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The California sea lion
California sea lion
( Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus) is a coastal eared seal native to western North America. It is one of six species of sea lion. Its natural habitat ranges from southeast Alaska to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Sea lions are sexually dimorphic; males are larger than females, and have a thicker neck, and protruding sagittal crest. They mainly haul-out on sandy or rocky beaches, but they also frequent manmade environments such as marinas and wharves. Sea lions feed on a number of species of fish and squid, and are preyed on by orcas and white sharks. California sea lions have a polygynous breeding pattern. From May to August, males establish territories and try to attract females with which to mate. Females are free to move in between territories, and are not coerced by males. Mothers nurse their pups in between foraging trips. Sea lions communicate with numerous vocalizations, notably with barks and mother-pup contact calls. Outside their breeding season, sea lions spend much of their time at sea, but they come to shore to molt. Sea lions are particularly intelligent, can be trained to perform various tasks and display limited fear of humans if accustomed to them. Because of this, California sea lions are a popular choice for public display in zoos, circuses and oceanariums, and are trained by the United States Navy for certain military operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) lists the species as Least Concern
Least Concern
due to its abundance. To protect fish, the US states of Oregon
Oregon
and Washington engage in annual kill quotas of sea lions.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Appearance, physiology, and movement 3 Ecology

3.1 Range and habitat 3.2 Diet and predation

4 Life history

4.1 Reproductive behavior and parenting 4.2 Communication 4.3 Nonbreeding activities

5 Intelligence and trainability 6 Status

6.1 2015 Californian shore sea lions pups crisis 6.2 Oregon
Oregon
and Washington state governments annual killings

7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Lithography by Joseph Smit. The California sea lion
California sea lion
was described by René Primevère Lesson, a French naturalist, in 1828. It is grouped with other sea lions and fur seals in the family Otariidae. Otariids, also known as eared seals, differ from true seals in having external ear flaps, and proportionately larger foreflippers and pectoral muscles. Along with the Galapagos sea lion
Galapagos sea lion
and the extinct Japanese sea lion, the California sea lion
California sea lion
belongs to the genus Zalophus, which derives from the Greek words za, meaning "intensive," and lophus, meaning "crest."[2] This refers to the protruding sagittal crest of the males, which distinguishes members of the genus.[3] Traditionally, the Galapagos sea lion
Galapagos sea lion
and Japanese sea lion
Japanese sea lion
were classified as subspecies of the California sea lion. However, a genetic study in 2007 found that all three are in fact separate species.[4] The lineages of the California and Japanese sea lion appear to have split off 2.2 million years ago during the Pliocene.[5] The California sea lion
California sea lion
differs from the Galapagos sea lion
Galapagos sea lion
in its greater sexual dimorphism.[3] The Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
is the closest extant relative of the Zalophus
Zalophus
sea lions, being a sister taxon.[6]

Appearance, physiology, and movement[edit] California sea lion
California sea lion
skeleton Being sexually dimorphic, California sea lions differ in size, shape, and coloration between the sexes. Males are typically around 2.4 m (7.9 ft) long and weigh up to 350 kg (770 lb), while females are typically around 1.8 m (5.9 ft) and weigh up to 100 kg (220 lb).[3] Females and juveniles have a tawny brown pelage,[3] although they may be temporarily light gray or silver after molting.[7] The pelage of adult males can be anywhere from light brown to black, but is typically dark brown.[3] The face of adult males may also be light tan in some areas. Pups have a black or dark brown pelage at birth.[7] Although the species has a slender build, adult males have robust necks, chests, and shoulders.[7] Adult males also have a protruding crest which gives them a "high, domed forehead";[8] it is tufted with white hairs.[3] They also have manes, which are less developed than those of adult male South American and Steller sea lions.[8] Both sexes have long, narrow muzzles.[7] As an otariid, the California sea lion
California sea lion
relies on its foreflippers to propel itself when swimming. This form of aquatic locomotion, along with its streamlined body, effectively reduces drag underwater. Its foreflipper movement is not continuous; the animal glides in between each stroke.[9] The flexibility of its spine allows the sea lion to bend its neck backwards far enough to reach its hindflippers. This allows the animal to make dorsal turns and maintain a streamlined posture.[10] When moving on land, the sea lion is able to turn its hindflippers forward and walk on all fours. It moves the foreflippers in a transverse, rather than a sagittal, fashion. In addition, it relies on movements of its head and neck more than its hindflippers for terrestrial locomotion.[11] Sea lions may travel at speeds of around 10.8 km/h (6.7 mph),[12] and can dive at depths of 274 m (899 ft) and for up to 9.9 minutes, though most dives are typically 80 m (260 ft) and last less than 3 minutes.[13]

Sea lion
Sea lion
swimming underwater Sea lions have color vision, though it is limited to the blue-green area of the color spectrum. This is likely an adaptation for living in marine coastal habitats.[14] Sea lions have fairly acute underwater hearing, with a hearing range of 0.4–32 kHz.[15] Sea lions rely on their whiskers or vibrissae for touch and detection of vibrations underwater. Compared to the harbor seal, the California sea lion's vibrissae are smoother and less specialized and thus perform less when following hydrodynamic trails, although they still perform well.[16]

Ecology[edit] Range and habitat[edit] Sea lion
Sea lion
rookery on Santa Barbara island The California sea lion
California sea lion
ranges along the western coast and islands of North America, from southeast Alaska to central Mexico. Mitochondrial DNA sequences in 2009 have identified five distinct California sea lion populations: the U.S. or Pacific Temperate stock, the Western Baja California or Pacific Tropical stock, and the Southern, Central, and Northern Gulf of California
Gulf of California
stocks.[6] The U.S. stock breeds mainly in the Channel Islands, although some breeding sites may be established in northern California, and females are now commonly found there.[1] The Western Baja California stock mainly breeds near Punta Eugenia
Punta Eugenia
and at Isla Santa Margarita. The above-mentioned stocks are separated by the Ensenada Front. The stocks of the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
live in the shallow waters of the north (Northern stock), the tidal islands near the center (Central stock), and the mouth of the bay (Southern stock). The stock status of the sea lions at the deep waters of the central bay has not been analyzed.[6] Vagrants can reach western north pacific such as on Commander Islands.[17] Although several otariinae have been recorded around Japanese archipelago in recent years, their exact origins are unclear.[18]

Sea lions in Santa Cruz, California During the breeding season, sea lions gather on both sandy and rocky shores. On warm days, they lie closer to the water. At night or in cool weather, they travel farther inland or to higher elevations.[7] Non-breeding individuals may gather at marinas, wharves, or even navigational buoys. California sea lions can also live in fresh water for periods of time, such as near Bonneville Dam, nearly 150 miles up the Columbia River.[19] In 2004 a healthy sea lion was found sitting on a road in Merced County, California, almost a hundred miles upstream from the San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
and half a mile from the San Joaquin River.[20]

Diet and predation[edit] California sea lions feed on a wide variety of seafood, mainly squid and fish, and sometimes clams. Commonly eaten fish and squid species include salmon, hake, Pacific whiting, anchovy, herring, rockfish, lamprey, dogfish, and market squid.[21] They mostly forage near mainland coastlines, the continental shelf, and seamounts. They may also search along the ocean bottom.[7] California sea lions may eat alone or in small to large groups, depending on the amount of food available. They sometimes cooperate with other predators, such as dolphins, porpoises, and seabirds, when hunting large schools of fish.[22] Sea lions sometimes follow dolphins and exploit their hunting efforts.[3] Adult females feed between 10–100 km (6.2–62.1 mi) from shore.[12] Males may forage as far as 450 km (280 mi) from shore when water temperatures rise.[23] They also have learned to feed on steelhead and salmon below fish ladders at Bonneville Dam
Bonneville Dam
and at other locations where fish must queue in order to pass through dams and locks that block their passage. Sea lions are preyed on by killer whales and large sharks. At Monterey Bay, California sea lions appear to be the more common food items for transient mammal-eating killer whale pods.[24] The sea lions may respond to the dorsal fin of a killer whale and remain vigilant, even when encountering resident fish-eating pods.[25] Sea lions are also common prey for white sharks. They have been found with scars made by attacks from both white sharks and shortfin mako sharks. Sharks attack sea lions by ambushing them while they are resting at the surface.[26] Sea lions that are attacked in the hindquarters are more likely to survive and make it to the shore.[27]

Life history[edit] Reproductive behavior and parenting[edit] Sea lion
Sea lion
rookery California sea lions breed gregariously between May and August, when they arrive at their breeding rookeries. When establishing a territory, the males will try to increase their chances of reproducing by staying on the rookery for as long as possible. During this time, they will fast, relying on a thick layer of fat called blubber for energy. Size and patience allow a male to defend his territory more effectively; the bigger the male, the more blubber he can store and the longer he can wait. A male sea lion usually keeps his territory for around 27 days. Females have long parturition intervals, and thus the males do not establish their territories until after the females give birth. Most fights occur during this time. After this, the males rely on ritualized displays (vocalizations, head-shaking, stares, bluff lunges, and so on) to maintain their territorial boundaries. Since temperatures can reach over 30 °C (86 °F) during this time, males must include water within their territories. Some territories are underwater, particularly those near steep cliffs.[28] Sea lions that fail to establish a territory are driven out to sea or gather at a nearby beach.[3]

Sea lion
Sea lion
mother with pup Before mating begins, females gather into "milling" groups of 2–20 individuals. The females in these groups will mount each other as well as the males. These groups begin to disintegrate as the females begin to mate.[3] The territorial and mating system of the California sea lion
California sea lion
has been described as similar to a lek system, as females appear to choose their mates while moving though different territories.[29] They avoid males that are too aggressive or energetic. Males are usually unable to prevent females from leaving their territories,[3] particularly in water.[30] Mating may occur outside the rookeries, between non-territorial males and females, as the latter move to and from the mating site. In some rookeries, copulation may be monopolized by a few males, while at others, a single male may sire no more than four pups.[30] Female California sea lions have a 12-month reproductive cycle, consisting of a 9-month actual gestation and a 3-month delayed implantation of the fertilized egg before giving birth in June or July. Interbirth intervals are particularly long for this species, being 21 days for sea lions off California and more than 30 days for sea lions in the Gulf of California.[30] Females remain with their pups on shore for 10 days and nurse them. After this, females will go on foraging trips lasting as long as three days, returning to nurse their pups for up to a day. Pups left on shore tend to gather in nurseries to socialize and play.[7] When returning from a trip, females call their pups with distinctive calls to which the pups will reply in kind. A mother and pup can distinguish each other's calls from those of other mothers and pups. At first, reunions largely depend on the efforts of the mothers. However, as pups get older, they get more involved in reunions.[31] Older pups may sometimes join their mothers during their foraging trips.[7] Adult male California sea lions play no role in raising pups, but they do take more interest in them than adult males of other otariid species; they have even been observed to help shield swimming pups from predators.[32] Pups are weaned by a year but can continue to suckle for another year.[3]

Communication[edit] Play media Barking sea lions pursuing a boat California sea lions communicate with a range of vocalizations. The most commonly used one is their characteristic bark. Territorial males are the loudest and most continuous callers, and barks are produced constantly during the peak of the breeding season. Sea lions bark especially rapidly when excited. The barks of territorial and non-territorial males sound similar, although those of the former are deeper. Males may bark when threatening other males or during courtship. The only other vocalization made by territorial males is a "prolonged hoarse grunt sound" made when an individual is startled by a human. This vocalization is also made by groups of non-reproductive males.[33] Female sea lions are less vocal. Their barks, high-pitched and shorter than those made by males, are used in aggressive situations. Other aggressive vocalizations given by females include the "squeal", the "belch", and the "growl". The sound a female sea lion gives when calling her pups is called a "pup-attraction call", described as "loud" and "brawling". Pups respond with a "mother-response call", which is similar in structure. Pups will also bleat or bark when playing or in distress.[33] California sea lions can produce vocalizations underwater. These include "whinny" sounds, barks, buzzings, and clicks.[34]

Nonbreeding activities[edit] Outside the breeding season, males migrate to the northern ends of the species range to feed, while females forage near the breeding rookeries.[3] Sea lions can stay at sea for as long as two weeks at a time. They make continuous dives, returning to the surface to rest. Sea lions may travel alone or in groups while at sea and haul-out between each sea trip. Adult females and juveniles molt in autumn and winter; adult males molt in January and February. Gulf of California sea lions do not migrate; they stay in the Gulf year-round.[30]

Intelligence and trainability[edit] Zak, a 375 lb (170 kg) Navy sea lion leaps back into the boat after a harbor-patrol training mission. Marine biologist Ronald J. Schusterman and his research associates have studied sea lions' cognitive ability. They have discovered that sea lions are able to recognize relationships between stimuli based on similar functions or connections made with their peers, rather than only the stimuli's common features.[35] Sea lions have demonstrated the ability to understand simple syntax and commands when taught an artificial sign language. However, the sea lions rarely used the signs semantically or logically.[36] In 2011, a California sea lion named "Ronan" was recorded bobbing her head in synchronization to musical rhythms.[37] This "rhythmic entrainment" was previously seen only in humans, parrots and other birds possessing vocal mimicry.[38]

Play media Captive sea lion performing A California sea lion
California sea lion
at Central Park Zoo. It has climbed to the edge of its tank awaiting feeding, showing awareness of its regular feeding time. Because of their intelligence and trainability, California sea lions have been used by circuses and marine mammal parks to perform various tricks such as throwing and catching balls on their noses, running up ladders, or honking horns in a musical fashion. Trainers reward their animals with fish, which motivates them to perform. For ball balancing, trainers toss a ball at a sea lion so it may accidentally balance it or hold the ball on its nose, thereby gaining an understanding of what to do. A sea lion may go through a year of training before performing a behavior for the public. However, its memory allows it to perform a behavior even after three months of resting.[32] Some organizations, such as the Humane Society of the United States and World Animal
Animal
Protection, object to using sea lions and other marine mammals for entertainment, claiming the tricks are "exaggerated variations of their natural behaviors" and distract the audience from the animal's unnatural environment.[39] Less entertainment-oriented zoos may still encourage animal play by throwing fish at animals in different directions and providing play equipment.[40] The California sea lion
California sea lion
is used in military applications by the U.S. Navy Marine Mammal
Mammal
Program, including detecting naval mines and enemy divers. In the Persian Gulf, the animals can swim behind divers approaching a US naval ship and attach a clamp with a rope to the diver's leg. Navy officials say the sea lions can do this in seconds, before the enemy realizes what happened.[41] Organizations like PETA
PETA
believe that such operations put the animals in danger.[42] However, the Navy insists that the sea lions are removed once their mission is complete.[43]

Status[edit] Hundreds of California sea lions bask on Pier 39 in San Francisco, where they are welcomed as a tourist attraction. The IUCN lists the California sea lion
California sea lion
as Least Concern
Least Concern
due to "its large and increasing population size."[1] The estimated population is 238,000–241,000 for the U.S. or Pacific Temperate stock, 75,000–85,000 for the Western Baja California or Pacific Tropical stock, and 31,393 for the population in the Gulf of California.[6] Off the Pacific coast of the United States, sea lions are so numerous that they are close to carrying capacity, while the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
population declined by 20% by 2008. Sea lions may be killed when in conflict with fishermen, by poaching, and by entanglements in man-made garbage. They are also threatened by pollutants like DDT
DDT
and PCB which accumulate in the marine food chain.[1]

Shooting sea lions, ca. 1870s In the United States, the California sea lion
California sea lion
is protected on the federal Marine Mammal
Mammal
Protection Act (MMPA), passed in 1972, which outlaws hunting, killing, capture, and harassment of the animal. In 1994 an amendment to the Act allowed for the possibility of limited lethal removal of pinnipeds preying on endangered salmonids should the level of predation be documented to have a significant adverse impact on the decline or recovery of ESA-listed salmonids.[44] Applications have been granted for removal of several individual sea lions at Ballard Locks[45] and at the Bonneville Dam, where up to 92 sea lions can be killed each year for a 5-year period.[46] Critics have objected to the killing of the sea lions, pointing out that the level of mortality permitted as a result of recreational and commercial fisheries in the river and as part of the operation of hydroelectric dams pose a greater threat to the salmon.[47] These animals exploit more man-made environments like docks for haul-out sites. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions which cause major tilting and other problems. Wildlife managers have used various methods to control the animals and some city officials have redesigned docks so they can better withstand them.[48][49]

2015 Californian shore sea lions pups crisis[edit] In January and February 2015, 1450 malnourished or sick sea lion pups were found along stretches of the California coast, and estimations give a higher number of dead pups. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has pointed to unprecedentedly warm Pacific coastal waters, related to Pacific decadal oscillation
Pacific decadal oscillation
and El Niño, as the likely cause. Elevated water temperatures reduced the abundance of anchovies, sardines and mackerel, principal components of the sea lion pup diet during nursery season.[50] This caused many sea lion pups to starve, while others died when they took to open waters in search of food at too early an age [51]. Several months earlier, in the Summer of 2014, a large number of Cassin's auklet chicks died during the fledging period due to similar circumstances brought about by elevated water temperatures.[52]

Oregon
Oregon
and Washington state governments annual killings[edit] In November 2018, the State of Oregon
Oregon
obtained a permit to kill 93 sea lions per year below Willamette Falls. Under a similar program, Oregon
Oregon
and Washington had killed over 150 sea lions on the Columbia river by January 2019.[53][54]

References[edit]

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^ 鹿児島県薩摩川内市で種不明アシカ出現- 海棲哺乳類情報データベース

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^ a b c d Flatz, Ramona; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Gerber, Leah R. (2012). Fenton, Brock (ed.). "Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e33654. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...733654F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033654. PMC 3303858. PMID 22432039.

^ Gisiner, Robert; Schusterman, Ronald J. (1991). "California sea lion pups play an active role in reunions with their mothers". Animal Behaviour. 41 (2): 364–66. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80488-9.

^ a b Nowak, Ronald M. (2003). Walker's Marine Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 80–83. ISBN 978-0801873430.

^ a b Peterson, Richard S.; Bartholomew, George A. (1969). "Airborne vocal communication in the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus". Animal
Animal
Behaviour. 17 (1): 17–24. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(69)90108-0.

^ Schusterman, Ronald J.; Gentry, Roger; Schmook, James (1966). "Underwater Vocalization by Sea Lions: Social and Mirror Stimuli". Science. 154 (3748): 540–542. Bibcode:1966Sci...154..540S. doi:10.1126/science.154.3748.540.

^ Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David (1993). "A California sea lion ( Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations" (PDF). Psychological Record. 43: 823–839. ISSN 0033-2933.

^ Gisiner, R.; Schusterman, R.J. (1992). "Sequence, syntax, and semantics: Responses of a language-trained sea lion (Zalophus californianus) to novel sign combinations" (PDF). Journal of Comparative Psychology. 106: 78–91. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.106.1.78.

^ Stephens, Tim (1 April 2013). " Sea lion
Sea lion
defies theory and keeps the beat". University of California, Santa Cruz. Retrieved 12 April 2013.

^ Cook, F.; Rouse, A.; Wilson, M.; Reichmuth, M. (2013). "A California sea lion ( Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic". Journal of Comparative Psychology. 127 (4): 412–27. doi:10.1037/a0032345. PMID 23544769.

^ "The Case Against Marine Mammals in Captivity" (PDF). Humane Society of the United States and World Animal
Animal
Protection. p. 3. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ "Sealion Splash". Whipsnade Zoo. ZSL. Retrieved 23 October 2015.

^ Leinwand, Donna (17 February 2003). "Sea lions called to duty in Persian Gulf". USA Today. Retrieved 28 April 2010.

^ Kreider, R. (May 31, 2011). "The Real Navy Seals – and Sea Lions and Dolphins and Whales". ABC News. Retrieved July 30, 2013.

^ "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Navy Marine Mammal
Mammal
Program. Retrieved July 30, 2013.

^ "16 U.S.C. § 1389" (PDF).

^ "61 Fed. Reg. 13153 (March 26, 1996)" (PDF).

^ "NOAA authorizes states to remove sea lions that threaten protected salmon" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 17 October 2013.

^ " Bonneville Dam
Bonneville Dam
Sea Lions Under Siege". The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved 17 October 2013.

^ French, C. (April 10, 2013). "Sea Lions Take Over Ventura Docks". the Log.com. Retrieved August 17, 2013.

^ Bruscas, A. (July 27, 2012). "Shocking new idea for sea lion control". The Daily World.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.

^ Hecht, Peter (2015-03-07). "Sick, starving sea lion pups wash up in record numbers on California coast". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 12 March 2015.

^ "More Than 100 Sick Sea Lion
Lion
Flooded On California Coastline". Retrieved 12 March 2015.

^ "Mass Death of Seabirds in Western U.S. Is 'Unprecedented'". news.nationalgeographic.com/. 2015-01-24. Retrieved 12 March 2015.

^ GILLIAN FLACCUS (10 January 2019). " Oregon
Oregon
begins killing sea lions after relocation fails". Associated Press. Retrieved 10 January 2019. In a similar program, Oregon
Oregon
and Washington have already killed more than 150 sea lions below the Bonneville Dam
Bonneville Dam
on the Columbia River
Columbia River
to protect threatened and endangered salmon.

^ "California Sea Lion
Lion
Management: Restoring balance between predators and salmon". Oregon
Oregon
Department of Fish
Fish
and Wildlife. Retrieved 17 October 2013.

External links[edit]

Animals portal Mammals portal Media related to Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus at Wikispecies " Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 23 March 2006. WDFW Fact Sheet on sea lions USACE information on sea lion deterrents Animal
Animal
Diversity Web – Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus Smithsonian Institution – North American Mammals: Zalophus californianus Voices in the Sea - Sounds of the California Sea Lion vteExtant Carnivora
Carnivora
species Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria Suborder FeliformiaNandiniidaeNandinia African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata) Herpestidae.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal (Mongooses)Atilax Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus) Bdeogale Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes) Crossarchus Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus) Cynictis Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata) Dologale Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii) Galerella Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea) Helogale Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula) Herpestes Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis) Ichneumia White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda) Liberiictus Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni) Mungos Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo) Paracynictis Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi) Rhynchogale Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri) Suricata Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta) Hyaenidae(Hyenas)Crocuta Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta) Hyaena Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena) Proteles Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus) FelidaeLarge family listed belowViverridaeLarge family listed belowEupleridaeSmall family listed belowFamily FelidaeFelinaeAcinonyx Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus) Caracal Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata) Catopuma Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii) Felis European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus) Leopardus Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus) Leptailurus Serval
Serval
(L. serval) Lynx Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus) Otocolobus Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul) Pardofelis Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata) Prionailurus Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus) Puma Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor) Herpailurus Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi) PantherinaePanthera Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia) Neofelis Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi) Family ViverridaeParadoxurinaeArctictis Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong) Arctogalidia Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata) Macrogalidia Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii) Paguma Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata) Paradoxurus Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis) HemigalinaeChrotogale Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni) Cynogale Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii) Diplogale Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei) Hemigalus Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus) Prionodontinae(Asiatic linsangs)Prionodon Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor) ViverrinaeCivettictis African civet
African civet
(C. civetta) Genetta(Genets) Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae) Poiana Central African oyan
Central African oyan
(P. richardsonii) West African oyan
West African oyan
(P. leightoni) Viverra Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha) Viverricula Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica) Family EupleridaeEuplerinaeCryptoprocta Fossa (C. ferox) Eupleres Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major) Fossa Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana) GalidiinaeGalidia Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans) Galidictis Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri) Mungotictis Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata) Salanoia Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira
Durrell's vontsira
(S. durrelli) Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)Ursidae(Bears)Ailuropoda Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca) Helarctos Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus) Melursus Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus) Tremarctos Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus) Ursus American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus) Mephitidae(Skunks)Conepatus(Hog-nosedskunks) Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus) Mephitis Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis) Mydaus Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei) Spilogale(Spotted skunks) Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea) Procyonidae(Raccoons, coatis, olingos)Bassaricyon(Olingos) Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina) Bassariscus Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti) Nasua(Coatis inclusive) White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua) Nasuella(Coatis inclusive) Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis) Potos Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus) Procyon Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus) AiluridaeAilurus Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens) Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)Otariidae(Eared seals)(includes fur sealsand sea lions)( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)Arctocephalus South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis) Callorhinus Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus) Eumetopias Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus) Neophoca Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea) Otaria South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens) Phocarctos New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri) Zalophus California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki) Odobenidae( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)Odobenus Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus) Phocidae(Earless seals)( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)Cystophora Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata) Erignathus Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus) Halichoerus Grey seal
Grey seal
(H. grypus) Histriophoca Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata) Hydrurga Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx) Leptonychotes Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii) Lobodon Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus) Mirounga(Elephant seals) Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina) Monachus Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi) Ommatophoca Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi) Pagophilus Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus) Phoca Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina) Pusa Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica) CanidaeLarge family listed belowMustelidaeLarge family listed belowFamily Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)Atelocynus Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis) Canis Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf (C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis) Cerdocyon Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous) Chrysocyon Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus) Cuon Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus) Lycalopex Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus) Lycaon African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus) Nyctereutes Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides) Otocyon Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis) Speothos Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus) Urocyon Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis) Vulpes
Vulpes
(Foxes) Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda) Family MustelidaeHelictidinae(Ferret-badgers)Melogale Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata) Vietnam ferret-badger
Vietnam ferret-badger
(M. cucphuongensis) Guloninae(Martins and wolverines)Eira Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara) Gulo Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo) Martes(Martens) American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Newfoundland pine marten
Newfoundland pine marten
(M. atrata) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina) Pekania Fisher (P. pennanti) Ictonychinae(African polecats and grisons)Galictis Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata) Ictonyx Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus) Lyncodon Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus) Poecilogale African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha) Vormela Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna) Lutrinae(Otters)Aonyx African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea) Enhydra Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris) Hydrictis Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis) Lontra North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax) Lutra Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana) Lutrogale Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata) Pteronura Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis) Melinae(Eurasian badgers)Arctonyx Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris) Meles Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles) MellivorinaeMellivora Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis) Mustelinae(Weasels and minks)Mustela(Weasels and ferrets) Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata) Neovison American mink
American mink
(N. vison) TaxidiinaeTaxidea American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q379732 Wikispecies: Zalophus
Zalophus
californianus ADW: Zalophus_californianus ARKive: zalophus-californianus BioLib: 2248 EoL: 328615 EPPO: ZALOCA Fossilworks: 96087 GBIF: 2433458 iNaturalist: 41740 IRMNG: 10201349 ITIS: 180621 IUCN: 41666 MSW: 14001019 NAS: 1091 NCBI: 9704 NOAA: california-sea-lion SeaLifeBase: 69419 TSA: 187

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