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Bukharan Jews, also Bukharian Jews
Jews
or Bukhari Jews
Jews
(Russian: Бухарские евреи Bukharskie evrei ; Hebrew: בוכרים‬ Bukharim ; Tajik and Bukhori
Bukhori
Cyrillic: яҳудиёни бухороӣ[citation needed] Yahudiyoni bukhoroī (Bukharan Jews) or яҳудиёни Бухоро[citation needed] Yahudiyoni Bukhoro ( Jews
Jews
of Bukhara), Bukhori
Bukhori
Hebrew Script: יהודיי בוכאראי and יהודי בוכארי‬), are Jews from Central Asia
Central Asia
who historically spoke Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language. Their name comes from the former Central Asian Emirate of Bukhara, which once had a sizable Jewish community. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the great majority have immigrated to Israel
Israel
or to the United States
United States
(especially Forest Hills, New York), while others have immigrated to Europe
Europe
or Australia.[2]

Contents

1 Name and language 2 History

2.1 16th to 18th centuries

2.1.1 Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Maimon

2.2 19th century 2.3 Soviet era

2.3.1 After 1991

3 Immigrant populations

3.1 Tajikistan 3.2 United States

4 Culture

4.1 Dress codes 4.2 Music 4.3 Cuisine

5 Notable Bukharian Jews

5.1 Israel 5.2 USA 5.3 Other

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Name and language[edit]

Interior of the Great Synagogue
Synagogue
in Bukhara, sketch based on a photograph by Elkan Nathan Adler.

The term Bukharan was coined by European travelers who visited Central Asia around the 16th century. Since most of the Jewish community at the time lived under the Emirate of Bukhara, they came to be known as Bukharan Jews. The name by which the community called itself is "Isro'il" (Israelites). The appellative Bukharian was adopted by Bukharan Jews
Jews
who moved to English-speaking countries, in an anglicisation of the Hebrew Bukhari. However, Bukharan was the term used historically by English writers, as it was for other aspects of Bukhara. Bukharan Jews
Jews
used the Persian language
Persian language
to communicate among themselves and later developed Bukhori, a Tajik dialect of the Persian language with small linguistic traces of Hebrew. This language provided easier communication with their neighboring communities and was used for all cultural and educational life among the Jews. It was used widely until the area was "Russified" by the Russians and the dissemination of "religious" information was halted. The elderly Bukharan generation use Bukhori
Bukhori
as their primary language but speak Russian with a slight Bukharan accent. The younger generation use Russian as their primary language, but do understand or speak Bukhori. The Bukharan Jews
Jews
are Mizrahi Jews[2] and have been introduced to and practice Sephardic
Sephardic
Judaism. The first primary written account of Jews
Jews
in Central Asia
Central Asia
dates to the beginning of the 4th century CE. It is recalled in the Talmud
Talmud
by Rabbi Shmuel bar Bisna, a member of the Talmudic academy in Pumbeditha, who traveled to Margiana (present-day Merv
Merv
in Turkmenistan) and feared that the wine and alcohol produced by local Jews
Jews
was not kosher.[3] The presence of Jewish communities in Merv
Merv
is also proven by Jewish writings on ossuaries from the 5th and 6th centuries, uncovered between 1954 and 1956.[4] History[edit] Further information: History of the Jews
Jews
in Central Asia, History of the Jews
Jews
under Muslim rule, and Soviet Jews According to some ancient texts, there were Israelites
Israelites
that began traveling to Central Asia
Central Asia
to work as traders during the reign of King David of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as far back as the 10th century B.C.E.[5] When Persian King Cyrus conquered Babylon, he encouraged the Jews
Jews
he liberated to settle in his empire, which included areas of Central Asia. In the Middle Ages, the largest Jewish settlement in Central Asia was in the Emirate of Bukhara. Among Bukharan Jews, there are two ancient theories of how Jewish people settled in Central Asia. One theory is that Bukharan Jews
Jews
may be descended from the Tribe of Napthali
Tribe of Napthali
and the Tribe of Issachar
Tribe of Issachar
of the Lost Tribes of Israel[6] who may have been exiled during the Assyrian captivity
Assyrian captivity
of Israel
Israel
in the 7th century BCE.[7] Isakharov (in different spellings) is a common surname.[8] Modern sources have described the Bukhara
Bukhara
Jews
Jews
as, for example, "an ethnic and linguistic group in Central Asia, claiming descent from 5th-century exiles from Persia".[9] The Bukharan Jews
Jews
are considered one of the oldest ethno-religious groups of Central Asia
Central Asia
and over the years they have developed their own distinct culture. Throughout the years, Jews
Jews
from other Eastern countries such as Iraq, Iran, Yemen, Syria, and Morocco
Morocco
migrated into Central Asia
Central Asia
(usually by taking the Silk Road).[citation needed]

Bukharan girls in Samarkand, ca 1900

16th to 18th centuries[edit] In the beginning of the 16th century, the area was invaded and occupied by nomadic Uzbek tribes who established strict observance of Islamic religion. Around 1620, the first synagogue was constructed at Bukhara
Bukhara
city. This was done in contravention of the law prescribed to Caliph Omar
Caliph Omar
who forbade the construction of new non-Muslim places of worship including synagogues as well as forbade the destruction of those that existed in the pre-Islamic period. There was a case when Caliph Umar had ordered the destruction of a mosque, which was built illegally on Jewish land.[10][11][12] Before the construction of the first synagogue, Jews had shared a place in a mosque with Muslims. This mosque was called the Magoki Attoron (the "Mosque in pit"). Some say that Jews
Jews
and Muslims worshipped alongside each other in the same place at the same time. Other sources insist that Jews
Jews
worshipped after Muslims.[13] The construction of the first Bukhara
Bukhara
synagogue was credited to two people: Nodir Divan-Begi, an important grandee, and an anonymous widow, who reportedly outwitted an official. During the 18th century, Bukharan Jews
Jews
faced considerable discrimination and persecution. Jewish centers were closed down, the Muslims of the region usually forced conversion on the Jews, and the Bukharan Jewish population dramatically decreased to the point where they were almost extinct.[14] Due to pressures to convert to Islam, persecution, and isolation from the rest of the Jewish world, the Jews of Bukhara
Bukhara
began to lack knowledge and practice of their Jewish religion. By the middle of the 18th century, practically all Bukharan Jews
Jews
lived in the Bukharan Emirate. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Maimon[edit]

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Bukharan Jews
Jews
celebrating Sukkot, c. 1900.

The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara
Bukhara
and Kokand
Kokand
in the time period of 1902–1903.

In 1793, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Maimon, a Sephardic
Sephardic
Jew
Jew
from Tetuan, Morocco
Morocco
and prominent kabbalist in Safed, traveled to Bukhara
Bukhara
and found the local Jews
Jews
in a very bad state. He decided to settle there. Maimon was disappointed to see so many Jews
Jews
lacking knowledge and observance of their religious customs and Jewish law. He became a spiritual leader, aiming to educate and revive the Jewish community's observance and faith in Judaism. He changed their Persian religious tradition to Sephardic
Sephardic
Jewish tradition. Maimon is an ancestor of Shlomo Moussaieff, author Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, and the First Lady of Iceland Dorrit Moussaieff. 19th century[edit] In 1843 the Bukharan Jews
Jews
were visited by the so-called "Eccentric Missionary", Joseph Wolff, a Jewish convert to Christianity who had set himself the broad task of finding the Lost Tribes of Israel
Israel
and the narrow one of seeking two British officers who had been captured by the Emir, Nasrullah Khan. Wolff wrote prolifically of his travels, and the journals of his expeditions provide valuable information about the life and customs of the peoples he travelled amongst, including the Bukharan Jews. In 1843, for example, they collected 10,000 silver tan'ga and purchased land in Samarkand, known as Makhallai Yakhudion, close to Registon. In the middle of the 19th century, Bukharan Jews
Jews
began to move to Palestine. The land on which they settled in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was named the Bukharim quarter
Bukharim quarter
(Sh'hunat HaBucharim) and still exists today. In 1865, Russian troops took over Tashkent, and there was a large influx of Jews
Jews
to the newly created Turkestan
Turkestan
Region. From 1876 to 1916, Jews
Jews
were free to practice Judaism. Dozens of Bukharan Jews
Jews
held prestigious jobs in medicine, law, and government, and many Jews prospered. Many Bukharan Jews
Jews
became successful and well-respected actors, artists, dancers, musicians, singers, film producers, and sportsmen. Several Bukharan entertainers became artists of merit and gained the title "People's Artist of Uzbekistan", "People's Artist of Tajikistan", and even (in the Soviet era) "People's Artist of the Soviet Union". Jews
Jews
succeeded in the world of sport also, with several Bukharan Jews
Jews
in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
becoming renowned boxers and winning many medals for the country.[15] Still, Bukharan Jews
Jews
were forbidden to ride in the streets and had to wear distinctive costumes. They were relegated to a ghetto, and often fell victim to persecution from the Muslim majority.[16] Soviet era[edit]

Jewish students with their teacher in Samarkand, c. 1910.

By the time of the Russian revolution, the Bukharan Jews
Jews
were one of the most isolated Jewish communities in the world.[17] With the establishment of Soviet rule over the territory in 1917, Jewish life seriously deteriorated.[citation needed] Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, thousands of Jews, fleeing religious oppression, confiscation of property, arrests, and repressions, fled to Palestine.[citation needed] In Central Asia, the community attempted to preserve their traditions while displaying loyalty to the government. World War II
World War II
and the Holocaust
Holocaust
brought a lot of Ashkenazi Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
from the European regions of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Eastern Europe
Europe
through Uzbekistan. Starting in 1972, one of the largest Bukharan Jewish emigrations in history occurred as the Jews
Jews
of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
immigrated to Israel
Israel
and the United States, due to looser restrictions on immigration. In the late 1980s to the early 1990s, almost all of the remaining Bukharan Jews
Jews
left Central Asia
Central Asia
for the United States, Israel, Europe, or Australia
Australia
in the last mass emigration of Bukharan Jews
Jews
from their resident lands. After 1991[edit] With the disintegration of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and foundation of the independent Republic of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
in 1991, some feared growth of nationalistic policies in the country. The resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism in Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
prompted an increase in the level of emigration of Jews
Jews
(both Bukharan and Ashkenazi). Before the collapse of the USSR, there were 45,000 Bukharan Jews
Jews
in Central Asia.[18] Today, there are about 150,000 Bukharan Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
(mainly in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including the neighborhoods of Tel Kabir, Shapira, Kiryat Shalom, HaTikvah and cities like Or Yehuda, Ramla, and Holon) and 60,000 in the United States
United States
(especially Queens—a borough of New York that is widely known as the "melting pot" of the United States due to its ethnic diversity)—with smaller communities in the USA like Phoenix, South Florida, Atlanta, San Diego, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Denver. Only a few thousand still remain in Uzbekistan. About 500 live in Canada
Canada
(mainly Toronto, Ontario and Montreal, Quebec). Almost no Bukharan Jews
Jews
remain in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(compared to the 1989 Jewish population of 15,000 in Tajikistan). Immigrant populations[edit] Tajikistan[edit] In early 2006, the still-active Dushanbe Synagogue
Synagogue
in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
as well as the city's mikveh (ritual bath), kosher butcher, and Jewish schools were demolished by the government (without compensation to the community) to make room for the new Palace of Nation. After an international outcry, the government of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
announced a reversal of its decision and publicly claimed that it would permit the synagogue to be rebuilt on its current site. However, in mid-2008, the government of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
destroyed the whole synagogue and started construction of the Palace of Nation. The Dushanbe synagogue was Tajkistan's only synagogue and the community were therefore left without a centre or a place to pray. As a result, the majority of Bukharan Jews
Jews
from Tajikistan
Tajikistan
living in Israel
Israel
and the United States have very negative views towards the Tajik government and many have cut off all ties they had with the country. In 2009, the Tajik government reestablished the synagogue in a different location for the small Jewish community.[19] United States[edit] Currently, Bukharan Jews
Jews
are mostly concentrated in the U.S. in New York, Arizona, Atlanta, Denver, South Florida, Los Angeles, San Diego.[2] New York City's 108th Street in the borough of Queens, often referred to as "Bukharan Broadway"[20] or "Bukharian Broadway"[17] in Forest Hills, Queens, is filled with Bukharan restaurants and gift shops. Furthermore, Forest Hills is nicknamed "Bukharlem" due to the majority of the population being Bukharian.[21] They have formed a tight-knit enclave in this area that was once primarily inhabited by Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
(many of the Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
have assimilated to wider American and American Jewish culture
Jewish culture
with each successive generation). Congregation Tifereth Israel
Israel
in Corona, Queens, a synagogue founded in the early 1900s by Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews, became Bukharan in the 1990s. Kew Gardens, Queens, also has a very large population of Bukharan Jews. Author
Author
Janet Malcolm has taken an interest in Bukharan Jews
Jews
in the U.S., writing at length about Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
and, in Iphigenia in Forest Hills: Anatomy of a Murder Trial, about the 2007 contract murder of Daniel Malakov organized by his ex-wife Mazoltuv Borukhova. In December 1999, the First Congress of the Bukharian Jews
Jews
of the United States
United States
and Canada
Canada
convened in Queens.[22] In 2007, Bukharan-American Jews
Jews
initiated lobbying efforts on behalf of their community.[23] Zoya Maksumova, president of the Bukharan women’s organization "Esther Hamalka" said "This event represents a huge leap forward for our community. Now, for the first time, Americans will know who we are."[citation needed] Senator Joseph Lieberman
Joseph Lieberman
intoned, "God said to Abraham, 'You'll be an eternal people'… and now we see that the State of Israel
Israel
lives, and this historic [Bukharan] community, which was cut off from the Jewish world for centuries in Central Asia
Central Asia
and suffered oppression during the Soviet Union, is alive and well in America. God has kept his promise to the Jewish people."[23] Culture[edit] Dress codes[edit] Bukharan Jews
Jews
had their own dress code, similar to but also different from other cultures (mainly Turco-Mongol) living in Central Asia. On weddings today, one can still observe the bride and the close relatives donning the traditional kaftan (Jomah-ҷома-ג'אמה in Bukhori
Bukhori
and Tajik).[24] Music[edit] The Bukharan Jews
Jews
have a distinct musical tradition called Shashmaqam, which is an ensemble of stringed instruments, infused with Central Asian rhythms, and a considerable klezmer influence as well as Muslim melodies, and even Spanish chords. The main Instrument is called Dayereh. Shashmaqam music "reflect the mix of Hassidic vocals, Indian and Islamic instrumentals and Sufi-inspired texts and lyrical melodies."[25] Cuisine[edit] See also: Uzbek cuisine

Central Asian
Central Asian
style dumpling soup called shurboi dushpera or tushpera (left) along with traditional tandoor style bread called non in Bukharan, Tajik, and Uzbek (right).

Bukharan cuisine consists of many unique dishes, distinctly influenced by ethnic dishes historically and currently found along the Silk Road and many parts of Central and even Southeast Asia. Shish kabob, or shashlik, as it is often referred to in Russian, are popular, made of chicken, beef or lamb. Pulled noodles, often thrown into a hearty stew of meat and vegetables known as lagman, are similar in style to Chinese lamian, also traditionally served in a meat broth. Sambusa, pastries filled with spiced meat or vegetables, are baked in a unique, hollowed out tandoor oven, and greatly resemble the preparation and shape of Indian samosas.

The Bukharians' Jewish identity
Jewish identity
was always preserved in the kitchen. "Even though we were in exile from Jerusalem, we observed kashruth," said Isak Masturov, another owner of Cheburechnaya. "We could not go to restaurants, so we had to learn to cook for our own community.[26]

Plov
Plov
is a very popular slow-cooked rice dish spiced with cumin and containing carrots, and in some varieties, chick peas, and often topped with beef or lamb. Another popular dish is baksh which consists of rice, chicken breast and liver cut into small cubes, with cilantro, which adds a shade of green to the rice once it's been cooked. Most Bukharan Jewish communities still produce their traditional breads including non (lepyoshka in Russian), a circular bread with a flat center that has multiple pattern of designs, topped with black and regular sesame seeds, and the other, called non toki, bears the dry and crusty features of traditional Jewish matzah, but with a distinctly wheatier taste. After Sabbath synagogue service, Bukharin Jews
Jews
often eat steamed eggs and sweet potatoes followed by a dish of fish such as carp. Next comes the main meal called oshesvo. Notable Bukharian Jews[edit] Israel[edit]

Yosef Maimon – Religious leader Shimon Hakham
Shimon Hakham
– Bukharan-Israeli Rabbi/ Writer/ One of the founders of the Bukharan Quarter Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi)
Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi)
– Co-founder of the Bukharan Quarter in Jerusalem Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman)
Shlomo Moussaieff (businessman)
– Israeli millionaire businessman Dorrit Moussaieff
Dorrit Moussaieff
– former First Lady of Iceland Lev Leviev – Billionaire businessman, investor, philanthropist, president of the World Congress of Bukharian Jews Gideon Sa'ar
Gideon Sa'ar
– Israeli politician who served as a member of Knesset for Likud Rafael Pinhasi – Israeli politician and member of the Knesset
Knesset
for Shas Amnon Cohen
Amnon Cohen
– Israeli politician and member of the Knesset
Knesset
for Shas Robert Ilatov
Robert Ilatov
– Israeli politician and member of the Knesset
Knesset
for Yisrael Beiteinu Yulia Shamalov-Berkovich – Israeli politician who currently serves as a member of the Knesset
Knesset
for Kadima Yisrael Aharoni
Yisrael Aharoni
– Israeli chef and restaurateur Guy Haimov
Guy Haimov
– professional football player Moshe Mishaelof
Moshe Mishaelof
– professional football player Idan Yaniv – Israeli singer, "2007 Israeli Artist of the Year" Nitzan Kaikov – Israeli songwriter and music producer Rinat Matatov
Rinat Matatov
– Israeli actress Avi Issacharoff
Avi Issacharoff
– Israeli journalist and creator of the series Fauda was sold to Netflix Yoni Ben-Menachem
Yoni Ben-Menachem
– Israeli journalist was General Director of Israel
Israel
Broadcasting Authority

USA[edit]

Jacob Arabov – Proprietor of Jacob & Co. Gregg L. Friedman MD - Bukharian Jewish Physician Boris Kandov – President of the Bukharian Jewish Congress of the USA and Canada Manashe Khaimov
Manashe Khaimov
– fourth generation community leader and founder of www.AskBobo.org, the only Bukharian online dictionary. Iosef Yusupov
Iosef Yusupov
– Designer Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
– Author Jacob Nasirov – Bukharan-American Rabbi
Rabbi
from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(member of the Bukharian Rabbinical Counsel) Rus Yusupov – Bukharan-American Internet Entrepreneur widely known as a co-founder of Vine. Milana Vayntrub
Milana Vayntrub
– Bukharan-American actress and model

Other[edit]

Anthony Yadgaroff – British Businessman, Jewish community leader Meirkhaim Gavrielov – Journalist murdered in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in 1998 Barno Itzhakova
Barno Itzhakova
– vocalist, famous for her rendition of traditional Shashmaqom songs in Tajik and Uzbek Suleiman Yudakov – Soviet composer and musician, "People's Artist of the Uzbek SSR" Shoista Mullodzhanova – Shashmakon singer, "People's Artist of Tajikistan" (Queen of Shashmakom music) Gavriel Mullokandov – Popular Shashmakom artist, "People's Artist of Uzbekistan" Ilyas Malayev
Ilyas Malayev
Musician
Musician
and Poet from Uzbekistan, "Honoured Artist of Uzbekistan" Malika Kalontarova – Dancer, "People's Artist of Soviet Union" (Queen of Eastern Dance) Ari Babakhanov Musician
Musician
from Uzbekistan Rena Galibova – Soviet actress, "People's Artist of Tajikistan" (an awarded title, alluding to national prominence) Fatima Kuinova – Soviet singer, "Merited Artist of the Soviet Union"

See also[edit]

Africa Israel
Israel
Investments Bais Yaakov Machon Academy Dushanbe Synagogue Emirate of Bukhara History of the Jews
Jews
in Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union History of the Jews
Jews
under Muslim Rule Ohr Avner Foundation Bukhori
Bukhori
dialect

References[edit]

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2008-06-14.  ^ a b c Goodman, Peter. "Bukharian Jews
Jews
find homes on Long Island", Newsday, September 2004. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Aboda Zara, 31b, and Rashi ^ Ochildiev, D; R. Pinkhasov, I. Kalontarov. A History and Culture of the Bukharian Jews, Roshnoyi-Light, New York, 2007. ^ Abazov, Rafis (2007). Culture and Customs of the Central Asian Republics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 75. ISBN 9780313336560. Retrieved 30 June 2014.  ^ Ehrlich, M. Avrum. Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture ABL-CIO, October 2008, ISBN 978-1-85109-873-6, p. 84. ^ "The history of Bukharan Jews", Bukharacity.com. Retrieved December 13, 2009. ^ "Isakharov Surname Meaning, Origins & Distribution". forebears.co.uk. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ "Wandering Jew: Bukhara, the ancient silk way city", by Tanya Powell-Jones, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post, 1/13/2013 ^ "Lyab-i Khauz ensemble, Magoki Attoron Mosque and the story of Synagogue
Synagogue
in Bukhara". Pagetour.narod.ru. Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ Thomas, David; Roggema, Barbara (30 November 2009). Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History (600–900). BRILL. p. 360. ISBN 978-90-04-16975-3. Retrieved 18 November 2012.  ^ Abu-Munshar, Maher Y. (2007-09-15). Islamic Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and its Christians: a history of tolerance and tensions. Tauris Academic Studies. p. 63. ISBN 9781845113537.  ^ Mosque and the story of Synagogue
Synagogue
in Bukhara. "Bukharan Jews", Magoki Attoron. ^ "Bukharan Jews
Jews
– History and Cultural Relations", everyculture.com website. Retrieved December 13, 2009. ^ Pinkhasov, Peter. "The History of Bukharian Jews", Bukharian Jewish Global Portal website, p. 2. Retrieved December 13, 2009. ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
— Viewer — World Digital Library". www.wdl.org. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b Moskin, Julia. "The Silk Road
Silk Road
Leads to Queens" The New York Times, January 18, 2006. ^ Cooper, Alanna E. (2003). "Looking Out for One's Own Identity: Central Asian
Central Asian
Jews
Jews
in the Wake of Communism". In Kosmin, Barry Alexander; Kovács, András. New Jewish Identities: Contemporary Europe
Europe
and Beyond. Central European University Press. pp. 189–210. ISBN 963-9241-62-8.  ^ "New Synagogue
Synagogue
Opens In Dushanbe". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ "Bukharan Broadway":

Foner, Nancy. New immigrants in New York", Columbia University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-0-231-12415-7, p. 133. "Since the 1970s, more than 35,000 "Bukharan" émigrés have created a bustling community in Forest Hills, with restaurants, barbershops, food stores and synagogue that together have given 108th street the nickname 'Bukharan Broadway'". Morel, Linda. "Bukharan Jews
Jews
now in Queens
Queens
recreate their Sukkot memories", j. (Jewish Telegraphic Agency), September 20, 2002. "... 108th Street, recently dubbed 'Bukharan Broadway,'..." Victor Wishna, "A Lost Tribe...Found in Queens" Archived August 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., San Diego
San Diego
Jewish Journal, October 2003. "Leaving the bakery, we walk along what has been dubbed 'Bukharan Broadway,' where an abundance of restaurants and gift shops sit side by side."

^ Popik, Barry. "Buharlem or Bukharlem ( Bukhara
Bukhara
+ Harlem)". www.barrypopik.com. Retrieved 2017-01-29.  ^ "Heritage". bucharianlife.blogspot.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ a b Ruby, Walter."The Bukharian Lobby" Archived February 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., The Jewish Week, October 31, 2007. ^ For examples see men and women coats as well as children's clothing from Bukhara, ["Dress Codes: Revealing the Jewish Wardrobe" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2014-07-23. ] exhibition, Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem, March 11, 2014 – October 18, 2014 ^ "Shashmaqam". The Wandering Muse. Archived from the original on 2011-10-08. Retrieved 2012-01-05.  ^ NYT,1-18-2006 The Silk Road
Silk Road
Leads to Queens

Ricardo Garcia-Carcel: La Inquisición, Biblioteca El Sol. Biblioteca Básica de Historia. Grupo Anaya, Madrid, Spain
Spain
1990. ISBN 84-7969-011-9.

External links[edit]

Joseph Mammon. My Story Official World Wide Bukharian Community Website BJews.com, Bukharian Jewish Global Portal Cooper, Alanna E. Bukharan Jews
Jews
and the Dynamics of Global Judaism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012. "Alanna's Cooper's publications on Bukharan Jews", kikayon.com Elena Neva, "Heavenly Frogs in the Art of Bukharian Jewelers", Kunstpedia, March 19, 2009. "Bukharian Jews
Jews
protect their culture in a N.Y. enclave", Haaretz (Reuters), October 21, 2009. LAZGI Firuza Jumaniyazova shimon polatov israel 2011 on YouTube AVRAM TOLMAS, RUSTAM, YASHA BARAEV on YouTube Malika Kalantarova - Lazgi.avi on YouTube Lazgi Malika Kalontarova Dushanbe Малика Калонтарова Лазги Душанбе on YouTube BukharianRadio.com, Bukharian Radio

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