bucureștean, bucureșteancă (ro)
• Summer (DST)
Car plate prefix
- Per capita
a Romanian law stipulates that
Bucharest has a special administrative
status which is equal to that of a County;
Bucharest metropolitan area
Bucharest metropolitan area is a proposed project.
Bucharest (/ˈb(j)uːkərɛst/; Romanian: București
[bukuˈreʃtʲ] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city
of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N
26°06′14″E / 44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250;
26.10389Coordinates: 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E /
44.43250°N 26.10389°E / 44.43250; 26.10389, on the banks of
the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of
Danube River and the Bulgarian border.
Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459. It became the
Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media,
culture, and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical
(neo-classical), interbellum (
Bauhaus and art deco), communist-era and
modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant
architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned
nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris). Although buildings and
districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or
destroyed by war, earthquakes, and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's
program of systematization, many survived. In recent years, the city
has been experiencing an economic and cultural boom. In 2016, the
historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World
According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the
city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census. Adding the
satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area
Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people.
According to Eurostat,
Bucharest has a functional urban area of
2,412,530 residents (as of 2015).
Bucharest is the sixth-largest
city in the
European Union by population within city limits, after
London, Berlin, Madrid, Rome, and Paris.
Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and
is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of
Eastern Europe. The city has big convention facilities, educational
institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", and
The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of
Bucharest" (Municipiul București), and has the same administrative
level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six
sectors, each governed by a local mayor.
2.1 Treaties signed in Bucharest
4 Law and government
4.2 Justice system
5 Quality of life
8.1 Public transport
9.2 Visual arts
9.3 Performing arts
9.4 Music and nightlife
9.5 Cultural events and festivals
9.6 Traditional culture
10.1 Historical architecture
10.2 Communist architecture
10.3 Contemporary architecture
12 Telecommunications and media
16 Twin towns and sister cities
17 See also
19 Further reading
20 External links
The Romanian name București has an uncertain origin. Tradition
connects the founding of
Bucharest with the name of Bucur, who was a
prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd, or a hunter, according to
different legends. In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy"
("happiness"), and it is believed to be of Dacian origin.
Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an
Ottoman traveler, Evliya Çelebi, who said that
Bucharest was named
after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In
1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to
bucurie (joy), bucuros (joyful), or a se bucura (to become joyful),
while an early 19th-century book published in
Vienna assumed its name
has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest.
A native or resident of
Bucharest is called a "Bucharester" (Romanian:
History of Bucharest
History of Bucharest and Timeline of Bucharest
Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from
the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the
national capital of
Romania late in the 19th century.
Early 18th-century woodcut (1717)
First mentioned as the "
Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the
residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler.:23
The Ottomans appointed Greek administrators (Phanariotes) to run the
town from the 18th century. A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor
Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople
Greeks in Bucharest.
The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was erected by Mircea Ciobanul
in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers,
established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the
years to come, it competed with
Târgoviște on the status of capital
city after an increase in the importance of southern
about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire.
Bucharest finally became the permanent location of the Wallachian
court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu).
Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during
the following 200 years, and hit by
Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the
city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several
intervals by the
Habsburg Monarchy (1716, 1737, 1789) and Imperial
Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under
Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an
interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution.
Later, an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian
departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). On 23 March 1847,
a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city.
Ottoman massacre of Greek irregulars in
Bucharest (August 1821)
In 1862, after
Moldavia were united to form the
Principality of Romania,
Bucharest became the new nation's capital
city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed
Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the
19th century, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new
period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting,
horse-drawn trams, and limited electrification were introduced.
Dâmbovița River was also massively channelled in 1883, thus
putting a stop to previously endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of
Fortifications of Bucharest
Fortifications of Bucharest were built. The
extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period
Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris) of the
Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées.
I.C. Brătianu Boulevard in the 1930s
Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by
German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the
official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in the
After World War I,
Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. In
the interwar years, Bucharest's urban development continued, with the
city gaining an average of 30,000 new residents each year. Also, some
of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including
Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor. However, the Great
Depression took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the
Grivița Strike of 1933.
Calea Victoriei ("Victory Avenue") in 1940
In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion
Bucharest pogrom. As the capital of an Axis country and a major
transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest
suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings. On
23 August 1944,
Bucharest was the site of the royal coup which brought
Romania into the Allied camp. The city suffered a short period of Nazi
Luftwaffe bombings, as well as a failed attempt by German troops to
regain the city.
After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued
growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by
tower blocks. During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–89), much
of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced by
"Socialist realism" style development: (1) the
Centrul Civic (the
Civic Centre) and (2) the Palace of the Parliament, for which an
entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's
megalomaniac plans. On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centered in
Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives
and caused further damage to the historic centre.
Romanian Revolution of 1989
Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with massive anti-Ceaușescu
Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest,
leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with
the postrevolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, some
student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests
in 1990 (the "Golaniad"), which were violently suppressed by the
Valea Jiului called in by the authorities (the "Mineriad").
Several other "Mineriads" followed, which finally caused political
Anti-government protests in
Bucharest in 2017
Since 2000, the city has been continuously modernized and is still
undergoing urban renewal. Residential and commercial developments are
underway, particularly in the northern districts; Bucharest's old
historic centre is being restored.
Treaties signed in Bucharest
Treaty of Bucharest, between the
Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire
ending the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)
Treaty of Bucharest, between Serbia and
Bulgaria ending the
Treaty of Bucharest, between Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro,
Greece ending of the Second Balkan War
Treaty of Bucharest, a treaty of alliance between
Romania and the
Treaty of Bucharest, between
Romania and the Central Powers
Footpath and bikeway in Herăstrău Park
Bucharest is situated on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, which
flows into the Argeș River, a tributary of the Danube. Several
lakes – the most important of which are Lake Herăstrău, Lake
Floreasca, Lake Tei, and Lake Colentina – stretch across the
northern parts of the city, along the Colentina River, a tributary of
the Dâmbovița. In addition, in the centre of the capital is a small
artificial lake – Lake Cișmigiu – surrounded by the
Cișmigiu Gardens. These gardens have a rich history, having been
frequented by poets and writers. Opened in 1847 and based on the plans
of German architect Carl F.W. Meyer, the gardens are the main
recreational facility in the city centre.
Bucharest parks and gardens include Herăstrău
Park and the Botanical Garden.
Herăstrău Park is located in the
northern part of the city, around Lake Herăstrău, and includes the
site the Village Museum. The Botanical Garden, located in the
Cotroceni neighborhood a bit west of the city centre, is the largest
of its kind in
Romania and contains over 10,000 species of plants
(many of them exotic); it originated as the pleasure park of the royal
Black swans on Lake
Lake Văcărești is located in the southern part of the city. Over
190 hectares, including 90 hectares of water, host 97 species of
birds, half of them protected by law, and at least seven species of
mammals. The lake is surrounded by buildings of flats and is an
odd result of human intervention and nature taking its course. The
area was a small village that Ceaușescu attempted to convert into a
lake. After demolishing the houses and building the concrete basin,
the plan was abandoned following the 1989 revolution. For nearly
two decades, the area shifted from being an abandoned green space
where children could play and sunbathe, to being contested by previous
owners of the land there, to being closed for redevelopment into a
sports centre. The redevelopment deal failed, and over the
following years, the green space grew into a unique habitat. In May
2016, the lake was declared a national park, the Văcărești Nature
Since 2015, Lake Văcărești, dubbed the "Delta of Bucharest", is a
Bucharest is situated in the southeastern corner of the Romanian
Plain, in an area once covered by the Vlăsiei Forest, which after it
was cleared, gave way for a fertile flatland. As with many cities,
Bucharest is traditionally considered to be built upon seven hills,
similar to the seven hills of Rome. Bucharest's seven hills are: Mihai
Vodă, Dealul Mitropoliei, Radu Vodă, Cotroceni, Spirei,
Văcărești, and Sf. Gheorghe Nou.
The city has an area of 226 km2 (87 sq mi). The
altitude varies from 55.8 m (183.1 ft) at the Dâmbovița
bridge in Cățelu, southeastern
Bucharest and 91.5 m
(300.2 ft) at the
Militari church. The city has a roughly round
shape, with the centre situated in the cross-way of the main
north-south/east-west axes at University Square. The milestone for
Romania's Kilometre Zero is placed just south of University Square in
front of the New St. George Church (Sfântul Gheorghe Nou) at St.
George Square (Piața Sfântul Gheorghe). Bucharest's radius, from
University Square to the city limits in all directions, varies from 10
to 12 km (6 to 7 mi).
Until recently, the regions surrounding
Bucharest were largely rural,
but after 1989, suburbs started to be built around Bucharest, in the
surrounding Ilfov County. Further urban consolidation is expected to
take place in the late 2010s, when the "
Bucharest Metropolitan Area"
plan will become operational, incorporating additional communes and
cities from the Ilfov and other neighbouring counties.
Using the milder isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F) for the coldest
Bucharest has a humid continental climate Dfa.
By using the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm, the climate is a
crossover between continental and the extreme varieties of warm
oceanic and cool subtropical. Owing to its position
on the Romanian Plain, the city's winters can get windy, though some
of the winds are mitigated due to urbanisation. Winter temperatures
often dip below 0 °C (32 °F), sometimes even to
−20 °C (−4 °F). In summer, the average temperature is
23 °C (73 °F) (the average for July and August).
Temperatures frequently reach 35 to 40 °C (95 to 104 °F)
in midsummer in the city centre. Although average precipitation and
humidity during summer are low, occasional heavy storms occur. During
spring and autumn, daytime temperatures vary between 17 and
22 °C (63 and 72 °F), and precipitation during spring
tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder
periods of rain.
Climate data for
Bucharest Băneasa(1981–2010, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average snowfall cm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net (average temperatures, humidity,
precipitation, and snowy days)
Source #2: NOAA (snowfall and sunshine, 1961–1990),
Administrația Națională de Meteorologie (extremes)
Law and government
Bucharest metropolitan area
Bucharest has a unique status in Romanian administration, since it is
the only municipal area that is not part of a county. Its population,
however, is larger than that of any other Romanian county, hence the
power of the
Bucharest General Municipality (Primăria Generală),
which is the capital's local government body, is the same as any other
Romanian county council.
The city government is headed by a general mayor (Primar General).
Decisions are approved and discussed by the capital's General Council
(Consiliu General) made up of 55 elected councilors. Furthermore, the
city is divided into six administrative sectors (sectoare), each of
which has its own 27-seat sectoral council, town hall, and mayor. The
powers of the local government over a certain area are, therefore,
shared both by the
Bucharest municipality and the local sectoral
councils with little or no overlapping of authority. The general rule
is that the main capital municipality is responsible for citywide
utilities such as the water and sewage system, the overall transport
system, and the main boulevards, while sectoral town halls manage the
contact between individuals and the local government, secondary
streets and parks maintenance, schools administration, and cleaning
The six sectors are numbered from one to six and are disposed radially
so that each one has under its administration a certain area of the
city centre. They are numbered clockwise and are further divided into
sectoral quarters (cartiere) which are not part of the official
Sector 1 (population 227,717): Dorobanți, Băneasa, Aviației,
Pipera, Aviatorilor, Primăverii, Romană, Victoriei, Herăstrău
Park, Bucureștii Noi, Dămăroaia, Strǎulești, Grivița, 1 Mai,
Băneasa Forest, Pajura, Domenii, Chibrit
Sector 2 (population 357,338): Pantelimon, Colentina, Iancului, Tei,
Floreasca, Moșilor, Obor, Vatra Luminoasă, Fundeni, Plumbuita,
Ștefan cel Mare, Baicului
Sector 3 (population 399,231): Vitan, Dudești, Titan, Centrul Civic,
Dristor, Lipscani, Muncii, Unirii
Sector 4 (population 300,331): Berceni, Olteniței, Giurgiului,
Progresul, Văcărești, Timpuri Noi, Tineretului
Sector 5 (population 288,690): Rahova, Ferentari, Giurgiului,
Cotroceni, 13 Septembrie, Dealul Spirii
Sector 6 (population 371,060): Giulești, Crângași, Drumul Taberei,
Militari, Grozăvești (also known as Regie), Ghencea
Each sector is governed by a local mayor, as follows: Sector 1 –
Daniel Tudorache (PSD, since 2016), Sector 2 – Mihai Mugur Toader
(PSD, since 2016), Sector 3 –
Robert Negoiță (PSD, since 2012),
Sector 4 – Daniel Băluță (PSD, since 2016), Sector 5 – Daniel
Florea (PSD, since 2016), Sector 6 – Gabriel Mutu (PSD, since
Like all other local councils in Romania, the
councils, the capital's general council, and the mayors are elected
every four years by the population. Additionally,
Bucharest has a
prefect, who is appointed by Romania's national government. The
prefect is not allowed to be a member of a political party and his
role is to represent the national government at the municipal level.
The prefect is acting as a liaison official facilitating the
implementation of national development plans and governing programs at
local level. The prefect of
Bucharest (as of 2014[update]) is Paul
The Municipality of Bucharest, along with the surrounding Ilfov
County, is part of the București – Ilfov development region
project, which is equivalent to
NUTS-II regions in the European Union
and is used both by the EU and the Romanian government for statistical
analysis, and to co-ordinate regional development projects and manage
funds from the EU. The Bucharest-Ilfov development region is not,
however, an administrative entity yet.
The Palace of Justice viewed across the Dâmbovița River
Bucharest's judicial system is similar to that of the Romanian
counties. Each of the six sectors has its own local first-instance
court (judecătorie), while more serious cases are directed to the
Bucharest Tribunal (Tribunalul Bucureşti), the city's municipal
Bucharest Court of Appeal (Curtea de Apel Bucureşti)
judges appeals against decisions taken by first-instance courts and
Bucharest and in five surrounding counties (Teleorman,
Ialomița, Giurgiu, Călărași, and Ilfov).
Bucharest is also home to
Romania's supreme court, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, as
well as to the Constitutional Court of Romania.
Bucharest has a municipal police force, the
Bucharest Police (Poliția
București), which is responsible for policing crime within the whole
city, and operates a number of divisions. The
Bucharest Police are
headquartered on Ștefan cel Mare Blvd. in the city centre, and at
precincts throughout the city. From 2004 onwards, each sector city
hall also has under its administration a community police force
(Poliția Comunitară), dealing with local community issues. Bucharest
also houses the general inspectorates of the Gendarmerie and the
Main article: Crime in Bucharest
Bucharest's crime rate is rather low in comparison to other European
capital cities, with the number of total offenses declining by 51%
between 2000 and 2004, and by 7% between 2012 and 2013. The
violent crime rate in
Bucharest remains very low, with 11 murders and
983 other violent offenses taking place in 2007. Although violent
crimes fell by 13% in 2013 compared to 2012, 19 murders (18 of which
the suspects were arrested) were recorded.
Although in the 2000s, a number of police crackdowns on organized
crime gangs occurred, such as the Cămătaru clan, organized crime
generally has little impact on public life. Petty crime, however, is
more common, particularly in the form of pickpocketing, which occurs
mainly on the city's public transport network. Confidence tricks were
common in the 1990s, especially in regards to tourists, but the
frequency of these incidents has since declined. However, in general,
theft was reduced by 13.6% in 2013 compared to 2012. Levels of
crime are higher in the southern districts of the city, particularly
in Ferentari, a socially disadvantaged area.
Although the presence of street children was a problem in
the 1990s, their numbers have declined in recent years, now lying at
or below the average of major European capital cities. A
Children Underground depicted the life of Romanian
street kids in 2001. An estimated 1,000 street children still inhabit
the city, some of whom engage in petty crime and begging.
Quality of life
Cocor Store in 2013
Carol Park's central alley in autumn
As stated by the Mercer international surveys for quality of life in
cities around the world,
Bucharest occupied the 94th place in 2001
and slipped lower, to the 108th place in 2009 and the 107th place in
2010. Compared to it,
Vienna occupied number one worldwide in 2011 and
Budapest ranked 73rd (2010) and
Sofia 114th (2010).
Mercer Human Resource Consulting issues yearly a global ranking of the
world's most livable cities based on 39 key quality-of-life issues.
Among them: political stability, currency-exchange regulations,
political and media censorship, school quality, housing, the
environment, and public safety. Mercer collects data worldwide, in 215
cities. The difficult situation of the quality of life in
confirmed also by a vast urbanism study, done by the Ion Mincu
University of Architecture and Urbanism.
In 2016, Bucharest's urban situation was described as 'critical' by a
Romanian Order of Architects (OAR) report that criticised the city's
weak, incoherent and arbitrary public management policies, its elected
officials' lack of transparency and public engagement, as well as its
inadequate and unsustainable use of essential urban resources.
Bucharest's historical city centre is listed as "endangered" by the
World Monuments Watch
World Monuments Watch (as of 2016).
Although many neighbourhoods, particularly in the southern part of the
city, lack sufficient green space, being formed of cramped high
density block of flats,
Bucharest has also many parks, such as
Herăstrău Park, Carol Park,
Titan/Alexandru Ion Cuza Park, Izvor Park,
Grădina Icoanei Park,
Circului Park, Moghioros/
Drumul Taberei Park, National Park, Tei Park,
Crângași Park. Other green attractions are the
Bucharest Botanical Garden
Bucharest Botanical Garden and Văcărești Nature Park, a nature park
containing the wetlands surrounding Lake Văcărești.
1851 data: Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1900: Encyclopædia
Britannica, Other data:
As per the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants lived within the city
limits, a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census.
This decrease is due to low natural increase, but also to a shift in
population from the city itself to its smaller satellite towns such as
Voluntari, Buftea, and Otopeni. In a study published by the United
Bucharest placed 19th in among 28 cities that recorded sharp
declines in population from 1990 to the mid-2010s. In particular, the
population fell by 3.77%.
The city's population, according to the 2002 census, was 1,926,334
inhabitants, or 8.9% of the total population of Romania. A
significant number of people commute to the city every day, mostly
from the surrounding Ilfov County, but official statistics regarding
their numbers do not exist.
Bucharest's population experienced two phases of rapid growth, the
first beginning in the late 19th century when the city was
consolidated as the national capital and lasting until the Second
World War, and the second during the Ceaușescu years (1965–1989),
when a massive urbanization campaign was launched and many people
migrated from rural areas to the capital. At this time, due to
Ceaușescu's decision to ban abortion and contraception, natural
increase was also significant.
Bucharest is a city of high population density: 8,260/km2 (21,400/sq
mi), owing to the fact that most of the population lives in
high-density communist era apartment blocks (blocuri). However, this
also depends on the part of the city: the southern boroughs have a
higher density than the northern ones. Of the
European Union country
Athens have a higher population density
(see List of
European Union cities proper by population density).
About 96.6% of the population of
Bucharest is Romanian. Other
significant ethnic groups are Roma Gypsies, Hungarians, Jews, Turks,
Chinese, and Germans. A relatively small number of Bucharesters are of
Greek, North American, French, Armenian, Lippovan, and Italian
descent. One of the predominantly Greek neighborhoods was Vitan –
where a Jewish population also lived (with a population of 69,885
(10.9%) out of the total of 639,040, as of 1930 census, Jews were
the second-largest ethnic group in Bucharest); they were more present
in Văcărești and areas around Unirii Square.
In terms of religious affiliation, 96.1% of the population is Romanian
Orthodox, 1.2% is Roman Catholic, 0.5% is Muslim, and 0.4% is Romanian
Greek Catholic. Despite this, only 18% of the population, of any
religion, attends a place of worship once a week or more. The life
expectancy of residents of
Bucharest in 2003–2005 was 74.14 years,
around two years higher than the Romanian average. Female life
expectancy was 77.41 years, in comparison to 70.57 years for
Main article: Economy of Bucharest
Office buildings on
Nicolae Titulescu Street
Bucharest is the center of the Romanian economy and industry,
accounting for around 23% (2013) of the country's GDP and about
one-quarter of its industrial production, while being inhabited by 9%
of the country's population. Almost one-third of national taxes is
paid by Bucharest's citizens and companies.. In 2016,
Bucharest had a nominal GDP per-capita €20,500, or 122% that of the
European Union average and more than twice the Romanian average.
After relative stagnation in the 1990s, the city's strong economic
growth has revitalized infrastructure and led to the development of
shopping malls, residential estates, and high-rise office buildings.
In January 2013,
Bucharest had an unemployment rate of 2.1%,
significantly lower than the national unemployment rate of
Bucharest's economy is centered on industry and services, with
services particularly growing in importance in the last 10 years. The
headquarters of 186,000 firms, including nearly all large Romanian
companies, are located in Bucharest. An important source of growth
since 2000 has been the city's rapidly expanding property and
Bucharest is also Romania's largest centre for
information technology and communications and is home to several
software companies operating offshore delivery centres. Romania's
largest stock exchange, the
Bucharest Stock Exchange, which was merged
in December 2005 with the Bucharest-based electronic stock exchange
Rasdaq, plays a major role in the city's economy.
International supermarket chains such as Carrefour, Cora, and METRO
are operating in Bucharest. The city is undergoing a retail boom, with
supermarkets and hypermarkets opened every year (see supermarkets in
Bucharest hosts luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Hermes,
Gucci, Armani, Hugo Boss, Prada, Calvin Klein, Rolex, Burberry, and
many others. Malls and large shopping centres have been built since
the late 1990s, such as AFI Palace Cotroceni, Sun Plaza, Băneasa
Shopping City, Plaza Romania, Unirea Shopping Center, and Liberty
Center. Traditional retail arcades and markets include the one at
A public bus owned and operated by Bucharest's RATB
Bucharest Metro Map - 2017
Main article: Transport in Bucharest
Bucharest's public transport system is the largest in
Romania and one
of the largest in Europe. It is made up of the
Bucharest Metro, run by
Metrorex, as well as a surface transport system run by
Autonomă de Transport București), which consists of buses, trams,
trolleybuses, and light rail. In addition, a private minibus system
operates there. As of 2007[update], a limit of 10,000 taxicab licenses
Piața Unirii Station,
Bucharest is the hub of Romania's national railway network, run by
Căile Ferate Române. The main railway station is Gara de Nord
("North Station"), which provides connections to all major cities in
Romania, as well as international destinations: Belgrade, Sofia,
Varna, Chișinău, Kiev, Chernivtsi, Lviv, Thessaloniki, Vienna,
Budapest, Istanbul, Moscow, etc.
The city has five other railway stations run by CFR, of which the most
important are Basarab (adjacent to North Station), Obor, Băneasa, and
Progresul. These are in the process of being integrated into a
commuter railway serving
Bucharest and the surrounding Ilfov County.
Seven main lines radiate out of Bucharest.
The oldest station in
Bucharest is Filaret. It was inaugurated in
1869, and in 1960, the communist government turned it in a bus
Henri Coandă International Airport
Bucharest has two international airports:
Henri Coandă International Airport
Henri Coandă International Airport (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP), located
16.5 km (10.3 mi) north of the
Bucharest city center, in the
town of Otopeni, Ilfov. It is the busiest airport in Romania, in terms
of passenger traffic: 8,317,168 in 2014.
Aurel Vlaicu International Airport
Aurel Vlaicu International Airport (IATA: BBU, ICAO: LRBS) is
Bucharest's business and VIP airport. It is situated only 8 km
(5.0 mi) north of the
Bucharest city center.
Victory Avenue (Calea Victoriei), a major avenue in central Bucharest
Bucharest is a major intersection of Romania's national road network.
A few of the busiest national roads and motorways link the city to all
of Romania's major cities, as well as to neighbouring countries such
Bulgaria and Ukraine. The A1 to Pitești, the A2 Sun
Motorway to the Dobrogea region and Constanta and the A3 to Ploieşti
all start from Bucharest.
Union Boulevard (Bulevardul Unirii), one of the most transited road
arteries of the city
A series of high-capacity boulevards, which generally radiate out from
the city centre to the outskirts, provides a framework for the
municipal road system. The main axes, which run north-south, east-west
and northwest-southeast, as well as one internal and one external ring
road, support the bulk of the traffic. The city's roads are usually
very crowded during rush hours, due to an increase in car ownership in
recent years. In 2013, the number of cars registered in Bucharest
amounted to 1,125,591. This results in wear and potholes appearing
on busy roads, particularly secondary roads, this being identified as
one of Bucharest's main infrastructural problems. A comprehensive
effort on behalf of the
City Hall to boost road infrastructure was
made, and according to the general development plan, 2,000 roads have
been repaired by 2008. On 17 June 2011, the
Basarab Overpass was
inaugurated and opened to traffic, thus completing the inner city
traffic ring. The overpass took five years to build and is the longest
cable-stayed bridge in
Romania and the widest such bridge in
Europe; upon completion, traffic on the
Grant Bridge and in the
Gara de Nord
Gara de Nord area became noticeably more fluid.
Although it is situated on the banks of a river,
Bucharest has never
functioned as a port city, with other Romanian cities such as
Galați acting as the country's main ports. The
Bucharest Canal, which is 73 km (45 mi)
long and around 70% completed, could link
Bucharest to the Danube
River, and via the Danube-
Black Sea Canal, to the Black Sea. Works on
the canal were suspended in 1989, but proposals have been made to
resume construction as part of the European Strategy for the Danube
Main article: Culture of Romania
National Library of Romania
Bucharest has a growing cultural scene, in fields including the visual
arts, performing arts, and nightlife. Unlike other parts of Romania,
such as the
Black Sea coast or Transylvania, Bucharest's cultural
scene has no defined style, and instead incorporates elements of
Romanian and international culture.
Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch)
Interior of the Cărturești Carusel Bookstore
The statue of
Ion Luca Caragiale
Ion Luca Caragiale near InterContinental Bucharest
Bucharest has landmark buildings and monuments. Perhaps the most
prominent of these is the Palace of the Parliament, built in the 1980s
during the reign of Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu. The largest
Parliament building in the world, the palace houses the Romanian
Parliament (the Chamber of Deputies, and the Senate), as well as the
National Museum of Contemporary Art. The building boasts one of the
largest convention centres in the world.
Another landmark in
Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf (The Triumphal Arch),
built in its current form in 1935 and modeled after the Arc de
Triomphe in Paris. A newer landmark of the city is the Memorial of
Rebirth, a stylized marble pillar unveiled in 2005 to commemorate the
victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism.
The abstract monument sparked controversy when it was unveiled, being
dubbed with names such as "the olive on the toothpick", (măslina-n
scobitoare), as many argued that it does not fit in its surroundings
and believed that its choice was based on political reasons.
Romanian Athenaeum building is considered to be a symbol of
Romanian culture and since 2007 is on the list of the Label of
European Heritage sites.
InterContinental Bucharest is a high-rise five-star hotel situated
near University Square and is also a landmark of the city. The
building is designed so that each room has a unique panorama of the
House of the Spark (Casa Scânteii) is a replica of the famous
Moscow State University. This edifice built in the
characteristic style of the large-scale Soviet projects, was intended
to be representative to the new political regime and to assert the
superiority of the Communist doctrine. Construction started in 1952
and was completed in 1957, a few years after Stalin’s death that
occurred in 1953. Popularly known as Casa Scânteii (“House of the
Spark”) after the name of the official gazette of the Central
Committee of the Romanian Communist Party, Scânteia, it was made for
the purpose of bringing together under one roof all of Bucharest’s
official press and publishing houses. It is the only building in
Bucharest featuring the “Hammer and Sickle”, the Red Star and
other communist insignia carved into medallions adorning the façade.
Other cultural venues include the National Museum of Art of Romania,
Museum of Natural History Grigore Antipa, Museum of the Romanian
Peasant (Muzeul țăranului Român), National History Museum, and the
National Museum of Art of Romania
In terms of visual arts, the city has museums featuring both classical
and contemporary Romanian art, as well as selected international
works. The National Museum of Art of
Romania is perhaps the best-known
Bucharest museums. It is located in the royal palace and features
collections of medieval and modern Romanian art, including works by
sculptor Constantin Brâncuși, as well as an international collection
assembled by the Romanian royal family.
Other, smaller, museums contain specialised collections. The
Zambaccian Museum, which is situated in the former home of art
collector Krikor H. Zambaccian, contains works by well-known Romanian
artists and international artists such as Paul Cézanne, Eugène
Delacroix, Henri Matisse, Camille Pissarro, and Pablo Picasso.
Gheorghe Tattarescu Museum contains portraits of Romanian
revolutionaries in exile such as Gheorghe Magheru, ștefan Golescu,
and Nicolae Bălcescu, and allegorical compositions with revolutionary
(Romania's rebirth, 1849) and patriotic (The Principalities'
Unification, 1857) themes. Another impressive art collection gathering
important Romanian painters, can be found at the Ligia and Pompiliu
Macovei residence, which is open to visitors as it is now part of the
Bucharest Museum patrimony.
Theodor Pallady Museum
Theodor Pallady Museum is situated in one of the oldest surviving
merchant houses in
Bucharest and includes works by Romanian painter
Theodor Pallady, as well as European and oriental furniture pieces.
Throne room at the royal palace, which today houses the National
Museum of Art
Museum of Art Collections
Museum of Art Collections contains the collections of Romanian art
aficionados, including Krikor Zambaccian and Theodor Pallady.
Despite the classical art galleries and museums in the city, a
contemporary arts scene also exists. The National Museum of
Contemporary Art (MNAC), situated in a wing of the Palace of the
Parliament, was opened in 2004 and contains Romanian and international
contemporary art. The MNAC also manages the Kalinderu MediaLab, which
caters to multimedia and experimental art. Private art galleries are
scattered throughout the city centre.
The palace of the
National Bank of Romania houses the national
numismatic collection. Exhibits include banknotes, coins, documents,
photographs, maps, silver and gold bullion bars, bullion coins, and
dies and moulds. The building was constructed between 1884 and 1890.
The thesaurus room contains notable marble decorations.
Performing arts are some of the strongest cultural elements of
Bucharest. The most famous symphony orchestra is National Radio
Orchestra of Romania. One of the most prominent buildings is the
neoclassical Romanian Athenaeum, which was founded in 1852, and hosts
classical music concerts, the
George Enescu Festival, and is home to
George Enescu Philharmonic Orchestra.
Bucharest is home to the Romanian National Opera and the I.L.
Caragiale National Theatre. Another well-known theatre in
the State Jewish Theatre, which features plays starring world-renowned
Romanian-Jewish actress Maia Morgenstern. Smaller theatres throughout
the city cater to specific genres, such as the Comedy Theatre, the
Nottara Theatre, the Bulandra Theatre, the Odeon Theatre, and the
revue theatre of Constantin Tănase.
Music and nightlife
Covaci Street in Lipscani
Bucharest is home to Romania's largest recording labels, and is often
the residence of Romanian musicians. Romanian rock bands of the 1970s
and 1980s, such as Iris and Holograf, continue to be popular,
particularly with the middle-aged, while since the beginning of the
1990s, the hip hop/rap scene has developed. Hip-hop bands and artists
Bucharest such as B.U.G. Mafia, Paraziții, and La Familia enjoy
national and international recognition.
The pop-rock band Taxi have been gaining international respect, as has
Spitalul de Urgență's raucous updating of traditional Romanian
music. While many neighbourhood discos play manele, an Oriental- and
Roma-influenced genre of music that is particularly popular in
Bucharest's working-class districts, the city has a rich jazz and
blues scene, and to an even larger extent, house music/trance and
heavy metal/punk scenes. Bucharest's jazz profile has especially risen
since 2002, with the presence of two venues, Green Hours and Art Jazz,
as well as an American presence alongside established Romanians.
With no central nightlife strip, entertainment venues are dispersed
throughout the city, with clusters in
Lipscani and Regie. The city
hosts some of the best electronic music clubs in Europe, such as
Kristal Glam Club and Studio Martin. Some other notable venues are
Fratelli and Control.
Cultural events and festivals
A number of cultural festivals are held in
Bucharest throughout the
year, but most festivals take place in June, July, and August. The
National Opera organises the International Opera Festival every year
in May and June, which includes ensembles and orchestras from all over
The Romanian Athaeneum Society hosts the
George Enescu Festival
George Enescu Festival at
locations throughout the city in September every two years (odd
Museum of the Romanian Peasant
Museum of the Romanian Peasant and the Village Museum
organise events throughout the year, showcasing Romanian folk arts and
In the 2000s, due to the growing prominence of the Chinese community
in Bucharest, Chinese cultural events took place. The first officially
organised Chinese festival was the Chinese New Year's Eve Festival of
February 2005, which took place in Nichita Stănescu Park and was
organised by the
Bucharest was the first city in Southeastern Europe to host
the international CowParade, which resulted in dozens of decorated cow
sculptures being placed across the city.
Concert at the
George Enescu Philarmonic
Bucharest imposed in the circle of important festivals in
Eastern Europe with the
Bucharest International Film Festival, an
event widely acknowledged in Europe, having as guests of honor famous
names from the world cinema: Andrei Konchalovsky, Danis Tanović,
Nikita Mikhalkov, Rutger Hauer, Jerzy Skolimowski, Jan Harlan, Radu
Mihăileanu, and many others.
Bucharest has its own contemporary art biennale, the
Timișeni wooden church at Village Museum
Traditional Romanian culture continues to have a major influence in
arts such as theatre, film, and music.
Bucharest has two
internationally renowned ethnographic museums, the Museum of the
Romanian Peasant and the open-air Dimitrie Gusti National Village
Museum, in Herăstrău Park. tI contains 272 authentic buildings and
peasant farms from all over Romania.
Museum of the Romanian Peasant
Museum of the Romanian Peasant was declared the European Museum of
the Year in 1996. Patronized by the Ministry of Culture, the museum
preserves and exhibits numerous collections of objects and monuments
of material and spiritual culture. The Museum of the Romanian Peasant
holds one of the richest collections of peasant objects in Romania,
its heritage being nearly 90,000 pieces, those being divided into
several collections: ceramics, costumes, textiles, wooden objects,
religious objects, customs, etc.
Museum of Romanian History
Museum of Romanian History is another important museum in
Bucharest, containing a collection of artefacts detailing Romanian
history and culture from the prehistoric times, Dacian era, medieval
times, and the modern era.
Bucharest is the seat of the Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox
Church, one of the
Eastern Orthodox churches in communion with the
Patriarch of Constantinople, and also of its subdivisions, the
Muntenia and Dobrudja and the Archbishopric of
Bucharest. Orthodox believers consider Demetrius Basarabov to be the
patron saint of the city.
The city is a center for other Christian organizations in Romania,
including the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bucharest, established in
1883, and the Romanian Greek-Catholic Eparchy of Saint Basil the
Great, founded in 2014.
Bucharest also hosts 6 synagogues, including the Choral Temple of
Bucharest, the Great Synagogue of
Bucharest and the Holy Union Temple.
The latter was converted into the Museum of the History of the
Romanian Jewish Community, while the Great Synagogue and the Choral
Temple are both active and hold regular services.
A mosque with a capacity of 2,000 people is in the planning stages
and will be built on 22–30 Expoziției Boulevard. The plot of land
on which the mosque will be built was granted to the Muftiyat of the
Muslim Cult in
Romania under a 49-year lease by the Romanian
Government. The project will be funded by the Turkish Government and
from various donations.
Romanian Patriarchal Cathedral
Romanian Patriarchal Cathedral and Palace of the Patriarchate
St. Spyridon the New – the largest church in Bucharest
Inside the Church of Saint Anthony, the city's oldest extant church
The ceiling of Stavropoleos Church
St. Nicholas Russian Church
Detail of Yeshua Tova, the city's oldest extant synagogue
The city centre is a mixture of medieval, neoclassical, and art
nouveau buildings, as well as 'neo-Romanian' buildings dating from the
beginning of the 20th century and a collection of modern buildings
from the 1920s and 1930s. The mostly utilitarian
Communist-era architecture dominates most southern boroughs. Recently
built contemporary structures such as skyscrapers and office buildings
complete the landscape.
Church of the Stavropoleos Monastery
Interior view of National Military Circle
Of the city's medieval architecture, most of what survived into modern
times was destroyed by Communist systematization, fire, and military
incursions. Some medieval and renaissance edifices remain, the most
notable are in the
Lipscani area. This precinct contains notable
buildings such as
Manuc's Inn (Hanul lui Manuc) and the ruins of the
Old Court (Curtea Veche); during the late Middle Ages, this area was
the heart of commerce in Bucharest. From the 1970s onwards, the area
went through urban decline, and many historical buildings fell into
disrepair. In 2005, the
Lipscani area was
pedestrianised and is undergoing restoration.
The city centre has retained architecture from the late 19th and early
20th centuries, particularly the interwar period, which is often seen
as the "golden age" of
Bucharest architecture. During this time, the
city grew in size and wealth, therefore seeking to emulate other large
European capitals such as Paris. Much of the architecture of the time
belongs to a Modern (rationalist) Architecture current, led by Horia
Creangă and Marcel Iancu.
In Romania, the tendencies of innovation in the architectural language
met the need of valorisation and affirmation of the national cultural
Art Nouveau movement finds expression through new
architectural style initiated by
Ion Mincu and taken over by other
prestigious architects who capitalize important references of Romanian
laic and medieval ecclesiastical architecture (for example the
Mogoșoaia Palace, the Stavropoleos Church or the disappeared church
of Văcărești Monastery) and Romanian folk motifs.
Two notable buildings from this time are the Crețulescu Palace,
housing cultural institutions including UNESCO's European Centre for
Higher Education, and the
Cotroceni Palace, the residence of the
Romanian President. Many large-scale constructions such as Gara de
Nord, the busiest railway station in the city, National Bank of
Romania's headquarters, and the
Telephone Palace date from these
times. In the 2000s, historic buildings in the city centre underwent
restoration. In some residential areas of the city, particularly in
high-income central and northern districts, turn-of-the-20th-century
villas were mostly restored beginning in the late 1990s.
French Baroque style – Cantacuzino Palace
Macca-Vilacrosse, glass covered arcaded street
Eclectic style – CEC Palace
Casa Capșa, café and hotel
Gothic revival Caru' cu Bere
Neo-Romanian style – Central School of Bucharest
House of the Free Press (Casa Presei Libere), built in the 1950s
during the early years of the communist regime
Standardized apartment blocks built as part of systematization
A major part of Bucharest's architecture is made up of buildings
constructed during the Communist era replacing the historical
architecture with high-density apartment blocks – significant
portions of the historic center of
Bucharest were demolished to
construct one of the largest buildings in the world, the Palace of the
Parliament (then officially called the House of the Republic). In
Nicolae Ceaușescu's project of systematization, new buildings were
built in previously historical areas, which were razed and then built
One of the singular examples of this type of architecture is Centrul
Civic, a development that replaced a major part of Bucharest's
historic city centre with giant utilitarian buildings, mainly with
marble or travertine façades, inspired by North Korean architecture.
The mass demolitions that occurred in the 1980s, under which an
overall area of eight square kilometres of the historic center of
Bucharest were leveled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a
hospital, and a noted
Art Deco sports stadium, changed drastically the
appearance of the city. Communist-era architecture can also be found
in Bucharest's residential districts, mainly in blocuri, which are
high-density apartment blocks that house the majority of the city's
There is also communist architecture that was built in the early years
of the system, in the late 1940s and 1950s. Buildings constructed in
this era followed the Soviet Stalinist trend of Socialist Realism, and
include the House of the Free Press (which was named Casa Scînteii
Headquarters of the Union of Romanian Architects, an unusual
combination of new and old
City Gate Towers, an example of 21st century modern architecture
Since the fall of Communism in 1989, several Communist-era buildings
have been refurbished, modernized, and used for other purposes.
Perhaps the best example of this is the conversion of obsolete retail
complexes into shopping malls and commercial centres. These giant,
circular halls, which were unofficially called hunger circuses due to
the food shortages experienced in the 1980s, were constructed during
the Ceaușescu era to act as produce markets and refectories, although
most were left unfinished at the time of the revolution.
Modern shopping malls such as the Unirea Shopping Center, Bucharest
Mall, Plaza Romania, and
City Mall emerged on pre-existent structures
of former hunger circuses. Another example is the conversion of a
large utilitarian construction in
Centrul Civic into a Marriott Hotel.
This process was accelerated after 2000, when the city underwent a
property boom, and many Communist-era buildings in the city centre
became prime real estate due to their location. Many Communist-era
apartment blocks have also been refurbished to improve urban
The newest contribution to Bucharest's architecture took place after
the fall of Communism, particularly after 2000, when the city went
through a period of urban renewal – and architectural
revitalization – on the back of Romania's economic growth.
Buildings from this time are mostly made of glass and steel, and often
have more than 10 storeys. Examples include shopping malls
Bucharest Mall, a conversion and extension of an
abandoned building), office buildings, bank headquarters,
During the last ten years, several high rise office buildings were
built, particularly in the northern and eastern parts of the city.
Additionally, a trend to add modern wings and façades to historic
buildings has occurred, the most prominent example of which is the
Bucharest Architects' Association Building, which is a modern
glass-and-steel construction built inside a historic stone façade. In
Bucharest skyline enriched with a 137-m-high office building
City Center), currently the tallest building in
Romania. Examples of modern skyscrapers built in the 21st century
Bucharest Tower Center, Euro Tower, Nusco Tower, Cathedral
City Gate Towers, Rin Grand Hotel, Premium Plaza, Bucharest
Corporate Center, Millennium Business Center, PGV Tower, Charles de
Gaulle Plaza, Business Development Center Bucharest, BRD Tower, and
Bucharest Financial Plaza. Despite this development on vertical,
Romanian architects avoid designing very tall buildings due to
vulnerability to earthquakes.
Aside from buildings used for business and institutions, residential
developments have also been built, many of which consist of high-rise
office buildings and suburban residential communities. An example of a
new high rise residential complex is Asmita Gardens. These
developments are increasingly prominent in northern Bucharest, which
is less densely populated and is home to middle- and upper-class
Bucharesters due to the process of gentrification.
Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Palace of the University of Bucharest
Central University Library
Sixteen public universities are in Bucharest, the largest of which are
the University of Bucharest, the
Bucharest Academy of Economic
Studies, the Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, the
National University of Political Studies and Public Administration,
and the Politehnica University of Bucharest. These are supplemented by
19 private universities, such as the
Romanian-American University and
Spiru Haret University, the latter being the largest in Europe with
some 302,000 enrolled students in 2009.
Overall, 159 faculties are in 34 universities. Private universities,
however, have a mixed reputation due to irregularities in the
educational process as well as perceived corruption.
In the 2012
QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
University of Bucharest
University of Bucharest was
included in the Top 700 universities of the world, together with three
other Romanian universities. Also, in recent years, the city
has had increasing numbers of foreign students enrolling in its
The first modern educational institution was the Princely Academy of
Bucharest, founded in 1694 and divided in 1864 to form the present-day
University of Bucharest
University of Bucharest and the Saint Sava National College, both of
which are among the most prestigious of their kind in Romania.
Over 450 public primary and secondary schools are in the city, all of
which are administered by the
Bucharest Municipal Schooling
Inspectorate. Each sector also has its own Schooling Inspectorate,
subordinated to the municipal one.
Telecommunications and media
The city is well-served by a modern landline and mobile network.
Offices of Poșta Română, the national postal operator, are spread
throughout the city, with the central post office (Romanian: Oficiul
Poștal București 1) located at 12 Matei Millo Street. Public
telephones are located in many places and are operated by Telekom
Romania, a subsidiary of
Deutsche Telekom and successor of the former
Bucharest is headquarters of most of the national television networks
and national newspapers, radio stations and online news websites. The
largest daily newspapers in
Bucharest include Evenimentul Zilei,
Jurnalul Național, Cotidianul, România Liberă, and Adevărul, while
the biggest news websites are
Hotnews.ro (with an English and Spanish
version), Ziare.com, and Gândul. During the rush hours, tabloid
newspapers Click!, Libertatea, and Cancan are popular for commuters.
A number of newspapers and media publications are based in Casa Presei
Libere (The House of the Free Press), a landmark of northern
Bucharest, originally named Casa Scânteii after the Communist
Romania-era official newspaper Scînteia.
Casa Presei Libere
Casa Presei Libere is not
Bucharest landmark that grew out of the media and
Palatul Telefoanelor ("The Telephone Palace")
was the first major modernist building on
Calea Victoriei in the
city's centre, and the massive, unfinished communist-era Casa Radio
looms over a park a block away from the Opera.
English-language newspapers first became available in the early 1930s
and reappeared in the 1990s. The two daily English-language newspapers
Bucharest Daily News
Bucharest Daily News and Nine O' Clock; several magazines and
publications in other languages are available, such as the
Hungarian-language daily Új Magyar Szó.
Observator Cultural covers the city's arts, and the free weekly
Șapte Seri ("Seven Evenings") and B24FUN, list
entertainment events. The city is home to the intellectual journal
Dilema veche and the satire magazine Academia Cațavencu. Bucharest
was the host city of the fourth edition of the Junior Eurovision Song
Contest in 2006.
One of the most modern hospitals in the capital is Colțea that has
been re-equipped after a 90-million-euro investment in 2011. It
specializes in oncological and cardiac disorders. Also, the oldest
hospital in Bucharest, Coltea Hospital, was built by Mihai Cantacuzino
between 1701 and 1703, composed of many buildings, each with 12 to 30
beds, a church, three chapels, a school, and doctors' and teachers'
Another conventional hospital is Pantelimon, which was established in
1733 by Grigore II Ghica. The surface area of the hospital land
property was 400,000 m2 (4,305,564 sq ft). The hospital
had in its inventory a house for infectious diseases and a house for
persons with disabilities.
Other hospitals or clinics are
Bucharest Emergency Hospital, Floreasca
Emergency Clinic Hospital,
Bucharest University Emergency Hospital,
and Fundeni Clinical Institute or Biomedica International and
Euroclinic, which are private.
National Stadium (Arena Națională)
Football is the most widely followed sport in Bucharest, with the city
having numerous club teams, some of them being known throughout
Europe: Steaua, Dinamo, or Rapid.
Arena Națională, a new stadium inaugurated on 6 September 2011,
hosted the 2012 Europa League Final and has a 55,600-seat
capacity, making it one of the largest stadiums in Southeastern
Sport clubs have formed for ice hockey, rugby union, basketball,
handball, water polo, and volleyball. The majority of Romanian track
and field athletes and most gymnasts are affiliated with clubs in
Bucharest. The Athletics and many Gymnastics National Championships
are held in
Bucharest at the Polyvalent Hall, which is also used for
other indoor sports such as volleyball and handball.
The largest indoor arena in
Bucharest is the
Romexpo Dome with a
seating capacity of 10,000. It is used for tennis, boxing, and
Starting in 2007,
Bucharest has hosted annual races along a temporary
urban track surrounding the Palace of the Parliament, called Bucharest
Ring. The competition is called the
City Challenge, and has
hosted FIA GT, FIA GT3, British F3, and Logan Cup races in 2007 and
2008. The 2009 and 2010 edition have not been held in
Bucharest due to
Bucharest GP, owned by the controversial businessman
Nicolae Șerbu, won the lawsuit that it initiated and will host city
races around the Parliament starting 2011 with the Auto GP.
Bucharest hosts the BRD Năstase Țiriac Trophy
international tennis tournament, which is included in the ATP Tour.
The outdoor tournament is hosted by the tennis complex BNR Arenas. Ice
hockey games are held at the Mihai Flamaropol Arena, which holds 8,000
spectators. Rugby games are held in different locations, but the most
modern stadium is
Arcul de Triumf
Arcul de Triumf Stadium, which is also home to the
Romanian national rugby team.
Main article: List of people from Bucharest
Tudor Arghezi (1880–1967), writer
Nicolae Bălcescu (1819–52), historian, writer and revolutionary
Marthe Bibesco (1889–1973), novelist, poet, politician and memoirist
George Călinescu (1899–1965), critic, literary historian, writer,
publicist and academician
Henri Coandă (1886–1972), aviation pioneer and inventor of the jet
Gheorghe Dinică (1934–2009), one of the most important Romanian
Mircea Eliade (1907–1986), historian of religion, fiction writer,
philosopher and professor at the University of Chicago
Ion Ghica (1816–1897), economist, mathematician, writer, educator,
diplomat and Prime Minister of Romania
Iulia Hasdeu (1869–1888), poet
Dinu Lipatti (1917–1950), pianist, composer and educator
Alexandru Macedonski (1854–1920), poet, novelist, playwright and
Maia Morgenstern (b. 1962), theater and film actress
Ilie Năstase (b. 1946), professional tennis player and former world
number one between 1972 and 1973
Nicolae Paulescu (1869–1931), physician, physiologist and discoverer
C. A. Rosetti
C. A. Rosetti (1816–85), leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848
and Prime Minister of Romania
Alec Secăreanu (b. 1984), actor
Elena Văcărescu (1864–1947), writer and laureate of the French
Vazken I of
Catholicos of the Armenian
Apostolic Church, Hero of Armenia
Florin Vlaicu (b. 1986), Rugby Union football player, the leading
active top point scorer in international rugby
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Romania
The twin towns and sister cities of
United States (1994)
London, United Kingdom
Detroit, United States
Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Pretoria, South Africa
Athens, Georgia, United States
List of Bucharesters
List of buildings in Bucharest
European Union portal
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Transport in Bucharest
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Romania (alphabetical order by county)
Bucharest (national capital)
Capital cities of the member states of the European Union
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is
disputed shown in italics.
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Douglas, Isle of Man (UK)
London, United Kingdom
Saint Helier, Jersey (UK)
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)
Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway)
Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland)
Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)
Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Prague, Czech Republic
Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK)
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5
San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5
Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5
1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
connections with Europe
5 Partially recognised country