HOME
The Info List - Budd Company


--- Advertisement ---



The Budd Company
Budd Company
was a 20th-century metal fabricator, a major supplier of body components to the automobile industry and a manufacturer of stainless steel passenger rail cars,[2] airframes, missile and space vehicles, and various defense products.[3] Budd was founded in 1912 in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
by Edward G. Budd, whose fame came from his development of the first all-steel automobile bodies in 1913 and, in the 1930s, his company's invention of the "shotweld" technique for joining pieces of stainless steel without damaging its anti-corrosion properties. Budd Company
Budd Company
became part of Budd Thyssen in 1978 and in 1999 a part of Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
Budd. Body and chassis operations were sold to Martinrea International in 2006. No longer an operating company, Budd filed for bankruptcy in 2014. It currently exists to provide benefits to its retirees.[4]

Contents

1 Automobiles 2 Railroads

2.1 Passenger cars

2.1.1 Early years 2.1.2 Later years

2.2 Rail diesel car 2.3 Electric multiple units 2.4 Subway cars

3 Transportation innovations

3.1 Aviation 3.2 Automobiles

4 Divisions and subsidiaries 5 Final years of railcar production

5.1 Modern role in auto industry

6 Preservation

6.1 Pennsylvania 6.2 New York 6.3 Indiana 6.4 Illinois 6.5 California 6.6 Missouri 6.7 Massachusetts 6.8 Portugal 6.9 Argentina

7 Wind power 8 Industrial facilities 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Automobiles[edit]

First all-steel sedan by Edward G Budd Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
for John and Horace Dodge[5]

Edward G Budd developed the first all-steel automobile bodies. His first major supporters were the Dodge
Dodge
brothers. Following discussions which began in 1913, the brothers purchased from Budd 70,000 all-steel open touring bodies in 1916. They were soon followed by an all-steel Dodge
Dodge
sedan.[5][6] Budd Company
Budd Company
jointly founded and from 1926 to 1936 held an interest in The Pressed Steel Company
Pressed Steel Company
of Great Britain Limited (Cowley, England), which built bodies for Morris Motors
Morris Motors
and others, and Ambi-Budd (Germany), which supplied Adler, Audi, BMW, NAG and Wanderer; and earned royalties from Bliss (who built bodies for Citroën
Citroën
and Ford of Britain). The Budd Company
Budd Company
also created the first "safety" two-piece truck wheel, used extensively in World War II, and also built truck cargo bodies for the US military. Following the inroduction of the "unibody" Citroën
Citroën
Traction Avant in 1934 using Budd technology, Budd worked in 1940 with Nash Motors
Nash Motors
on the development and production of North America's first mass-produced unibody passenger vehicle, the Nash 600. In the mid-1980s, Budd's Plastics Division introduced sheet moulding compound, a reinforced plastic in sheet form, suitable for stamping out body panels in much the same way, and as quickly as sheet metal equivalents are made.[7] The Pontiac Fiero
Pontiac Fiero
has some exterior SMC body parts manufactured by Budd Plastics - such as quarter panels, roof skin, headlamp covers, and trunk decklid.[citation needed] Railroads[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Passenger cars[edit] From the 1930s until 1987, the Budd Company
Budd Company
was a leading manufacturer of stainless steel streamlined passenger rolling stock for a number of railroads. Early years[edit]

Silver Slipper

Pioneer Zephyr

R11 subway car

After briefly dabbling with French Michelin
Michelin
rubber-tired technology ("Michelines" and the Silver Slipper),[8] they built the Pioneer Zephyr for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
in 1934, and thousands of streamlined lightweight stainless steel passenger cars for new trains in the USA in the 1930s and 1980s. In 1949, Budd built ten prototype stainless steel R11 subway cars for the New York Board of Transportation;[9] these were intended for the Second Avenue Subway.[10] In the late-1940s the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
was seeking a way to increase capacity on commuter trains serving Chicago, Illinois, without having to add more cars to handle the increasing number of commuters. The problem faced by the Burlington Route was that its main terminal in Chicago, Chicago
Chicago
Union Station, charged the railroads serving it by the length of each train, and the Burlington wanted to avoid such charges. Because of the line's satisfaction with Budd's products, they approached Budd seeking a solution. Budd proposed to build coaches that were taller than the typical lightweight passenger car while keeping the streamline car's length of 85 feet, with the cars having a capacity 50% greater than previous commuter cars. To address the issue of the conductor collecting tickets without having to climb stairs, the upper level was designed with its center portion open so that the conductor could reach the tickets from upper-level passengers. Two rows of individual seats, one on each side of the car, provided the increase in seating capacity. The unique design of the upper level's open center section led to the cars being called "Gallery" cars. Burlington approved the design and ordered 30 cars. These cars, built as Budd lot 9679-041, were delivered between August 1950 and January 1951 and not only marked a change in how the commuters were handled but also were the first cars in commuter service to have air conditioning. The Burlington retrofitted its earlier cars with air conditioning as well, once the new cars had entered service. With the first of the new commuter cars in service on the Burlington, the next railroad to approach Budd to design a new type of car with a greater seating capacity while also improving the accommodations for coach passengers was the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway. The Santa Fe was searching for a better design for its long-distance passenger trains and, with the design of the Burlington coaches in mind, Budd set out to create a similar passenger car design to meet the Santa Fe's needs. In September 1952 the Santa Fe placed an order for two two-level prototypes, Budd's Lot 9679-129. These, carrying the numbers 526 and 527, were delivered in July 1954, at which time both were placed into service for evaluation. These two prototypes had seating on the both levels, stairs on one end to provide access to single-level cars, a stairway at the center of the car for access to toilets on the lower level, as well as the door in the side of the car for embarking and departing passengers. This lower floor also contained various mechanical and pneumatic equipment that otherwise would be mounted below the floors of single-level cars. With the two Hi-Level
Hi-Level
prototypes in service and proving to not only meet the needs of line but also being popular with passengers who were afforded a much better view of the scenery from the upper level, the Santa Fe again approached Budd with the idea of building additional two-level cars, this time in five different configurations: Step-down coaches like the two prototype cars, convertible coaches which could have one end of the car converted from the high level on both ends to a step-down car as needed, coaches with both ends of the car having the end door at the upper level's height to provide access to adjoining passenger cars, dining cars and lounge cars (with kitchens on the lower level) which featured a partial glassed-in roof similar to the Big Dome
Big Dome
lounge cars that were also built by Budd and delivered around the time the prototype Hi-Level
Hi-Level
cars were built. (The Hi-Level lounge cars are the only Hi-Level
Hi-Level
cars that remain in use by Amtrak.) The order for additional cars was placed in March 1955 for 10 68-seat step-down coaches (delivered between December 1955 and January 1956 and numbered 528 to 537), 25 72-seat Hi-Level
Hi-Level
coaches (delivered between January and April 1956 numbered 700 to 724), six 60-seat bar – lounge – news stand which also had a 26-seat lounge in the lower level (delivered between May and June 1956) and six 80-seat dining cars (delivered between June and August 1956 numbered 650 to 655). With these cars delivered the Santa Fe re-equipped the El Capitan, the only coach train operated between Chicago
Chicago
and Los Angeles and also had some of the Hi-Level
Hi-Level
coaches being assigned to the Chicago– Galveston, Texas
Galveston, Texas
Texas Chief. An additional 12 step-down coaches, numbered 538 to 549, and 12 convertible coaches, numbered 725 to 736, which were ordered in November 1962 and delivered between December 1963 and April 1964. Later years[edit]

The Budd company logo on the builder's plate in a Metro-North
Metro-North
Railroad M3 railcar.

The Budd company license plate in a Tokyu Car Corporation
Tokyu Car Corporation
railcar.

Budd continued to build gallery passenger cars for Chicago-area commuter service on the Burlington Route (and Burlington Northern after the merger), Rock Island, and Milwaukee Road
Milwaukee Road
lines during the 1960s and 1970s; most of these cars are still in service on today's Metra
Metra
routes. What is more, the Santa Fe Hi-level cars were the inspiration for the Amtrak
Amtrak
Superliner and Superliner II
Superliner II
which ply the rails of Amtrak
Amtrak
on many different routes even today, though they were not a product of Budd. Stainless steel
Stainless steel
Budd cars originally built for the Canadian Pacific Railway's 1955 train The Canadian
The Canadian
are still in service with Via Rail Canada. Since 1951 two formations of six Budd cars operated by Ferrobaires
Ferrobaires
have run a weekly service called "El Marplatense" from Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
to the ocean-side city of Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata
in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina; the cars were originally built for the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad. Budd-patented processes and designs were also used in Brazil
Brazil
(by Mafersa), France and Belgium after World War II
World War II
to construct SNCF electric-powered multiple-unit cars, push-pull suburban trainsets, Wagons-Lits
Wagons-Lits
[CIWL] sleeping cars and even SNCF
SNCF
Class CC 40100 a small class of SNCF
SNCF
and SNCB
SNCB
four-current six-axle high speed electric locomotives for Trans Europ Express
Trans Europ Express
service between Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and SNCB
SNCB
class 56 EMU. In Japan Tokyu Car Corporation became the licensee of the Budd process and made the Stainless steel commuter cars like Series 7000 of Tokyu line. Mafersa
Mafersa
continued to manufacture cars based on Budd designs with 38 cars being built for Virginia Rail Express
Virginia Rail Express
between 1990 and 1992, some now at Shore Line East. Canadian Vickers
Canadian Vickers
and Avco built cars and incomplete kit shells (for GE) under Budd license, including the 1980 PATCO Series II cars, Metro-North
Metro-North
M-2 Cosmopolitan and the Arrow II/III/Silverliner IV MUs. Budd also issued a licence to Australian manufacturer Commonwealth Engineering in Sydney
Sydney
where Budd's stainless steel technology was used between the late 1950s and 1989 to build a variety of projects including the Monocoque self steer V set double-decker interurban electric multiple units considered by many to be one of the worlds most advanced double decker design. Budd's extensive research into the use of Stainless steel
Stainless steel
in rail carriage design and construction methodology carries on today in consulting businesses like Bay Rail. Rail diesel car[edit] In 1949, Budd introduced the "Rail Diesel Car" (RDC), a stainless steel self-propelled "train in one car" which expanded rail service on lightly populated railway lines and provided an adaptable car for suburban commuter service. More than 300 RDCs were built, and some are still in service in Canada, the United States, Australia, Cuba
Cuba
and Saudi Arabia, with similar but shorter cars also being built under license by Mafersa
Mafersa
in Brazil, which used the Budd Pioneer construction methods that the company designed and implemented in 1956 on some of the later commuter cars, such as the Milwaukee Road
Milwaukee Road
gallery cars that operated out of Chicago
Chicago
as well as electric multiple unit (EMU) high speed cars that operated between Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and New York City. The final few RDC cars were built by Canadian Car & Foundry under licensed from Budd. Electric multiple units[edit]

A Budd M1 train on the Long Island Rail Road.

In the late 1950s, Budd built the prototype Pioneer III. When re-designed and outfitted with electrical propulsion and end cabs as EMU coaches, six were purchased by the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad who originally intended them for medium-distance use in PRR's electrified territory. In 1963 they became known as "Silverliner I" cars when their use was supplemented by the new Silverliner II cars, which used an improved Pioneer III body, and which were placed into Philadelphia-area commuter rail service on the PRR and Reading Company lines. Budd was contracted in 1966 by the PRR and the U.S. Department of Commerce's "Office of High-Speed Ground Transportation" (prior to the establishment of USDOT) to build the original Metroliner multiple unit cars for luxury high-speed service on the Northeast Corridor. The 50 original Metroliners were delivered in 1967–69. An additional 11 Metroliner coaches were built for SEPTA, but were not accepted for service until 1972 under Amtrak. The Metroliners have been either retired, rebuilt into coaches without the cabs, or de-powered and used as cab cars. The Silverliner II cars had a top speed of 90 mph (140 km/h), but ran at up to 100 mph (160 km/h) when the PRR used them for Philadelphia-Harrisburg service. The Metroliner EMU cars operated at 110 to 125 mph (201 km/h) but every car was tested up to at least 160 mph (260 km/h), although breakdowns in the system led Amtrak
Amtrak
to derate them to 90 mph (140 km/h). Since their retirement from regular service, Amtrak has used the Metroliner EMU coaches as cab-coaches on various services.[11] Subway cars[edit] In 1960, Budd manufactured the first stainless steel production subway cars for Philadelphia's Market-Frankford Line. 270 M-3 cars were jointly owned by the City of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and the Philadelphia Transportation Company (now Southeastern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Transportation Authority). Some rail enthusiasts nicknamed the cars "Almond Joys" because the four hump-shaped ventilators on the roof evoked the Almond Joy candy bar. There were 46 single units and 112 "married" pairs. The pairs were a "mixed marriage" because the odd-numbered car came with General Electric motors and equipment and was permanently coupled to the even-numbered car, which had Westinghouse motors and equipment. Two cars in this fleet were air conditioned. These cars were replaced with more modern, air-conditioned M-4 units from 1997 to 1999. Some cars were transferred to the Norristown High Speed Line in the early 1990s. The cars had to be re-trucked, because the Norristown line is standard gauge (4' 8½") while the Market-Frankford line is broad gauge (5' 2½").[12] Transportation innovations[edit] Aviation[edit]

Budd BB-1 Pioneer
Budd BB-1 Pioneer
in front of the Franklin Institute

In 1930, the company made its first foray into the aviation industry by signing contracts to manufacture aircraft wheels and stainless steel wing ribs. Enea Bossi joined the company as the head of stainless steel research to supervise the design and construction of the four-seat biplane amphibian aircraft Budd BB-1 Pioneer. It was the first aircraft with a structure built out of stainless steel.[13] This was the first aircraft for the Budd Company, and it made its first flight in 1931.[14] Built under Restricted License NR749,[15] its design utilized concepts developed for the Savoia-Marchetti S-56 and was powered by a single 210 horsepower (160 kW) Kinner C-5 five-cylinder radial engine.[16] The stainless steel construction process for the BB-1 was patented in 1942.[17] At the time, stainless steel was not considered practical; and only one BB-1 was built. It logged about 1,000 flying hours while touring the United States and Europe. In 1934, this plane was stripped of its fabric covering and its lower wing, and was mounted outside the Franklin Institute
Franklin Institute
in Philadelphia, where it remains to this day as the longest continuous display of any airplane.[15] The plane has been memorialized in the children’s book Spirited Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Adventure by Deirdre Cimino.[18][19] During World War II, Budd designed and built the RB-1 Conestoga transport airplane for the United States Navy, using much stainless steel in place of aluminum. Only 25 were built but, after the war, 14 aircraft found their way to the fledgling Flying Tiger Line
Flying Tiger Line
and provided a good start for that company. Automobiles[edit]

Budd XR-400
Budd XR-400
at the Henry Ford Museum

In 1962, Budd produced a fully functional concept car, the XR-400, for evaluation by American Motors Corporation
American Motors Corporation
(AMC). It was designed to use AMC's existing chassis for the sporty-model market segment before the introduction of the Ford Mustang. The proposed car did not enter production. An irony to the XR-400
XR-400
story is that Budd tried to sell the idea to Ford first. In 1961, Budd combined a 1957 Ford Thunderbird
Ford Thunderbird
body with a 1961 Ford Falcon chassis to produce a sporty convertible. When Ford turned them down, Budd shifted focus to AMC. Ford went on to base the Mustang on the Falcon chassis.[citation needed] In 1965, Budd designed and manufactured a front disc brake system for Chrysler, Imperial and full-size Plymouth and Dodge
Dodge
automobiles, used (optionally) for the 1966–68 model years. Divisions and subsidiaries[edit] By the end of 1950s, Budd had the following divisions and subsidiaries, important suppliers of the U.S. aerospace and military industry:[3]

Budd Lewyt Electronics, Inc. — special-purpose data processing systems; communications equipment; instrumentation; products for the environmental control of electronic equipment. Tatnall Measuring Systems Division — physical testing equipment, metal film strain gages, standard and custom load cells, and a unique PhotoStress technique for direct strain measurements. Continental-Diamond Fibre Corporation — special high-heat resistant materials for ablation applications, laminated and molded plastics, vulcanized fibre, and bonded mica in the form of sheets, rods, tubes and tapes. Defense Division — advanced aerospace and atomics structures, coupling a broad research and engineering capability with extensive prototype and production facilities. Nuclear Systems Division — gamma radiography equipment for non-destructive testing of airframes, providing beam, panoramic and internal exposures in shop and field. Electronic Controls Section — monautronic resistance welding controls for the aircraft industry.

Final years of railcar production[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

A Budd-built Baltimore Metro Subway
Baltimore Metro Subway
train

A Budd train built by Mafersa
Mafersa
in São Paulo Metro

Budd built two series of "L" cars for the Chicago
Chicago
Transit Authority, the 2200 series (1969–1970). and the 2600 series (1981–1987). They also built the New York City
New York City
Subway R32 (1964–1965), the first PATCO Speedline cars (1968–1969) and the Long Island Rail Road/Metro-North Railroad M-1/M-3 (1968–1973,1984–1986). The Baltimore
Baltimore
Metro and Miami Metrorail
Miami Metrorail
cars (1983) were built by Budd and marketed as Universal Transit Vehicle; drawings of similar cars were also used in promotional material for the Los Angeles Metro Red Line.[20] Stainless steel railcars were also built in Portugal
Portugal
by Sorefame, under licence from Budd. Amtrak's 492 Amfleet
Amfleet
I and 150 Amfleet
Amfleet
II cars were built by Budd from 1975 to 1977 and 1981 to 1983. The Metroliner-based Amfleet
Amfleet
body was recycled for usage in the SPV-2000, a modernized diesel passenger car which was very problematic, saw only four buyers (Amtrak, ONCF, Metro-North
Metro-North
and Connecticut Department of Transportation), and saw premature retirements within 15 years. The fallout from the SPV-2000 furthered the company's decline. In 1978, as Budd began to phase out its railcar business to concentrate on the automotive industry, it was acquired by Thyssen AG,[21] becoming its automotive division, Thyssen Automotive in Europe
Europe
and Budd Thyssen Company in North America.[22] The CTA 2600 series cars were finished in 1987, and were the last railcars to be built by Budd/Transit America. In the mid-1980s, Budd reorganized its rail operations under the name Transit America, this name appearing on the builderplates of the Baltimore/Miami cars and Chicago's later order of 2600-series cars (but not the LIRR/MNCR M-3s). The new name did not save the company, and on April 3, 1987, Budd ended all railcar production at its Red Lion plant in Northeast Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and sold its rail designs to Bombardier Transportation. Many of its engineers joined the staff of the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
office of Louis T. Klauder and Associates, a local railway vehicles and systems engineering consulting firm. Modern role in auto industry[edit] When Thyssen merged with Krupp
Krupp
in 1999, Budd Thyssen became Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
Budd Co. in North America and Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
Automotive Systems GmbH in Europe. In 2006, Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
sold the majority of its operations. Its body and chassis operations were sold to Martinrea International Inc.[23] The plastics manufacturing and molding operations were sold to Continental Structural Plastics and aluminum casing company Stahl was sold to Speyside Equity. Its last remaining operation was sold in 2012.[24] Preservation[edit] Numerous Budd-built railcars are preserved, either by museums or private owners, many of whom run them in charter service. Their quality of construction and elegant design have made them highly prized.[25] Pennsylvania[edit] The Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has a number of Budd-built cars in its collection in Strasburg: The 1937 observation car built for the Reading Company
Reading Company
"Crusader", a Lehigh Valley Railroad rail diesel car of 1951, and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Railroad 860, a Metroliner snackbar-coach built in 1968. The Bellefonte Historical Railroad Society in Bellefonte has two RDCs in its collection: #5718, built in 1953 for the New Haven Railroad, and #7001, built in 1961 for the Reading Railroad.[26] New York[edit] A 1949 R11 (8013) and a 1964 R32 pair (3352-53) are in the New York Transit Museum fleet. Indiana[edit] The Indiana Transportation Museum
Indiana Transportation Museum
maintains a fleet of fourteen closed-window Budd coaches built for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe. Eight units are currently restored and are used in excursion service, including the Indiana State Fair Train. ITMZ also operates the Silver Salon as a head- end power car. Illinois[edit] The Illinois Railway Museum
Illinois Railway Museum
is home to the Nebraska Zephyr
Nebraska Zephyr
articulated train, along with several Budd-built passenger cars plus a pair of CTA 2200 series cars. Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry has housed the Pioneer Zephyr
Pioneer Zephyr
since its retirement from service in 1960. California[edit] The Western Pacific Railroad Museum
Western Pacific Railroad Museum
at Portola, California
Portola, California
features several Budd-built cars from the California Zephyr, including dome lounge car "Silver Hostel" and diner "Silver Plate", as well as a Southern Pacific
Southern Pacific
Budd sleeping car. Missouri[edit] The St. Louis
St. Louis
Museum of Transportation
Museum of Transportation
now owns former Zephyr diner "Silver Spoon" as well as the Budd-designed locomotive Silver Charger from the General Pershing Zephyr. Massachusetts[edit] Bedford Depot, situated at the northwestern end of the Minuteman Bike Path (formerly the Lexington Branch of the Boston & Maine railroad) has a restored Budd Rail Diesel Car
Rail Diesel Car
(#6211). Portugal[edit] The National Railroad Museum at Entroncamento, Portugal
Portugal
features a pair of Budd cars built in 1940. Argentina[edit] There are several Budd-built coaches, combines and buffet-diner cars running in the Buenos Aires- Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata
corridor. They are run as a luxury service between the two cities during summer, when demand is highest. The coaches and combine are in their original condition, while the buffet-diner car had to be partially remodeled after a fire. They were originally purchased by the Chesapeake and Ohio railroad, but were sold before they could be used in revenue service. Currently, the train runs with one combine, three coaches and a buffet-diner car, pulled by either an EMD GT22 or an English Electric locomotive. Wind power[edit] In 1939, the Budd company designed and fabricated the stainless-steel skin for the blades of the Smith-Putnam wind turbine, the largest wind turbine in the world for forty years. Industrial facilities[edit] Budd, Co. operated from multiple industrial facilities in the Philadelphia, PA area. The company had a brick factory in Nicetown. An automobile parts factory on Hunting Park Avenue closed in 2002. The company moved its headquarters from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to Troy, Michigan in 1972. In 2002, the company operated 39 factories with approximately 12,000 employees in North America.[2] See also[edit]

Slumbercoach Tokyu Car Corporation
Tokyu Car Corporation
- member of licensee for stainless steel body manufacturing Joseph Ledwinka Commonwealth Engineering
Commonwealth Engineering
- Australian Budd Licensee and manufacturer of rolling stock

References[edit]

^ National Park Service
National Park Service
(2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ a b Matthew P. Blanchard (22 July 2002). "Budd closing chips away at Phila.'s industrial past". Articles.philly.com/. Retrieved 1 February 2015.  ^ a b "In the service of flight". Aviation
Aviation
Week & Space Technology. Vol 71 (No. 27): 122. 1959-12-15. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ "Budd Co. Nears Ch. 11 Exit With Disclosure OK". Law 360. US. 2016-05-09. Retrieved 2017-03-30.  ^ a b page 106, George A Oliver, A History of Coachbuilding, Cassell, London, 1962 ^ G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985). Often credited as "first", others such as BSA were doing the same in this period. ^ " Budd Company
Budd Company
History". Squarebirds.org. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ White, John H. (1985). The American Railroad Passenger Car. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 623. ISBN 0801827434.  ^ R-11 Datasheet ^ The New York Times, March 24, 2007 ^ "Introduction". Budd-rdc.org. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "Budd Company". Mauspfeil.net. Archived from the original on 14 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ "Photograph" (JPG). Airfields-freeman.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25.  ^ [1] Archived March 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Peter M. Bowers (1999-10-01). "Italian amphib: "Savoia-Marchetti S-56 was tough plane to manage on the water"". General Aviation
Aviation
News. Retrieved 2007-12-06.  ^ "Abandoned & Little-Known Airfields: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
- Northeastern Philadelphia
Philadelphia
area". Paul Freeman. Retrieved 2007-12-07.  ^ "Patent 2,425,498 – "Airplane"". United States Patent Office. 1942-07-18. Retrieved 2008-02-18.  ^ Cimino, Deirdre (2000). Spirited Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Adventure. Junior League of Philadelphia. ISBN 0-9626959-1-2.  ^ Grosser, Morton (1981). Gossamer Odyssey: The Triumph of Human-Powered Flight. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-7603-2051-9.  ^ metrolibrarian (2008-04-17), Metro Rail: The Future is Now 1985, retrieved 2018-02-04  ^ "Internationalization and further vertical diversification - Bonn Republic - Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
AG". Thyssenkrupp.com. 2013-09-30. Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2015-06-25.  ^ "History of The Budd Company
Budd Company
– FundingUniverse". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 2015-06-25.  ^ "Thyssen Krupp
Krupp
Budd to sell North American automotive body operations Uncategorized content from". Americanmachinist.com. 2006-10-23. Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2015-06-25.  ^ Winegarner, Beth (2014-04-02). "Bankrupt Budd Co. Says $390M Deal Protects 10K Retirees". Law 360. US. Retrieved 2017-04-01.  ^ "who used Budd bodies?". jalopyjournal.com. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Bellefonte Historical Railroad Society. "Rolling Stock". Retrieved 9 October 2013. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Budd Company.

"A Museum Quality Car for a Subway Yet Unbuilt" The New York Times, March 24, 2007

External links[edit]

Budd Company
Budd Company
Historical files at Hagley Museum and Library Mike Karwowski collection of Budd Company
Budd Company
photographs at Hagley Museum and Library

v t e

Rolling stock manufactured by the Budd Company

Streamliners

Flying Yankee General Pershing Zephyr Keystone Pioneer Zephyr Roger Williams

Multiple units

CTA 2200 Series CTA 2600 Series M1/M3 M2 M-3 (A49/A50/A51) Metroliner MS Multi-section (BMT Zephyr) 1100 class PATCO Speedliner Pioneer III R11 R32 Rail Diesel Car
Rail Diesel Car
(RDC) Silverliner SPV-2000 Universal Transit Vehicle

Passenger stock

Amfleet Big Dome Château series Great Dome Hi-Level Manor series Pacific series Park series Slumbercoach Strata-Dome Skylin

.