The Info List - Calicut

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([koːɻikːoːɖ] ( listen)), or Calicut, is a city in the state of Kerala
in southern India
on the Malabar Coast. Calicut is the largest urban area in the state and 192nd largest urban area in the world.[4] The city lies about 275 kilometres (171 mi) west of Bangalore. During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode
was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of eastern spices.[9] It was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris (Zamorins) in the Middle Ages and later of the erstwhile Malabar District
Malabar District
under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, and Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode
on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and fort was intact in Kozhikode
for short period (1511–1525, until the Fall of Calicut). The English landed in 1615 (constructing a trading post in 1665), followed by the French (1698) and the Dutch (1752). In 1765, Mysore
captured Kozhikode
as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving centre, gave its name to the Calico cloth.[10] On 7 June 2012, Kozhikode
was given the tag of "City of Sculptures" (Shilpa Nagaram) because of the architectural sculptures around the city.[11][12] In May 2015, a food programme called Operation Sulaimani was introduced to help people who cannot afford a meal to have food with dignity. According to data compiled by economics research firm Indicus Analytics on residences, earnings and investments, Kozhikode
ranked as the second best city in India
to reside in.[13] It was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007.[14]


1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early Kozhikode
in foreign accounts 2.2 The Samoothiri

3 Geography and climate

3.1 Geography 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics 5 Civic administration 6 Corporation Election 2015

6.1 Political Performance in Election 2015 6.2 Initiatives by District Administration 6.3 Law and order

7 Transport

7.1 National Highways 7.2 State Highways 7.3 Rail 7.4 Air

8 Economy

8.1 Shopping 8.2 Music

9 Media

9.1 Radio 9.2 Television

10 Education 11 Location 12 See also 13 References 14 External links


Pazhashi Raja Museum

Arab merchants called it Qāliqūṭ (IPA: qˠaːliqˠːuːtˤ).[15] Tamils called it Kallikkottai while for the Chinese it was Kalifo. In Kannada it was known as Kallikote. Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, Calicut.[16] The word calico, a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth that was exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from Calicut.[17] It is the historical capital of Kerala
as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
landed in Kappad, near Calicut. History Main article: History of Kozhikode

Vasco da Gama
Vasco da Gama
lands in Kozhikode
on 20 May 1498.

is a town with a long recorded history. From time immemorial, the city has attracted travellers with its prosperity. It has traded in spices like black pepper and cardamom with Jews, Arabs, Phoenicians, and Chinese for more than 500 years. As Kozhikode
offered full freedom and security, the Arab and the Chinese merchants preferred it to all other ports. The globe-trotter Ibn Batuta (A.D. 1342–47) said, "We came next to Kalikut, one of the great ports of the district of Malabar, and in which merchants of all parts are found." Kozhikode
was the capital of Malabar during the time of Sri Samoothiri Maharajas, who ruled the region before the British took over. The city's first recorded contact with Europe was when Vasco da Gama landed at Kappad
(18 km north) in May 1498, among the leaders of a trade mission from Portugal. He was received by his highness Sri Samoothiri
Maharaja. Early Kozhikode
in foreign accounts Accounts of the city and the conditions prevailing then can be gleaned from the chronicles of travellers who visited the port city. Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
(1342–1347), who visited six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. He describes Kozhikode
as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". The king of this place, he says, "shaves his chin just as the Haidari Fakeers of Rome do... The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit out others like them".[18] Ma Huan
Ma Huan
(1403 AD), the Chinese Muslim sailor part of the Imperial Chinese fleet under Cheng Ho (Zheng He)[19] lauds the city as a great emporium of trade frequented by merchants from around the world. He makes note of the 20 or 30 mosques built to cater to the religious needs of the Muslims, the unique system of calculation by the merchants using their fingers and toes (followed to this day) and the matrilineal system of succession. Abdur Razzak (1442–43) the ambassador of Persian Emperor Sha-Rohk finds the city harbour perfectly secured and notices precious articles from several maritime countries especially from Abyssinia, Zirbad and Zanzibar. The Italian Niccolò de' Conti
Niccolò de' Conti
(1445), perhaps the first Christian traveller who noticed Kozhikode, describes the city as abounding in pepper, lac, ginger, a larger kind of cinnamon, myrobalans and zedary. He calls it a noble emporium for all India, with a circumference of eight miles (13 km). The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitn or Afanasy Nikitin
Afanasy Nikitin
(1468–74) calls 'Calecut' a port for the whole Indian sea and describes it as having a "big bazaar." Other travellers who visited Kozhikode
include the Italian Ludovico di Varthema[20] (1503–1508) and Duarte Barbosa.[21]

Image of Kozhikode, India
from Georg Braun
Georg Braun
and Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates orbis terrarum, 1572

The Samoothiri See also: Samorin Kozhikode
and its suburbs formed part of the Polanad kingdom ruled by the Porlatiri.[22] The Eradis of Nediyirippu in Eranad
wanted an outlet to the sea, to initiate trade and commerce with the distant lands.[23] and after fighting with the king Polatthiri for 48 years conquered the area around Panniankara. After this, Menokki were became the ruler of Polanad and came to terms with the troops and people.[24] After this, the town of Kozhikode
was founded close to the palace at Tali.[25] Then, the Eradis shifted their headquarters from Nediyirippu to Kozhikode. The Governor of Ernad built a fort at a place called Velapuram to safeguard his new interests. The fort most likely lent its name to Koyil Kotta the precursor to Kozhikode. Thus the city came into existence sometime in the 13th century CE. The status of Udaiyavar increased and he became known as Swami Nambiyathiri Thirumulpad, and eventually Samuri or Samoothiri. Europeans called him in a corrupt form as Samorin. According to K.V. Krishna Iyer, the rise of Kozhikode
is at once a cause and a consequence of Samoothiri's ascendancy in Kerala. By the end of the century, Samoothiri
was at the zenith of his powers with all princes and chieftains of Kerala
north of Kochi
acknowledging his suzerainty.[26] Geography and climate

View of Calicut beach


View of Kappad

The city of Kozhikode
is 410 kilometres (255 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. It is located at approximately 11°15′N 75°46′E / 11.25°N 75.77°E / 11.25; 75.77. It has an elevation of 1 metre (3 ft) along the coast with the city's eastern edges rising to at least 15 metres, with a sandy coastal belt and a lateritic midland. The city has a 15 km (9.3 mi) long shoreline and small hills dot the terrain in the eastern and central regions. To the city's west is the Laccadive Sea and from approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) to the east rises the Sahyadri
Mountains. The geographical conditions of city area and suburban areas are similar to the other parts of the district falling in coastal and midland zones. The region comprising Kozhikode Corporation and peri-urban blocks belong to the low- and midlands in the typical classification of land in Kerala
as low-, mid- and highlands. Lagoons and backwaters characterise the lowland, which receives runoff from the rivers. The lowland is often subjected to salinity intrusion. The coastal plains exhibit more or less flat, narrow terrain with landforms such as beach ridges, sandbars, and backwater marshes. A few kilometres from the sea to the east, the surface gathers into slopes and clustering hills with numerous valleys in between formed due to floods and sediment transport. The Midlands is represented by hummocky rocky terrain with lateritised denudational hills and intervening valley fills (locally called elas). The 'elas' are fairly wide in the lower reaches of midlands and narrow towards the upper parts of the midlands. A number of rivers originating from the Sahyadri
run along the outer reaches of the city. These include the Chaliyar puzha, Kallayi Puzha, Korapuzha
river, Poonoor
puzha (river), and Iravanjhi puzha. Of these, Kallai river that runs through the southern part of the city has been the most important culturally and historically for Kozhikode. The Kallai River has its origin in Cherikkulathur village. It is connected with Chaliyar on the south by a man-made canal. The river passes through Cherukulathur, Kovur, Olavanna, Manava and Kallai before finally joining the sea near Kozhikode. The length of the river is 22 kilometres (14 mi). The Korapuzha
river is formed by the confluence of the Agalapuzha with the Punnurpuzha, and it joins the sea at Elathur. The Agalapuzha is more or less a backwater while the Punnurpuzha originates from Arikkankunni. The total length of the river is 40 kilometres (25 mi). Panurpuzha is a tributary of Korapuzha. It passes through the northern boundary of the study area and joins to the sea. The river is perennial. Canoly Canal
Canoly Canal
was built in 1848 to connect the Korapuzha
river in the north to Kallayi river in the south. It functions as a drain to reduce flooding in the city during the rainy season and as a navigation channel. A system of wetland (mangrove) forests pervade the city from Kallai river to Eranjikkal. Climate Kozhikode
features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). The city has a highly humid tropical climate with high temperatures recorded from March to May. A brief spell of pre-monsoon Mango showers hits the city sometime during April. However, the primary source of rain is the South-west monsoon
South-west monsoon
that sets in the first week of June and continues until September. The city receives significant precipitation from the North-East Monsoon that sets in from the second half of October through November. The average annual rainfall is 3,266 mm. The weather is milder from December/January until March when the skies are clear and the air is crisp. Winters are seldom cold. According to climate charts, 12 locations in India
are cooler, 26 are warmer, 37 are dryer and only 1 is wetter than Kozhikode[27][dubious – discuss] The highest temperature recorded was 39.4 °C in March 1975. The lowest was 14 °C recorded on 26 December 1975.

Climate data for Kozhikode

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 35.8 (96.4) 36.6 (97.9) 34.6 (94.3) 34.4 (93.9) 34.3 (93.7) 34.0 (93.2) 32.1 (89.8) 30.8 (87.4) 31.9 (89.4) 32.7 (90.9) 33.7 (92.7) 34.0 (93.2) 36.6 (97.9)

Average high °C (°F) 28.9 (84) 29.8 (85.6) 31.6 (88.9) 32.4 (90.3) 32.8 (91) 30.5 (86.9) 29.8 (85.6) 27.9 (82.2) 29.5 (85.1) 31 (88) 30.2 (86.4) 29.8 (85.6) 30.5 (86.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 26.8 (80.2) 27.7 (81.9) 28.9 (84) 29.6 (85.3) 29.1 (84.4) 26.7 (80.1) 26.0 (78.8) 25.9 (78.6) 26.8 (80.2) 27.3 (81.1) 27.5 (81.5) 27.2 (81) 27.46 (81.43)

Average low °C (°F) 21.7 (71.1) 22.5 (72.5) 23.8 (74.8) 24.4 (75.9) 25.1 (77.2) 24.8 (76.6) 24.5 (76.1) 23.9 (75) 22.8 (73) 22.2 (72) 21.8 (71.2) 21.3 (70.3) 23.3 (73.9)

Record low °C (°F) 17.4 (63.3) 19.0 (66.2) 21.3 (70.3) 20.8 (69.4) 21.5 (70.7) 21.0 (69.8) 20.3 (68.5) 21.2 (70.2) 21.2 (70.2) 18.4 (65.1) 17.8 (64) 18.0 (64.4) 17.4 (63.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7 (0.106) 3.4 (0.134) 1.5 (0.059) 31.1 (1.224) 78.9 (3.106) 818.2 (32.213) 1,230.3 (48.437) 764.4 (30.094) 132.1 (5.201) 46.6 (1.835) 12.2 (0.48) 8.8 (0.346) 3,130.2 (123.236)

Average rainy days 0.3 0.3 1.1 4.9 10.8 25.4 25.3 23.3 13.0 11.9 7.7 1.9 125.9

Average relative humidity (%) 70 72 73 74 78 88 90 90 86 82 77 71 79.3

Source #1: IMD (average high and low, precipitation)[28]

Source #2: NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity, rain days, 1971–1990)[29]


English Church

Menon Museum

Total Population under Municipal Corporation limits is 550,440.[6] Males form 47.7% and females 52.3%. Kozhikode
has been a multi-ethnic and multi-religious town since the early medieval period. The Hindus
forms largest religious group, followed by Muslims and Christians.[30] Hindus
form the majority at 57.7% of the population with 315807 members.[6] Muslims form 37.6% of the population with 207298 members.[6] The corporation of Kozhikode
has an average literacy rate of 96.8%[8] (national average is 74.85%). The male literacy rate is 97.93% and female literacy rate is 95.78%.[8] The Muslims of Kozhikode
are known as Mappilas, and according to the official Kozhikode
website "the great majority of them are Sunnis following the Shafi school of thought.[30] There are some smaller communities among the Muslims such as Dawoodi Bohras.[31] Many of the Muslims living in the historic part of the city follow matriliny and are noted for their piety.[32] Though Christianity is believed to have been introduced in Kerala
in 52 CE, the size of community in Malabar (northern Kerala) began to rise only after the arrival of the Portuguese towards the close of the 15th century. A few Christians of Thiruvitankoor and Kochi
have lately migrated to the hilly regions of the district and are settled there.[32] Pre-modern Kozhikode
was already teeming with people of several communities and regional groups. Most of these communities continued to follow their traditional occupations and customs till the 20th century.[33][better source needed] Brahmins, too, lived in the city mostly around the Hindu temples. Regional groups like the Tamil Brahmins, Gujaratis and Marwari Jains
Marwari Jains
became part of the city and lived around their shrines.[34] The Nairs
formed the rulers, warriors and landed gentry of Kozhikode. The Samoothiri
had a ten thousand strong Nair bodyguard called the Kozhikkottu pathinaayiram (The 10,000 of Kozhikode) who defended the capital and supported the administration within the city. He had a larger force of 30,000 Nairs
in his capacity as the Prince of Eranadu, called the Kozhikkottu Muppatinaayiram (The 30,000 of Kozhikode). The Nairs
also formed the members of the suicide squad (chaver).[35][better source needed] The Mappila
community of Kozhikode
acted as an important support base for the city's military, economic and political affairs. They were settled primarily in Kuttichira
and Idiyangara. Their aristocratic dwelling houses were similar to the tharavad houses of the Nairs
and the Thiyyas. Two Ghazi's were recognised as their spiritual leaders. Travellers like Barbosa were intrigued by the extent to which the Mapillas blended into the local society, who spoke the same language and looked like any other Nair (except for the round caps and long beards).[33] The Thiyyas formed the vaidyars(Physicians), local militia and traders of Kozhikode. Several aristocratic thiyya families such as 'Kallingal madom' were settled in and around the city. The Tamil Brahmins
Tamil Brahmins
are primarily settled around the Tali Siva temple. They arrived in Kozhikode
as dependants of chieftains, working as cooks, cloth merchants and moneylenders.[36] They have retained their Tamil language
Tamil language
and dialects as well as caste rituals. The Gujarati community is settled mostly around the Jain
temple in and around the Valliyangadi. They owned a large number of establishments, especially textile and sweet shops. They must have arrived in Kozhikode
at least from the beginning of the 14th century. They belong to either the Hindu or the Jain
community. A few Marwari families are also found in Kozhikode
who were basically moneylenders. Civic administration The city is administered by the Kozhikode
Corporation, headed by a mayor. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into 75 wards,[37] from which the members of the corporation council are elected for five years. Recently neighbouring suburbs Beypore, Elathur, Cheruvannur and Nallalam were merged within the municipal corporation.

Municipal Corporation

Mayor Thottathil Raveendran

Deputy Mayor Meera Darsak

Member of Parliament M.K.Raghvan

District Collector Shri. U V Jose IAS

Police Commissioner Shri S Kaliraj Mahesh Kumar IPS

Kozhikode Corporation is the first City Corporation in Kerala
after the creation of the state. Established in 1962, Kozhikode Corporation's first mayor was H Manjunatha Rao. Kozhikode
corporation has four assembly constituencies – Kozhikode
North, Kozhikode
South, Beypore
and Elathur – all of which are part of Kozhikode.[38] Corporation Election 2015 Political Performance in Election 2015

S.No. Party Name Party symbol Number of Corporators

01 LDF


02 UDF


03 BJP


04 Independents


Initiatives by District Administration

Operation Sulaimani : Providing food with dignity for those who cannot afford a meal through contributions from the public. Project 4 N : Maintenance of roads through public participation. Savari Giri Giri : To enable students to travel in buses with dignity. Compassionate Kozhikode:[39] The brand name for plethora of initiatives launched by the District Administration in partnership with civil society, Government agencies and citizens, who volunteer to make Kozhikode
an authentic and inspirational destination for them to live and invite others to visit and experience it. It is the brainchild of the current District Collector
District Collector
Prasanth N. (IAS).

Law and order The Kozhikode
City Police is headed by a commissioner, an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer. The present District Police Chief is S Kaliraj Mahesh Kumar IPS and Merin Joseph IPS is Deputy Commissioner of Police.[40] The city is divided into six zones each under a circle officer. Apart from regular law and order, the city police comprises the traffic police, bomb squad, dog squad, fingerprint bureau, women's cell, juvenile wing, narcotics cell, riot force, armed reserve camps, district crime records bureau and a women's station.[41] It operates 16 police stations functioning under the Home Ministry of Government of Kerala. Transport National Highways

Calicut mini bypass

National Highway 66 connects Kozhikode
to Mumbai
via Mangaluru, Udupi and Goa
to the north and Kochi
and Kanyakumari
near Thiruvananthapuram to the south along the west coast of India. This highway connects the city with the other important towns like, Uppala, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Kannur, Thalassery, Mahe, Vadakara, Koyilandy, Vengalam,[42] Ramanattukara, Kottakkal, Kuttippuram, Ponnani, (Guruvayoor)Chavakkad, Kodungallur, North Paravur, Edapally
and proceed to Kanyakumari. National Highway 766 connects Kozhikode
to Bengaluru
through Kollegal in Karnataka via Tirumakudal Narsipur, Mysore, Nanjangud, Gundlupet, Sulthan Bathery, Kalpetta
and Thamarassery. National Highway 966 connects Kozhikode
to coimbatore through Palakkad. It covers a distance of 125 kilometres (78 mi). At Ramanattukara, a suburb of Kozhikode, it joins NH 66. It passes through towns like Kondotty, Malappuram, Perinthalmanna, and Mannarkkad. This stretch connects the city and Calicut International Airport. State Highways SH 28 is the Kerala
section of highway connecting Kozhikode
and Gudalur near Ooty. The highway is 103.6 kilometres (64.4 mi) long. It passes through important towns like Manjeri
and Nilambur. SH 29 passes through the city. It connects NH 212, Malabar Christian College, civil station, Kunnamangalam
and Padanilam, Thamarassery, Chellot, Chitragiri and Road to Gudallor from Kerala
border. SH 54 is connecting city and Kalpetta. The highway is 99.0 kilometres (61.5 mi) long. The highway passes through Pavangad, Kozhikode, Ulliyeri, Perambra, Poozhithodu, Peruvannamuzhi
and Padinjarethara. SH 68 starts from Kappad
and ends in Adivaram. The highway is 68.11 kilometres (42.32 mi) long. SH 34 starts from Koyilandy
and ends in Edavanna. The highway is 44.0 km long. Rail The history of railways in Malabar dates to 1861 when the first tracks were laid between Tirur
and Beypore.[43] Kozhikode
railway station is the only A1 railway station in Palakkad
railway division; it is in the Shoranur- Mangalore
section. Today, Kozhikode
is well connected by rail to cities like Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Kollam, Palakkad, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Vellore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Bangalore, Kannur, Mangalore, Mumbai, New Delhi, Vijayawada
and Visakhapatnam. Air Calicut International Airport
Calicut International Airport
is 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the city at Karipur. Regular domestic services are operated to major Indian cities. There are frequent international flights to the Middle Ewastern air hubs like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Salalah, Muscat, Dammam, Riyadh, Jeddah, Sharjah, Bahrain, Doha
and to domestic hubs Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mumbai
and New Delhi. Economy

Broken bridge at Calicut beach

Cyberpark, is a Government of Kerala
organisation planned to build, operate and manage IT parks for the promotion and development of investment in IT and ITES industries in Malabar region
Malabar region
of Kerala
and will be the third IT hub in the state of Kerala.The two IT park will create a total 100,000(100000) direct job opportunities. It is in the process of setting up IT parks at Kozhikode, at the SEZs approved at Kannur
and Kasargod. Its first project is the development of Cyberpark hub in Kozhikode
with its spokes at Kannur
and Kazargode IT parks.[44][45] Other planned projects include the Birla IT park (at Mavoor) and Malaysian satellite city (at Kinaloor) where KINFRA has plans to set up a 400-acre (1.6 km2) industrial park. Shopping Main article: Shopping Malls in Calicut The city has a strong mercantile aspect. The main area of business was once Valiyangadi (Big Bazaar) near the railway station. As time progressed, it shifted to other parts of the city. These days, the commercial heart has moved to Mittai Theruvu (Sweetmeat Street or S. M. Street), a long street crammed with shops that sell everything from saris to cosmetics. It also houses restaurants and sweetmeat shops. Today, the city has multiple shopping malls. Focus Mall, HiLITE Mall (the second largest mall in Kerala)[citation needed] and RP Mall are a few among them.[46] Currently, new shopping malls are springing up all over the city. This has changed the consumer habits, shifting the centre of commerce from S. M. Street
S. M. Street
to these places. Music In addition to the Malabar Mahotsavam, the annual cultural fest of Kozhikode,[47] every year since 1981 the Tyagaraja
Aradhana Trust has been conducting a five-day music festival in honour of Tyagaraja. The festival is complete with the Uncchavritti, rendering of Divyanama kritis, Pancharatna Kritis, concerts by professional artistes and students of music from morning to late in the evening.[48] Kozhikode
has a tradition of Ghazal
and Hindustani music appreciation. There are many Malayalam Ghazals. The late film director and play back singer M. S. Baburaj, from Kozhikode
was influenced by Ghazal
and Hindustani.[49] Media Radio The Kozhikode
radio station of All India
Radio has two transmitters: Kozhikode
AM (100 kilowatts) and Kozhikode
FM [Vividh Bharathi] (10 kilowatts). Private FM radio stations are Radio Mango 91.9 operated by Malayala Manorama Co. Ltd. and Red FM 93.5 of the SUN Network. AIR FM radio stations are Kozhikode
– 103.6 MHz; AIR MW radio station is Kozhikode
– 684 kHz. Television A television transmitter has been functioning in Kozhikode
since 3 July 1984, relaying programmes from Delhi
and Thiruvananthapuram Doordarshan. Doordarshan
has its broadcasting centre in Kozhikode
at Medical College. The Malayalam channels based on Kozhikode
are the Shalom Television, Darshana TV and Media One TV. All major channels in Malayalam viz. Manorama News, Asianet, Surya TV, Kairali TV, Amrita TV, Jeevan TV, Indiavision and Jaihind
have their studios and news bureaus in the city. Satellite television services are available through DD Direct+, Dish TV, Sun Direct DTH
Sun Direct DTH
and Tata Sky. Asianet
Cable Vision popularly known as ACV telecasts daily city news. Spidernet is another local channel. Other local operators include KCL and Citinet. The Calicut Press Club came into existence in 1970. It is the nerve centre of all media activities, both print and electronic. Begun with around 70 members in the roll, this Press Club, became a prestigious and alert media centre in the state with a present membership of over 280.[50][better source needed] Education Main article: Educational institutions in Kozhikode
district See also: Education in Kerala
and List of educational institutions in Kozhikode There are 1,237 schools in Kozhikode district
Kozhikode district
including 191 highschools.[51] The beginning of western education may be traced back to the first half of the 19th century, when in 1848 the basal Evangelical Mission started a primary school at Kallai. In 1877, a school for young Rajas was started in Kozhikode. This was later thrown open to all caste Hindu boys. In 1879, it was affiliated to the University of Madras as a second-grade college and with this, collegiate education in the district received a fillip. Secondary education recorded an appreciable progress since 1915. The erstwhile Malabar district, of which the present Kozhikode district
Kozhikode district
formed a part, holds a high rank among the districts of Madras Presidency in secondary education.[52] Location

Areas of Kozhikode

Koyilandy Perambra Balussery


Calicut City


Beypore Feroke Ramanattukara

See also


district Kozhikode
East Kozhikode
South Kozhikode
North Kozhikode
Beach Airport Road, Kozhikode Pavangad, Kozhikode List of people from Kozhikode


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2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ a b c d e "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India
2011; Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 March 2012.  ^ "Lectures 26–27". Purdue University. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ "Kozhikode." Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 November 2011. ^ "'Shilpa Nagaram' on June 7". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 June 2012.  ^ " Kozhikode
is 'Shilpa Nagaram'". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 June 2012.  ^ "Best cities to live, invest and earn in". Ibnlive.com. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  Indicus considered six parameters: health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2010.  ^ Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund. "18. Ibn Battuta: International Trade at the Malabar Coast". A History of India. Routledge. ISBN 9780415485432. Thence we travelled to the town of Qāliqūṭ. [Calicut], which is one of the chief ports in Mulaibār.  ^ M.G.S. Narayanan, Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Press, Kozhikode. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). calico ^ Ibn Battuta, H. A. R. Gibb (1994). The Travels of Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
A.D 1325-1354. IV. London.  ^ Ma Huan: Ying Yai Sheng Lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores, translated by J.V.G. Mills, 1970 Hakluyt Society, reprint 1997 White Lotus Press. ISBN 974-8496-78-3 ^ Varthema, Ludovico di, The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema, A.D.1503–08, translated from the original 1510 Italian ed. by John Winter Jones, Hakluyt Society, London ^ Gangadharan. M., The Land of Malabar: The Book of Barbosa (2000), Vol II, M.G University, Kottayam. ^ Sreedhara Menon.A, A Survey of Kerala
History(1967), p.152. D.C.Books Kottayam ^ Bhāratīya sthalanāma patrikā (page 44) published by Place Names Society of India ^ Sewell, Robert (1884). Lists of inscriptions, and sketch of the dynasties of southern India. p. 197. The Samoothiri
made Menokki ruler of Porallatiri and came to terms with the troops and people. After this follows an account of the founding of the town of Kozhikode, close to the Samoothiri's palace at Tali  ^ K. V. Krishna Ayyar; University of Calicut. Publication Division (1938). The Samorins of Calicut: from the earliest times down to A.D. 1806. Publication Division, University of Calicut. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-7748-000-9. Retrieved 25 July 2011.  ^ "history of calicut".  ^ "Kozhikode, India: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Kozhikode, India: Climate-charts.com. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ " Kozhikode
weather". India
Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ " Kozhikode
Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012.  ^ a b "Official Website of Kozhikode". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ "Bohras in Calicut". Hinduonnet.com. 19 May 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ a b "Official website of Kozhikode, Govt. of Kerala". Kkd.kerala.gov.in. 26 December 1975. Retrieved 23 September 2009.  ^ a b Barbosa, Duarte, The Book of Duarte Barbosa: An Account of Countries Bordering on the Indian Ocean and their Inhabitants, Dames, M.L, (translator and editor), 2 vol., First Published 1918. New Delhi, AES Reprint, 1989. ^ Narayanan M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth, Calicut University Press (2006) ^ Narayanan, M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth (2006) Calicut University Publications ^ Narayanan.M.G.S., Calicut: The City of Truth(2006) Calicut University Publications ^ " Kozhikode
Corporation, Councillors" (PDF). kozhikode corporation. Retrieved 27 November 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Kozhikode
Lok Sabha constituency redrawn Delimitation impact, The Hindu 5 February 2008 ^ http://compassionatekozhikode.in ^ " Kozhikode
City Police".  ^ " Kozhikode
City Police". Kozhikode
City Police. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2011.  ^ http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/Deadlock-on-Pooladikunnu-Vengalam-stretch-over/2013/11/08/article1879121.ece ^ "Central station completes 75 years". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 November 2006.  ^ "calicut cyberpark".  ^ " Kozhikode
to take off next year". Archived from the original on 2010-02-12.  ^ "HiLITE City, One of India's Largest Mixed-Use Development Project Enters the Limelight". Business Wire. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015. ^ "Malabar Mahotsavam set for a comeback". The Hindu. 1 January 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2015. ^ "Paying tribute to Sathguru Sri Tyagaraja". Tyagaraja
Aradhana Trust. Retrieved 4 September 2015. ^ Ramin Raveendran (20 October 2013). "Keeping the harmonium close to his heart". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 4 September 2015. ^ "Calicut press club". Archived from the original on 23 June 2003.  ^ List of High Schools in Kozhikode, Mighil.com 28 December 2017 ^ " Kozhikode

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kozhikode.

travel guide from Wikivoyage

District official website

Articles Related to Kozhikode

v t e

State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram


Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen


Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports


KL-01 Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam KL-07 Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod


Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur


Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions


North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

Cities and towns in Kozhikode


Beypore Balussery Chorode Edacheri Chathamangalam Chathangottunada Cheruvannur Elathur Eramala Feroke Karaparamba Kadalundi Kappad Karuvanthuruthy Koduvally Quilandy Kozhikode Kunnamangalam Kuttiyadi Maniyur Mavoor Meppayur Mukkam Nadapuram Njeliyanparambu Olavanna Orkkatteri Pantheeramkavu Payyoli Perambra Purameri Ramanattukara Thamarassery Thiruvambadi Vatakara Villiappally

v t e

North Malabar
North Malabar


( Vatakara
and Koyilandy
Taluks) Wayanad ( Mananthavady
Taluk) Mahe Kannur Kasaragod

Main Towns and Cities

Kannur Thalassery Kozhikode Vatakara Kasaragod Mahe Koyilandy Payyannur Kanhangad Nileshwaram Thaliparamba Kuthuparamba Mattannur Mananthavady Perambra Kuttiyadi Peringome Nadapuram Payyoli Iritty Azhiyur Orkkateri Meppayur Vellikulangara Edakkad New Mahe Pinarayi Mambaram Panoor Vellamunda Thirunelli Edavaka Thavinjal Panamaram Irikkur Kottayam Anjarakkandy Pazhayangadi Trikarpur Manjeswaram Pappinisseri Kalliasseri Cherukunnu Kannapuram Morazha Aroli Pattuvam Sreekandapuram Alakode Cherupuzha Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cheruvathur Mattool

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century


Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

Million-plus agglomerations in India


Chandigarh Delhi Haryana: Faridabad Jammu and Kashmir: Srinagar Punjab: Ludhiana Amritsar Rajasthan: Jaipur Jodhpur Kota


Chhattisgarh: Raipur Bhilai Madhya Pradesh: Indore Bhopal Jabalpur Gwalior Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur Lucknow Ghaziabad Agra Varanasi Meerut Allahabad


Bihar: Patna Jharkhand: Jamshedpur Dhanbad Ranchi West Bengal: Kolkata Asansol


Gujarat: Ahmedabad Surat Vadodara Rajkot Maharashtra: Mumbai Pune Nagpur Nashik Vasai-Virar Aurangabad


Andhra Pradesh: Visakhapatnam Vijayawada Karnataka: Bangalore Kerala: Kochi Kozhikode Thrissur Malappuram Thiruvananthapuram Kannur Kollam Tamil Nadu: Chennai Coimbatore Madurai Tiruchirappalli Telangana: Hyderabad

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 125525481 LCCN: n83060710 GND: 4302447-6 BNF: