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Calvary, or Golgotha ( grc-koi, Γολγοθᾶ } ''Golgothâ ', traditionally interpreted as reflecting syr, ܓܓܘܠܬܐ ''gāgūlṯā'', as it were Hebrew ''gulgōleṯ'' "skull" (); ar, جلجثة), was, according to the
canonical Gospels Gospel originally meant the Christianity, Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
, a site immediately outside Jerusalem's walls where
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, ...
was
crucified Crucifixion is a method of punishment or capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang perhaps for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. It was used as a punishment ...
. The canonical Gospels use the Koine term ''Kraníon'' () when testifying to the place outside Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified. ''Kraníon'' is often translated as "
Skull The skull is a bone A bone is a Stiffness, rigid tissue (anatomy), tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrate animals. Bones protect the various organs of the body, produce red blood cell, red and white blood cells, sto ...

Skull
" in English, but more accurately means ''Cranium'', the part of the skull enclosing the brain. In
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
it is rendered Calvariae Locus, from which the English term ''Calvary'' derives. Its traditional site, identified by Queen Mother Helena, mother of
Constantine the Great Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Constantius Chlor ...

Constantine the Great
, in 325, is at the site of the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, hy, Սուրբ Հարության տաճար, la, Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, am, የቅዱስ መቃብር ቤተክርስቲያን, he, כנסיית הקבר, ar, كنيسة القيامة is a church in ...

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
. A 19th-century suggestion places it at the site now known as
The Garden Tomb The Garden Tomb ( he, גן הקבר) is a Rock-cut tombs in ancient Israel, rock-cut tomb in Jerusalem, which was unearthed in 1867 and is considered by some Protestants to be the Tomb of Jesus, site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus. The t ...
on Skull Hill, some to the north, and north of the
Damascus Gate The Damascus Gate ( ar, باب العامود, Bāb al-ʿĀmūd, he, שער שכם, ''Sha'ar Sh'khem'') is one of the main Gates of the Old City of Jerusalem. It is located in the wall on the city's northwest side and connects to a highway leadi ...

Damascus Gate
. Historian
Joan E. Taylor
Joan E. Taylor
bases a location c. south-southeast of the traditional site on her reading of textual evidence.


Biblical references and etymology

The recorded form Γολγοθα may be a simplified pronunciation of an Aramaic ''golgolta'', corresponding to Hebrew ''gulgōleṯ'' () "skull". English ''Calvary'' is the anglicized form of the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
gloss from the
Vulgate The Vulgate (; also called , ) is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, H ...
(''Calvariæ''), to refer to Golgotha in
Luke 23 Luke 23 is the twenty-third chapter of the Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, ...
:33, where the Greek text gives Κρανίον rather than the explicit Κρανίου Τόπος of
Matthew 27 Matthew 27 is the 27th chapter in the Gospel of Matthew, part of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon# ...
:33,
Mark 15 Mark 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christianity, Christian Bible. This chapter records the narrative of Jesus' Passion (Christianity), passion, including his Pilate's court, trial before Pontius Pila ...
:22 and
John 19 John 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth ...
:17. The adoption of the Latin form has a long tradition in
English Bible translations Partial Bible translations into English language, languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old English, Old and Middle English. More than 450 translations into English have been writte ...

English Bible translations
, going back to at least the late 10th century (
Wessex Gospels__NOTOC__ The ''Wessex Gospels'' (also known as the ''West-Saxon Gospels'') refer to a translation of the four gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in wh ...
), and is retained in
Wycliffe's Bible Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations The Bible has been translation, translated into Bible translations by language, many languages from the biblical languages of Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew, Biblical Aramaic, A ...

Wycliffe's Bible
and
Tyndale's Bible The Tyndale Bible generally refers to the body of Bible translations, biblical translations by William Tyndale (). Tyndale's Bible is credited with being the first English translation to work directly from Hebrew Bible, Hebrew and Greek language, G ...
as well as in the
King James Version The King James Version (KJV), also the King James Bible (KJB) and the Authorized Version, is an English translation English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and langu ...

King James Version
. By contrast,
Martin Luther Martin Luther (; ; 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citize ...

Martin Luther
translates Luke's Κρανίον into German as ' ("place of skull(s)"). The Latinism is also current in various other languages within the Latin sphere of influence, including Spanish and Italian ''Calvario'', French ''Calvaire'', Polish ''Kalwaria'', Lithuanian ''Kalvarijos''. The church fathers offer different interpretations for the name; either deriving it from a topographic feature resembling a cranium (
Pseudo-TertullianPseudo-Tertullian is the scholarly name for the unknown author of ''Adversus Omnes Haereses'', an appendix to the work ''De praescriptionem haereticorum'' of Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; c. 155 – c. AD 22 ...
),Golgotha is described as "A spot there is called Golgotha, – of old the fathers' earlier tongue thus called its name, 'The skull-pan of a head'." by Five Books in Reply to Marcion, Book 2, Ante-Nicene Fathers Volume 4, p. 276 or alternatively as the site where the skull of
Adam Adam (; Aramaic: ܐܕܡ; ar, آدَم, ʾĀdam; el, Ἀδάμ, Adám; la, Adam) is a figure in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew ...

Adam
was said to be buried ( Origenes), or from the skulls of those executed there (
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authorize ...

Jerome
, ''locum decollatorum''). The association of the site with the "skull of Adam" is expanded in a number of noncanonical Christian writings, including the ''Kitab al-Magall'', the ''
Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan The ''Conflict of Adam and Eve with Satan (also known as The Book of Adam and Eve'') is a 6th-century Christian extracanonical work found in Ge'ez, translated from an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged ...
'', the ''
Cave of Treasures The ''Cave of Treasures'' ( Syriac ''Me`ârath Gazzê'', Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by Stefan Weninger; in col ...
'', as well as by Patriarch Eutychius of Alexandria (9th century). According to these accounts,
Shem Shem (; he, שֵׁם ''Šēm''; ar, سام, Sām ''Sḗm''; Ge'ez: ሴም, ''Sēm'') was one of the sons of Noah File:Noahsworld map.jpg, 230px, The world as known to the Hebrews according to the Biblical cosmology, Mosaic account (1854 ma ...
and
Melchizedek Melchizedek (; he, מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶֿק, , "king of righteousness"; am, መልከ ጼዴቅ, ; hy, Մելքիսեդեք, ), also transliterated Melchisedech or Malki Tzedek, was the king of Salem and priest of ''El Elyon'' (often tr ...

Melchizedek
traveled to the resting place of
Noah's Ark Noah's Ark ( he, תיבת נח; Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew language, Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite languages, Canaanite br ...

Noah's Ark
, retrieved the body of Adam from it, and were led by Angels to Golgotha – described as a skull-shaped hill at the centre of the Earth, where also the serpent's head had been crushed following the
Fall of Man The fall of man, the fall of Adam, or simply the Fall, is a term used in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Je ...
. While the Gospels merely identify Calvary as a "place" (), Christian tradition since at least the 6th century has described the location as a "mountain" or "hill". The location itself is mentioned in all four
canonical Gospels Gospel originally meant the Christianity, Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
: *
Matthew 27 Matthew 27 is the 27th chapter in the Gospel of Matthew, part of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Biblical canon# ...
:33: "And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha ολγοθᾶ that is to say, a place of a skull ρανίου Τόπος (KJV) *
Mark 15 Mark 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christianity, Christian Bible. This chapter records the narrative of Jesus' Passion (Christianity), passion, including his Pilate's court, trial before Pontius Pila ...
:22: "And they bring him unto the place Golgotha ολγοθᾶ which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull ρανίου Τόπος (KJV) *
Luke 23 Luke 23 is the twenty-third chapter of the Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, ...
:33: "And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary [Κρανίον], there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left." (KJV) *
John 19 John 19 is the nineteenth chapter of the Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth ...
:17: "And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull [Κρανίου Τόπον], which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha [Γολγοθα]." (KJV) An alternative suggestion, due to Krafft (1846) proposes that the reported association with the word "skull" is a popular etymology of an original name ''Gol Goatha'', interpreted (by Krafft) as meaning "heap of death", or "hill of execution"; the supposed toponym ''Goatha'' has also been identified, by Ferguson (1847), with the location called ''Goʿah'' (גֹּעָה) in Book of Jeremiah, Jeremiah 31:39, in a description of the geography of Jerusalem.


Location

There is no consensus as to the location of the site. Gospel of John, John () describes the crucifixion site as being "near the city". According to Epistle to the Hebrews, Hebrews (), it was "outside the city gate". and both note that the location would have been accessible to "passers-by". Thus, locating the crucifixion site involves identifying a site that, in the city of Jerusalem some four decades before its Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), destruction in AD 70, would have been outside a major gate near enough to the city that the passers-by could not only see him, but also read the inscription 'Jesus the Nazarene, the King of the Jews'.


Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Christian tradition since the fourth century has favoured a location now within the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, hy, Սուրբ Հարության տաճար, la, Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, am, የቅዱስ መቃብር ቤተክርስቲያን, he, כנסיית הקבר, ar, كنيسة القيامة is a church in ...

Church of the Holy Sepulchre
. This places it well within today's walls of Jerusalem, which surround the Old City (Jerusalem), Old City and were rebuilt in the 16th century by the Ottoman Empire. Proponents of the traditional Holy Sepulchre location point out at the fact that first-century Jerusalem had a different shape and size from the 16th-century city, leaving the church's site outside the pre-AD 70 city walls. Those opposing it doubt this. Defenders of the traditional site have argued that the site of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was only brought within the city limits by Herod Agrippa (41–44), who built the so-called Third Wall around a newly-settled northern district, while at the time of Jesus' crucifixion around AD 30 it would still have been just outside the city. Henry Chadwick (theologian), Henry Chadwick (2003) argued that when Hadrian's builders replanned the old city, they "incidentally confirm[ed] the bringing of Golgotha inside a new town wall." In 2007 Dan Bahat, the former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem and Professor of Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University, stated that "Six graves from the first century were found on the area of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. That means, this place [was] outside of the city, without any doubt…",Dan Baha
in German television ZDF, April 11, 2007
/ref> thus maintaining that there are no scientific, archaeological grounds for rejecting the traditional location for Calvary.


Alternative theories

Some Protestant advocates of an alternative site claim that a wall would imply the existence of a defensive ditch outside it, so an earlier wall could not be immediately adjacent to the ''Golgotha'' site, which, combined with the presence of the Temple Mount, would make the city inside the wall quite thin. Essentially, for the traditional site to have been outside the wall, the city would have had to be limited to the lower parts of the Tyropoeon Valley, rather than including the defensively advantageous western hill. Since these geographic considerations imply that not including the hill within the walls would be willfully making the city prone to attack from it, some scholars, including the late 19th century surveyors of the Palestine Exploration Fund, consider it unlikely that people would build a wall that cut the hill off from the city in the valley. However, archaeological digs within the Church of the Holy Sepulchre proved the existence of six graves from the first century on the area of the church, placing it outside the city area and casting doubt on the "Strategic Weakness" and "Defensive Ditch" hypotheses. Joan Taylor supports a location inside the Old City, east of Jaffa Gate, southwest of the David and Habad Street junction, but still north of St Mark's Street. She considers that canonical as well as apocryphal Gospels, in connection with the known history and archaeology of Aelia Capitolina and Byzantine Jerusalem, together with the works of Melito of Sardis and Eusebius, indicate that Golgotha was the name of an area created by a large First Temple Period quarry, and not just of the crucifixion site, the latter of which she locates at the southern margin of this area. At the same time, Taylor supports the traditional location of the tomb.


Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The traditional location of Golgotha derives from its identification by Queen Mother Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, in 325. Only a few steps away (within ), Helena also identified the location of the tomb of Jesus and claimed to have discovered the True Cross; her son, Constantine, then built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre around the whole site. In 333, the author of the ''Itinerarium Burdigalense'', entering from the east, described the result: In Nazénie Garibian de Vartavan's doctoral thesis, now published as ''La Jérusalem Nouvelle et les premiers sanctuaires chrétiens de l’Arménie. Méthode pour l’étude de l’église comme temple de Dieu,'' she concluded, through multiple arguments (mainly theological and archaeological), that the true site of Golgotha was precisely at the vertical of the now buried Constantinian basilica's altar and away from where the traditional rock of Golgotha is situated. The plans published in the book indicate the location of the Golgotha within a precision of less than two meters, below the circular passage situated a metre away from where the blood stained shirt of Christ was traditionally recovered and immediately before the stairs leading down to St. Helena's Chapel (the above-mentioned mother of Emperor Constantine), alternatively called St. Vartan's Chapel.


Temple to Aphrodite

Prior to Helena's identification, the site had been a temple to Aphrodite. Constantine's construction took over most of the site of the earlier temple enclosure, and the ''Rotunda'' and cloister (which was replaced after the 12th century by the present ''Katholikon, Catholicon'' and ''Calvary chapel'') roughly overlap with the temple building itself; the basilica church Constantine built over the remainder of the enclosure was destroyed at the turn of the 11th century, and has not been replaced. Sacred Tradition, Christian tradition claims that the location had originally been a Christian place of veneration, but that Hadrian had deliberately buried these Christian sites and built his own temple on top, on account of his alleged hatred for Christianity. There is certainly evidence that circa 160, at least as early as 30 years after Aelia Capitolina, Hadrian's temple had been built, Christians associated it with the site of ''Golgotha''; Melito of Sardis, an influential mid-2nd century bishop in the region, described the location as "in the middle of the street, in the middle of the city", which matches the position of Hadrian's temple within the mid-2nd century city. Romans typically built a city according to a Hippodamus, Hippodamian grid plan – a North-South arterial road, the Cardo (which is now the Suq Khan-ez-Zeit), and an East-West arterial road, the Decumanus Maximus (which is now the Via Dolorosa). The Forum (Roman), forum would traditionally be located on the intersection of the two roads, with the main temples adjacent. However, due to the obstruction posed by the Temple Mount, as well as the Legio X Fretensis, Tenth Legion encampment on the Western Hill, Hadrian's city had two ''Cardo'', two ''Decamanus Maximus'', two forums, and several temples. The Western Forum (now Muristan) is located on the crossroads of the West Cardo and what is now El-Bazar/David Street, with the Temple of Aphrodite adjacent, on the intersection of the Western Cardo and the Via Dolorossa. The Northern Forum is located north of the Temple Mount, on the junction of the Via Dolorossa and the Eastern Cardo, adjacent to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus intentionally built atop the Temple Mount. Another popular holy site that Hadrian converted to a pagan temple was the Pool of Bethesda, possibly referenced to in the fifth chapter of the Gospel of John,Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, ''The Holy Land'', (2008), p. 29 on which was built the Temple of Asclepius and Serapis. While the positioning of the Temple of Aphrodite may be, in light of the common Colonia (Roman), Colonia layout, entirely unintentional, Hadrian is known to have concurrently built pagan temples on top of other holy sites in Jerusalem as part of an overall Romanization (cultural), Romanization policy. Archaeological excavations under the Church of the Holy Sepulchre have revealed Christian pilgrims' graffiti, dating from the period that the Temple of Aphrodite was still present, of a ship, a common early Christian symbolNave
''New Advent encyclopedia'', accessed 25 March 2014.
and the etching "DOMINVS IVIMVS", meaning "Lord, we went", lending possible support to the statement by Melito of Sardis asserting that early Christians identified Golgotha as being in the middle of Hadrian's city rather than outside.


Rockface

During 1973–1978 restoration works and excavations inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and under the nearby Muristan, it was found that the area was originally a quarry, from which white Meleke limestone was struck; surviving parts of the quarry to the north-east of the chapel of St. Helena are now accessible from within the chapel (by permission). Inside the church is a rock, about 7 m long by 3 m wide by 4.8 m high, that is traditionally believed to be all that now remains visible of ''Golgotha''; the design of the church means that the ''Calvary Chapel'' contains the upper foot or so of the rock, while the remainder is in the chapel beneath it (known as the ''tomb of Adam''). Virgilio Canio Corbo, Virgilio Corbo, a Franciscan priest and archaeologist, present at the excavations, suggested that from the city the little hill (which still exists) could have looked like a skull.Hesemann 1999, p. 170: "Von der Stadt aus muß er tatsächlich wie eine Schädelkuppe ausgesehen haben," and p. 190: a sketch; and p. 172: a sketch of the geological findings by C. Katsimbinis, 1976: "der Felsblock ist zu 1/8 unterhalb des Kirchenbodens, verbreitert sich dort auf etwa 6,40 Meter und verläuft weiter in die Tiefe"; and p. 192, a sketch by Corbo, 1980: Golgotha is distant 10 meters outside from the southwest corner of the Martyrion-basilica During a 1986 repair to the floor of the ''Calvary Chapel'' by the art historian George Lavas and architect Theo Mitropoulos, a round slot of diameter was discovered in the rock, partly open on one side (Lavas attributes the open side to accidental damage during his repairs);George Lavas, ''The Rock of Calvary'', published (1996) in ''The Real and Ideal Jerusalem in Jewish, Christian and Islamic Art'' (proceedings of the 5th International Seminar in Jewish Art), pp. 147–150 although the dating of the slot is uncertain, and could date to Hadrian's temple of Aphrodite, Lavas suggested that it could have been the site of the crucifixion, as it would be strong enough to hold in place a wooden trunk of up to in height (among other things). The same restoration work also revealed a crack running across the surface of the rock, which continues down to the ''Chapel of Adam''; the crack is thought by archaeologists to have been a result of the quarry workmen encountering a flaw in the rock. Based on the late 20th century excavations of the site, there have been a number of attempted reconstructions of the profile of the cliff face. These often attempt to show the site as it would have appeared to Constantine. However, as the ground level in Roman times was about lower and the site housed Hadrian's temple to Aphrodite, much of the surrounding rocky slope must have been removed long before Constantine built the church on the site. The height of the ''Golgotha'' rock itself would have caused it to jut through the platform level of the Aphrodite temple, where it would be clearly visible. The reason for Hadrian not cutting the rock down is uncertain, but Virgilio Corbo suggested that a statue, probably of Aphrodite, was placed on it, a suggestion also made by
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authorize ...

Jerome
. Some archaeologists have suggested that prior to Hadrian's use, the rock outcrop had been a ''nefesh'' – a Jewish funeral monument, equivalent to the stele.


Pilgrimages to Constantine's Church

The Itinerarium Burdigalense speaks of Golgotha in 333: "... On the left hand is the little hill of Golgotha where the Lord was crucified. About a stone's throw from thence is a vault (crypta) wherein His body was laid, and rose again on the third day. There, at present, by the command of the Emperor Constantine, has been built a basilica, that is to say, a church of wondrous beauty," Cyril of Jerusalem, a distinguished theologian of the early Church, and eyewitness to the early days of Constantine's edifice, speaks of Golgotha in eight separate passages, sometimes as near to the church where he and his listeners assembled: "Golgotha, the holy hill standing above us here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulchre bears witness, and the stone which lies there to this day." And just in such a way the Egeria (pilgrim), pilgrim Egeria often reported in 383: "… the church, built by Constantine, which is situated in Golgotha …" and also bishop Eucherius of Lyon wrote to the island presbyter Faustus in 440: "Golgotha is in the middle between the Anastasis and the Martyrium, the place of the Lord's passion, in which still appears that rock which once endured the very cross on which the Lord was.", and Breviarius de Hierosolyma reports in 530: "From there (the middle of the basilica), you enter into Golgotha, where there is a large court. Here the Lord was crucified. All around that hill, there are silver screens." (See also: Eusebius of Caesarea, Eusebius in 338.)


Gordon's Calvary

In 1842, heavily relying on the research of Edward Robinson (scholar), Edward Robinson, a German theologian and biblical scholar from Dresden named Otto Thenius was the first to publish a proposal that the rocky knoll north of Damascus Gate was the biblical ''Golgotha''.Charles W. Wilson
''Golgotha and The Holy Sepulchre''
(1906, The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund), pp. 103-120
In 1882–83, Major-General Charles George Gordon endorsed this view, and subsequently the site has sometimes been known as Gordon's Calvary. The location, usually referred to today as ''Skull Hill'', is beneath a cliff that contains two large sunken holes, which Gordon regarded as resembling the eyes of a skull. He and a few others before him believed that the skull-like appearance would have caused the location to be known as Golgotha. Nearby is an ancient rock-cut tomb known today as the Garden Tomb, which Gordon proposed as the tomb of Jesus. The Garden Tomb contains several ancient burial places, although the archaeologist Gabriel Barkay has proposed that the tomb dates to the 7th century BCE and that the site may have been abandoned by the 1st century. Eusebius comments that Golgotha was in his day (the 4th century) pointed out ''north of Mount Zion''.Eusebius, ''Eusebius' Onomasticon, Onomasticon'', 365 While "Mount Zion" was used previously in reference to the Temple Mount itself, Josephus, the first-century AD historian who knew the city as it was before the Siege of Jerusalem (AD 70), Roman destruction of Jerusalem, identified Mount Zion as being the Western Hill (the current Mount Zion), which is south of both the Garden Tomb and the Holy Sepulchre. Eusebius' comment therefore offers no additional argument for either location.


On Aelia Capitolina's Decumanus

See Joan Taylor's theory in the article's introduction and under #Alternative theories, Alternative theories.


Outside Lions Gate

Another possible location has been proposed by Rodger Dusatko, a missionary in Germany. He claims the hill just outside the Lions' Gate, Lions Gate All four Gospels use the Greek word ''kranion'' to describe the place where Jesus was crucified. Unlike ''skufion'' ("skull"), ''kranion'' (in English – cranium) is the upper part of the skull excluding the face bones. Since the temple faced east, the curtain in front of the entrance of the temple would have been in direct view of those gathered on this mount at the northeast corner of the Temple Mount, just outside the city wall. And to testify that the curtain ripped at the very moment when Jesus died,But Yeshua cried again with a loud voice, and his Spirit departed. And at once the curtain entrance of The Temple was ripped in two from top to bottom. Mt 27,50-51 Peshitta there must have been eyewitnesses. The Gospel of John refers to Golgotha as being very near the city, so near that all who passed by could read the inscription. Considering also the prophecy in Psalms 69:12, his place of crucifixion would have been near enough to the gate that Jesus could hear what the people were saying about him there. And just as Eusebius comments in Eusebius' Onomasticon, Onomasticon concerning Golgotha as being a hill just outside Jerusalem, north of the ancient Mount Zion, this hill fits his description.


See also

* Crucifixion of Jesus


References


External links

*
Golgotha Rediscovered
– proposes that Golgotha was outside Lions' Gate
Polish Calvaries: Architecture as a Stage for the Passion of Christ
{{New Testament places associated with Jesus Calvary, New Testament places Crucifixion of Jesus