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Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
(June 5, 1762 – November 26, 1829) was an attorney and politician who served as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1798 to 1829. On the Supreme Court, he was a staunch ally of Chief Justice John Marshall. Washington was also a co-founder and the president of the American Colonization Society, which intended to promote emigration of freed slaves and free blacks to Africa. The nephew of American founding father and President George Washington, he inherited his uncle's papers and Mount Vernon, taking possession in 1802 after the death of Martha Washington, his uncle's widow.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Political and judicial career 3 Residences 4 Society memberships 5 Death and interment 6 Legacy and honors 7 Notes 8 Further reading 9 External links

Early life[edit] Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
was born on June 5, 1762, at Bushfield Manor, a plantation home located at Mount Holly in Westmoreland County, Virginia.[1][2] He was a son of John Augustine Washington (1736–1787), the brother of George Washington, and John's wife, Hannah Bushrod (1735–1801).[2][3] Washington graduated from the College of William & Mary in 1778 and as an alumnus became in 1780 the 41st member of Phi Beta Kappa.[4] After beginning with John Marshall
John Marshall
the study of law under George Wythe in 1780, he joined the Continental Army
Continental Army
during 1781 and served as a private in the army until 1782.[5][6] After Bushrod left the army, his father and his uncle, George Washington, sponsored his further legal studies with James Wilson.[7] After concluding his studies with Wilson in April 1784, the young Washington returned to Westmoreland County, married Julia Anne (Anna) Blackburn, and opened a law office.[8] He was in the private practice of law from 1784 to 1798.[5] Political and judicial career[edit] He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates
Virginia House of Delegates
in 1787.[1] In 1788, he served in the Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention, where he voted for ratification of the US Constitution.[9] On September 29, 1798, Washington received from President John Adams
John Adams
a recess appointment to the seat on the US Supreme Court vacated by James Wilson
James Wilson
after John Marshall
John Marshall
had declined the appointment while seeking an elective office.[5][6] Formally nominated on December 18, 1798, Washington was confirmed by the United States Senate
United States Senate
on December 20, 1798, and received his commission the same day.[5] Washington became an associate justice on February 4, 1799, at the age of 36.[5] After Marshall became Chief Justice two years later, Washington voted with Marshall on all but three occasions (one being Ogden v. Saunders).[10] Washington served on the Supreme Court until his death in 1829.[5] While serving on the Marshall Court, Washington authored the opinion of Corfield v. Coryell, 6 Fed. Cas. 546 (C.C.E.D. Penn. 1823), while riding circuit as an Associate Justice.[11] In Corfield, Washington listed several rights that he deemed were fundamental "privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States."[12] Residences[edit] Around 1795, Washington purchased Belvidere, the former Richmond estate of William Byrd III. He relinquished Belvidere upon his appointment to the Supreme Court in 1798.[13] Upon his aunt Martha Washington's death in 1802, Bushrod Washington inherited all of his uncle George Washington's papers as well the largest part of his estate, including the Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
plantation, as bequeathed in his uncle's will.[14] By George Washington's will, George's slaves were to be freed after his wife Martha died, as she had the use of them during her lifetime.[15] However, Martha freed the slaves before her death in an 1800 deed of manumission.[15] When Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
and his wife moved to Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
immediately after Martha's death, he brought his own slaves there.[1][16] The estate had not included much cash, and Washington found that he was unable to support the upkeep of the plantation's mansion on the proceeds from the property and his Supreme Court salary.[17] As a result, the mansion deteriorated while he lived there.[18][19] As his farms were not profitable, he sold many of his slaves to gain working capital to support the main house and property.[17] Society memberships[edit] Washington was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
in 1813.[20] In 1816, Washington was among the founders of the American Colonization Society (ACS), which promoted repatriation to Africa
Africa
of free blacks and slaves who were freed in preparation for transport there.[18] Washington became the Society's first president and held that position for the remainder of his life.[18] His sales of slaves to support the upkeep of Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
angered abolitionists, who questioned why the ACS president could not set an example by freeing his slaves, as had his uncle George Washington.[17][18] They believed that Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
should have sent his freed slaves to Liberia.[17] Death and interment[edit]

Washington family tomb at Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
in 2014. Bushrod Washington's remains are interred in a vault at the rear of the tomb. His memorial is the obelisk at the right side of the photograph.

Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
memorial at Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
(2014)

Bushrod died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on November 26, 1829, while riding circuit.[1][5] His wife died two days later while transporting his body for burial.[1][21] They are both interred in a vault within the Washington family tomb at Mount Vernon.[21] An obelisk erected in front of the tomb memorializes Bushrod and his wife.[21][22] Legacy and honors[edit] Because of his role in the ACS and his assistance in founding the Republic of Liberia, Bushrod Island near the national capital of Monrovia
Monrovia
was named for him.[23]

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e "Bushrod Washington". Oyez: U.S. Supreme Court Multimedia. Jerry Goldman. 1997-07-16. Archived from the original on 2006-02-14. Retrieved 2015-12-27.  ^ a b Wayland, John Walter (1944). The Washingtons and Their Homes. Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield. p. 125. ISBN 0806347759. OCLC 39055916. Archived from the original on 2016-05-09 – via Google Books.  ^ (1) "Hannah Bushrod". Ancestry. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2016-01-22.  (2) "George Washington's Family Chart". Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. Archived from the original on 2011-07-17. Retrieved 2016-01-22.  ^ (1) Vorhees, Oscar M., ed. (1919). "The Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa
Key: The Official Publication of the United Chapters of Phi eta Kappa". 4 (1). Somerville, New Jersey: Unionist-Gazette: 112–113. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17 – via Google Books.  (2) Smith, Jean Edward (1996). John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. New York: Henry Holt and Company. p. 554. ISBN 9781466862319. OCLC 874903389. Archived from the original on 2016-04-25 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d e f g "Washington, Bushrod". History of the Federal Judiciary: Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on 2015-09-06. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ a b Hall, Timothy L. (2001). Bushrod Washington. Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Facts on File, Inc. pp. 39–42. ISBN 9781438108179. OCLC 234179292. Archived from the original on 2016-05-09 – via Google Books.  ^ Fister, Jude M. (2014). America Writes Its History, 1650-1850: The Formation of a National Narrative. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-7864-7921-4. OCLC 859384941. Archived from the original on 2016-05-05 – via Google Books.  ^ Fister, Jude M. (2014). America Writes Its History, 1650-1850: The Formation of a National Narrative. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7864-7921-4. OCLC 859384941. Archived from the original on 2016-05-22 – via Google Books.  ^ Grigsby, Hugh Blair (1890). Brock, R.A., ed. The History of the Virginia
Virginia
Federal Convention of 1788 With Some Account of the Eminent Virginians of that Era who were Members of the Body. Collections of the Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. New Series. Volume IX. 1. Richmond, Virginia: Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. pp. 344–346. OCLC 41680515. Archived from the original on 2016-05-18 – via Google Books.  ^ Cushman, Clare: Supreme Court Historical Society, ed. (2013). Bushrod Washington. The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–2012 (3rd ed.). CQ Press, an imprint of SAGE Publications. p. 47. ISBN 9781608718320. OCLC 832697340. Archived from the original on 2016-05-02 – via Google Books.  ^ Thayer, James Bradley (1894). Cases on constitutional law: With notes, Part 2. C.W. Sever. pp. 453–56. Archived from the original on 2016-04-30 – via Google Books.  ^ "All Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the Several States". Justia: US Law. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-08. Retrieved 2015-12-29.  ^ Dabney, Virginius (1990). Richmond: The Story of a City: Revised and Expanded Edition. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia. p. 19. ISBN 0813912741. OCLC 20263021. Archived from the original on 2016-04-26 – via Google Books.  ^ (1) Fister, Jude M. (2014). America Writes Its History, 1650-1850: The Formation of a National Narrative. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7864-7921-4. OCLC 859384941. Archived from the original on 2016-05-11 – via Google Books.  (2) Lossing, Benson J. (1870). "The Home of Washington; Or, Mount Vernon and Its Associations, Historical, Biographical, and Pictorial". Hartford, Connecticut: A.S. Hale & Company. p. 350. OCLC 1593086. Archived from the original on 2016-06-10 – via Google Books.  (3) Washington, George (1790-07-09). "Last Will and Testament". Rediscovering George Washington. PBS. Archived from the original on 2005-02-06. Retrieved 2015-12-04. To my nephew Bushrod Washington, I give and bequeath all the Papers in my possession which relate to my Civil and Military Administration of the affairs of this Country; I leave to him also such of my private papers as are worth preserving; and at the decease of my wife, and before; if she is not inclined to retain them, I give and bequeath my Library of books, and pamphlets of every kind. ..... To my nephew Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
and his heirs (partly in consideration of an intimation to his deceased father, while we were Bachelors, & he had kindly undertaken to superintend my Estate during my Military Services in the former War between Great Britain and France, that if I should fall therein, Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
(then less extensive in domain than at present) should become his property) I give and bequeath all that part thereof which is comprehended within the following limits, ....  ^ a b " George Washington
George Washington
and Slavery". George Washington's Mount Vernon: Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-05. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ Lossing, Benson J. (1870). "The Home of Washington; Or, Mount Vernon and Its Associations, Historical, Biographical, and Pictorial". Hartford, Connecticut: A.S. Hale & Company. p. 351. OCLC 1593086. Archived from the original on 2016-05-13 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d Fister, Jude M. (2014). America Writes Its History, 1650-1850: The Formation of a National Narrative. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7864-7921-4. OCLC 859384941. Archived from the original on 2016-06-17 – via Google Books.  ^ a b c d Dunne, Gerald. " Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
and The Mount Vernon Slaves". 1980 Yearbook. Supreme Court Historical Society. Archived from the original on 2002-10-09. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ "The Formation of the Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association and the Dramatic Rescue of George Washington's Estate". Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association. Archived from the original on 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2015-11-23.  ^ American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
Members Directory ^ a b c "Burials at Mount Vernon". Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon, Virginia: George Washington's Mount Vernon. Archived from the original on 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2015-12-28.  ^ (1) "The Tomb". Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon, Virginia: George Washington's Mount Vernon. Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2015-12-03. The marble shafts in front of the Tomb were erected to the memory of Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
and his nephew, John Augustine Washington, who in turn were proprietors of Mount Vernon. They are buried in the inner vault.  (2) "Washington Family Tomb at Mount Vernon". Original Information from Volume 5 of the Gravestone Books. Merrifield, Virginia: Fairfax Genealogical Society. 2016. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2016-11-16. Two large marble obelisks which stand in front of the new vault were erected as memorials to the private owners of Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
after George Washington’s death. Both shafts were carved by “A. Gaddis Fecit. Balto”: Within the vault Lie buried the mortal remains of Bushrod Washington, An associate Justice, of the Supreme Court of the U. S. He died in Philadelphia, Nov’r 26th 1829; Aged 68 By his side is interred his devoted Wife Anna Blackburn, Who survived her beloved Husband but two days. Aged 60. Judge Washington. Was the Son of John Augustine Washington
John Augustine Washington
and the Nephew of Genl George Washington, Who appointed him one of his Executors. And bequeathed him Mount Vernon. As a Judge he was Wise and Just. “A man of Truth, hating covetousness.” Firm in every honourable purpose and pursuit, Yet gentle humane and condescending. A sincere Christian, Doing in all things the will of his Master, And resting his hope of eternal happiness, []ove on the righteousness of Jesus Christ. This humble Monument to the memory of the venerated Judge and his beloved Wife Is placed here by her Niece the Widow of his nephew. John A. Washington. ....  ^ Starr, Frederick (1913). Liberia: description, history, problems. Chicago: Frederick Starr. p. 9. OCLC 6791808. Archived from the original on 2016-05-22 – via Google Books. 

Further reading[edit]

Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.  Binney, Horace (1858). Bushrod Washington. Philadelphia: Printed by C. Sherman & Son. OCLC 183226515 – via Google Books.  Flanders, Henry (1874). The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States Supreme Court. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. LCCN 12016783. OCLC 13189441 – via Google Books.  Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.  Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6.  Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3.  Smith, M. Earl. "Bushrod Washington". Digital Encyclopedia. Mount Vernon, Virginia: George Washington's Mount Vernon. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2016-11-16.  Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1.  White, G. Edward. The Marshall Court
Marshall Court
& Cultural Change, 1815-35. Published in an abridged edition, 1991.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Bushrod Washington

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bushrod Washington.

Ariens, Michael, Bushrod Washington. Works by Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
at Open Library Bushrod Washington
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at Goodreads Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
at Find a Grave

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