeshire.
Peterborough (no longer part of the administrative county)
List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population
List of Cambridgeshire settlements by population page for more
The town of Newmarket is surrounded on three sides by Cambridgeshire,
being connected by a narrow strip of land to the rest of Suffolk.
Cambridgeshire has seen 32,869 dwellings created from 2002–2013 
and there are a further 35,360 planned new dwellings between now and
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2013) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
Cambridgeshire has a maritime temperate climate which is broadly
similar to the rest of the United Kingdom, though it is drier than the
UK average due to its low altitude and easterly location, the
prevailing southwesterly winds having already deposited moisture on
higher ground further west. Average winter temperatures are cooler
than the English average, due to Cambridgeshire's inland location and
relative nearness to continental Europe, which results in the
moderating maritime influence being less strong. Snowfall is slightly
more common than in western areas, due to the relative winter coolness
and easterly winds bringing occasional snow from the North Sea. In
summer temperatures are average or slightly above, due to less cloud
cover. It reaches 25 °C (77 °F) on around 10 days each
year, and is comparable to parts of
Kent and East Anglia.
Climate data for
Cambridge 1971–2000 average
Average high °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Source: Met Office
The logo of
Bandy Federation, based in Cambridgeshire
Various forms of football have been popular in
medieval times at least. In 1579 one match played at Chesterton
between townspeople and
Cambridge University students ended in a
violent brawl that led the Vice-Chancellor to issue a decree
forbidding them to play "footeball” outside of college grounds.
Despite this and other decrees, football continued to be popular.
George Elwes Corrie, Master of Jesus College, observed in 1838, that
while walking past a park named
Parker's Piece he "saw some forty
Gownsmen playing at football. The novelty and liveliness of the scene
were amusing!" By 1839,
Albert Pell was organising football
matches at the university; because each town or school had different
rules, students had to devise a compromise set of rules.
Cambridge University in 1846,
H. de Winton and
J. C. Thring formed
a pioneering football club. Only a few matches were played, but in
1848 interest in football increased and that year the
the first attempt to codify a form of football were drawn up in
Cambridge rules are generally regarded as the main
precursor of Association football.
As a result of its role in the formation of the first football rules,
Parker's Piece remains hallowed turf for football fans and
historians. In commemoration of the creation of Football; a statue
is to be raised in the middle of the park where the game was invented.
Cambridgeshire is also the birthplace of bandy, now an IOC
accepted sport. According to documents from 1813, Bury Fen Bandy
Club was undefeated for 100 years. A member of the club, Charles
Goodman Tebbutt, wrote down the first official rules in 1882.
Tebbutt was instrumental in spreading the sport to many countries.
Bandy Federation is based in Cambridgeshire.
On 6–7 June 2015, the inaugural Tour of
Cambridgeshire cycle race
took place on closed roads across the county. The event was an
official UCI qualification event, and consisted of a Time Trial on the
6th, and a
Gran Fondo event on the 7th. The
Gran Fondo event was open
to the public, and over 6000 riders took part in the 128 km
(80 mi) race.
Cambridge is home to the
Kettle's Yard gallery and the artist run Aid
and Abet project Space. Nine miles west of
Cambridge next to the
Bourn is Wysing Arts Centre.
Places of interest
Accessible open space
Museum (free/not free)
Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial
Cambridge University Museum of Zoology
Castor Hanglands NNR
Cherry Hinton Chalk Pits
Down Field Windmill
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge
Fowlmere RSPB reserve
Gamsey Wood Nature Reserve
Grafham Water Nature Reserve
Great Gransden Post Mill
Imperial War Museum
King's College, Cambridge
Lattersey Nature Reserve
Milton Country Park
Milton Country Park
Nene Valley Railway
Nene Valley Railway
New Bedford River
Octavia Hill Birthplace Museum
Old Bedford River
Oliver Cromwell's House
Ouse Valley Way
Parker's Piece, Cambridge, birthplace of modern football
Paxton Pits Nature Reserve
Peckover House & Garden
Prickwillow Drainage Engine Museum
River Great Ouse
Round Church, Cambridge
RSPB Nene Washes
RSPB Ouse Washes
Stretham Old Engine
Stretham Old Engine
Three Shires Bridleway
Cambridge Museum of
Archaeology and Anthropology
Wandlebury Country Park
Wisbech and March Bramley Line
Wysing Arts Centre
Notable people from Cambridgeshire
See Category:People from Cambridgeshire
List of Lord Lieutenants of Cambridgeshire
List of High sheriffs of Cambridgeshire
Custos Rotulorum of Cambridgeshire – Keepers of the Rolls for
Cambridgeshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs
Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies
Cambridgeshire local elections
Healthcare in Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire Police and Crime Commissioner
^ "Lord Lieutenant".
^ "High Sheriff -
Cambridgeshire Home page".
^ Archaically known as the County of
Cambridge (EB 1878).
^ "Local government in Cambridgeshire".
Cambridgeshire County Council.
Retrieved 25 July 2016.
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Order 1964 (SI 1964/366), see
Local Government Commission for
England (1958 - 1967), Report and
Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3), 31
July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the
Lincolnshire and East
Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9), 7 May 1965
^ The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI
1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and
Electoral Changes) Order 1996 (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government
England (1992), Final Recommendations for the Future
Local Government of Cambridgeshire, October 1994 and Final
Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon &
Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling &
Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon
Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire
& Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin,
^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
^ includes hunting and forestry
^ includes energy and construction
^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
^ "Housing Development in
Cambridgeshire 2013" (PDF).
^ "Dwelling Commitments in Cambridgeshire" (PDF).
^ Association, The Football. "Sorry. Something's wrong with the pitch.
Cambridgeshire FA". www.cambridgeshirefa.com.
^ Harvey 2005, p. 48
^ Cambridge... the birthplace of football?!, BBC, Cambridgeshire, UK,
^ a b BBC. "A handy
Bandy guide..." Retrieved 9 June 2017.
^ "Federation of International Bandy-Olympic". Internationalbandy.com.
12 August 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
Retrieved 25 September 2010.
Cambridgeshire – History – A handy
Bandy guide". BBC. 21
February 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
^ "Members - Federation of International Bandy".
^ "cultunet". cultunet.com. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 February
Arnold, F. (1878), "County of Cambridge", in Baynes, T.S.,
Encyclopædia Britannica, 4 (9th ed.), New York: Charles Scribner's
Sons, pp. 726–728
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cambridgeshire.
"Cambridgeshire", Encyclopædia Britannica, 5 (11th ed.), 1911,
Cambridgeshire County Council
Cambridgeshire Community Archive Network.
Cambridgeshire at the
English Heritage Archive
Cambridgeshire at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Cambridge Military History Blog
The Flag Institute: Cambridgeshire
Ceremonial county of Cambridgeshire
City of Peterborough
Boroughs or districts
City of Cambridge
District of East Cambridgeshire
District of Fenland
District of Huntingdonshire
District of South Cambridgeshire
See also: List of civil parishes in Cambridgeshire
Great Ouse (Old Bedford
Population of major settlements
Grade I listed buildings
Diocese of Ely
Diocese of Peterborough
Isle of Ely
Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely
Soke of Peterborough
Huntingdon and Peterborough
1974–1996 ← Ceremonial counties of
England → current
East Riding of Yorkshire
Isle of Wight
City of London
Tyne and Wear