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The Bruneian Empire
Empire
or Empire
Empire
of Brunei
Brunei
/bruːˈnaɪ/, also known as Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei
Brunei
on the northern coast of Borneo
Borneo
island in Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded in the early 7th century, started as a small seafaring trading kingdom ruled by a native pagan or Hindu
Hindu
king known by the Chinese as Po-Li or Po-Ni (渤泥). Bruneian kings converted to Islam
Islam
around the 15th century, when it grew substantially since the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese,[3][4] extending throughout coastal areas of Borneo
Borneo
and the Philippines, before it declined in the 17th century.[5]

Contents

1 Historiography 2 Early history 3 Government 4 Expansion 5 Decline 6 Footnotes 7 References 8 Further reading

Historiography[edit] Understanding the history of the Bruneian Empire
Empire
is quite difficult since it is hardly mentioned in contemporary sources of its time, as well as there being a scarcity of evidence of its nature. No local or indigenous sources exist to provide evidence for any of this. As a result, Chinese texts have been relied on to construct the history of early Brunei.[6] Boni in Chinese sources most likely refers to Borneo as a whole, while Poli 婆利, probably located in Sumatra, is claimed by local authorities to refer to Brunei
Brunei
as well.[7] Early history[edit] The earliest diplomatic relations between Boni (渤泥) and China are recorded in the Taiping Huanyu Ji (太平環宇記) (978).[7] In 1225, a Chinese official, Zhao Rugua, reported that Boni had 100 warships to protect its trade, and that there was a lot of wealth in the kingdom.[8] In the 14th century, Brunei
Brunei
seems to be subjected to Java. The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the vassal state of Majapahit,[9] which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor. In 1369, the Sulus attacked Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from Majapahit
Majapahit
succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.[10] A Chinese report from 1371 described Po-ni as poor and totally controlled by Majapahit.[11] Government[edit] The Government of Bruneian Empire
Empire
was despotic in nature. The empire was divided into three traditional land system known as Kerajaan (Crown Property), Kuripan (official property) and Tulin (hereditary private property).[12] Expansion[edit] After the death of its emperor, Hayam Wuruk, Majapahit
Majapahit
entered the state of decline and was unable to control its overseas possessions. This opened the opportunity for Bruneian kings to expand their influence. Chinese Ming emperor Yongle, after ascending to throne in 1403, immediately dispatched envoys to various countries inviting them to pay tribute to Chinese court. Brunei
Brunei
immediately got involved in the lucrative tributary system with China. By the 15th century, the empire became a Muslim state, when the King of Brunei
Brunei
converted to Islam, brought by Muslim Indians and Arab merchants from other parts of Maritime Southeast Asia, who came to trade and spread Islam.[13][14] It controlled most of northern Borneo, and it became an important hub for the East and Western world trading system.[15] The Bruneian empire, just like previous regional empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Malacca, can be considered as a thalassocratic empire that was based upon maritime power, which means its influence was only confined to coastal towns, ports and river estuarines, and seldom penetrated deep into the interior of the island. The Bruneian kings seems to cultivated alliance with regional seafaring peoples of Orang Laut
Orang Laut
and Bajau
Bajau
that formed their naval armada. The Dayaks, native tribes of interior Borneo
Borneo
however, were not under their control, as its influence seldom penetrated deep into the jungles. Following the presence of Portuguese after the fall of Malacca, Portuguese merchants traded regularly with Brunei
Brunei
from 1530 and described the capital of Brunei
Brunei
as surrounded by a stone wall.[3][16] The earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei
Brunei
was by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema. Ludovico was at the time on a route to the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
when he landed in Borneo
Borneo
and met with the people of Brunei. The record of his documentation dates back to 1550.[13][17][18]

"We arrived at the island of Bornei ( Brunei
Brunei
or Borneo), which is distant from the Maluch about two hundred miles, and we found that it was somewhat larger than the aforesaid and much lower. The people are pagans and are men of goodwill. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort....in this island justice is well administered..."[19]

During the rule of Bolkiah, the fifth Sultan, the empire controlled over coastal areas of northwest Borneo
Borneo
(present-day Brunei, Sarawak and Sabah) and reached Seludong
Seludong
(present-day Manila), Sulu Archipelago including parts of the island of Mindanao.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] In the 16th century, the Brunei
Brunei
empire's influence also extended as far as Kapuas River
Kapuas River
delta in West Kalimantan. The Malay Sultanate of Sambas in West Kalimantan and Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
in Southern Philippines
Philippines
in particular has developed dynastic relations with the royal house of Brunei. Other Malay sultans of Pontianak, Samarinda as far as Banjarmasin, treated the Sultan of Brunei
Brunei
as their leader. The true nature of Brunei's relations to other Malay Sultanates of coastal Borneo
Borneo
and Sulu archipelago is still a subject of study. Whether it was a vassalised state, an alliance or just a ceremonial relationship. Since there was other regional polities also exercised their influence upon these sultanates. Sultanate of Banjar
Sultanate of Banjar
(present-day Banjarmasin) for example, was also under the influence of Demak in Java. Decline[edit]

Bruneian territorial losses from 1400 to 1890.

By the end of 17th century, Brunei
Brunei
subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of the European powers, and piracy.[5] The empire lost much of its territory due to the arrival of the western powers such as the Spanish in the Philippines, the Dutch in southern Borneo
Borneo
and the British in Labuan, Sarawak
Sarawak
and North Borneo. Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin later appealed to the British to stop further encroachment in 1888.[28] In the same year British signed a "Treaty of Protection" and made Brunei
Brunei
a British protectorate[5] until 1984 when it gained independence.[29][30] Footnotes[edit]

^ Hussainmiya 2010, pp. 67. ^ Yunos 2008. ^ a b Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1977, pp. 129. ^ Barbara Watson & Leonard Y. 2015, pp. 159. ^ a b c CIA Factbook 2017. ^ Jamil Al-Sufri 2000. ^ a b Kurz 2014, pp. 1. ^ History for Brunei
Brunei
2009, p. 43. ^ Suyatno 2008. ^ History for Brunei
Brunei
2009, p. 44. ^ History for Brunei
Brunei
2009, p. 45. ^ M.S.H. McArthur, Report on Brunei
Brunei
in 1904, p. 102 ^ a b Awang Juned 1992. ^ Saunders 2013, pp. 23. ^ Oxford Business Group 2011, pp. 179. ^ Lach 1994, pp. 580. ^ Brunei
Brunei
Museum Journal 1986. ^ Jamil Al-Sufri 1990. ^ Bala 2005. ^ Saunders 2013, pp. 60. ^ Herbert & Milner 1989, pp. 99. ^ Lea & Milward 2001, pp. 16. ^ Hicks 2007, pp. 34. ^ Church 2012, pp. 16. ^ Eur 2002, pp. 203. ^ Abdul Majid 2007, pp. 2. ^ Welman 2013, pp. 8. ^ World Atlas 2017. ^ Abdul Majid 2007, pp. 4. ^ Sidhu 2009, pp. 92.

References[edit]

Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann K. S.; Lewis, Bernard (1977). The Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 2A, The Indian Sub-Continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim West. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29137-8.  Brunei
Brunei
Museum Journal (1986). The Brunei
Brunei
Museum Journal. The Museum of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam.  Herbert, Patricia; Milner, Anthony Crothers (1989). South-East Asia: Languages and Literatures : a Select Guide. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1267-6.  Jamil Al-Sufri, Awang Mohd. Zain (1990). Tarsilah Brunei: sejarah awal dan perkembangan Islam
Islam
(in Malay). Department of Historical Centre of Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam.  Awang Juned, Awang Abdul Aziz (1992). Islam
Islam
di Brunei: zaman pemerintahan Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah
Bolkiah
Mu'izzuddin Waddaulah, Sultan dan Yang Di-Pertuan Negara Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam (in Malay). Department of History of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam.  Lach, Donald F. (1994). Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume I: The Century of Discovery. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-46732-0.  Jamil Al-Sufri, Awang Mohd. Zain (2000). Tarsilah Brunei: The Early History of Brunei
Brunei
Up to 1432 AD. Department of Historical Centre of Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. ISBN 978-99917-34-03-3.  Lea, David; Milward, Colette (2001). A Political Chronology of South-East Asia and Oceania. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-85743-117-9.  Eur (2002). The Far East and Australasia 2003. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9.  Bala, Bilcher (2005). Thalassocracy: a history of the medieval Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. School of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia
Malaysia
Sabah. ISBN 978-983-2643-74-6.  Hicks, Nigel (2007). The Philippines. New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84537-663-5.  Abdul Majid, Harun (2007). Rebellion in Brunei: The 1962 Revolt, Imperialism, Confrontation and Oil. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-423-7.  Yunos, Rozan (2008). "The Sultan who thwarted Rajah Brooke". The Brunei
Brunei
Times. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015.  Suyatno (2008). "Naskah Nagarakretagama" (in Indonesian). National Library of Indonesia.  History for Brunei
Brunei
(2009). History for Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam: Sharing our Past. Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. ISBN 99917-2-372-2.  Sidhu, Jatswan S. (2009). Historical Dictionary of Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7078-9.  Hussainmiya, B. A. (2010). "The Malay Identity in Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam and Sri Lanka" (PDF). Universiti Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2014.  Oxford Business Group (2011). The Report: Sabah. Oxford Business Group. ISBN 978-1-907065-36-1.  Church, Peter (2012). A Short History of South-East Asia. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-35044-7.  Saunders, Graham (2013). A History of Brunei. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-87401-7.  Welman, Frans (2013). Borneo
Borneo
Trilogy Brunei: Vol 1. Booksmango. ISBN 978-616-222-235-1.  Kurz, Johannes L. (2014). "Boni in Chinese Sources: Translations of Relevant Texts from the Song to the Qing Dynasties" (PDF). Universiti Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam. National University of Singapore. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014.  Barbara Watson, Andaya; Leonard Y., Andaya (2015). A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400-1830. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88992-6.  CIA Factbook (2017). "The World Factbook – Brunei". Central Intelligence Agency.  World Atlas (2017). " Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam". World Atlas. 

Further reading[edit]

Historical Atlas: History of Brunei Expanding Boundaries of Sarawak
Sarawak
including territorial gains from the Sultanate of Brunei British treaties regarding North Borneo
North Borneo
including cession agreement from the Sultanate of Brunei

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1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

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Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

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4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

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17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

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1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

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6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
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Former states in Indonesia

Java

Hindu/Buddhist

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Islamic

Aceh Aru Asahan Deli Jambi Johor Langkat Malacca Pagaruyung Riau-Lingga Samudera Pasai Serdang Siak

Kalimantan

Banjar Brunei Bulungan Kutai Lanfang Republic Negara Daha Pontianak Sambas Sarawak Tanjungpura

Sulawesi

Gowa Bone Luwu Toraja Wajo

Lesser Sunda Islands

Bali Bima Larantuka Sumbawa Tambora

West Timor

Amabi Amanatun Amanuban Amarasi Sonbai Wehali

Maluku

Iha Ternate Tidore

Brunei
Brunei
por

.