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The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations. Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople
Constantinople
and it is now the second most-used ecclesiastical rite in Christendom
Christendom
after the Roman Rite. The Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
was originally developed and used in Greek language and later, with introduction of Eastern Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
to other ethnic groups it was translated into local languages and continued further development. Historically, most important non-Greek variants of Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
are: Byzantine-Slavonic and Byzantine-Georgian. The rite consists of the divine liturgies, canonical hours, forms for the administration of sacred mysteries (sacraments) and the numerous prayers, blessings and exorcisms developed by the Church of Constantinople. Also involved are the specifics of church architecture, icons, liturgical music, vestments and traditions which have evolved over the centuries in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and which are associated with this rite. Traditionally, the congregation stands throughout the whole service, and an iconostasis separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The faithful are very active in their worship, making frequent bows and prostrations, and feeling free to move about the temple (church) during the services. Also, traditionally, the major clergy and monks neither shave nor cut their hair or beards. Scripture plays a large role in Byzantine worship, with not only daily readings but also many quotes from the Bible throughout the services. The entire psalter is read each week, and twice weekly during Great Lent. Fasting is stricter than in the Roman Rite. On fast days, the faithful give up not only meat, but also dairy products, and on many fast days they also give up fish, wine and the use of oil in cooking. The rite observes four fasting seasons: Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast
Apostles' Fast
and Dormition Fast. In addition, most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are fast days and many monasteries also observe Monday as a fast day.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Divine liturgies

2 Divine liturgy 3 Daily office

3.1 Aggregates

3.1.1 Ordinary days 3.1.2 Weekdays during lent 3.1.3 When there is an all-night vigil 3.1.4 When the royal hours are read 3.1.5 On the eves of Christmas, Theophany, and Annunciation

4 Sacraments and other services performed as needed

4.1 The Holy Mysteries,aka, Sacraments

4.1.1 Baptism 4.1.2 Chrismation 4.1.3 Holy Communion
Holy Communion
(Eucharist) 4.1.4 Confession 4.1.5 Marriage 4.1.6 Holy Orders 4.1.7 Unction

4.2 Other services performed as needed

5 Local variations 6 Liturgical books 7 Calendar

7.1 Liturgical cycles

7.1.1 Weekly cycle 7.1.2 Fixed cycle 7.1.3 Paschal cycle

7.1.3.1 8 Week cycle of the octoechos 7.1.3.2 11 Week cycle of the matins gospels

8 List of Churches of Byzantine liturgical tradition

8.1 Eastern Orthodox Churches 8.2 Greek-Catholic Churches 8.3 Other Denominations

8.3.1 Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
Lutheranism 8.3.2 Society for Eastern Rite Anglicanism

9 Notes 10 See also 11 References 12 Books 13 External links

History[edit] Further information: Typicon
Typicon
§ Historical development There are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the Eastern Rites (plus the Gallican Rite in the West) developed: the Alexandrian Rite in Egypt and the Antiochene Rite
Antiochene Rite
in Syria. These two Rites developed directly from practices of the Early Church. Of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople
Constantinople
developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior
Prior
to the see of Constantinople's elevation to the dignity of patriarch by the Second Ecumenical Council
Second Ecumenical Council
in 381, the primary jurisdiction in Asia Minor was the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Antioch. With the council's elevation of Constantinople
Constantinople
to primacy in the East, with the words "The Bishop
Bishop
of Constantinople
Constantinople
... shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome; because Constantinople is New Rome",[1] the Constantinopolitan Rite gradually came to be the standard usage in every place under its jurisdiction. Because the Rite of Constantinople
Constantinople
evolved as a synthesis of two distinct rites — cathedral rite of Constantinople
Constantinople
called the "asmatiki akolouthia" ("sung services") and the monastic typicon of the Holy Lavra of Saint
Saint
Sabbas the Sanctified near Jerusalem
Jerusalem
— its offices are highly developed and quite complex. Further developments continued to occur, centered mostly around Constantinople
Constantinople
and Mount Athos. Monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the monastery of the Studion
Studion
greatly enriched the liturgical traditions, especially with regard to the Lenten observance. Iconography
Iconography
continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day. Historical events have also influenced the development of the liturgy. The great Christological and Trinitarian controversies of Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity
Trinity
heard in the numerous ekphonies encountered during the services. In response to Nestorius' attack on giving the title of Theotokos
Theotokos
to the Virgin Mary, the Byzantines increased the use of the term in the liturgy, and now almost every string of hymns ends with one in her honour, called a theotokion. All liturgical rites change and develop over time. As new saints are canonized, new hymns are composed; as new needs arise, new prayers are written. The rite also profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in ecclesiastical polity as the West. This allows for greater diversity, and as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its great emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
comprises a constantly growing and expanding ritual, with room for local practice. Divine liturgies[edit]

Fresco
Fresco
of Basil the Great
Basil the Great
in the cathedral of Ohrid. The saint is shown consecrating the Gifts during the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
which bears his name.

The tradition of the Church of Constantinople
Constantinople
ascribes the older of its two main Divine Liturgies to St. Basil the Great
Basil the Great
(d. 379), Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia. This tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries.[2][3][4] It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy
Liturgy
of his Church, and that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy
Liturgy
in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time.[5] St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea.[6][7] and other contemporary witnesses attest his arrangement of the services. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful. He also worked to reform the clergy and improve the moral life of Christians. He shortened the services and wrote a number of new prayers. The most important work attributed to him is the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of St. Basil. He took as his basis the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. James as it was celebrated at his time in the region of Cappadocia, as well as some liturgical elements recorded in the Apostolic Constitutions.[5] Over time, the Liturgy
Liturgy
of Saint
Saint
Basil gained wide usage in Asia Minor and Syria. Peter the Deacon
Deacon
mentions that Basil's Liturgy
Liturgy
was "used by nearly the whole East".[5] However, the Alexandrian rite uses another Liturgy
Liturgy
which is also attributed to Saint
Saint
Basil,[8] so Peter the Deacon's reference may not be to the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. Basil used in the Byzantine Rite. Saint
Saint
Basil's liturgical work was continued by John Chrysostom, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Constantinople
Constantinople
(died c. 407) who wrote new (and shorter) prayers for the Divine Liturgy, as well as other prayers. The Divine Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
is the most common form of the liturgy used in the rite today. Divine liturgy[edit] Main article: Divine Liturgy This tradition has several forms of the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
(celebration of the Eucharist), three of which are in use everywhere that the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
is used: the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. Basil the Great, the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. John Chrysostom, and the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Presanctified Gifts.

The Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
is the one most commonly celebrated throughout the year. The Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. Basil is celebrated ten times a year: on the five Sundays in Great Lent, with Vespers
Vespers
on Holy Thursday and Holy Saturday, on the Eves with Vespers
Vespers
(or Feasts themselves, at the normal time, depending on the day of the week) of Christmas
Christmas
and Theophany, and on January 1, which is the feast day of St. Basil. The Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Presanctified Gifts (which has no Consecration
Consecration
of the Gifts but distributes the Holy Mysteries from a Lamb sanctified in advance, always as a Vespers
Vespers
(Liturgies on fast days always being served in conjunction with the office of vespers) is celebrated only on certain weekdays of Great Lent: on Wednesdays, Fridays and any of the more important feast days which may occur (however, if the Great Feast of the Annunciation
Annunciation
occurs on a weekday of Great Lent, the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of St. John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
is celebrated). It is also served on the first three days of Holy Week.

The divine liturgy is normally not celebrated daily except in cathedrals and larger monasteries. However, most parishes and smaller monasteries serve the Liturgy
Liturgy
on Saturdays, Sundays, and major feast days throughout the year. When a bishop officiates, the divine liturgy has an expanded form with particular solemnity; though other services are also affected by being officiated by a bishop, none is more so than the liturgy. Daily office[edit] Main article: Canonical hours
Canonical hours
§ Eastern Orthodox usage

Monks and seminarians on cliros. Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
Monastery
Monastery
in Jordanville, New York

Priest
Priest
reciting the Prayer
Prayer
of Saint
Saint
Ephrem in front of the royal doors of the iconostasis

The daily cycle begins with vespers[note 1] and proceeds throughout the night and day according to the following table:

Name of service in Greek Name of service in English Historical Time of service Theme[note 2]

Esperinos (Ἑσπερινός) Vespers At sunset Glorification of God, the Creator of the world and its Providence

Apodipnon (Ἀπόδειπνον) Compline At bedtime Sleep as the image of death, illumined by Christ’s Harrowing of Hell after His death

Mesonyktikon (Μεσονυκτικόν) Midnight Office At midnight Christ’s midnight prayer in Gethsemane; a reminder to be ready for the Bridegroom coming at midnight and the Last Judgment

Orthros (Ὄρθρος) Matins or Orthros Morning watches, ending at dawn The Lord having given us not only daylight but spiritual light, Christ the Savior

Proti Ora (Πρώτη Ὥρα) First Hour (Prime) At ≈7 AM Christ's being brought before Pilate.

Triti Ora (Τρίτη Ὥρα) Third Hour (Terce) At ≈9 AM Pilate's judgement of Christ and the descent of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
at Pentecost, which happened at this hour.

Ekti Ora (Ἕκτη Ὥρα) Sixth Hour (Sext) At noon Christ's crucifixion, which happened at this hour

Enati Ora (Ἐνάτη Ὥρα) Ninth Hour (None) At ≈3 PM Christ's death which happened at this hour.

Typica (τυπικά) or Pro-Liturgy[note 3] Typica follows sixth or ninth hour .

The typica is used whenever the divine liturgy is not celebrated at its usual time, i.e., when there is a vesperal liturgy or no liturgy at all. On days when the liturgy may be celebrated at its usual hour, the typica follows the sixth hour (or matins, where the custom is to serve the Liturgy
Liturgy
then) and the Epistle and Gospel readings for the day are read therein;[note 4] otherwise, on aliturgical days or when the Liturgy
Liturgy
is served at vespers, the Typica has a much shorter form and is served between the ninth hour and vespers.[note 5] Also, there are Inter-Hours for the First, Third, Sixth and Ninth Hours. These are services of a similar structure to, but briefer than, the hours. their usage varies with local custom, but generally they are used only during the Nativity Fast, Apostles
Apostles
Fast, and Dormition Fast on days when the lenten alleluia replaces "God is the Lord" at matins, which may be done at the discretion of the ecclesiarch when the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
is not celebrated. In addition to these public prayers, there are also private prayers prescribed for both monastics and laypersons; in some monasteries, however, these are read in church. These include Morning and Evening Prayers and prayers (and, in Russia, canons) to be prayed in preparation for receiving the Eucharist. The full cycle of services are usually served only in monasteries, cathedrals, and other Katholika (sobors). In monasteries and parishes of the Russian tradition, the Third and Sixth Hours are read during the Prothesis ( Liturgy
Liturgy
of Preparation); otherwise, the Prothesis is served during matins, the final portion of which is omitted, the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Catechumens commencing straightway after the troparion following the Great Doxology. The Midnight Office is seldom served in parishes churches except at the Paschal Vigil as the essential office wherein the burial shroud is removed from the tomb and carried to the altar. Aggregates[edit] The sundry Canonical Hours are, in practice, grouped together into aggregates[note 6] so that there are three major times of prayer a day: Evening, Morning and Midday.[note 7] The most common groupings are as follows: Ordinary days[edit]

Evening — Ninth Hour, Vespers, Compline[note 8] Morning Watches — Midnight Office,[note 9] Matins, First Hour Morning — Third Hour, Sixth Hour, and the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
or Typica[note 10]

Weekdays during lent[edit]

Evening — Great Compline Morning Watches — Midnight Office, Matins, First Hour Morning — Third Hour, Sixth Hour, Ninth Hour, Typica, Vespers (sometimes with the Liturgy
Liturgy
of the Presanctified Gifts or, on the Annunciation, the Liturgy
Liturgy
of Saint
Saint
John Chrysostom)

When there is an all-night vigil[edit] On the eves before Great Feasts and, in some traditions, on all Sundays, this grouping is used. However, the All-night vigil is usually abridged so as to not last literally "all-night" and may be as short as two hours; on the other hand, on Athos and in the very traditional monastic institutions, that service followed by the hours and Liturgy
Liturgy
may last as long as 18 hours.

Afternoon — Ninth Hour, Little Vespers,[note 11] Compline (where it is not read at the commencement of the Vigil) Early night — Compline (where it is not the custom for it to follow small vespers), Great Vespers,[note 12] a reading, Matins, First Hour

When the royal hours are read[edit]

Evening — Ninth Hour, Vespers, Compline Morning Watches — Midnight Office, Matins Morning — First, Third, Sixth, and Ninth Hours and the Typica

On the eves of Christmas, Theophany, and Annunciation[edit] When the feast is a weekday (or, in the Russian tradition, on any day for Christmas, Theophany), Vespers
Vespers
(with the Liturgy
Liturgy
in most instances) is served earlier in the day and so Great Compline functions much as Great vespers does on the vigils of other feast days.

Evening — Great Compline (in some traditions) and, if there be an All-Night Vigil, the reading, matins, first hour. Morning Watches — (unless there be an all-night vigil) midnight office, matins, first hour.

Sacraments and other services performed as needed[edit] The Holy Mysteries,aka, Sacraments[edit] Baptism[edit]

A baptism

Baptism
Baptism
transforms the old and sinful person into a new and pure one; the old life, the sins, any mistakes made are gone and a clean slate is given. Through Baptism
Baptism
a person is united to the Body of Christ
Body of Christ
by becoming a member of the Orthodox Church. During the service, water is blessed. The catechumen is fully immersed in the water three times, once in the name of each of the persons of the Holy Trinity. This is considered to be a death of the "old man" by participation in the crucifixion and burial of Christ, and a rebirth into new life in Christ by participation in his resurrection.[9] Properly a new name is given, which becomes the person's name. Children of Orthodox families are normally baptized shortly after birth. Converts to Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
are usually formally baptized into the Orthodox Church, though exceptions are sometimes made. Those who have left Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
and adopted a new religion, if they return to their Orthodox roots, are usually received back into the church through the mystery of Chrismation. Properly, the mystery of Baptism
Baptism
is administered by bishops and priests; however, in emergencies any Orthodox Christian can baptize.[10] In such cases, should the person survive the emergency, it is likely that the person will be properly baptized by a priest at some later date. This is not considered to be a second baptism, nor is it imagined that the person is not already Orthodox, but rather it is a fulfillment of the proper form. The service of Baptism
Baptism
used in Orthodox churches has remained largely unchanged for over 1500 years. This fact is witnessed to by St. Cyril of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(d. 386), who, in his Discourse on the Sacrament
Sacrament
of Baptism, describes the service in much the same way as is currently in use. Chrismation[edit]

A chrismation

Chrismation
Chrismation
granteds the gift of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
through anointing with Holy Chrism.[11] It is normally given immediately after baptism as part of the same service, but is also used to receive lapsed members of the Orthodox Church.[12] As baptism is a person's participation in the death and resurrection of Christ, so Chrismation is a person's participation in the coming of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
at Pentecost.[13] A baptized and chrismated Orthodox Christian is a full member of the Church and may receive the Eucharist
Eucharist
regardless of age.[13] The sanctification of chrism may, in theory, be performed by any bishop at any time, but in longstanding practice is performed no more than once a year; by hierarchs most most autocephalous while certain others obtain their chrism from another church. Anointing with it substitutes for the laying-on of hands described in the New Testament, the apostles having made the initial chrism, according to the prayer of consecration of chrism, laying their hands on it, to substitute for laying on of hands for sundry practices where only the apostles could perform said laying-on-of-hands.[14] Chrismation
Chrismation
is repeated when receiving apostates back into the Orthodox Church. Holy Communion
Holy Communion
(Eucharist)[edit]

Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy

An icon of Holy Communion: "Receive the Body of Christ; taste the Fountain of Immortality."

The Eucharist
Eucharist
is at the center of Orthodox Christianity. In practice, it is the partaking of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ
Blood of Jesus Christ
in the midst of the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
with the rest of the church. The bread and wine are believed to become the genuine Body and Blood of the Christ Jesus through the operation of the Holy Spirit. Communion is given only to baptized Orthodox Christians who have prepared by fasting, prayer and confession and is administered with a spoon directly into the recipient's mouth from the chalice.[15] From baptism young infants and children are carried to the chalice to receive holy communion.[13] Because of the Orthodox understanding of mankind's fallen nature in general those who wish to commune prepare themselves in a way that reflects mankind in paradise. First, they prepare by having their confession heard and the prayer of repentance read over them by a priest. They are encouraged to increase their prayer rule, adding the prescribed prayers in preparation for communing. Finally, they will fast completely from food, drink, and sexual activity from the evening, interpreted in sundry locations as from arising from sleep, or midnight, or from sunset the previous evening. Confession[edit] When one who has committed sins repents of them, wishing to reconcile themselves to God and renew the purity of their original baptisms, confess their sins to God before a spiritual guide who offers advice and direction to assist the individual in overcoming their sin, parish priests commonly function as spiritual guides, but such guides can be any person, male or female, who has been given a blessing to hear confessions. Spiritual guides are chosen very carefully as this is a mandate that once chosen must be obeyed. Having confessed, the priest lays his hands on the penitent's head while reciting the prayer of absolution. Sin is a mistake made by the individual with the opportunity for spiritual growth and development. An act of Penance
Penance
(epitemia), if the spiritual guide requires it, is never formulaic, but rather is directed toward the individual and their particular problem, as a means of establishing a deeper understanding of the mistake made, and how to effect its cure. Because full participatory membership is granted to infants, it is not unusual for even small children to confess; though the scope of their culpability is far less than an older child, still their opportunity for spiritual growth remains the same. Marriage[edit] Further information: Marriage in the Eastern Orthodox Church

The wedding of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

From the Orthodox perspective, marriage is one of the holy mysteries or sacraments. As well as in many other Christian traditions, for example in the Roman Catholic Church, it serves to unite a woman and a man in eternal union and love before God, with the purpose of following Christ and His Gospel and raising up a faithful, holy family through their holy union.[16][17] The church understands marriage to be the union of one man and one woman, and certain Orthodox leaders have spoken out strongly in opposition to the civil institution of same-sex marriage.[18][19] Jesus
Jesus
said that "when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven" (Mk 12:25). For the Orthodox Christian this passage should not be understood to imply that Christian marriage will not remain a reality in the Kingdom, but points to the fact that relations will not be "fleshy", but "spiritual".[20] Love between wife and husband, as an icon of relationship between Christ and Church, is eternal.[21] The Church does recognize that there are rare occasions when it is better that couples do separate, but there is no official recognition of civil divorces. For the Orthodox, to say that marriage is indissoluble means that it should not be broken, the violation of such a union, perceived as holy, being an offense resulting from either adultery or the prolonged absence of one of the partners. Thus, permitting remarriage is an act of compassion of the Church towards sinful man.[22] Ecclesiastically divorced Orthodox (not civilly divorced only). Widowed people, as well as divorcées, may remarry, but a different, penitential service is used, and there is usually imposed on them a fairly severe penance by their bishop and the services for a second marriage in this case are more penitential than joyful. Deacons and priests, however, may not remarry or, if he does, he is liaised. Should a married deacon or priest die, it is common for his wife to retire to a monastery once their children are out of the house. Widowed priests are not allowed to remarry (no priest may be married after his ordination) and also frequently end up in monasteries. The service of a first Marriage in the Orthodox Church has two distinct parts: the Betrothal and the Crowning. There is no exchange of vows. There is a set expectation of the obligations incumbent on a married couple, and whatever promises they may have privately to each other are their responsibility to keep. The service of a remarriage is penitential. Holy Orders[edit]

Ordination of a priest.

Since its founding, the Church spread to different places and its leaders in each region came to be known as episkopoi (overseers, plural of episkopos, overseer—Gr. ἐπίσκοπος), which became "bishop" in English. The other ordained roles are presbyter (Gr. πρεσβύτερος, elder), which became "prester" and then "priest" in English, and diakonos (Gr. διάκονος, servant), which became "deacon" in English (see also subdeacon). There are numerous administrative positions among the clergy that carry additional titles. Bishops are always monks. Although someone who is not a monk may be elected to be a bishop, which frequently happens with widowed priests, he must receive a monastic tonsure before consecration to the episcopate. Deacons and priests, however, are typically married, and it is customary that only monks or married men be ordained. It is considered preferable for parish priests to be married as they often act as counsel to married couples and thus can draw on their own experience. Unmarried priests usually are monks and live in monasteries, though when there is of a shortage of married priests, a monk-priest may be assigned to a parish. A deacon or priest would have to abandon his orders, i.e., be liaised, to marry after ordination; it is common for widowed clergy to enter a monastery. Also, widowed wives of clergy, who are discouraged from remarrying, often become nuns when their children are grown. Only men can take holy orders, although deaconesses had both liturgical and pastoral functions within the church.[23] This has fallen out of practice, the last deaconess having been ordained in the 19th century; however, in 2017, Patriarch
Patriarch
Theodoros II and the Holy Synod of the Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Alexandria decided to reinstate the order of deaconesses in the Greek Orthodox Church. In February, he appointed six nuns to be subdeacons within the church. (Catherine Clark (2017). "National Catholic Reporter." March–April 6, 2017. p. 7 ) Unction[edit] Anointing with oil, often called "unction", is one of the mysteries administered by the Orthodox Church and it is not reserved only for the dying or terminally ill, but for all in need of spiritual or bodily healing, and with reception of this sacrament comes forgiveness of sins. In Greece, during the Ottoman occupation, when parish priests were not allowed to hear confessions, it became the custom to administer this mystery annually on Great Wednesday to all believers so that all could commune the following days through Pascha. In recent decades, this custom has spread to many other locations. Other services performed as needed[edit]

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Local variations[edit] Two main strata exist in the rite, those places that have inherited the traditions of the Russian Church which had been given only the monastic Sabbaite typicon which she uses to this day[note 13] in parishes and cathedrals as well as in monasteries, and everywhere else where some remnant of the cathedral rite remained in use; therefore, the rite as practiced in monasteries everywhere resembles the Russian recension, while non-Russian non-monastic customs differs significantly. For example, in the Russian tradition, the "all-night vigil" is served in every church on Saturday nights and the eves of feast days (although it may be abridged to be as short as two hours) while elsewhere, it is usual to have matins on the morning of the feast; however, in the latter instance, vespers and matins are rather less abridged but the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
commences at the end of matins and the hours are not read, as was the case in the extinct cathedral rite of Constantinople. Also, as the rite evolved in sundry places, different customs arose; an essay on some of these has been written by Archbishop
Archbishop
Basil Krivoshein and is posted on the web.[24] Liturgical books[edit] Horologion
Horologion
(Ὡρολόγιον; Church Slavonic: Chasoslov, Часocлoвъ), or Book
Book
of Hours, provides the fixed portions of the Daily Cycle of services (Greek: ἀκολουθίαι akolouthiai) as used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches. Into this fixed framework, numerous moveable parts of the service are inserted. These are taken from a variety of liturgical books:

Psalter
Psalter
(Greek: Ψαλτήρ(ιον), Psalter(ion); Slavonic: Ѱалтырь or Ѱалтирь, Psaltyr' ) A book containing the 150 Psalms[note 14] divided into 20 sections called Kathismata together with the 9 Biblical canticles which are chanted at Matins; although these canticles had been chanted in their entirety, having over time come to be supplemented by interspersed hymns (analogously to stichera) to form the Canon, the canticles themselves are now only regularly used in a few large monasteries[note 15] The Psalter
Psalter
also contains the various "selected psalms", each composed of verses from a variety of psalms, sung at matins on feast days, as well as tables for determining which Kathismata are to be read at each service; in addition to the Psalms
Psalms
read at the daily offices, all the Psalms
Psalms
are read each week and, during Great Lent, twice a week. Octoechos (Greek: Ὀκτώηχος; Slavonic: Октоихъ, Oktoikh or Осмогласникъ, Osmoglasnik)—Literally, the Book
Book
of the "Eight Tones" or modes. This book contains a cycle of eight weeks, one for each of the eight echoi (church modes of the Byzantine musical system of eight modes), providing texts for each day of the week for Vespers, Matins, Compline, and (on Sundays) the Midnight Office. The origins of this book go back to compositions by St. John Damascene. The (Great) Octoechos is also called "Parakletike". Octoechoi containing only Marianic hymns are called "Theotokarion". Since the 17th century different collections of the Octoechos had been separated as own books about certain Hesperinos psalms like the Anoixantarion an octoechos collection for the psalm 103, the Kekragarion for psalm 140, and the Pasapnoarion for the psalm verse 150:6 and also the Doxastarion.[25] Menaion
Menaion
(Greek: Μηναῖον; Slavonic: Минеѧ, Mineya)—A twelve-volume set which provides liturgical texts for each day of the calendar year,[note 16] printed as 12 volumes, one for each months of the year.[note 17] Another volume, the General Menaion
Menaion
contains propers for each class of saints for use when the propers for a particular saint are not available. Additionally, locally venerated saints may have services in supplemental volumes, pamphlets, or manuscripts. Menologion
Menologion
(Greek: Μηνολόγιον) A collection of the lives of the saints and commentaries on the meaning of feasts for each day of the calendar year, also printed as 12 volumes,[note 17] appointed to be read at the meal in monasteries and, when there is an all-night vigil for a feast day, between vespers and matins. Triodion (Greek: Τριῴδιον, Triodion; Slavonic: Постнаѧ Трїωдь, Postnaya Triod' ; Romanian: Triodul), also called the Lenten Triodion. The Lenten Triodion contains propers for:

the Pre-Lenten Season the Forty Days of Great Lent
Great Lent
itself Lazarus Saturday
Lazarus Saturday
and Palm Sunday Holy Week

Pentecostarion
Pentecostarion
(Greek: Πεντηκοστάριον, Pentekostarion; Slavonic: Цвѣтнаѧ Трїωдь, Tsvetnaya Triod' , literally "Flowery Triodon"; Romanian: Penticostar) This volume contains the propers for the period from Pascha to the Sunday of All Saints. This period can be broken down into the following periods:

Bright Week
Bright Week
( Easter
Easter
Week) Commencing with matins on Pascha (Easter Sunday) through the following Saturday Paschal Season—The period from Thomas Sunday
Thomas Sunday
until Ascension Ascension and its Afterfeast Pentecost
Pentecost
and its Afterfeast All Saints Sunday (the Sunday after Pentecost)

Synaxarion
Synaxarion
(Greek: Συναξάριον; Romanian: Sinaxar)—The Synaxarion
Synaxarion
contains for each day of the year brief lives of the saints and meanings of celebrated feasts, appointed to be read after the Kontakion
Kontakion
and Oikos at Matins. Irmologion
Irmologion
(Greek: Εἱρμολόγιον; Slavonic: Ирмологий, Irmologii)—Contains the Irmoi chanted at the Canon of Matins and other services. The hymns of the books heirmologion and octoechos had been collected earlier in a book called "Troparologion" or "Tropologion". Priest's Service Book
Book
(Greek: Ἱερατικόν, Ieratikon; Slavonic: Слѹжебникъ, Sluzhebnik) It contains the portions of the services which are said by the priest and deacon and is given to a deacon and to a priest with his vestments at ordination.[note 18] The Mega Euchologion
Euchologion
contains the portions of the services for the whole year which are said by the priest (Hieratikon), the bishop (Archieratikon) or the deacon (Hierodiakonikon). The two largest parts are the Litourgikon with the liturgies for the whole year and the Hagiasmatarion with the blessings. Bishop's Service Book
Book
(Greek: Ἀρχιερατικόν Archieratikon, Slavonic: Чиновникъ, Chinovnik) the portions of the services which are said by the Bishop; for the Canonical Hours, this differs little from what is in the Priest's Service Book. Prophetologion (Greek: Προφητολόγιον) It contains the Old Testament Lectionary readings appointed at Vespers
Vespers
and at other services during the Church year. Gospel Book
Gospel Book
(Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangelion or Εὐαγγελιστάριον, Evangelistarion) Book
Book
containing the 4 Gospels laid out as read at the divine services.[note 19] Apostle Book
Book
(Greek: Ἀπόστολος or Πραξαπόστολος, Apostolos or Praxapostolos; Slavonic: Апостолъ, Apostol) Contains the readings for the Divine Liturgy
Liturgy
from the Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles
and the Epistles
Epistles
together with the Prokeimenon and Alleluia
Alleluia
verses that are chanted with the readings.[note 19] Patristic writings
Patristic writings
Many writings from the Church fathers are prescribed to be read at matins and, during great lent, at the hours; in practice, this is only done in some monasteries and frequently therein the abbot prescribes readings other than those in the written rubrics. Therefore, it is not customary to enumerate all the volumes required for this. Collections (Greek: Ἀνθολόγιον, Anthologion; Slavonic: Сборникъ, Sbornik) There are numerous smaller anthologies available[note 20] which were quite common before the invention of printing but still are in common use both because of the enormous volume of a full set of liturgical texts and because the full texts have not yet been translated into several languages currently in use. Some of the anthologies are called Hymnologion. Typicon
Typicon
(Greek: Τυπικόν, Typikon; Slavonic: Тѵпико́нъ, Typikon or уста́въ, ustav) Contains all of the rules for the performance of the Divine Services, giving directions for every possible combination of the materials from the books mentioned above into the Daily Cycle of Services. Anastasimatarion (Greek: Ἀναστασιματάριον) is a service book that contains the Anastasima (Resurrectional) hymns of vespers, Sunday matins and other hymns. Sticherarion (Greek: Στιχηράριον) it contains the stichera for the morning and evening services throughout the year. Chant compositions in the sticheraric melos can also be found in other liturgical books like the Octoechos or the Anastasimatarion. Hebdomadarion (Greek: Ἑβδομαδάριον) is a liturgical book which contains the Paracletical canons of the week. Homilies (Greek: Ὁμιλίαι) some homilies of the Church Fathers are recited regularly or on special occasions, such as the Paschal Homily of St. John Chrysostom.

Also some books for special occasions, such as the book for the great week- He Megale Ebdomas, the Dekapentaugoustarion for the 15. August, or the Eklogadion including certain excerpts. The Apostolike Diakonia of the Church of Greece
Church of Greece
and some Greek-orthodox bishops have also published certain old liturgies. Such as the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St. James and other. Calendar[edit] Main article: Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
liturgical calendar The fixed portion of the liturgical year begins on September 1. There is also a moveable Paschal cycle
Paschal cycle
which is fixed according to the date of Pascha (Easter), by far the most important day of the entire year. The interplay of these two cycles, plus other lesser cycles influences the manner in which the services are celebrated on a day to day level throughout the entire year. Traditionally, the Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
has been used to calculate feast days. Beginning in 1924, several autocephalous churches adopted, for fixed dates, the Revised Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
which is aligned with the Gregorian calendar; the Paschal cycle, however, continued to be calculated according to the Julian Calendar. Today, some churches and portions of some other churches continue to follow the Julian Calendar while others follow the Revised Julian (Eastern Orthodox) or Gregorian (usually the more Latinized Byzantine Catholic) Calendar. Among Eastern Orthodox, only the Orthodox Church of Finland
Orthodox Church of Finland
has adopted the Western calculation of the date of Pascha (see computus); all other Orthodox Churches, and a number of Eastern Catholic Churches, celebrate Pascha according to the ancient rules. Liturgical cycles[edit] Various cycles of the liturgical year influence the manner in which the materials from the liturgical books (above) are inserted into the daily services: Weekly cycle[edit] Each day of the week has its own commemoration:

Sunday—Resurrection of Christ Monday—The Holy Angels Tuesday—St. John the Forerunner Wednesday—The Cross and the Theotokos Thursday—The Holy Apostles
Apostles
and St. Nicholas Friday—The Cross Saturday—All Saints[note 21] and the departed

Most of the texts come from the Octoechos, which has a large collections of hymns for each weekday for each of the eight tones; during great lent and, to a lesser degree, the pre-lenten season, the Lenten Triodion supplements this with hymns for each day of the week for each week of that season, as does the Pentecostarion
Pentecostarion
during the pascal season. Also, there are fixed texts for each day of the week are in the Horologion
Horologion
and Priest's Service Book
Book
(e.g., dismissals) and the Kathismata (selections from the Psalter) are governed by the weekly cycle in conjunction with the season. Fixed cycle[edit] Commemorations on the Fixed Cycle
Fixed Cycle
depend upon the day of the calendar year, and also, occasionally, specific days of the week that fall near specific calendar dates, e.g., the Sunday before the Exaltation of the Cross. The texts for this cycle are found in the Menaion. Paschal cycle[edit] The commemorations on the Paschal Cycle
Paschal Cycle
(Moveable Cycle) depend upon the date of Pascha (Easter). The texts for this cycle are found in the Lenten Triodion, the Pentecostarion, the Octoechos and also, because the daily Epistle and Gospel readings are determined by this cycle, the Gospel Book
Gospel Book
and Apostle Book. The cycle of the Octoechos continues through the following great lent, so the variable parts of the lenten services are determined by both the preceding year's and the current year's dates of Easter. 8 Week cycle of the octoechos[edit] The cycle of the eight Tones is found in the Octoechos and is dependent on the date of Easter
Easter
and commences with the Sunday after (eighth day of) Easter, that week using the first tone, the next week using the second tone, and so, repeating through the week preceding the subsequent Palm Sunday.[note 22] 11 Week cycle of the matins gospels[edit] The portions of each of the Gospels from the narration of the Resurrection through the end are divided into eleven readings which are read on successive Sundays at matins; there are hymns sung at Matins that correspond with that day's Matins Gospel. List of Churches of Byzantine liturgical tradition[edit] Eastern Orthodox Churches[edit]

Holy Trinity
Holy Trinity
Russian Orthodox Cathedral, Chicago

Only autocephalous (self-governed) churches are listed; autonomous churches are considered under their mother churches. Those churches which continue to follow the old Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
are marked with an asterisk (*), while those that follow the Revised Julian Calendar
Julian Calendar
are unmarked.

Ecumenical Patriarchate
Patriarchate
of Constantinople Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
of Alexandria Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
of Antioch Greek Orthodox Church
Greek Orthodox Church
of Jerusalem* Russian Orthodox Church* Serbian Orthodox Church* Romanian Orthodox Church Bulgarian Orthodox Church Georgian Orthodox Church* Cypriot Orthodox Church Church of Greece Albanian Orthodox Church Polish Orthodox Church* Czech and Slovak Orthodox Church* Orthodox Church in America

Greek-Catholic Churches[edit]

Part of a series on

Particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church

Latin cross
Latin cross
and Byzantine Patriarchal cross

Particular churches are grouped by rite.

Latin Rite

Latin

Alexandrian Rite

Coptic Ethiopian Eritrean

Armenian Rite

Armenian

Byzantine Rite

Albanian Belarusian Bulgarian Croatian and Serbian Greek Hungarian Italo-Albanian Macedonian Melkite Romanian Russian Ruthenian Slovak Ukrainian

East Syriac Rite

Chaldean Syro-Malabar

West Syriac Rite

Maronite Syriac Syro-Malankara

Catholicism portal Eastern Christianity
Christianity
portal

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These Particular Churches are considered sui iuris churches (autonomous) in full communion with the Holy See

Albanian Greek Catholic Church Belarusian Greek Catholic Church Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church Byzantine Catholic Church
Catholic Church
of Croatia and Serbia Greek Byzantine Catholic Church Melkite Greek Catholic Church Hungarian Greek Catholic Church Italo-Albanian Catholic Church Macedonian Greek Catholic Church Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic Russian Greek Catholic Church Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church Slovak Greek Catholic Church Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

Note: Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics
Georgian Byzantine-Rite Catholics
are not recognized as a particular Church (cf. canon 27 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches). Other Denominations[edit] The rite is partially employed by several other groups. Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
Lutheranism[edit]

The Ukrainian Lutheran Church[26] (which uses liturgical formulae from the Byzantine Rite
Byzantine Rite
to form the base text for the Order of Service in the Ukrainian Evangelical Service Book.[27][28] It has also been used by the German Eastern Rite Community (Ostkirchlicher Konvent), St. Valentine's Lutheran Fellowship of the Grand Canyon Synod (ELCA), and in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Augsburg Confession in Slovenia. Several other Lutheran communities also use this modified version of the Divine Liturgy.

Society for Eastern Rite Anglicanism[edit] It has also been employed, although less frequently, in the Anglican Communion, e.g., its being utilized by the Society for Eastern Rite Anglicanism,.[29] Notes[edit]

^ In accordance with Old Testament practice, the day is considered to begin in the evening (Genesis 1:5). ^ Sokolof, pp 36-38 ^ Sokolof, p 93 ^ The typica has a certain correspondence to the Missa Sicca of the Mediaeval West. ^ Sokolof, p 93 ^ Sokolof, p 36 ^ This is to conform with Psalm 55:17, "Evening, morning, and noonday will I tell of it and will declare it, and He will hear my voice." ^ In monasteries, when there is an evening meal, compline is often separated from vespers and read after the meal; in Greek (απόδειπνον/apodeipnon) and Slavonic (Повечерiе/Pov'echeriye), the name for Compline literally means, "After-supper." ^ Midnight Office is often omitted in parish churches. ^ Though the Liturgy
Liturgy
(and Typica are not, strictly speaking, a part of the daily cycle of services, their placement is fixed by the Typicon in relation to the daily cycle. ^ This is an abbreviated, redundant Vespers ^ On great feast days proceeded by a strict fast (Christmas, Epiphany, and Annunciation
Annunciation
on a weekday), the Vigil commences with Great Compline rather than Vespers ^ Тvпико́нъ сіесть уста́въ (the Typicon
Typicon
which is the Order), p 1 ^ There is also a Psalm 151
Psalm 151
which is often included in the Psalter, though it is not actually chanted during the Divine Services. ^ excepting in the Russian tradition where they are used weekly on weekdays of Great Lent. ^ On non-leap years, the service for 29 Feb. (St. John Cassian) is sung at compline on 28 Feb.. ^ a b The liturgical year begins in September, so the volumes are numbered from 1 for September to 12 for August. ^ Originally, the deacon's book and the priest's books were distinct, but upon the invention of printing, it was found more practical to combine them. ^ a b In Greek editions the Evangélion or better Ευαγγελιστάριον is laid out in order of the cycle of readings as they occur in the ecclesiastical year, with a section in the back providing the Gospel readings for Matins, Feasts and special occasions. In the Slavic usage, the Evangélion contains the four gospels in canonical order (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) with annotations in the margin to indicate the beginning and ending of each reading (and an index in the back). The Apostól is likewise edited, the Slavonic Apostól having all of the books of the New Testament (excluding the Gospels and Apocalypse) in their entirety, though not in the same order they are found in most English Bibles (Acts is placed first, followed by the Catholic Epistles, etc.). ^ For instance, the Festal Menaion
Menaion
contains only those portions of the Menaion
Menaion
that have to do with the Great Feasts; and the General Menaion, et cetera. ^ Including, especially, the Theotokos
Theotokos
and the Patron Saint
Saint
of the local church or monastery. ^ Each day of Bright Week
Bright Week
( Easter
Easter
Week) uses propers in a different tone, Sunday: Tone One, Monday: Tone Two, skipping the grave tone (Tone Seven)

See also[edit] Other Eastern liturgical rites:

Alexandrian Rite Antiochene Rite Armenian Rite East Syriac Rite West Syriac Rite

References[edit]

^ First Council of Constantinople, Canon III ^ Gregory of Nazianzus, "euchon diataxis -- Oration XX", in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graecae, XXXV, 761, Paris: Imprimerie Catholique  ^ Gregory of Nyssa, "Hierourgia, In laudem fr. Bas.", in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graecae, XLVI, 808, Paris: Imprimerie Catholique  ^ Proclus of Constantinople, "De traditione divinæ Missæ", in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graecae, XLV, 849, Paris: Imprimerie Catholique  ^ a b c Fortescue, Adrian (1908), "The Rite of Constantinople", The Catholic Encyclopedia, IV, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2007-12-15  ^ Basil of Caesarea, "Epistle CVII", in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graecae, XXXII, 763, Paris: Imprimerie Catholique  ^ Basil of Caesarea, "Oration XX", in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrologia Graecae, XXXV, 761, Paris: Imprimerie Catholique  ^ [1] "The Coptic Liturgy
Liturgy
(of Saint
Saint
Basil)", Retrieved 2011-07-08 ^ Ware 1993, pp. 277-278. ^ Ware 1993, p. 278. ^ Ware 1993, pp. 278-9. ^ Harakas 1987, pp. 56–7. ^ a b c Ware 1993, p. 279 ^ Harakas 1987, p. 57. ^ Ware 1993, p. 287. ^ Letter to Families by Pope
Pope
John Paul II Archived April 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ John Meyendorff (1975). Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-913836-05-7. Retrieved 2016-02-20.  ^ "Statement of Orthodox Christian Bishops" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2010.  ^ "OCA Reaffirms SCOBA Statement in Wake of Massachusetts Same-Sex Marriage Ruling". Retrieved 4 August 2010.  ^ Cite error: The named reference meyendorff 70 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ John Meyendorff (1975). Marriage: An Orthodox Perspective. St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-913836-05-7. Retrieved 2016-02-20.  ^ Mgr. Athenagoras Peckstadt, Bishop
Bishop
of Sinope (18 May 2005). "Marriage, Divorce and Remarriage in the Orthodox Church: Economia and Pastoral Guidance". The Orthodox research Institute. Retrieved 19 November 2008.  ^ Karras, Valerie A. (June 2004). "Female Deacons in the Byzantine Church". Church History. 73 (2): 272–316. doi:10.1017/S000964070010928X. ISSN 0009-6407.  ^ [2] "Some differences between Greek and Russian divine services and their significance by Basil Krivoshein, Archbishop
Archbishop
of Brussels and Belgium", retrieved 2012-01-01] ^ The separation of this books can usually be found in anthologies ascribed to Panagiotes the New Chrysaphes (GB-Lbl Harley 1613, Harley 5544), but there is also a manuscript with composition of Petros Peloponnesios and his student Petros Byzantios organised as an Anastasimatarion and Doxastarion which preceded the printed editions (GB-Lbl Add. 17718). ^ The Ukrainian Lutheran Church
Ukrainian Lutheran Church
is a member of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, a communion of 20 Lutheran churches. ^ Information about the Ukrainian Lutheran Church ^ "The Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of Saint
Saint
John Chrysostom, used by the Ukrainian Lutheran Church, and its missing elements: OMHKSEA". www.omhksea.org. Retrieved 2016-05-03.  ^ "Society for Eastern Rite Anglicanism (SERA)". www.easternanglicanism.org. Retrieved 2016-03-18. 

Books[edit]

Robert F. Taft, The Byzantine Rite. A Short History. Liturgical Press, Collegeville 1992, ISBN 0-8146-2163-5 Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox Liturgy. The Development of the Eucharistic Liturgy
Liturgy
in the Byzantine Rite, SPCK, London 1989, ISBN 0-281-04416-3 Hans-Joachim Schulz, Die byzantinische Liturgie : Glaubenszeugnis und Symbolgestalt, 3., völlig überarb. und aktualisierte Aufl. Paulinus, Trier 2000, ISBN 3-7902-1405-1 Robert A. Taft, A History of the Liturgy
Liturgy
of St John Chrysostom, Pontificio Istituto Orientale, Roma 1978-2008 (6 volumes).

External links[edit]

Study Text of the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of Saint
Saint
John Chrysostom Study Text of the Divine Liturgy
Divine Liturgy
of Saint
Saint
Basil the Great The Divine Music Project - thousands of pages of Byzantine music
Byzantine music
in English for Byzantine rite services Fr. Ronald Roberson's book The Eastern Christian Churches – A Brief Survey is the most up-to-date primer on these churches, available online at Catholic Near-East Welfare Association (CNEWA).  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "The Rite of Constantinople". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Rites of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Giga-catholic website Byzantine rite in Italy - the tradition of the Italo-Greek-Albanian Church The Byzantine-Slavic Rite

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Autonomous churches

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Doctors of the Church

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Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

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Other locations

Daphni Monastery Hosios Loukas Nea Moni of Chios Saint
Saint
Catherine's Monastery Mystras

Art

Icons Enamel Glass Mosaics Painters Macedonian period art Komnenian renaissance

Economy

Agriculture Coinage Mints Trade

silk Silk Road Varangians

Dynatoi

Literature

Novel Acritic songs

Digenes Akritas

Alexander romance Historians

Everyday life

Calendar Cuisine Dance Dress Flags and insignia Hippodrome Music

Octoechos

People

Byzantine Greeks

Slavery Units of measurement

Science Learning

Encyclopedias Inventions Medicine Philosophy

Neoplatonism

Scholars University

Impact

Byzantine commonwealth Byzantine studies Museums Byzantinism Cyrillic script Neo-Byzantine architecture Greek scholars in the Renaissance Third Rome Megali Idea

Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
portal

Authority control

.