The Info List - Bronze Age Collapse

The Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse was a Dark Age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to the Early Iron Age, a transition historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive. The palace economy of the Aegean region
Aegean region
and Anatolia
that characterised the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
disintegrated, transforming into the small isolated village cultures of the Greek Dark Ages. The period between c. 1200 and 1150 BC saw the cultural collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, the Kassite dynasty
Kassite dynasty
of Babylonia, the Hittite Empire
in Anatolia
and the Levant, the Egyptian Empire;[1] the destruction of Ugarit
and the Amorite
states in the Levant, the fragmentation of the Luwian
states of western Asia Minor, and a period of chaos in Canaan.[2] The deterioration of these governments interrupted trade routes and severely reduced literacy in much of the known world.[3] In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Pylos
and Gaza was violently destroyed, and many abandoned, including Hattusa, Mycenae, and Ugarit.[4] According to Robert Drews:

Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again.[5]

A very few powerful states, particularly Assyria
and Elam, survived the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse – but by the end of the 12th century BC, Elam
waned after its defeat by Nebuchadnezzar I, who briefly revived Babylonian fortunes before suffering a series of defeats by the Assyrians. Upon the death of Ashur-bel-kala
in 1056 BC, Assyria
went into a comparative decline for the next 100 or so years, its empire shrinking significantly. By 1020 BC Assyria
appears to have controlled only the areas in its immediate vicinity; the well-defended Assyria itself was not threatened during the collapse. Gradually, by the end of the ensuing Dark Age, remnants of the Hittites
coalesced into small Neo-Hittite
and Syro-Hittite states
Syro-Hittite states
in Cilicia
and the Levant; the latter states being composed of mixed Hittite and Aramean
polities. Beginning in the mid-10th century BC, a series of small Aramaean kingdoms formed in the Levant
and the Philistines
settled in southern Canaan
where the Canaanite-speaking Semites had coalesced into a number of defined polities such as Israel, Moab, Edom
and Ammon. From 935 BC Assyria
began to reorganise and once more expand outwards, leading to the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911-605 BC), which came to control a vast area from the Caucasus
to Egypt, and Greek Cyprus
to Persia. Phrygians, Cimmerians
and Lydians
arrived in Asia Minor, and a new Hurrian
polity of Urartu
was formed in eastern Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and the southern Caucasus, where the Colchians
(Georgians) also emerged. Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
such as the Persians, Medes, Parthians
and Sargatians first appeared in Ancient Iran
Ancient Iran
soon after 1000 BC, displacing earlier non-Indo-European Kassites, Hurrians
and Gutians
in the northwest of the region, although the indigenous language isolate-speaking Elamites and Manneans
continued to dominate the southwest and Caspian Sea regions respectively. After the Orientalising period in the Aegean, Classical Greece
Classical Greece


1 Regional evidence

1.1 Evidence of destruction

1.1.1 Anatolia 1.1.2 Cyprus 1.1.3 Syria 1.1.4 Southern Levant 1.1.5 Greece

1.2 Areas that survived

1.2.1 Mesopotamia 1.2.2 Egypt

1.3 Conclusion

2 Possible causes

2.1 Environmental

2.1.1 Climate change 2.1.2 Volcanoes 2.1.3 Drought

2.2 Cultural

2.2.1 Ironworking 2.2.2 Changes in warfare

2.3 General systems collapse

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Regional evidence[edit] Evidence of destruction[edit] Anatolia[edit] Before the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse, Anatolia
(Asia Minor) was dominated by a number of peoples of varying ethno-linguistic origins: including Semitic Assyrians and Amorites, language isolate-speaking Hurrians, Kaskians and Hattians, and later-arriving Indo-European peoples such as Luwians, Hittites, Mitanni, and Mycenaean Greeks. From the 16th century BC, the Mitanni
(a migratory minority speaking an Indo-Aryan language) formed a ruling class over the Hurrians, an ancient indigenous Caucasian people who spoke a Hurro-Urartian language, a language isolate. Similarly, the Indo-Anatolian-speaking Hittites absorbed the Hattians,[6] a people speaking a language that may have been of the non–Indo-European North Caucasian language group or a language isolate. Every Anatolian site, apart from integral Assyrian regions in the south east, and regions in eastern, central and southern Anatolia under the control of the powerful Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1392-1050 BC) that was important during the preceding Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
shows a destruction layer, and it appears that in these regions civilization did not recover to the level of the Assyrians and Hittites
for another thousand years or so. The Hittites, already weakened by a series of military defeats and annexations of their territory by the Middle Assyrian Empire
(which had already destroyed the Hurrian-Mitanni Empire) then suffered a coup de grâce when Hattusas, the Hittite capital, was burned, probably by the language isolate-speaking Kaskians, long indigenous to the southern shores of the Black Sea, and possibly aided by the incoming Indo-European–speaking Phrygians). The city was abandoned and never reoccupied. Karaoğlan[a] (near present-day Ankara) was burned and the corpses left unburied.[8] Many other sites that were not destroyed were abandoned.[9] The Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
was largely annexed by the Semitic-speaking Assyrians and its remnants destroyed by the Kaskians and/or Phrygians. The Luwian
city of Troy
was destroyed at least twice, before being abandoned until Roman times. (Trojan War) The Phrygians
had arrived (probably over the Bosphorus
or Caucasus) in the 13th century BC and played a part in laying waste to what remained of the weakened Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
(already weakened by defeat and annexation of much of its territory by the Middle Assyrian Empire, and further defeat at the hands of Kaska[10]), before being first checked by the Assyrians and then conquered by them in the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
of the 12th century BC. Other groups of Indo-European peoples followed the Phrygians
into the region, most prominently the Doric Greeks
and Lydians, and in the centuries after the period of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse, the Cimmerians, and Scythians
also appeared. The Semitic Arameans, Kartvelian-speaking Colchians, and revived Hurrian
polities, particularly Urartu, Nairi and Shupria also emerged in parts of the region. The Assyrians simply continued their already extant policies, by conquering any of these new peoples they came into contact with, as they had with the preeceding polities of the region. However Assyria gradually withdrew from much of the region for a time in the second half of the 11th century BC, although they continued to campaign militarily at times, in order to protect their borders and keep trade routes open, until a renewed vigorous period of expansion in the late 10th century BC. These sites in Anatolia
show evidence of the collapse:

Troy Miletus Hattusas[11] Mersin Tarhuntassa

Cyprus[edit] The catastrophe separates Late Cypriot II (LCII) from the LCIII period, with the sacking and burning of Enkomi, Kition, and Sinda, which may have occurred twice before those sites were abandoned.[12] During the reign of the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV
Tudhaliya IV
(reigned c. 1237–1209 BC), the island was briefly invaded by the Hittites,[13] either to secure the copper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards, the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Some towns (Enkomi, Kition, Palaeokastro and Sinda) show traces of destruction at the end of LCII. Whether or not this is really an indication of a Mycenean invasion is contested. Originally, two waves of destruction in c. 1230 BC by the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
and c. 1190 BC by Aegean refugees have been proposed.[14][who?][clarification needed] Alashiya
was plundered by the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
and ceased to exist in 1085. The smaller settlements of Ayios Dhimitrios
Ayios Dhimitrios
and Kokkinokremnos, as well as a number of other sites, were abandoned but do not show traces of destruction. Kokkinokremos was a short-lived settlement, where various caches concealed by smiths have been found. That no one ever returned to reclaim the treasures suggests that they were killed or enslaved. Recovery occurred only in the Early Iron Age
Iron Age
with Phoenician and Greek settlement. These sites in Cyprus
show evidence of the collapse:

Palaeokastro Kition Sinda Enkomi


A map of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age

Ancient Syria
had been initially dominated by a number of indigenous Semitic-speaking peoples. The East Semitic-speaking Eblaites, Akkadians
and Assyrians, the Canaanite-speaking Amorites
and the Ugaritic-speaking Ugarites were prominent among them. Syria
during this time was known as "The land of the Amurru". Prior to and during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse, Syria
became a battle ground between the empires of the Hittites, Assyrians, Mitanni
and Egyptians, and later the coastal regions came under attack from the Sea Peoples. From the 12th century BC, the Arameans
came to prominence in Syria, and the region outside of the Canaanite-speaking Phoenician coastal areas eventually spoke Aramaic
and the region came to be known as Aramea
and Eber Nari, and the modern term 'Syria' is a later Indo-European corruption of 'Assyria' which only became formally applied to the Levant
during the Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
(323-150 BC) (See Etymology of Syria). Levantine sites previously showed evidence of trade links with Mesopotamia
(Sumer, Akkad, Assyria
and Babylonia), Anatolia
(Hattia, Hurria, Luwia and later the Hittites) ), Egypt
and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age. Evidence, at Ugarit, shows that the destruction there occurred after the reign of Merneptah
(ruled 1213–1203 BC) and even the fall of Chancellor Bay
Chancellor Bay
(died 1192 BC). The last Bronze Age
Bronze Age
king of the Semitic state of Ugarit, Ammurapi, was a contemporary of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma II. The exact dates of his reign are unknown. A letter by the king is preserved on one of the clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city. Ammurapi stresses the seriousness of the crisis faced by many Levantine states from invasion by the advancing Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
in a dramatic response to a plea for assistance from the king of Alasiya. Ammurapi
highlights the desperate situation Ugarit
faced in letter RS 18.147:

My father, behold, the enemy's ships came (here); my cities(?) were burned, and they did evil things in my country. Does not my father know that all my troops and chariots(?) are in the Land of Hatti, and all my ships are in the Land of Lukka?... Thus, the country is abandoned to itself. May my father know it: the seven ships of the enemy that came here inflicted much damage upon us.[15]

No help arrived and Ugarit
was burned to the ground at the end of the Bronze Age. Its destruction levels contained Late Helladic IIIB ware, but no LH IIIC (see Mycenaean period). Therefore, the date of the destruction is important for the dating of the LH IIIC phase. Since an Egyptian sword bearing the name of Pharaoh Merneptah
was found in the destruction levels, 1190 BC was taken as the date for the beginning of the LH IIIC. A cuneiform tablet found in 1986 shows that Ugarit
was destroyed after the death of Merneptah. It is generally agreed that Ugarit
had already been destroyed by the 8th year of Ramesses III, 1178 BC. These letters on clay tablets found baked in the conflagration of the destruction of the city speak of attack from the sea, and a letter from Alashiya (Cyprus) speaks of cities already being destroyed by attackers who came by sea. It also speaks of the Ugarit
fleet being absent, patrolling the Lycian coast. The West Semitic Arameans
eventually superseded the earlier Semitic Amorites, Canaanites
and people of Ugarit. The Arameans, together with the Phoenician Canaanites
and Neo- Hittites
came to dominate most of the region demographically, however these people, and the Levant
in general, were also conquered and dominated politically and militarily by the Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
until Assyria's withdrawal in the late 11th century BC, although the Assyrians continued to conduct military campaigns in the region. However with the rise of Neo Assyrian Empire in the late 10th century BC, the entire region once again fell to Assyria. These sites in Syria
show evidence of the collapse:

Ugarit Tell Sukas Kadesh Qatna Hamath Alalakh Aleppo Carchemish Emar

Southern Levant[edit] Egyptian evidence shows that from the reign of Horemheb
(ruled either 1319 or 1306 to 1292 BC), wandering Shasu
were more problematic than the earlier Apiru. Ramesses II
Ramesses II
(ruled 1279–1213 BC) campaigned against them, pursuing them as far as Moab, where he established a fortress, after a near defeat at the Battle of Kadesh. During the reign of Merneptah, the Shasu
threatened the "Way of Horus" north from Gaza. Evidence shows that Deir Alla (Succoth) was destroyed after the reign of Queen Twosret
(ruled 1191–1189 BC).[16] The destroyed site of Lachish
was briefly reoccupied by squatters and an Egyptian garrison, during the reign of Ramesses III
Ramesses III
(ruled 1186–1155 BC). All centres along a coastal route from Gaza northward were destroyed, and evidence shows Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Akko, and Jaffa
were burned and not reoccupied for up to thirty years. Inland Hazor, Bethel, Beit Shemesh, Eglon, Debir, and other sites were destroyed. Refugees
escaping the collapse of coastal centres may have fused with incoming nomadic and Anatolian elements to begin the growth of terraced hillside hamlets in the highlands region that was associated with the later development of the Hebrews.[17] During the reign of Rameses III, Philistines
were allowed to resettle the coastal strip from Gaza to Joppa, Denyen (possibly the tribe of Dan in the Bible, or more likely the people of Adana, also known as Danuna, part of the Hittite Empire) settled from Joppa to Acre, and Tjekker in Acre. The sites quickly achieved independence, as the Tale of Wenamun shows. These sites in Southern Levant
show evidence of the collapse:

Hazor Akko Megiddo Deir 'Alla (Sukkot) Bethel Beth Shemesh Lachish Ashdod Ashkelon

Greece[edit] Main article: Greek Dark Ages None of the Mycenaean palaces of the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
survived (with the possible exception of the Cyclopean
fortifications on the Acropolis of Athens), with destruction being heaviest at palaces and fortified sites. Up to 90% of small sites in the Peloponnese
were abandoned, suggesting a major depopulation.[citation needed] The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse marked the start of what has been called the Greek Dark Ages, which lasted roughly 400 years and ended with the establishment of Archaic Greece. Other cities like Athens
continued to be occupied, but with a more local sphere of influence, limited evidence of trade and an impoverished culture, from which it took centuries to recover.[citation needed] These sites in Greece show evidence of the collapse:[citation needed]

Teichos Dymaion
Teichos Dymaion
(el) Pylos Nichoria The Menelaion Tiryns Mycenae Thebes Lefkandi Iolkos[18] Knossos Kydonia

Areas that survived[edit] Mesopotamia[edit] The Middle Assyrian Empire
Middle Assyrian Empire
(1392-1056 BC) had destroyed the Hurrian- Mitanni
Empire, annexed much of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
and eclipsed the Egyptian Empire, and at the beginning of the Late Bronze Age collapse controlled an empire stretching from the Caucasus mountains in the north to the Arabian peninsula
Arabian peninsula
in the south, and from Ancient Iran
Ancient Iran
in the east to Cyprus
in the west. However, in the 12th century BC, Assyrian satrapies in Anatolia
came under attack from the Mushki
(Phrygians), and those in the Levant
from Arameans, but Tiglath-Pileser I
Tiglath-Pileser I
(reigned 1114–1076 BC) was able to defeat and repel these attacks, conquering the incomers. The Middle Assyrian Empire
survived intact throughout much of this period, with Assyria dominating and often ruling Babylonia
directly, controlling south east and south western Anatolia, north western Iran
and much of northern and central Syria
and Canaan, as far as the Mediterranean and Cyprus.[19] The Arameans
and Phrygians
were subjected, and Assyria
and its colonies were not threatened by the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
who had ravaged Egypt and much of the East Mediterranean, and the Assyrians often conquered as far as Phoenicia
and the East Mediterranean. However, after the death of Ashur-bel-kala
in 1056 BC, Assyria
withdrew to areas close to its natural borders, encompassing what is today northern Iraq, north east Syria, the fringes of north west Iran, and south eastern Turkey. Assyria
still retained a stable monarchy, the best army in the world, and an efficient civil administration, enabling it to survive the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse intact. Assyrian written records remained numerous and the most consistent in the world during the period, and the Assyrians were still able to mount long range military campaigns in all directions when necessary. From the late 10th century BC, it once more began to assert itself internationally, with the Neo-Assyrian Empire
growing to be the largest the world had yet seen.[20] The situation in Babylonia
was very different. After the Assyrian withdrawal, it was still subject to periodic Assyrian (and Elamite) subjugation, and new groups of Semites, such as the Aramaeans, Suteans (and in the period after the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Collapse, Chaldeans also), spread unchecked into Babylonia
from the Levant, and the power of its weak kings barely extended beyond the city limits of Babylon. Babylon was sacked by the Elamites
under Shutruk-Nahhunte
(c. 1185–1155 BC), and lost control of the Diyala River
Diyala River
valley to Assyria. Egypt[edit] Main article: Third Intermediate Period of Egypt After apparently surviving for a while, the Egyptian Empire
Egyptian Empire
collapsed in the mid-twelfth century BC (during the reign of Ramesses VI, 1145 to 1137 BC). Previously, the Merneptah
Stele (c. 1200 BC) spoke of attacks (Libyan War) from Putrians (from modern Libya), with associated people of Ekwesh, Shekelesh, Lukka, Shardana and Tursha or Teresh (possibly Troas), and a Canaanite revolt, in the cities of Ashkelon, Yenoam and among the people of Israel. A and second attack ( Battle of the Delta
Battle of the Delta
and Battle of Djahy) during the reign of Ramesses III (1186–1155 BC) involved Peleset, Tjeker, Shardana and Denyen. Conclusion[edit] Robert Drews describes the collapse as "the worst disaster in ancient history, even more calamitous than the collapse of the Western Roman Empire."[21] Cultural memories of the disaster told of a "lost golden age": for example, Hesiod
spoke of Ages of Gold, Silver, and Bronze, separated from the cruel modern Age of Iron by the Age of Heroes. Rodney Castledon suggests that memories of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse influenced Plato's story of Atlantis[22] in Timaeus and the Critias. Possible causes[edit] Various theories have been put forward as possible contributors to the collapse, many of them mutually compatible. Environmental[edit] Climate change[edit] Main article: Bond event Changes in climate similar to the Younger Dryas
Younger Dryas
period or the Little Ice Age punctuate human history. The local effects of these changes may cause crop failures in multiple consecutive years, leading to warfare as a last-ditch effort at survival. The triggers for climate change are still debated, but ancient peoples could not have predicted or coped with substantial climate changes. Volcanoes[edit] The Hekla 3 eruption
Hekla 3 eruption
approximately coincides with this period; and, while the exact date is under considerable dispute, one group calculated the date to be specifically 1159 BC, implicating the eruption in the collapse in Egypt.[23] Drought[edit] Using the Palmer Drought Index for 35 Greek, Turkish and Middle Eastern weather stations, it was shown that a drought of the kind that persisted from January AD 1972 would have affected all of the sites associated with the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse.[24][25] Drought could have easily precipitated or hastened socioeconomic problems and led to wars. More recently, it has been shown how the diversion of midwinter storms from the Atlantic to north of the Pyrenees
and the Alps, bringing wetter conditions to Central Europe but drought to the Eastern Mediterranean, was associated with the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse.[26] Pollen in sediment cores from the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
and the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
show that there was a period of severe drought at the start of the collapse.[27][28] Cultural[edit] Ironworking[edit] The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse may be seen in the context of a technological history that saw the slow, comparatively continuous spread of ironworking technology in the region, beginning with precocious iron-working in the present Bulgaria
and Romania
in the 13th and 12th centuries BC.[29] Leonard R. Palmer suggested that iron, superior to bronze for weapons manufacture, was in more plentiful supply and so allowed larger armies of iron users to overwhelm the smaller armies of maryannu chariotry, which used bronze.[30] Changes in warfare[edit] Robert Drews argues[31] for the appearance of massed infantry, using newly developed weapons and armor, such as cast rather than forged spearheads and long swords, a revolutionising cut-and-thrust weapon,[32] and javelins. The appearance of bronze foundries suggests "that mass production of bronze artifacts was suddenly important in the Aegean". For example, Homer
uses "spears" as a virtual synonym for "warriors". Such new weaponry, in the hands of large numbers of "running skirmishers", who could swarm and cut down a chariot
army, would destabilize states that were based upon the use of chariots by the ruling class. That would precipitate an abrupt social collapse as raiders began to conquer, loot and burn cities.[33][34][35] General systems collapse[edit] A general systems collapse has been put forward as an explanation for the reversals in culture that occurred between the Urnfield culture
Urnfield culture
of the 12th and 13th centuries BC and the rise of the Celtic Hallstatt culture in the 9th and 10th centuries BC.[36] General systems collapse theory, pioneered by Joseph Tainter,[37] hypothesises how social declines in response to complexity may lead to a collapse resulting in simpler forms of society. In the specific context of the Middle East, a variety of factors – including population growth, soil degradation, drought, cast bronze weapon and iron production technologies – could have combined to push the relative price of weaponry (compared to arable land) to a level unsustainable for traditional warrior aristocracies. In complex societies that were increasingly fragile and less resilient, the combination of factors may have contributed to the collapse. The growing complexity and specialization of the Late Bronze Age political, economic, and social organization in Carol Thomas and Craig Conant's phrase[38] together made the organization of civilization too intricate to reestablish piecewise when disrupted. That could explain why the collapse was so widespread and able to render the Bronze Age civilizations incapable of recovery. The critical flaws of the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
are its centralisation, specialisation, complexity, and top-heavy political structure. These flaws then were exposed by sociopolitical events (revolt of peasantry and defection of mercenaries), fragility of all kingdoms (Mycenaean, Hittite, Ugaritic, and Egyptian), demographic crises (overpopulation), and wars between states. Other factors that could have placed increasing pressure on the fragile kingdoms include interruption of maritime trade by piracy by the Sea Peoples, as well as drought, crop failure, famine, or the Dorian migration or invasion.[39] See also[edit]

Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East

Greek Dark Ages—period following the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse Third Intermediate Period of Egypt—a similar period in Egypt 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline Iron Age
Iron Age
Cold Epoch


^ The name Karaoglan is Turkish, the original Hittite name is unknown.[7]


^ For Syria, see M. Liverani, "The collapse of the Near Eastern regional system at the end of the Bronze Age: the case of Syria" in Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, M. Rowlands, M.T. Larsen, K. Kristiansen, eds. (Cambridge University Press) 1987. ^ S. Richard, "Archaeological sources for the history of Palestine: The Early Bronze Age: The rise and collapse of urbanism", The Biblical Archaeologist (1987) ^ Russ Crawford (2006). "Chronology". In Stanton, Andrea; Ramsay, Edward; Seybolt, Peter J; Elliott, Carolyn. Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. Sage. p. xxix. ISBN 978-1412981767.  ^ The physical destruction of palaces and cities is the subject of Robert Drews, The End of the Bronze Age: changes in warfare and the catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C., 1993. ^ Drews, 1993, p. 4 ^ Gurnet, Otto, (1982), The Hittites
(Penguin) pp. 119–130. ^ Robbins, p.170 ^ Robert Drews (1995). The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C. Princeton University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-691-02591-6.  ^ Manuel Robbins (2001). Collapse of the Bronze Age: The Story of Greece, Troy, Israel, Egypt, and the Peoples of the Sea. iUniverse. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-595-13664-3.  ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Kingdom of the Hittites. (Clarendon), p.379 ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Kingdom of the Hittites
(Clarendon), p. 374. ^ Robbins, Manuel (2001). Collapse of the Bronze Age: The Story of Greece, Troy, Israel
and Egypt
and the Peoples of the Sea. pp. 220–239 ^ Bryce, Trevor. The Kingdom of the Hittites
(Clarendon), p. 366. ^ Paul Aström has proposed dates of 1190 and 1179 BC (Aström). ^ Jean Nougaryol et al. (1968) Ugaritica V: 87–90 no. 24 ^ Tubbs, Johnathan (1998), "Canaanites" (British Museum Press) ^ Tubbs, Johnathan (1998), "Canaanites" (British Museum Press) ^ Drews, Robert (1993), The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 BC (Princeton Uni Press) ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq ^ Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq ^ Drews 1993:1, quotes Fernand Braudel's assessment that the Eastern Mediterranean cultures returned almost to a starting-point ("plan zéro"), "L'Aube", in Braudel, F. (Ed) (1977), La Mediterranee: l'espace et l'histoire (Paris) ^ Castledon, Rodney (1998), " Atlantis
Destroyed" (Routledge) ^ Yurco, Frank J. "End of the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Other Crisis Periods: A Volcanic Cause". in Teeter, Emily; Larson, John (eds.). Gold of Praise: Studies on Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
in Honor of Edward F. Wente. (Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 58.) Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 1999:456–458. ISBN 1-885923-09-0. ^ Weiss, Harvey (June 1982). "The decline of Late Bronze Age civilization as a possible response to climatic change". Climatic Change. 4 (2): 173–198. doi:10.1007/BF00140587.  ^ Wright, Karen: (1998) "Empires in the Dust" in Discover, March 1998. http://discovermagazine.com/1998/mar/empiresinthedust1420 ^ Fagan, Brian M. (2003). The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization. Basic Books.  ^ Kershner, Isabel (22 October 2013). "Pollen Study Points to Drought as Culprit in Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Mystery". The New York Times. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0431.  ^ Langgut, Dafna; Finkelstein, Israel ; Litt, Thomas (October 2013) "Climate and the late Bronze Collapse: New evidence from the southern Levant", Journal of Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University, 40 (2) : 149–175. ^ See A. Stoia and the other essays in M.L. Stig Sørensen and R. Thomas, eds., The Bronze Age: Iron Age
Iron Age
Transition in Europe (Oxford) 1989, and T.H. Wertime and J.D. Muhly, The Coming of the Age of Iron (New Haven) 1980. ^ Palmer, Leonard R (1962) Mycenaeans and Minoans: Aegean Prehistory in the Light of the Linear B Tablets. (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1962) ^ Drews 1993:192ff ^ Drews 1993:194 ^ Drews, R. (1993). The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 B.C. (Princeton). ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ http://www.iol.ie/~edmo/linktoprehistory.html History of Castlemagner, on the web page of the local historical society. ^ Tainter, Joseph (1976). The Collapse of Complex Societies (Cambridge University Press). ^ Thomas, Carol G.; Conant, Craig. (1999) Citadel to City-state: The Transformation of Greece, 1200–700 B.C.E., ^ Cline, Eric H. (2014). "1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed" (Princeton University Press).

Further reading[edit]

Dickinson, Oliver (2007). The Aegean from Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to Iron Age: Continuity and Change Between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-13590-0.  Cline, Eric H. (2014). 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed. Princeton, New Jersey, United States: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14089-6. 

External links[edit]

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c. 1400–1200 BCE New Hittite Kingdom

Middle Assyrian Empire

c. 1200–1150 BCE Bronze Age
Bronze Age
collapse ("Sea Peoples") Arameans

c. 1150–911 BCE Phoenicia Syro-Hittite states Aram- Damascus Arameans Middle Babylonia
( Isin
II) Chal de- ans

911–729 BCE Neo-Assyrian Empire

729–609 BCE

626–539 BCE Neo-Babylonian Empire

539–331 BCE Achaemenid Empire

336–301 BCE Macedonian Empire
(Ancient Greeks)

311–129 BCE Seleucid Empire

129–63 BCE Seleucid Empire Parthian Empire

63 BCE – 243 CE Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire

243–636 CE Sasanian Empire

v t e

Timeline of the Ancie