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Butterfly
Butterfly
evolution is the origin and diversification of butterflies through geologic time and over a large portion of the Earth's surface. The earliest known butterfly fossils are from the mid Eocene
Eocene
epoch, between 40-50 million years ago.[1][dubious – discuss] Their development is closely linked to the evolution of flowering plants, since both adult butterflies and caterpillars feed on flowering plants. Of the 220,000 species of Lepidoptera, about 45,000 species are butterflies, which probably evolved from moths. Butterflies are found throughout the world, except in Antarctica, and are especially numerous in the tropics; they fall into eight different families.

Contents

1 Phylogeny 2 Lines of evidence

2.1 Fossils 2.2 Host plants

3 Date of origin 4 Drivers of speciation 5 References

Phylogeny[edit] The butterflies form the clade Rhopalocera, which is composed of three superfamilies: Hedyloidea
Hedyloidea
(the moth butterfly family Hedylidae), the Hesperioidea
Hesperioidea
(the skipper family Hesperiidae), and the Papilionoidea (the true butterfly families Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, and Riodinidae). All of these families are monophyletic. The Hedyloidea
Hedyloidea
is the sister group to the other two superfamilies. Within the Papilionoidea, Papilionidae
Papilionidae
is the sister group to the other families, and Pieridae
Pieridae
is the sister group to (Nymphalidae+(Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)). Phylogenetic hypotheses within the Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
are still under discussion. Current research is concentrated on subfamilial and tribal relationships, especially in the Nymphalidae.

Rhopalocera

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(position uncertain)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae

Papilionoidea

Papilionidae

Pieridae

Nymphalidae

Lycaenidae

Riodinidae

Phylogenetic relationships of butterfly families[2]

Lines of evidence[edit] The modern study of butterflies higher classification began with Ehrlich's phenetic use of hundreds of previously overlooked morphological characters in tabular form, across families and major groups (Ehrlich, 1958). Scoble (1995) and others continued the search for new characters, but with their application to cladism. Larval characters are now commonly integrated with those from adult butterflies. The addition of molecular data has allowed researchers to resolve clades in many lineages. Evidence is gleaned from paleontology where some 50 butterfly fossils have been identified, from morphology and the study of homologies, from molecular genetics and comparative biochemistry, from comparative ethology, and from present-day geographical distributions and ecology. Even though butterflies are among the most studied insects, new findings are coming to light almost every month, and the prospect of a stable butterfly classification based on strongly supported clades is seemingly within reach. Fossils[edit] Butterfly
Butterfly
fossils have been well covered by Grimaldi & Engel (2005), who point out their weakness in resolving the sister group of the Rhopalocera: butterflies of 45 My are much like their living counterparts. The first fossil was formed around 40-50 million years ago. Host plants[edit] Some species in the Satyrinae
Satyrinae
use ferns as larval host plants, and it is not impossible that the butterflies could have originated before their present-day angiosperm plant hosts. Date of origin[edit] Some researchers theorize that butterflies most likely originated in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period when the continents were arrayed differently from their present positions and with climates unlike those of today. That is when the major angiosperm radiation took place. Thus, butterfly evolution must be studied throughout the elaboration and testing of phylogenetic hypotheses and through historical zoogeography. Researchers who accept a Cretaceous
Cretaceous
origin for the butterflies generally favor vicariant zoogeographic hypothesis for how the major lineages of butterflies came to be distributed over the world, whereas those who favor a Tertiary age rely on dispersalist hypotheses (Lamas, 2008). Drivers of speciation[edit] Mimicry, hybridization, and co-evolution with host plants have probably contributed to speciation in the butterflies (Lamas, 2008). References[edit]

^ Hall, J.P.W., Robbins, R.K. and Harvey, D.J. (2004). " Extinction
Extinction
and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 271: 797–801. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2691 PMID 15255097 ^ Lamas, Gerardo. 2008.

Ehrlich, P. R. (1958). The comparative morphology, phylogeny and higher classification of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionidea). Kansas Univ. Sci. Bull., 39, 305-370. Grimaldi, D. & Engel, M. S. 2005. Evolution
Evolution
of the insects. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. Lamas, G. (2008) Systematics
Systematics
of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) in the world: current state and future perspectives (in Spanish). In: Jorge Llorente-Bousquets and Analía Lanteri (eds.) Contribuciones taxonómicas en ordens de insectos hiperdiversos. Mexico City: UNAM. pp. 57–70. Scoble, M. J. (1995). The Lepidoptera, form, function and diversity. London: The Natural history Museum & Oxford University Press.

v t e

Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary history of life Index of evolutionary biology articles Introduction Outline of evolution Timeline of evolution

Evolution

Abiogenesis Adaptation Adaptive radiation Cladistics Coevolution Common descent Convergence Divergence Earliest known life forms Evidence of common descent Extinction

Event

Gene-centered view Homology Last universal common ancestor Macroevolution Microevolution Origin of life Panspermia Parallel evolution Prehistoric Autopsy Speciation Taxonomy

Population genetics

Biodiversity Gene flow Genetic drift Mutation Natural selection Variation

Development

Canalisation Evolutionary developmental biology Inversion Modularity Phenotypic plasticity

Of taxa

Birds

origin

Brachiopods Molluscs

Cephalopods

Dinosaurs Fish Fungi Insects

butterflies

Life Mammals

cats canids

wolves dogs

hyenas dolphins and whales horses primates

humans lemurs

sea cows

Plants Reptiles Spiders Tetrapods Viruses

influenza

Of organs

Cell DNA Flagella Eukaryotes

symbiogenesis chromosome endomembrane system mitochondria nucleus plastids

In animals

eye hair auditory ossicle nervous system brain

Of processes

Aging

Death Programmed cell death

Avian flight Biological complexity Cooperation Color vision

in primates

Emotion Empathy Ethics Eusociality Immune system Metabolism Monogamy Morality Mosaic evolution Multicellularity Sexual reproduction

Gamete differentiation/sexes Life cycles/nuclear phases Mating types Sex-determination

Snake venom

Tempo and modes

Gradualism/Punctuated equilibrium/Saltationism Micromutation/Macromutation Uniformitarianism/Catastrophism

Speciation

Allopatric Anagenesis Catagenesis Cladogenesis Cospeciation Ecological Hybrid Parapatric Peripatric Reinforcement Sympatric

History

Renaissance and Enlightenment Transmutation of species Charles Darwin

On the Origin of Species

History of paleontology Transitional fossil Blending inheritance Mendelian inheritance The eclipse of Darwinism Modern synthesis History of molecular evolution Extended evolutionary synthesis

Philosophy

Darwinism Alternatives

Catastrophism Lamarckism Orthogenesis Mutationism Saltationism Structuralism

Spandrel

Theistic Vitalism

Teleology in biology

Related

Biogeography Ecological genetics Molecular evolution Phylogenetics

Tree

Polymorphism Protocell Systematics

Category Commons Portal WikiProject

Col, Jeananda. (1999) Enchanted Learning - All About Butterflies http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/b

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