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Buick
Buick
(/ˈbjuːɪk/), formally the Buick
Buick
Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors
General Motors
(GM). It has the distinction of being the oldest active American marque of automobile, and was the company that established General Motors
General Motors
in 1908.[2] Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant
William C. Durant
had served as Buick's general manager and major investor. Buick
Buick
also has the distinction of being the first production automobile maker in the world to equip its cars with overhead valve engines in 1904.[2] For much of its existence in the North American market, Buick
Buick
has been marketed as a premium automobile brand, selling luxury vehicles positioned above GM's mainstream brands, while below the flagship luxury Cadillac
Cadillac
division. Buick-branded vehicles are also known for reliability, ranking high in Consumer Reports' brand reliability ratings.[3] In 2015, Buick
Buick
sold 1,231,941 vehicles, a record for the brand.[4] The main market is in China, where 80% of Buick-branded automobiles are sold.[5] Buicks are also sold in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years

1.1.1 Early Engines

1.2 Post World War II
World War II
years

1.2.1 1940s 1.2.2 1950s 1.2.3 1960s 1.2.4 1970s 1.2.5 1980s 1.2.6 1990s

1.3 Recent years

1.3.1 2000s 1.3.2 2010s

2 Production models

2.1 Current

2.1.1 China 2.1.2 North America

2.2 Past

3 Concept cars 4 Distinguishing features

4.1 Trishield 4.2 VentiPorts 4.3 Sweepspear 4.4 Delta fin 4.5 Taillight shapes 4.6 Classic grille styling 4.7 Waterfall grille 4.8 Nailhead

5 Performance 6 World distribution

6.1 Asia 6.2 Mexico 6.3 Middle East 6.4 New Zealand

7 Motorsport 8 Enthusiast organizations 9 Advertisements 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] See also: David Dunbar Buick
David Dunbar Buick
and Harley Earl Early years[edit]

Valve-In-Head (OHV) engine, illustration from 1904 patent, Buick Manufacturing Company

Buick
Buick
is one of the oldest automobile brands in the world and the oldest in America. (Autocar, founded in 1897, is the oldest motor vehicle manufacturer in the western hemisphere; while originally an automobile maker, Autocar now builds heavy trucks. Oldsmobile, also an early auto maker founded in 1897, is now defunct; Studebaker
Studebaker
was founded in 1852, but didn't begin producing automobiles until 1902; Ford produced his first car in 1896 but did not start the Ford Motor Co. until 1903, and during the period in between was involved with other automobile manufacturers such as Cadillac, founded in 1902). The first two Buick
Buick
automobiles were made in 1899 and 1900 at the " Buick
Buick
Auto-Vim and Power Company" by chief-engineer Walter Marr,[2] but company owner David Dunbar Buick
David Dunbar Buick
was reluctant to begin making automobiles, being satisfied with stationary and marine engine production, so Marr left Buick
Buick
in 1901 to found his own automobile company under his own name. His replacement was Eugene Richard, who applied for a patent in 1902 for Marr's valve-in-head engine, which patent, number 771,095, was awarded to Richard in the name of Buick
Buick
in 1904.[2] In 1903, the third Buick
Buick
automobile was made, this time by Richard, but in 1904 Buick, whose company was now called " Buick
Buick
Motor Company," moved to Flint, Michigan, and Richard stayed behind. Marr was rehired in Flint as chief engineer, to begin making automobiles in production. That year, 37 Buick
Buick
automobiles were made, production increasing to 750 in 1905, 1,400 in 1906, 4,641 in 1907, and 8,800 in 1908, taking the number one spot away from close competitors Oldsmobile, Ford, and Maxwell.[2]

Louis Chevrolet
Louis Chevrolet
driving a Buick
Buick
Bug in the 1910 Vanderbilt Cup

David Buick
Buick
incorporated his company as the Buick
Buick
Motor Company on May 19, 1903, in Detroit, Michigan. In March, 1904, the company fell to financier Benjamin Briscoe, who quickly sold it to James H. Whiting (1842–1919),[6] owner of Flint Wagon Works, in Flint, Michigan. Whiting moved Buick
Buick
to Flint that summer, to a location across the street from his factory, with the idea of adding Buick's engines to his wagons.[2] David Buick
Buick
stayed on as a manager, and re-hired Walter Marr as chief engineer. The engine Buick
Buick
and Marr developed for this automobile was a 2-cylinder valve-in-head engine of 159 cubic inches, with each cylinder horizontal and opposed to each other by 180 degrees. Whiting built only a few automobiles in 1904, by bringing Buick
Buick
engines across the street where his workers shoehorned them into his wagons, before running out of capital, causing him to bring in William C. Durant
William C. Durant
that year as controlling investor. Durant was co-owner, also in Flint, with Josiah Dallas Dort, of the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, which was the largest carriage-making company in the country and one of the largest in the world.[2] Durant spent the next 4 years turning Buick
Buick
into the biggest-selling automobile brand in the US. David Buick
Buick
sold his stock upon departure in 1906, and died in modest circumstances 25 years later. In 1907, Durant agreed to supply motors to R. S. McLaughlin in Canada, an auto maker, and in 1908 he founded General Motors.[7]

Buick
Buick
in the early years

1904 Buick
Buick
Model B

1910 Buick Model 10
Buick Model 10
Runabout

1914 Buick
Buick
B-35 Phaeton

1917 Buick
Buick
D-35 Roadster

1922 Buick
Buick
Model 22-54 Sport Roadster

1925 Buick
Buick
Standard Model 25 Touring

1925 Buick
Buick
Roadmaster

1930 Buick
Buick
Series 26 Business Coupe

1932 Buick
Buick
Model 67 Sedan

1935 Buick
Buick
Series 40 Model 46C Convertible
Convertible
Coupe

1938 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
Series 80 Touring Sedan

1939 Buick Special
Buick Special
Series 40 Model 41 Touring Sedan

Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built[8] in Detroit, Michigan
Michigan
by Walter Lorenzo Marr. Some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller steering[9] similar to the Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
Curved Dash. In mid-1904, another prototype was constructed for an endurance run, which convinced James H. Whiting to authorize production of the first models offered to the public.[10] The architecture of this prototype was the basis for the Model B. The first Buick
Buick
made for sale, the 1904 Model B, was built in Flint, Michigan
Michigan
at a re-purposed factory that was known as the Flint Wagon Works.[11] There were 37 Buicks made that year, none of which survive. There are, however, two replicas in existence: the 1904 endurance car, at the Buick
Buick
Gallery & Research Center in Flint, and a Model B assembled by an enthusiast in California for the division's 100th anniversary.[12][13] Both of these vehicles use various parts from Buicks of that early era, as well as fabricated parts. These vehicles were each constructed with the two known surviving 1904 engines. The early success of Buick
Buick
is attributed mainly to what they called the valve-in-head engine, now known as the overhead valve (OHV), engine[14] patented by Eugene Richard and developed by Richard, Buick, and Marr. The Model F had a two-cylinder engine, an 87-inch wheelbase and weighed 1,800 lbs.[15] The creation of General Motors
General Motors
is attributed in part to the success of Buick,[16] so it can be said Marr and Richard's designs directly led to GM.[17] The power train and chassis architecture introduced on the Model B was continued through the 1909 Model F.[18] The basic design of the 1904 Buick
Buick
was optimally engineered even by today's standards. The flat-twin engine is inherently balanced, with torque presented to the chassis in a longitudinal manner, actually cancelling front end lift, rather than producing undesirable lateral motion. The engine was mounted amidships, now considered the optimal location.[19] Billy Durant was a natural promoter, and Buick
Buick
soon became the largest car maker in America. Using the profits from this, Durant embarked on a series of corporate acquisitions, calling the new megacorporation General Motors. At first, the manufacturers comprising General Motors competed against each other, but Durant ended that. He wanted each General Motors
General Motors
division to target one class of buyer, and in his new scheme, Buick
Buick
was near the top — only the Cadillac
Cadillac
brand had more prestige, a ranking that Buick
Buick
occupies currently in the General Motors lineup. To save on resources, Buick
Buick
vehicles shared a common platform, called the GM A platform, that was shared with Chevrolet, Oakland, Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
and Cadillac. The ideal Buick
Buick
customer is comfortably well off, possibly not quite rich enough to afford a Cadillac, nor desiring the ostentation of one, but definitely in the market for a car above the norm. At first, Buick
Buick
followed the likes of Napier in automobile racing, winning the first-ever race held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.[20] The first full-size Buick
Buick
to join the smaller Model B was in 1907, when the Model D was introduced with a four-cylinder 255.0 cu in (4,178 cc) T-head engine, installed in the front with rear wheel drive. This was one of the only cars with side valves that Buick
Buick
ever made.[21] In 1911, Buick
Buick
introduced its first closed-body car,[22] four years ahead of Ford, but five years after Cadillac, which was the first. The car was built at the all-new factory in Flint which later became to be known as Buick
Buick
City.[23] Buick
Buick
during the 1920s made various sized vehicles, with series designations for different years, sometimes using numbers, while later years using lettered designations. One of the larger vehicles, with straight-six, was the Buick
Buick
Master Six. In 1929, as part of General Motors' companion make program, Buick Motor Division launched the Marquette sister brand, designed to bridge the price gap between Buick
Buick
and Oldsmobile; however, Marquette was discontinued in 1930. All Buick, Marquette, Viking, and Oldsmobile products shared the newly introduced GM B platform
GM B platform
starting in 1926. Buick
Buick
debuted two major achievements for the 1931 model year, the OHV Buick Straight-8 engine
Buick Straight-8 engine
and a synchromesh transmission in all models but the Series 50. The Eight was offered in three displacements, the 220 cubic inch (bore 2 7/8 in. stroke 4.25 in.), was available in the Series 50 with 77 brake HP. The Series 60 engine was a 272 cu. in. unit (bore 3 1/16 in., stroke 5 in.) giving 90 brake HP. The Series 80 and Series 90 used a 344 cu. in. version (bore 3 5/16 in., stroke 5 in.) for 104 brake HP. Automatic vacuum-operated spark advance was another new feature replacing the steering column mounted spark lever although an emergency lever was now dash mounted. Buick scored another first in 1939 when it became the first company to introduce turn signals, which did not appear on other car brands until almost a decade later.[24] All 1939 models also had a steering column mounted shift lever. In the mid 1930s McLaughlin-Buicks were particularly popular with British monarch Edward VIII.[25][26] He imported and used a Canadian built McLaughlin-Buick. It was GM's top brand in Canada.[27] Being Canada's most luxurious brand Buicks are always presented for Royal transport within Canada. George VI
George VI
used one for a coast to coast royal tour of Canada
Canada
in 1939.[27] Early Engines[edit] 1904 - 1911. Two cylinders horizontally opposed at 180 degrees, OHV, 159 cu. in. 1907 - 1924. Four cylinders, in line, OHV, 165 to 392.6 cu. in. 1914 - 1930. Six cylinders, in line, OHV, 191 to 331 cu. in. 1931 - 1953. Eight cylinders, in line, OHV, 221 to 345 cu. in.[28] Post World War II
World War II
years[edit]

1940s–1950s

1941 Buick Super
Buick Super
Series 40-B Model 41 in USAF paint scheme

1947 Buick Super
Buick Super
sedan

1948 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
Sedanet coupe

1949 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
convertible

1950 Buick Super
Buick Super
Riviera

1953 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
Skylark

1953 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
Estate

1955 Buick Special
Buick Special
sedan

1956 Buick Century
Buick Century
Riviera

1957 Buick Super
Buick Super
Riviera

1958 Buick Special
Buick Special
Riviera

1959 Buick
Buick
Electra

1940s[edit]

1910 Buick
Buick
Bug Race Car and 1944 M18 Buick
Buick
Hellcat Tank Destroyer

1940 — Estate introduced as wagon designation on Super. 1942 — Produced the M18 Hellcat
M18 Hellcat
army tank and supplied radial engines installed in the B-24 Liberator, Douglas C-47
Douglas C-47
Skytrain, and Douglas C-54
Douglas C-54
Skymaster. 1948 — Dynaflow
Dynaflow
automatic transmission first offered. 1949 — VentiPorts debut.

1950s[edit]

1953 — Buick's 50th Anniversary. Introduction of Buick V8 engine
Buick V8 engine
and Roadmaster Skylark. 1955 — Best model year sales to date with 738,814 Buicks sold. 1957 — New 364 cu. in. engine block & Ball joint
Ball joint
front suspension debut. Roadmasters now had aluminum finned brake drums. 1959 — Electra, Invicta and LeSabre and 401 cu. in. V-8 (in Electras & Invicta) introduced. Electra was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis 500
race.

1960s–1970s

1962 Buick Special
Buick Special
DeLuxe

1963 Buick Wildcat
Buick Wildcat
convertible

1963 Buick
Buick
Riviera

1965 Buick LeSabre
Buick LeSabre
convertible

1966 Buick Riviera
Buick Riviera
GS

1968 Buick
Buick
Skylark

1970 Buick
Buick
GSX

1971 Buick
Buick
Estate

1972 Buick
Buick
Riviera

1973 Buick Century
Buick Century
GS

1977 Buick Electra
Buick Electra
Park Avenue

1979 Buick
Buick
Regal

1960s[edit]

1960 — Electra 225 was the Official Pace Car of the Daytona 500 race. 1961 — Skylark nameplate returns as top model of new Special
Special
compact car with new 215 cu. in. aluminum V-8. Fireball V6 engine
V6 engine
introduced. 1962 — Wildcat introduced as trim level on Invicta. Special
Special
named Motor Trend Car of the Year. 1963 — Riviera introduced as its own model with 425 cu.in. V-8 as an option. Wildcat introduced as its own model. Electra 225 was the Official Pace Car of the Daytona 500
Daytona 500
race. 1964 — Special
Special
reintroduced as intermediate sized car on GM "A" body platform. 1967 — Radial tires available as options on all full size Buicks.[29]

1970s[edit]

1970 — Estate introduced as its own model. GSX high performance package first offered on Gran Sport (GS) 455. 1971 — Centurion and "boat-tail" Riviera introduced. 1973 — Apollo introduced. Regal introduced as upper trim level on Century. 1975 — Skyhawk introduced. Park Avenue introduced as trim/option package on Electra 225 Limited. Century was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis 500
race. 1976 — Century was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race for the second year in a row. Final year for Buick
Buick
Big-Block engine. 1977 — Electra redesigned and downsized. Best model year sales to date with 773,313 Buicks sold. 1978 — Buick's 75th Anniversary. Turbocharged V6 introduced in the Regal Sport Coupe.[30] Best model year sales to date with 795,316 Buicks sold. 1979 — Riviera S-Type named Motor Trend Car of the Year.

1980s–1990s

1980 Buick
Buick
Skylark

1982 Buick LeSabre
Buick LeSabre
Limited

1984 Buick Riviera
Buick Riviera
convertible

1985 Buick Electra
Buick Electra
Park Avenue

1986 Buick
Buick
Somerset

1987 Buick Regal
Buick Regal
Grand National

1988 Buick
Buick
Reatta

1991 Buick
Buick
Roadmaster

1994 Buick Century
Buick Century
Estate

1996 Buick
Buick
Skylark

1997 Buick
Buick
Park Avenue

1999 Buick
Buick
Riviera

1980s[edit]

1980 — Diesel engine became available on select Buick
Buick
models. Somerset introduced as trim/option package on Regal Limited. 1981 — T-Type performance trim introduced on Riviera.Regal was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500
Indianapolis 500
race. 1982 — Grand National high performance package first offered on Regal. First Riviera convertible produced. 1983 — Riviera was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race. Best model year sales to date with 810,435 Buicks sold. 1984 — Official Car of the XXIII Olympiad. Best model year sales to date with 906,626 Buicks sold. 1985 — Somerset introduced as its own model. LeSabre Limited Collectors Edition offered to mark the end of an era for the rear-wheel drive coupe and sedan. Electra redesigned and converted to front-wheel drive. Best model year sales to date with 915,336 Buicks sold. 1986 — LeSabre coupe and sedan redesigned and converted to the new front-wheel drive H-body platform. 1987 — Limited production GNX high performance package introduced and offered one year only on Regal. 1988 — Official Car of the U.S. Olympic Team. Reatta 2-seater introduced. Regal redesigned and converted to front-wheel drive. "The Great American Road Belongs to Buick" slogan debuts. 1989 — Ultra introduced as trim/option package on Electra Park Avenue.

1990s[edit]

1990 — First Reatta convertible produced. Regal is now offered as a 4-door sedan for the first time since 1977. "The New Symbol for Quality in America" slogan debuts. 1991 — Park Avenue introduced as its own model. Roadmaster returned to lineup after 33-year absence. 1993 — Buick's 90th Anniversary. Special
Special
90th Anniversary Edition LeSabre produced to commemorate the milestone. 1996 — Roadmaster discontinued. 1997 — Regal and Century are redesigned. 1999 — Limited production Riviera Silver Arrow produced to commemorate original 1963 concept as well as end of Riviera production.

Recent years[edit]

Recent years

2000 Buick
Buick
LeSabre

2002 Buick
Buick
Rendezvous

2004 Buick
Buick
Rainier

2005 Buick
Buick
Terraza

2006 Buick Lucerne
Buick Lucerne
CXL

2008 Buick Enclave
Buick Enclave
CXL

2009 Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse
Super

2011 Buick Regal
Buick Regal
GS

2012 Buick
Buick
Verano

2013 Buick
Buick
Encore

2016 Buick
Buick
Cascada

2016 Buick
Buick
Envision

2000s[edit] In the 2000s, Buick's lineup was modified with the compact and performance segments being abandoned in favor of the crossover/SUV market which was growing in popularity. In 2000, the eighth and final generation of the LeSabre was introduced and remained in production until its discontinuation in 2005. In 2003, the Buick
Buick
Centieme crossover concept car commemorated Buick
Buick
Motor Division's 100th anniversary. Some of the Centieme's exterior design and interior features would later appear on the 2008 Enclave crossover. In 2004, Buick
Buick
added the Rainier mid-size SUV. Buick
Buick
began consolidating its lineup in 2005 and by 2008 had reduced it to just three models with new nameplates: the 2005 LaCrosse/Allure, the 2006 Lucerne, and the 2008 Enclave. In 2008, the Super name returned after a 50-year absence as a new performance trim level on LaCrosse and Lucerne. While the brand's total overall sales slipped in the United States,[31] the profitability of the model lineup ensured Buick's future within General Motors.[32] Since 2005, GM had gradually consolidated Buick
Buick
with GMC and former Pontiac
Pontiac
dealerships to create the current Buick-GMC network. During General Motors
General Motors
Chapter 11 reorganization and emergence in 2009, the company designated Buick
Buick
as a "core brand", citing the division's success in China.[33] Behind the scenes, GM began to move products originally planned for other brands to Buick. The Opel Insignia
Opel Insignia
was originally intended to become the second-generation Saturn Aura, but instead became the new Buick
Buick
Regal.[34][35] In the 2009 J.D. Power and Associates Vehicle Dependability Study, Buick
Buick
tied with Jaguar as the most dependable brand in the United States.[36] 2010s[edit] The 2010s saw the return of a classic Buick
Buick
nameplate (Regal) as well as the addition of several new ones, plus the brand’s first factory convertible since the early 1990s.

2010–2012 Buick
Buick
LaCrosse

In January 2009, Buick
Buick
unveiled the new 2010 LaCrosse sedan, an all new styling direction which included traditional Buick
Buick
cues. The market responded to the LaCrosse, with reviews favorably comparing to luxury models such as the Lexus
Lexus
ES.[37] In 2010, Buick
Buick
became the fastest growing automotive brand and attracted a younger customer demographic.[38] An all-new Regal sedan, a smaller model based on the European Opel
Opel
Insignia, was re-introduced for the 2011 model year after a seven-year absence. For 2012, the all-new Verano, which was a compact sedan based on the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cruze, joined the lineup. Additionally, the performance-oriented Regal GS officially went on sale and became the first Buick
Buick
in almost 20 years to be offered with a manual transmission and a turbocharger. Buick
Buick
also entered the hybrid market with the introduction of eAssist technology on the 2012 LaCrosse and Regal which helped improve fuel economy ratings by as much as 38% over the regular gas-engine versions. Meanwhile, sales of the Enclave crossover remained strong. In January 2012, the all-new Encore mini crossover was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Also in 2012, a turbocharged version of the Verano was introduced and the Enclave was redesigned for the 2013 model year. In 2013, GM confirmed plans of a "hybrid global brand" which includes Opel/Vauxhall and Buick
Buick
using more synergies between the brands.[39][40] LaCrosse and Regal were refreshed for the 2014 model year. In 2015, the all-new Cascada compact convertible debuted at the North American International Auto Show
North American International Auto Show
in Detroit. In November, the all-new 2017 LaCrosse was shown at the Los Angeles Auto Show. Buick
Buick
also confirmed that the Envision mid-size crossover would be sold in North America starting summer 2016. The Verano compact sedan was dropped from the Buick
Buick
lineup in North America in 2017. For 2018, Buick
Buick
replaced the Regal sedan with an all-new model offering hatchback and station wagon body styles. This new Regal is the first hatchback from Buick
Buick
for the North American market since the 1987 Skyhawk and the first station wagon since the 1996 Roadmaster. For the 2018 model year, Buick's North American lineup consists of the Encore compact crossover, the Cascada compact convertible, the Regal mid-size hatchback and station wagon, the LaCrosse full-size sedan, the Envision mid-size crossover, and the Enclave full-size crossover. There are plans to add a Sub-brand to accompany Buick, with the Avenir badge being applied to its top of the line level trims, starting with the 2018 model year, utilizing the same strategy as GMC's Denali Sub-brand, which has been successful for GM.[41] With GM spinning off the Opel/Vauxhall division to Group PSA in March 2017, Buick
Buick
is expected to move away from sharing the same Opel
Opel
model/designs upon the completion of the current generation vehicles or a debut of a replacement after the sale closes.[42] A GM company spokesman said that Buick
Buick
is positioned as a "premium" marque (entry-level luxury) to compete with Acura, some Lexus
Lexus
models, Volvo, and Infiniti, while Cadillac
Cadillac
is aimed at the "luxury" performance segment which includes BMW
BMW
and Mercedes-Benz, and Audi[43] Production models[edit]

Current lineup

Buick
Buick
Cascada

Buick Excelle
Buick Excelle
GT

Buick Excelle
Buick Excelle
XT

Buick Excelle
Buick Excelle
GX

Buick
Buick
Verano

Buick Verano
Buick Verano
GS

Buick
Buick
Regal

Buick Regal
Buick Regal
GS

Buick Velite
Buick Velite
5

Buick
Buick
LaCrosse

Buick
Buick
Encore

Buick
Buick
Envision

Buick
Buick
Enclave

Buick
Buick
GL6

Buick
Buick
GL8

Current[edit]

China[edit]

Enclave (2008–present) Encore (2013–present) Envision (2016–present) Excelle (2003-present)[44] GL6 (2017-present) GL8 (1999-present)[44] LaCrosse (2007–present) Regal/Regal GS (1999–present)[44] Velite 5 (2017-present)[44] Verano (2016-present)[44] Verano GS (2015-present)[44]

North America[edit]

Cascada (2016–present) Enclave (2008–present) Encore (2013–present) Envision (2016–present) LaCrosse (2005–present) Regal (1973–2004, 2011–present)

Past[edit]

Model B (1904) Model C (1905) Model F & G (1906–1910) Model 10 (1908–1910) Model 14 & 14B (1910–1911) Special
Special
(1936–1958, 1961–1969) Roadmaster (1936–1958, 1991–1996) Century (1936–1942, 1954–1958, 1973–2005) Super (1939–1958) Skylark (1953–1954, 1961–1972, 1975–1998) Invicta (1959–1963) Electra (1959–1990) LeSabre (1959–2005) Wildcat (1963–1970) Riviera (1963–1993, 1995–1999) Estate (1970–1979, 1990) Centurion (1971–1973) Apollo (1973–1975) Skyhawk (1975–1980, 1982–1989) Somerset (1985–1987) Reatta (1988–1991) Park Avenue (1991–2005) Rendezvous (2001–2007) Rainier (2004–2007) Terraza (2005–2007) Lucerne (2006–2011) Verano (2012–2017)

Concept cars[edit]

Concept cars

1938 Buick Y-Job
Buick Y-Job
concept

1951 Buick LeSabre
Buick LeSabre
concept

1954 Buick Wildcat
Buick Wildcat
II concept

1956 Buick Centurion
Buick Centurion
concept

2004 Buick Velite
Buick Velite
concept

2007 Buick Riviera
Buick Riviera
concept

2013 Buick Riviera
Buick Riviera
concept

2015 Buick Avenir
Buick Avenir
concept

Buick
Buick
has a long history of creating intriguing concept cars dating back to the Y-Job, the industry's first concept car, of 1938. Its most recent concepts have included the Avenir, unveiled at the 2015 North American International Auto Show, and the Avista which was unveiled a year later at the 2016 North American International Auto Show. Distinguishing features[edit] Trishield[edit]

A trishield, the Buick
Buick
symbol, hood ornament on a 1990 LeSabre Custom

The Buick
Buick
Trishield is rooted in the ancestral coat of arms of the automaker’s founder, David Dunbar Buick. That crest was a red shield with a checkered silver and azure diagonal line from the upper left to lower right, a stag above, and a punctured cross below. The division adopted this on its radiator grilles in 1937. In 1960, the logo underwent a major overhaul. Its single shield was replaced by a trio in red, white, and blue—denoting the LeSabre, Invicta, and Electra then in the Buick
Buick
lineup. It was supplanted by the Buick
Buick
Hawk in the 1970s, but the trishield reemerged in the 1980s, simplified, but with its same patriotic colors. The Trishield with red, white, and blue features, was simplified in 2005, but the colors have returned representing the current trio of vehicles in the Buick
Buick
marque for sedans and crossovers. However, the Trishield enjoys its even more distilled and emboldened tri-color form. VentiPorts[edit] A traditional Buick
Buick
styling cue dating to 1949 is a series of three or four vents on the front fender behind the front wheels. The source of this design feature was a custom car of Buick
Buick
stylist Ned Nickles, which in addition had a flashing light within each hole each synchronized with a specific spark plug simulating the flames from the exhaust stack of a fighter airplane. Combined with the bombsight mascot (introduced in 1946), VentiPorts put the driver at the controls of an imaginary fighter airplane. The flashing light feature was not used by Buick
Buick
in production, but VentiPorts remained as nonfunctional ornamentation. They were called VentiPorts because the 1949 sales brochure noted that VentiPorts helped ventilate the engine compartment to minimize the engine overheating. The suggestion was made that they allowed air flow out of the engine bay. Air entered from the grille into the engine bay and was pressurized by the radiator fan, and exited through the VentiPorts. The benefit might have been true in early 1949, but sometime during the model year they became plugged. The installation of VentiPorts was a reference to Buick
Buick
having participated in the war effort by supplying over 74,000 Pratt & Whitney radial engines that were installed in B-24 Liberator aircraft. Buick
Buick
also supplied Pratt & Whitney engines in the Douglas C-47 Skytrain and Douglas C-54
Douglas C-54
Skymaster.[45][46] GM also had a controlling interest in North American Aviation
North American Aviation
from 1933 until 1948, the company that built the P-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang
fighter plane.[citation needed] GM also owned the Allison Engine Company, the manufacturer of the Allison V-1710 V-12 engine that was used in the Lockheed P-38, Bell P-39
Bell P-39
and Curtiss P-40. When introduced, the number of VentiPorts (three or four) denoted the size of straight-eight engine installed. Since displacement differences in straight-eight engines resulted in more dramatic differences in engine length than on V8s, the Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
(which was the only model at this time with the larger engine) needed a longer chassis in front of the cowl to accommodate the larger engine. Thus an extra VentiPort also corresponded directly to the necessary extra length in front. After the more compact V8 replaced the straight-eight engine in 1953 this difference in chassis length was no longer needed. Nevertheless, the convention remained. Consequently, when the Buick
Buick
Century, which shared the Buick
Buick
Special's smaller body, was reintroduced in 1954, it also received four VentiPorts to denote its engine's greater displacement. However, in 1955, the Buick
Buick
Super, which shared Roadmaster's larger body, was promoted from three to four VentiPorts despite having the smaller displacement engine. In turn, the Buick Invicta
Buick Invicta
which took the place of the Buick Century
Buick Century
in 1959, and consequently had the smaller body with the larger displacement engine, was demoted from four to three VentiPorts on introduction. Thus the number of VentiPorts came to denote body size rather than engine size. In 1961, Buick
Buick
introduced the first V6 engine
V6 engine
installed in an American passenger car, called the Fireball V6 in the Buick
Buick
Special, and three VentiPorts appeared on the side, ushering a new designation denoting the number of cylinders instead of displacement and bodysize. As a result, VentiPorts have appeared sporadically from 1960 through 1981. The Buick V6 engine
Buick V6 engine
was not related to the GMC V6 engine introduced for commercial use in 1959. In 2003 VentiPorts were re-introduced on the Buick Park Avenue
Buick Park Avenue
Ultra. After the Park Avenue was discontinued, Buick
Buick
salvaged the VentiPorts to appear on the new-for-2006 Lucerne. Consistent with the tradition that held from 1961, the Lucerne's VentiPorts refer directly to the number of pistons: V6 models have three on each side, while V8s have four on each side. Modern and edgy compared to the oval ones that adorned Buicks for years, the new VentiPorts have become a Buick-wide talisman again. The newly designed VentiPorts appear on every Buick
Buick
model from 2014 onward.[47] Sweepspear[edit]

Sweepspear on a 1953 Buick
Buick
Skylark.

Contemporary sweepspear, upon its reintroduction on a 2nd generation Buick
Buick
LaCrosse.

Another styling cue from the 1940s through the 1970s was the Sweepspear, a curved trim line running almost the length of the car. Introduced as an option on the 1949 Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
Riviera hardtop coupe, the original Sweepspear was a chrome-plated steel rub strip which began level over the front wheel, gently curved down across the front fender and door, dove nearly to the rocker panel just ahead of the rear wheel, then flared up and over the rear wheel before leveling off again into a straight run back to the tail-light. The shape of the feature shows similarities to the Jaguar XK120, with the feature running the length of the car in both examples. The "Riviera trim", as it was initially called, was made available on the Roadmaster convertible very late in the '49 model year. It proved so popular that by the 1951 model year it was made a standard feature on all Buicks. During the two-tone color craze of the 1950s, it separated two different color areas. In time, the Sweepspear became stainless steel, then a vinyl rub strip or simple character line in the sheetmetal, as hinted in some versions of the Buick
Buick
Riviera, distinct on the 1968-1969 Skylark, and appearing on the 2008 Invicta concept car. Often optional trim was available to reinforce a plain character line in the bodywork. The feature was re-introduced with the 2nd generation Buick
Buick
LaCrosse. Delta fin[edit]

Delta Fins on a 1959 Buick Electra
Buick Electra
225 Riviera

The 1958 Buick
Buick
was marketed beginning in September 1957, just as the space age began with the launching of Sputnik I
Sputnik I
on October 4 of that year. This Buick
Buick
was nicknamed "the king of chrome" and had rear tailfins reminiscent of a rocket ship.[48][49] In 1959, Buick
Buick
had the aerodynamic Delta Fin. The fin made parking difficult and blocked the driver's line of vision.[50][51] It was snubbed down in 1960 and disappeared in 1961. Taillight shapes[edit] During the 1950s, the characteristic form of the Buick
Buick
taillamps was a tier of small, circular bullet-shapes. In the early 1960s, most models began to evolve a wide, rectangular pattern, until the 1965 Skylark and Electra models appeared with full-width rear lamps. Since then, wide taillamps have been a Buick
Buick
hallmark, usually consisting of four bulbs on each side. The brake light illumination uses the two outer bulbs, while the two inner bulbs remain as tail lights. Classic grille styling[edit]

Buick
Buick
"dollar grin" and "Trishield" in a Buick
Buick
LeSabre

The Buick
Buick
styling cue (dating from the 1942–1958 period,) that has most often reappeared, though, is for the grille to be a horizontal oval with many, thin, vertical chromed ribs bulging forward. This has sometimes been called the Buick
Buick
"dollar grin" particularly on the early 1950s models, which had thick, highly polished ribs that somewhat resembled teeth. The 1950 model took this tooth theme to its extreme as the teeth crossed over the bumper exposing the 1950 "grin". The 1951 model reined in the theme, bringing the teeth back behind the bumper. Current Buick
Buick
Models have a new take on the classic styling with their Chromed "Waterfall Grilles". Waterfall grille[edit]

Revised Buick
Buick
waterfall grille on 2nd generation LaCrosse.

In recent years, Buick
Buick
has adopted a Waterfall Grille, as seen on the Buick Velite
Buick Velite
concept car from 2004 and first used in production with the Buick Lucerne
Buick Lucerne
introduced for the 2006 model year. This waterfall grille bears some resemblance to grilles of Buicks from the 1980s, such as the Grand National. Nailhead[edit] The Buick
Buick
V8 engine, nicknamed the Nailhead because of its relatively small intake and exhaust valves which resembled nails, became popular with hot-rodders in the 1950s and 1960s, because the vertical attachment of the valve covers, in contrast to the angled attachment of other V8 engines, enabled the engine to fit into smaller spaces while maintaining easy access for maintenance.

Performance[edit] In addition to premium and luxury vehicles, Buick
Buick
has also been well known for its offerings of high performance cars. Some of the better known examples included the Gran Sport and GSX models of the 1960s and 1970s, and the Grand National and GNX models of the 1980s. World distribution[edit] Asia[edit]

Buick
Buick
G2.5 V6 made by Shanghai GM, China, 2002

V6 engine
V6 engine
of Buick
Buick
2.5G of Shanghai GM, China, 2002

China is Buick's largest market, accounting for 80% of the cars sold worldwide in 2015. In 2015, General Motors
General Motors
sold 990,000 Buicks in China, four and a half times what it sold in the United States.[5] Buicks have always been popular in China. In pre- World War II
World War II
China, one in five cars was a Buick[52] Buick
Buick
is a leading vehicle brand in China.[53] Buicks were used by the last emperor Puyi, the first president Sun Yat-sen, and the first premier Zhou Enlai.[5] Since 1999, a Chinese version of the Buick Regal
Buick Regal
has been produced and sold in mainland China by Shanghai GM and has proven to be popular among upscale, professional families, establishing Buick
Buick
as one of the most popular vehicle brands in China. In addition, Buick
Buick
of China also sells the compact Excelle, in its first generation based on the Daewoo Lacetti/Nubira), a five-door hatchback version called the HRV, and a modified version of the first generation Pontiac
Pontiac
Montana minivan named the GL8. Many Buicks for the local market are equipped with smaller more fuel efficient engines with double overhead camshafts, than those with overhead valves in the same nameplate for the American market. The engines of 2005-09 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Equinox and Pontiac
Pontiac
Torrent, originally intended for Buick
Buick
in China, were made in China and imported by General Motors.[54] In June 2005, Buick
Buick
announced that it would market the Australian RWD Holden Caprice
Holden Caprice
in China as the Buick Royaum
Buick Royaum
(2005–06). Buick previously marketed the subcompact Sail, sourced from GM's Asian operations and based on the Opel
Opel
Corsa B, until 2005. Since then, Shanghai GM has replaced it with the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sail (a rebadged Opel Corsa). Buick
Buick
has stated that it expects China to become its second largest market. In 2006, Buick
Buick
debuted the Chinese version of the LaCrosse sedan. The only differences are exterior design, different engine choices, and a facelifted interior. It is positioned above the Regal but below the Royaum. In April 2007, Shanghai GM announced the Buick
Buick
Park Avenue, for the Chinese market only. The vehicle is based on the Holden
Holden
Caprice, with engines manufactured in Australia. In 2009, Buick
Buick
sold 447,011 vehicles, an increase of 59.6 percent compared with the previous year.[55] Buick
Buick
has sold over two million vehicles in China. The first million took eight years, the second came in at only three years.[56] GM Taiwan
Taiwan
was founded in August 1989. In the early 1990s, Buick, along with other GM brands, was very popular and frequently seen on Taiwanese streets. Park Avenue, 3rd and 4th generation Regal, and 6th generation Skylark used to be sold in Taiwan. In December 2004, General Motors
General Motors
signed a memorandum of understanding with Yulon, a firm based in Taiwan, for the licensed manufacture of Buick
Buick
vehicles there. In July 2005, Yulon
Yulon
GM Motor Co. Ltd. (Yulon GM), a joint venture with 51 percent equity stake held by Yulon
Yulon
Motor and 49 percent by GM, was founded. On April 17, 2006, Yulon
Yulon
GM debuted the first Buick
Buick
vehicle ever built in Taiwan, the LaCrosse sedan. It is very similar to the Chinese version of the LaCrosse. On April 2010 Buick
Buick
debuted the localised version of LaCrosse, named Alpheon, to South Korean market. Mexico[edit] Buicks were sold in Mexico from 1921 to 1962, when a protectionist policy on behalf of the government restricted the percentage of imported parts that could be used in the manufacture of vehicles and the sale of imported cars. From then onwards, all GM products were sold by Chevrolet
Chevrolet
dealerships. In 1990, after a heavy modification to the protectionist policy of the sixties, GM started assembling the Buick Century
Buick Century
in Mexico, at the plant in Ramos Arizpe, in the state of Coahuila, just south of Texas, and selling it through Mexican Chevrolet
Chevrolet
dealerships, so it was not uncommon for many people to call it " Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Century". In 1997, GM stopped production of Buicks in Mexico and the brand was not sold there until 2009. With the announcement in 2009 of the elimination of the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand, it was speculated that Buicks would be sold once again in Mexico, since there was a large network of Pontiac-GMC dealerships already in place. On July 24, 2009, Grace Lieblein, the new president of GM in Mexico, revealed that the Buick
Buick
brand would be available in Mexico in late September of that year, after an absence of a dozen years, with the LaCrosse and the Enclave models. Buick
Buick
shared the dealership floor with Pontiac
Pontiac
and GMC until the Pontiac
Pontiac
brand faded away in the summer of 2010. Middle East[edit] In Israel, Buicks are imported by Universal Motors, Ltd. (UMI), which also imports other GM vehicles. For model years 2004 and 2005, the Buick LeSabre
Buick LeSabre
and Buick Rendezvous
Buick Rendezvous
were sold. For model years 2006 and 2007, the Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse
and Buick Lucerne
Buick Lucerne
were sold alongside the Rendezvous. For model year 2008, the Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse
and Buick
Buick
Lucerne were available. Buicks were sold throughout the Middle East until the second-generation Buick Roadmaster
Buick Roadmaster
was discontinued. New Zealand[edit] Buicks were once sold in New Zealand. They were also built at the GMNZ plant in Petone, outside Wellington.[57] At the end of World War II, the Buick
Buick
name was not revived for the New Zealand market. Motorsport[edit] For many years, Buick
Buick
was a substitute for Chevrolet
Chevrolet
in automobile racing. No earlier than the 1960s, Buick
Buick
was a competitor in the Indianapolis 500, and (like almost every other American manufacturer) also participated in the Grand National stock car racing series using its Regal and later the Gran Sport. The golden age of Buick
Buick
in motorsport, however, was the early to late 1980s. General Motors
General Motors
entered the Regal, particularly the Grand National model, in the NASCAR Cup Series
NASCAR Cup Series
alongside the Oldsmobile Cutlass. Buick
Buick
was also a major powerplant in the IndyCar Series
IndyCar Series
and IMSA GT Series
IMSA GT Series
(particularly in the IMSA GTP class) for several years. The 1990s, however, proved to be the end of Buick's reign in motorsports, as GM replaced it for many years with Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
before phasing out that marque in 2004. Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
would be replaced by Pontiac
Pontiac
until its demise in 2009, being replaced by Chevrolet. Buicks were also entered in the Trans Am Series
Trans Am Series
in the 1980s and 1990s using aftermarket V8 engines. Enthusiast organizations[edit] The Buick
Buick
Club of America, founded in 1966, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and restoration of automobiles built by the Buick
Buick
Motor Division of General Motors Corporation. Advertisements[edit]

A 1911 Buick
Buick
Advertisement - Syracuse Post-Standard, January 21, 1911

1913 advertisement

The Saturday Evening Post, November 1920

1912 Buick
Buick
logo

Cover of 1925 promotional folder from Swedish reseller

Advertisement for 1916 Buick
Buick
by dealer Howard Automobile Co., San Francisco.

See also[edit]

List of automobile manufacturers of the United States

References[edit]

^ BUICK MOTOR DIVISION HISTORY by Lawrence R. Gustin, 1993 - Buick Motor Division ^ a b c d e f g "The Buick, A Complete History," third ed., 1987, Terry P. Dunham and Lawrence Gustin. ^ "How Car Brands Compare for Reliability". Consumer Reports. Consumer Reports. October 15, 2015.  ^ "GM Reports Third Consecutive Year of Record Global Sales". media.gm.com. 2016-01-21. Retrieved 2016-02-04.  ^ a b c Frankel, Todd C. (January 20, 2016). ""That's a Buick?" In China, unlike the U.S., there's no doubt". Washington Post.  ^ Flint Timeline Project-James H. Whiting Archived July 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ VMC virtualmuseum.ca McLaughlin-Buick:"Canada's Standard Car" ^ " Buick
Buick
History". Welovebuicks.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "1901 Buick
Buick
perhaps 1902". Prewarbuick.com. 2002-01-01. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "James H. Whiting". Thewhiting.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "1904 Buick
Buick
Model B". Prewarbuick.com. 2002-01-01. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "1904 Buick
Buick
Prototype - Sloan Museum". 1929buick.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "1904 Buick Model B
Buick Model B
- Restoration Project". 1929buick.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "A Heritage of Precision". Buick. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ "1906 Buick
Buick
Brochure". Oldcarbrochures.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.  ^ "The free-wheeling gambler who created conservative General Motors". Info.detnews.com. 1996-07-30. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ Stoll, John D. (2008-07-07). "GM Weighs More Layoffs, Sale of Brands". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ Katz, John F. (1998-03-02). "1909 Buick
Buick
Model F". Autoweek.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ " Buick
Buick
History (1904-1929)". 1929buick.com. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  ^ Wells, Dick. "SRMA Update" in Street Rodder, 12/98, p.298. The accuracy of this source is in question, however. ^ http://www.carnut.com/specs/gen/buick20.html ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.121. ^ Clymer, p.120. ^ "Who Made That Turn Signal?". The New York Times. July 12, 2013.  ^ Davies, Caroline (2001-08-23). "Car that took King into exile goes on sale". The Daily Telegraph. London.  ^ http://www.driving.ca/news/story.html?id=33545c20-1d1f-45ac-a064-760628952578 ^ a b http://www.driving.ca/news/story.html?id=e8ef74e4-c567-4a3d-b919-ac83874f0b4c ^ The Buick, A Complete History, Dunham and Gustin ^ LaChance, David Hemmings Motor News Buyer's Guide from Hemmings Muscle Machines: 1966-'67 Buick Riviera
Buick Riviera
GS July 2006 Retrieved July 26, 2015 ^ "History & Heritage". Buick.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.  ^ Dederer, Andrew (2008-04-25). " Buick
Buick
and the Detroit
Detroit
Zombies". The Truth About Cars. Retrieved 2011-09-23.  ^ Krebs, Michelle (2009-06-29). "'Good' GM: Maybe Not All That Good". Edmunds Auto Observer. Retrieved 2011-06-03.  ^ Evans, Scott (2009-04-02). "GM CEO Henderson Says Buick
Buick
is a Core Brand". MotorTrend.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03.  ^ "2011 Buick
Buick
Regal". Autoblog.com.  ^ "GMI Exclusive: 2010 Saturn Aura
Saturn Aura
on "Hold"". GM Inside News. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2011-06-03.  ^ " Buick
Buick
and Jaguar Tie to Rank Highest for Vehicle Dependability, J.D. Power Press Release, 19 March 2009 ^ "Comparison: 2010 Buick LaCrosse
Buick LaCrosse
CXS vs 2010 Lexus ES
Lexus ES
350". Motor Trend. March 2010. Retrieved 2011-06-03.  ^ "Fastest Growing Car Brand
Brand
in America? Buick". Advertising Age. 2010-08-16. Retrieved 2011-06-03.  ^ http://gmauthority.com/blog/2013/06/opel-buick-to-expand-product-sharing/ ^ http://media.gm.com/content/media/intl/en/opel/news.detail.html/content/Pages/news/intl/en/2013/opel/06-26-Tina-Mueller-New-Chief-Marketing-Officer.html ^ " Buick
Buick
Announces Avenir Sub- Brand
Brand
To Join Future Products In 2018" from GM Authority (September 1, 2016) ^ Frost, Lawrence; Taylor, Edward (Mar 6, 2017). "PSA targets Opel turnaround as GM exits Europe". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2017.  ^ "2010 Buick
Buick
LaCrosse". Autoblog.com.  ^ a b c d e f Official website of Buick
Buick
China. Retrieved October 2, 2017. ^ Time Magazine, May 14, 1945, numerous advertisements referring to Buick
Buick
engines installed. ^ http://pages.adateintimecollectibles.com/11804/PictPage/3924133738.html ^ "Timeline Photos". Buick
Buick
Official Facebook Page. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-15.  ^ "Photo of a 1958 Buick
Buick
Special". Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-12-27.  ^ "Source of the photo of the 1958 Buick". Photos.cokertire.com. 2008-05-05. Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. Retrieved 2011-11-20.  ^ "Photo of a 1959 Buick". Retrieved 2010-12-27.  ^ "Source of the photo of the 1959 Buick—David's Dimension Classic Car Images:". Davidsdimension.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20.  ^ "Forecast Says China Provides Opportunities and Competition". Internet Auto Guide. Archived from the original on 2010-11-21. Retrieved 2012-05-31.  ^ Peter Alexander (2006-05-15). " Buick
Buick
bucks the trend — GM brand is No. 1 car seller in China, thanks to smart marketing". NBC News. Retrieved 2008-10-11.  ^ Austen, Ian (March 26, 2008). "A Chevy With an Engine From China". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-03-20.  ^ Jensen, Cheryl (2010-04-23). "Forecast Says China Provides Opportunities and Competition". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-23.  ^ "GM hits two million sells in China". Autoblog. 2009-06-22. Retrieved 2009-10-18.  ^ http://www.magnetdesign.co.nz/. "Heart of Holden
Holden
- Heritage Holden New Zealand". Holden.co.nz. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Buick
Buick
vehicles.

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Buick
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(1)Although New Flyer is Canadian, their Subsidiaries, NABI and Motor Coach Industries, are headquartered in the U.S.

(2)Former meaning the company is no longer in the automotive manufacturing business

Category Portal

v t e

Automotive
Automotive
marques of General Motors

Wholly owned

Current

Buick Cadillac Chevrolet GMC Holden

Discontinued

Acadian (1962–1971) Alpheon
Alpheon
(2010-2015) Asüna
Asüna
(1992–1995) Beaumont (1966–1969) Bedford (1930–1986) Cartercar
Cartercar
(1905–1915) Daewoo
Daewoo
(1982–2011) Elmore (1893–1912) Envoy (1959–1970) GM Diesel (1938-2000) Geo (1989–1997) Hummer
Hummer
(1992–2010) LaSalle (1927–1940) Marquette (1929–1930) McLaughlin (1918–1942) Oakland (1907–1931) Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
(1897–2004) Passport (1988–1991) Pontiac
Pontiac
(1926–2010) Ranger (1968–1976) Rainier (1905–1911) Saturn (1985–2010) Scripps-Booth
Scripps-Booth
(1913–1923) Sheridan (1920–1921) Statesman (1971–1984) Viking (1929–1931) Yellow Coach (1925–1943)

Former

Lotus (1986–1993) Saab (1989–2010) Opel
Opel
(1929–2017) Vauxhall (1925–2017)

Shareholdings and joint ventures

Current

Baojun1 Jie Fang (50%) Ravon (25%) Wuling1

Former

Fiat (2000–2005; up to 20%) Isuzu Motors
Isuzu Motors
(c.1971–2006; up to 49%) Subaru
Subaru
(c.1999–2006; 20%) Suzuki
Suzuki
(1985–2008; up to 15%) PSA Peugeot
Peugeot
Citroën (2012-2013; up to 7%) Uz Daewoo
Daewoo
(1992-2015; up to 50%)

1Marques of SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
(GM up

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