The Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, originally the Crown Jewels of England, are 140 royal ceremonial objects kept in the Tower of London, which include the regalia and vestments worn by British kings and queens at their coronations.[c]

A symbol of 800 years of monarchy,[6] the sovereign's coronation regalia is the only working set in Europe – other present-day monarchies have abandoned coronations in favour of inauguration or enthronement ceremonies – and is the largest set of regalia in the world.[7] Objects used to invest and crown the monarch variously denote his or her roles as Head of State, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, and Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 1953, a new pair of armills or bracelets were made for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II to represent her role as Head of the Commonwealth.

Use of regalia by monarchs in England can be traced back to its early history. A permanent set of coronation regalia, once belonging to Edward the Confessor, was established after he was made a saint in the 12th century. By the Tudor period it was usual for a monarch to inherit state regalia from his or her predecessor. Most of the present collection as a whole dates from around 350 years ago when King Charles II ascended the throne. The medieval and Tudor regalia had been either sold or melted down after the monarchy was abolished in 1649, during the English Civil War. Only four original items pre-date the Restoration: a late 12th-century anointing spoon, which is the oldest object in the collection, and three early 17th-century swords. Upon the Acts of Union 1707, the English Crown Jewels were adopted by British monarchs; the Scottish regalia are known today as the Honours of Scotland.

Notable among the 23,578 precious and semi-precious stones are Cullinan I, the largest clear cut diamond in the world at 530 carats (106 g), set in the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross. It was cut from the largest gem-quality rough diamond ever found, the Cullinan Diamond, discovered in South Africa in 1905 and presented to Edward VII. On the Imperial State Crown are Cullinan II (second-largest of the Cullinan diamonds), the Stuart Sapphire, St Edward's Sapphire, and the Black Prince's Ruby – a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367. The Koh-i-Noor diamond, originally from present-day India, has featured on three consort crowns. A small number of historical objects at the Tower are either empty or set with paste or crystals.

At a coronation, the monarch is anointed using holy oil poured from an ampulla into the spoon, followed by investiture with robes and ornaments, and finally he or she is crowned with St Edward's Crown. Afterwards, it is exchanged for the lighter Imperial State Crown, which is also usually worn at State Openings of Parliament. Wives of kings are crowned as queen consort with a plainer set of regalia,[d] and since 1831 a new crown has been made specially for each queen consort. Also regarded as Crown Jewels are state swords, trumpets, ceremonial maces, church plate, historical regalia, banqueting plate, and royal christening fonts. When not in use, the Jewels are on public display, mainly in the Jewel House, where they are seen by approximately 2.5 million visitors every year.


Early history

The earliest known use of a crown in Britain was discovered by archaeologists in 1988 in Deal, Kent, and dates to between 200 and 150 BCE (BC). A sword, brooch, ceremonial shield, and decorated bronze crown with a single arch,[e] which sat directly on the head of its wearer, were found inside the tomb of the Mill Hill Warrior.[9] At this point, crowns were symbols of authority worn by religious and military leaders. Priests continued to use crowns following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE (AD).[10] A dig in a field at Hockwold cum Wilton, Norfolk, in 1957 revealed a bronze crown with two arches and depictions of male faces,[f] dating from the period of Roman occupation.[11]

Middle Ages

King Æthelstan presenting an illuminated manuscript to St Cuthbert, c. 930

By the 5th century, the Romans had withdrawn from Britain, and the Angles and the Saxons settled. A heptarchy of new kingdoms began to emerge. One of the methods used by regional kings to solidify their authority over their territories was the use of ceremony and insignia.[12] The tomb of an unknown king – evidence suggests it may be Rædwald of East Anglia – at Sutton Hoo provides insight into the regalia of a pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon king.[13] Inside the early 7th-century tomb discovered in 1939 was found the ornate Sutton Hoo helmet, comprising an iron cap, a neck guard, and a face mask, decorated with images of animals and warriors in copper-alloy and set with garnets.[14] He was also buried with a heavy whetstone sceptre,[g] on top of which is an iron ring surmounted by the figure of a stag; a decorated sword; and a ceremonial shield.[13]

In 597, a Benedictine monk had been sent by Pope Gregory I to start converting Pagan England to Christianity. The monk, Augustine, became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Within two centuries, the ritual of anointing monarchs with holy oil and crowning them (initially with helmets) in a Christian ceremony had been established, and regalia took on a religious identity. There was still no permanent set of coronation regalia; each monarch generally had a new set made, with which he or she was usually buried upon death.[15]

Æthelstan ascended the throne in 924 and united the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to form the Kingdom of England. In the earliest known depiction of an English king wearing a crown, he is shown presenting a copy of Bede's Life of St Cuthbert to the saint himself.[16] Until his reign, kings had been portrayed on coins wearing helmets and circlets,[17] or wreath-like diadems in the style of Roman emperor, Constantine the Great. Whether or not they wore such an item is open to question.[18] Coins are unreliable because the portraits were often generic or copied from overseas coins.[19] Edgar the Peaceful was the first English king to be crowned with an actual crown, and a sceptre was also introduced into the ceremony for his coronation in 973.[20] Alongside crowns, sceptres were the most potent symbols of royal authority in medieval England.[21]

Edward the Confessor

Edward the Confessor is depicted on a throne and wearing a crown and holding a sceptre in the first scene of the Bayeux Tapestry.[22] In 1066, Edward died without an heir, and William the Conqueror emerged as the first Norman king of England following his victory over the English at the Battle of Hastings. Wearing a crown became an important part of William I's efforts to cement his authority over his new territory and subjects.[23] At his death in 1087, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported: "[William] kept great state … He wore his crown three times a year as often as he was in England … He was so stern and relentless … we must not forget the good order he kept in the land".[24]

Edward the Confessor holding an orb and a sceptre on his Great Seal.[17]

In 1161, Edward the Confessor was made a saint, and objects connected with his reign became holy relics. The monks at his burial place of Westminster Abbey claimed that Edward had asked them to look after his regalia in perpetuity and that they were to be used at the coronations of all future kings.[23] A note to this effect is contained in an inventory of relics drawn up by Richard Sporley, a monk at the abbey in 1450, recording a tunicle, dalmatic, pallium, and other vestments; a gold sceptre, two rods, a gold crown, comb, and spoon; for the queen's coronation a crown and two rods; and for the holy communion a chalice of onyx stone and a paten made of gold – all of which were to be considered precious relics.[25] Although the claim is likely to have been an exercise in self-promotion on the abbey's part, and some of the regalia had probably been taken from Edward's grave when he was reinterred there, it became accepted as fact,[23] thereby establishing the first known set of hereditary coronation regalia in Europe.[26] In centuries to come, the regalia would expand to include, among other objects, a globus cruciger and a pair of armills or bracelets traditionally worn by the monarch at coronations.[27]

A crown referred to as St Edward's Crown is first recorded as having been used for the coronation of Henry III in 1220, and it appears to be the same crown worn by Edward.[28] Being crowned and invested with regalia owned by a previous monarch who was also a saint reinforced the king's authority.[29] It was also wrongly thought to have been originally owned by Alfred the Great because an inscription on the lid of its box, translated from Latin, read: "This is the chief crown of the two, with which were crowned Kings Alfred, Edward and others".[30] The crown would be used in many subsequent coronations until its eventual destruction 400 years later. One of the few descriptions of St Edward's Crown to survive from Henry III's time is a "gold crown with diverse stones".[28] In the 17th century it was described as "gold wire-work set with slight stones and two little bells", weighing 79.5 ounces (2.25 kg).[31] It had one double arch and may have been decorated with filigree and cloisonné enamels.[32] Also in the Royal Collection in this period was an item called a state crown. Together with other crowns, rings, and swords, it comprised the monarch's state regalia that was kept separate from the coronation regalia, mostly at the royal palaces.[33]

Late Middle Ages

A high-backed gothic chair with the Stone of Scone placed into a cavity under the seat and a sword and shield resting on each arm at Westminster Abbey.

The transferring of crowns symbolised the transfer of power between rulers. Following the defeat in 1282 of the Welsh prince Llewelyn ap Gruffydd by Edward I, the Welsh regalia, including the crown of the legendary King Arthur, were surrendered to England. According to the Chronicle of Aberconwy Abbey, "and so the glory of Wales and the Welsh was handed over to the kings of England".[34] After the invasion of Scotland in 1296, the Stone of Scone was sent to the Tower of London "in recognition", as the chronicler Walter of Guisborough put it, "of a kingdom surrendered and conquered".[35] It was fitted into a wooden chair, which came to be used for the investiture of kings of England, earning its reputation as the Coronation Chair.[36] The Scottish regalia were also taken to London and offered at the shrine of Edward the Confessor;[37] Scotland eventually regained its independence.[38] In Edward II's treasury in 1324 there were 10 crowns.[39] When Richard II was forced to abdicate in 1399, he symbolically handed St Edward's Crown to Henry IV, saying "I present and give to you this crown … and all the rights dependent on it".[40]

Monarchs often pledged various items of state regalia as collateral for loans throughout the Middle Ages when money was short.[41] Even a state crown was handed over to the Corporation of London in exchange for a £4,000 loan in 1386. Sometimes objects were temporarily released from pawn by mayors, knights, dukes, bankers, and other wealthy subjects in both England and continental Europe for the king to use at state occasions, then returned following the ceremony. Kings would also distribute plate and jewels in lieu of money to their troops.[42]

At some point in the 14th century, all of the state regalia were moved to the White Tower at the Tower of London due to a series of successful and attempted thefts in a part of Westminster Abbey that housed state regalia.[h] The holy relics of the coronation regalia stayed behind intact at the Abbey.[43] Two arches topped with a monde and cross were added to new images of St Edward's Crown by the time of Henry IV and to the state crown during the reign of his successor Henry V,[41] though arches did not feature on the Great Seal until 1471.[44] Known as a closed or imperial crown, the arches symbolised the king's pretensions of being an emperor of his own domain, subservient to no one but God, unlike some continental rulers who owed fealty to more powerful kings or the Holy Roman Emperor.[45]

Tudor and early Stuart periods

The traditions established in the medieval period continued later. By the middle of the 15th century, a crown was formally worn on six religious feasts every year: Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Whitsun, All Saints' Day, and one or both feasts of St Edward.[46][i] A crown was displayed and worn at the annual State Opening of Parliament,[47] and three were placed on the heads of monarchs at a coronation: St Edward's Crown, the state crown, and a "rich crown" made specially for the king or queen.[48]

Coronation portrait of Queen Elizabeth I in a gold robe trimmed with ermine and decorated with silver-coloured Tudor roses. She is wearing a crown and holding a gold sceptre in her right hand and a blue orb in her left, all of which are decorated with gemstones and pearls.
Elizabeth I holding an orb

Around this time, three swords – symbols of kingship since ancient times – were being used in the coronation ceremony to represent the king's powers in the administration of justice: the Sword of Spiritual Justice, the Sword of Temporal Justice, and the blunt Sword of Mercy.[49] An emerging item of state regalia was the orb, described in Tudor inventories as a round ball with a cross of gold,[50] which underlined the monarch's sovereignty. Orbs had been pictorial emblems of royal authority in England since the early Middle Ages but a real orb was probably not used at any English coronation until that of Henry VIII in 1509.[51] After the English Reformation, the Church of England denounced the veneration of medieval relics, and starting with the coronation of Edward VI in 1547, the significance of St Edward's Crown as a holy relic was downplayed in the ceremony.[52]

State regalia were increasingly passed from one king to the next. The first known example of this was Henry VIII's Crown. Its date of manufacture is unknown but it was probably created at the beginning of the Tudor dynasty, maybe in the reign of Henry VII. The gold crown was covered in precious stones, and its rim was decorated with alternate crosses pattée and fleurs-de-lis,[50] a pattern which first appears on the Great Seal of Richard III and is still a distinctive feature on British crowns today.[44] Although some English monarchs laid claim to the French throne, the fleurs-de-lis on their crowns had evolved from the trefoil introduced in the 11th century by King Canute and were purely decorative.[53] The concept of hereditary state regalia was enshrined in English law after the Union of the Crowns when James I decreed in 1605: "Roiall and Princely ornaments and Jewells [are] to be indyvidually and inseparably for ever hereafter annexed to the Kingdome of this Realme".[50]

Following the death of James I in 1625, Charles I succeeded the throne. His many conflicts with Parliament, stemming from his belief in the divine right of kings and the many religious conflicts that pervaded his reign, triggered the English Civil War.[54] Parliament viewed the regalia as "Jewels of the Crown", vested in the monarch because of his public role as king, and not owned by him in a personal capacity.[55] To avoid putting his own subjects at risk, Charles and his wife exported many of the state regalia, including the Mirror of Great Britain and some historic jewels once owned by Elizabeth I, to customers and pawn brokers in Amsterdam at a heavy discount. In 1642, on learning of the king's scheme, both Houses of Parliament declared all traffickers of the Crown Jewels to be enemies of the state.[56][j]


Charles I standing beside Henry VIII's Crown and a gold orb and sceptre, 1631

After six years of war, Charles was defeated and executed by the Roundheads in 1649. Less than a week after the king's execution, the Rump Parliament voted to abolish the monarchy. The newly created English Republic found itself short of money. In order to raise funds, the Act for the Sale of the Goods and Personal Estate of the Late King, Queen and Prince was brought into law, and trustees were appointed to value the Jewels – then regarded by Oliver Cromwell as "symbolic of the detestable rule of kings"[57] and "monuments of superstition and idolatry"[58]  – and sell them to the highest bidder. The most valuable object was Henry VIII's Crown, valued at £1,100.[59] Their gemstones and pearls removed, most of the coronation and state regalia were melted down, and the gold was struck into hundreds of coins by the Mint.[60]

Two nuptial crowns, the Crown of Margaret of York and the Crown of Princess Blanche, survived as they had been taken out of England centuries before the Civil War by Margaret and Blanche when they married kings in continental Europe. Both crowns and the 9th-century Alfred Jewel, which belonged to Alfred the Great,[20] give a sense of the character of royal jewellery in England in the Middle Ages.[61] Another rare survivor is Henry V's 600-year-old Crystal Sceptre, a gift to the Lord Mayor of London, who still bears it at coronations.[62] Many pieces of English plate had been presented to visiting dignitaries and can be seen in museums throughout Europe.[63] The Scottish regalia of Charles II, who was crowned King of Scotland in 1651, also survive even though Cromwell made an attempt to seize and destroy the regalia.[64] Cromwell declined invitations by Parliament to be made king and became Lord Protector of England. It was marked by a ceremony in Westminster Hall in 1657, where he donned purple robes, sat on the Coronation Chair, and was invested with many traditional symbols of sovereignty, except a crown.[65] A crown perhaps made of gilded base metal, as was typical of funerary crowns in those days, was placed beside Cromwell at his lying in state in 1660.[66]

Restoration to present day

The monarchy was restored after Cromwell's death, and for the English coronation of Charles II, who had been living in exile abroad, new Jewels were made based on records of the lost items.[57] They were supplied by the banker and Royal Goldsmith,[k] Sir Robert Vyner, at a cost of £12,184 7s 2d[68] – as much as three warships.[69] It was decided to fashion the replicas as much as possible like the medieval regalia and to use the original names. These 22-karat gold objects,[70] made in 1660 and 1661, form the nucleus of the Crown Jewels today: St Edward's Crown, two sceptres, an orb, an ampulla for the holy anointing oil,[l] a pair of spurs, a pair of armills or bracelets, and a walking stick known as St Edward's Staff. A medieval silver-gilt anointing spoon and three swords had survived and were returned to the Crown,[72] and the Dutch ambassador organised for extant jewels pawned in Holland to be brought back.[73] Between 1660 and 1663, at the additional cost of some £18,000, almost two tons (4,400 lb) of altar and banqueting plate were made for the king.[74]

Sketch of Thomas Blood and his accomplices stealing objects from the Jewel House
Thomas Blood making his escape, drawn 1793

In 1669, the Jewels went on public display for the first time in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. The Deputy Keeper of the Jewel House took the regalia out of a cupboard and showed it to visitors for a small fee.[75] This informal arrangement was ended two years later when Thomas Blood, an Irish-born army officer loyal to Parliament, attacked the 77-year-old and stole a crown, a sceptre, and an orb. Blood and his three accomplices were apprehended at the castle perimeter, but the crown had been flattened with a mallet in an attempt to conceal it, and there was a dent in the orb.[76] He was pardoned by the king, who also gave him land and a pension; it has been suggested that Blood was treated leniently because he was a government spy.[77] Ever since, the Jewels have been protected by armed guards.[78]

Since the Restoration, there have been many additions and alterations to the regalia.[m] A new set of regalia was commissioned in 1685 for Mary of Modena, the first queen consort to be crowned since the Restoration, Charles II having been unmarried when he took the throne.[79] Another, more elaborate set had to be made four years later when Mary II was crowned as joint sovereign with her husband William III.[57] After the Acts of Union 1707 joined England and Scotland together, the Scottish Crown Jewels were locked away in a chest,[80] and the English Crown Jewels continued to be used by British monarchs. Starting with Queen Anne, gemstones were hired for coronations – the fee typically being 4% of their value[68] – and replaced with paste and crystals for display in the Jewel House, a practice which continued until the early 20th century.[57]

During World War II, as in the First World War,[81] the Crown Jewels were stored in the basement of Windsor Castle.[82] The most valuable gems, such as the Cullinan diamonds and Koh-i-Noor, were taken out of the regalia, sealed in a biscuit tin and hidden beneath a sally port, allowing them to be recovered in a hurry.[83] After the war, the Jewels were kept in a vault at the Bank of England while the Jewel House was repaired; it had been struck by a bomb.[84] In 1947, the Jewels went back on display at the Tower of London.[85] In 1953, nine centuries after the coronation of its namesake, St Edward's Crown was placed on the head of Queen Elizabeth II in what is now the only ceremony of its kind in Europe.[57] Today, 140 objects make up the Crown Jewels,[86] which are permanently set with 23,578 precious and semi-precious stones, and they are seen in the Jewel House by around 2.5 million visitors from across the world every year.[87]


Crowns are the main symbols of royal authority.[19]

St Edward's Crown

St Edward's Crown, 1919. The beads are now gold.

The centrepiece of the coronation regalia is named after Edward the Confessor and is placed on the monarch's head at the actual moment of crowning by the Archbishop of Canterbury.[88] Made of gold and completed in 1661, St Edward's Crown has four fleurs-de-lis and four crosses pattée with two depressed arches on top. Surmounting the arches is a jewelled monde and cross pattée. Its frame is embellished with 444 precious and semi-precious stones, including amethysts, garnets, peridots, rubies, sapphires, topazes, tourmalines and zircons.[89]

It was fashioned to closely resemble the medieval St Edward's Crown, with a heavy gold base and clusters of semi-precious stones, but the arches are decidedly Baroque.[90] In the late 20th century, it was assumed to incorporate gold from the original, as they are almost identical in weight, and no invoice was produced in 1661 for the materials. In 2008, new research found that a coronation crown had been made in 1660, a year before Charles II's other regalia were commissioned after Parliament increased the budget as a token of their appreciation for the king.[91]

The crown is 30 cm (11.8 in) tall, and at a weight of 2.23 kg (4.9 lb) it has been noted to be extremely heavy.[89] After 1689, monarchs chose to be crowned with a lighter, bespoke coronation crown (e.g., the Coronation Crown of George IV)[92] or their state crown, while St Edward's Crown usually rested on the high altar. The tradition of using St Edward's Crown was revived in 1911 for the coronation of George V.[88] In 1953, Queen Elizabeth II opted to use a stylised image of this crown in coats of arms, badges, logos and various other insignia throughout the Commonwealth realms to symbolise her royal authority. It replaced the image of a Tudor-style crown adopted in 1901 by Edward VII.[93]

Imperial State Crown

Imperial State Crown

A much lighter crown is worn by the monarch when he or she leaves Westminster Abbey, and at the annual State Opening of Parliament.[94] The current Imperial State Crown was made in 1937 for George VI and is a copy of the one made in 1838 for Queen Victoria, which had fallen into a poor state of repair,[95] and had been made using gems from its own predecessor, the State Crown of George I.[96] In 1953, the crown was resized to fit Queen Elizabeth II, and the arches were lowered by 2.5 cm (1.0 in) to give it a more feminine appearance.[97] It is made of gold, silver and platinum, and has four crosses pattée and fleurs-de-lis, with two arches surmounted by a monde and cross pattée.

The crown is decorated with 2,868 diamonds, 273 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds and 5 rubies.[98] Among the largest stones are the 317-carat (63.4 g) Cullinan II diamond, also known as the Second Star of Africa, added to the crown in 1909. The 170-carat (34.0 g) Black Prince's Ruby, set in the front cross, is a large spinel given to Edward the Black Prince by a Spanish king in 1367 and worn by Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. At the back of the crown is the 104-carat (20.8 g) Stuart Sapphire, and in the top cross is St Edward's Sapphire, reputedly taken from the ring of Edward the Confessor when his body was re-interred at Westminster Abbey in 1163.[99] Below the monde hang four pearls, three of which are often said to have belonged to Queen Elizabeth I, but the association is almost certainly erroneous.[100]

Consort crowns

After the Restoration, wives of kings – queens consort – traditionally wore the Crown of Mary of Modena, wife of James II, who first wore it at their coronation in 1685. Originally set with 561 hired diamonds and 129 pearls, it is now set with crystals and cultured pearls for display in the Jewel House along with a matching diadem that consorts wore in procession to the Abbey. The diadem once held 177 diamonds, 1 ruby, 1 sapphire, and 1 emerald.[101] By the 19th century, the crown was judged to be too theatrical and in a poor state of repair, so the Crown of Queen Adelaide was made for the wife of William IV to wear in 1831 using gemstones from her own collection of jewellery.[102]

Queen Mary's Crown

Thus began a tradition of each queen consort having a crown made specially for her.[103] In 1902, the Crown of Queen Alexandra, a European-style crown – flatter and with eight half-arches instead of the traditional four – was made for Queen Alexandra, wife of Edward VII, to wear at their coronation. Set with over 3,000 diamonds, it was the first consort crown to include the Koh-i-Noor diamond presented to Queen Victoria in 1850 following the British conquest of the Punjab. Originally 191 carats (38 g) and set in an armlet, it was cut down to an oval brilliant weighing 105 carats (21 g), which Victoria mounted in a brooch and circlet.[104] The second was Queen Mary's Crown; also unusual for a British crown in having eight half-arches, it was made in 1911 for the coronation of Queen Mary and George V. It contains 2,200 diamonds and has contained Cullinans III and IV. In 1914, both stones and the Koh-i-Noor were replaced with crystal replicas and the arches were made detachable so it could be worn as an open crown.[105] Mary paid for the Art Deco-inspired crown and originally hoped that it would be used by future queens consort.[106]

After George V died, Mary continued wearing the crown (without its arches) as a queen mother, and so the Crown of Queen Elizabeth was made for Queen Elizabeth, wife of George VI and later known as the Queen Mother, to wear at their coronation in 1937.[107] It is the only British crown to be made entirely of platinum,[105] and was modelled on Queen Mary's Crown, but has the usual four half-arches instead of eight.[108] The crown is decorated with about 2,800 diamonds, most notably the Koh-i-Noor in the middle of the front cross. It also contains a replica of the 22.5-carat (5 g) Lahore Diamond given to Queen Victoria by the East India Company in 1851,[109] and a 17.3-carat (3 g) diamond given to her by Abdülmecid I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, in 1856.[108] Elizabeth last wore it as an open crown at the coronation of her daughter Elizabeth II in 1953. The crown was laid on top of Elizabeth's coffin during her lying in state and funeral in 2002.[110]

Prince of Wales coronets

The relatively modest Coronet of Frederick was made in 1728 for Frederick, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of George II. It takes the form laid down in a royal warrant issued by Charles II which states that the heir apparent of the Crown shall use and bear a coronet of crosses and fleurs-de-lis with one arch surmounted by a ball and cross.[111] The single arch denotes that the Prince of Wales is inferior to the monarch but outranks the other royal children, whose coronets have no arches.[112] Frederick never wore his gold coronet; instead, it was placed on a cushion in front of him when he took his seat in the House of Lords. It was used by his son, George III, then his son, George IV, and last used by Edward VII when he was Prince of Wales.[113] Due to its age, a new silver-gilt coronet was made for his son, the future George V, to wear at Edward's coronation in 1902. In contrast to the earlier coronet, which has a depressed arch, the arch on this one is raised. At George's own coronation in 1911, the coronet was worn by his son, Edward, the next Prince of Wales.[114] After he became king in 1936, Edward VIII abdicated later the same year and, as the Duke of Windsor, went into exile in France, taking the 1902 coronet with him; it remained abroad until his death in 1972. In its absence, another coronet had to be made for the investiture of Prince Charles in 1969.[115] Unlike the defunct coronets,[3] this one is not a part of the Crown Jewels but the Honours of the Principality of Wales.[116]

Non-coronation crowns

In the Jewel House there are two crowns that were not intended to be used at a coronation. Queen Victoria's Small Diamond Crown is just 10 cm (3.9 in) tall, and was made in 1870 using 1,187 diamonds for Victoria to wear on top of her widow's cap. She often wore it at State Openings of Parliament in place of the much heavier Imperial State Crown. After the queen's death in 1901, Queen Alexandra wore the crown, and it was also worn by Queen Mary.[117] The Imperial Crown of India was created in 1911 when George V visited the Delhi Durbar with Queen Mary to be proclaimed (but not crowned) as Emperor of India. Since the British constitution prohibits the removal of Crown Jewels from the United Kingdom, a new crown had to be made for the event, with emeralds, rubies, sapphires and 6,100 diamonds. It has not been used since and is now a part of the Crown Jewels.[118]

Processional objects

A coronation begins with the procession into Westminster Abbey.


Left to right: The Sword of Offering, the Sword of State, and the Sword of Mercy

Swords reflect a monarch's role as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces and Defender of the Faith.[119] Three swords are carried before the monarch into the Abbey: the blunt Sword of Mercy (also known as Curtana), the Sword of Spiritual Justice, and the Sword of Temporal Justice.[49] All three are believed to have been supplied at the time of James I between 1610 and 1620, probably by a member of the Worshipful Company of Cutlers,[120] using blades that were created in the 1580s by Italian bladesmiths Giandonato and Andrea Ferrara. They were deposited with St Edward's regalia at the Abbey by Charles II; before then, new swords had been made for each coronation since the 15th century.[49] Sold in the civil war, they were returned at the Restoration, and their first recorded use was at the coronation of James II in 1685.[120]

Two other swords are used. The two-handed Sword of State,[n] made in 1678, symbolises the monarch's royal authority. It is also carried before the monarch at State Openings of Parliament.[122] Its wooden sheath is bound in crimson velvet decorated with silver-gilt emblems of England, Scotland and Ireland, fleurs-de-lis and portcullises. In the centre is the royal badge of joint-sovereigns William III and Mary II, for whose coronation the sheath was made in 1689.[123] The lion of England and unicorn of Scotland form the cross-piece to the sword's handle. Before the investiture, it is exchanged for the principal Sword of Offering, of which the Sword of State is a mere expression.[124] Made in 1820, it has a gilded leather sheath, a blade of Damascus steel, and is encrusted with 3,476 diamonds, emeralds, and rubies.[125] George IV paid almost £6,000 for the sword out of his own pocket. It remained in personal ownership until 1903 when it was deposited with the Crown Jewels and has been used continuously since 1911.[126] A monarch is girded and blessed using the sword, which is returned to the Keeper of the Jewel House by the abbey for a token sum of £5,[69] and it is borne unsheathed for the rest of the ceremony.[124]

The defunct Irish Sword of State, made in 1681, also resides at the Tower of London, and was held by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland prior to Ireland gaining independence from the United Kingdom in 1922.[127] It was last used on George V's state visit to Ireland in 1911.[122] At 1.27 m (4.2 ft) long, it is the largest sword in the collection.[3] The sword was displayed at Dublin Castle from September 2017 until April 2018 as part of the 'Making Majesty' exhibition – the first time it had been to Ireland since 1922.[128]

St Edward's Staff

St Edward's Staff is a 1.4-metre-long (4.6 ft) gold walking stick made for Charles II in 1661. It has a plain monde and cross at the top and a steel pike at the bottom.[129] This object is almost certainly a copy of the long rod of silver-gilt mentioned in the list of royal plate and jewels destroyed in 1649.[130] The staff's intended role in the coronation has been forgotten since medieval times, and so it is carried into the abbey by a peer as a holy relic and laid on the altar, where it remains throughout the ceremony.[131]


Trumpeters and a mace bearer at the 1685 coronation of James II

The Crown Jewels include 16 silver trumpets dating from between 1780 and 1848.[3] Nine of these are draped with red silk damask banners embroidered with coats of arms in gold, originally made for the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838.[132] They have not been used since the Corps of State Trumpeters was disbanded by the Duke of Wellington as a cost-cutting measure in the 19th century.[133] The trumpeters' main job was to sound a fanfare at key points in the coronation, and they also played at the banquet afterwards in Westminster Hall.[134] Today, the Band of the Household Cavalry and the Central Band of the Royal Air Force play their own trumpets at state occasions.[135][136]


Beginning life as weapons carried by the king's sergeants-at-arms, or bodyguards, maces evolved into ceremonial objects carried by the king's officers.[137] Today, they are used to represent the monarch's authority. The House of Commons can only operate when the royal mace – dating from the reign of Charles II – is present at the table. Two other maces dating from the reigns of Charles II and William III are used by the House of Lords: One is placed on the Woolsack before the house meets and is absent when a monarch is there in person.[138] In the late 17th century, there were 16 maces, but only 13 survive, 10 of which are on display at the Tower of London. Two of these are carried in the royal procession at State Openings of Parliament and coronations. Each mace is about 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long and weighs an average of 10 kg (22.0 lb).[139] They are silver-gilt and were made between 1660 and 1695.[3]

Anointing objects

When a monarch is anointed, the Dean of Westminster pours holy anointing oil from an ampulla into a spoon.[140]


The Ampulla

The Ampulla, 20 cm (7.9 in) tall and weighing 660 g (1.5 lb), is a hollow gold vessel made in 1661 and shaped like an eagle with outspread wings. Its head unscrews, enabling the vessel to be filled, and the oil exits via a hole in the beak.[141] The original ampulla was a phial made of stone, sometimes worn as a pendant by kings, and otherwise kept inside a gold eagle.[142] Fourteenth-century legend has it that the Virgin Mary appeared in front of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until 1170, and presented to him a gold eagle and phial of oil for anointing kings of England.[143] This ampulla was first recorded as being used at the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 and was deposited for safekeeping with St Edward's regalia at the Abbey by Richard III in 1483.[52] The same oil was used to anoint all kings and queens (except Mary I) until it ran out in 1625. No one is quite sure why the vessel itself came to be reinterpreted as an eagle standing on a domed base after the Restoration.[142] In terms of religious importance, the anointing objects are second only to St Edward's Crown,[144] and the ampulla was placed beside the crown on the altar of Westminster Abbey in 2013 at a service marking the 60th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation.[145]


The 27-centimetre-long (10.6 in) Coronation Spoon, which dates from the late 12th century, is silver-gilt and set with four pearls added in the 17th century. A ridge divides the bowl in half, creating grooves into which the Archbishop of Canterbury dips two fingers and anoints the monarch, confirming him or her as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Originally, the spoon may have been used for mixing water and wine in a chalice, and it was first used to anoint a monarch at the English coronation of James I in 1603.[146] It is the oldest surviving piece of regalia, first recorded in the Royal Collection in 1349 as "a spoon of ancient form", and was probably made for Henry II or Richard I.[147] In 1649, Oliver Cromwell sold the spoon to Clement Kynnersley, Yeoman of the Removing Wardrobe, who returned it to Charles II upon the restoration of the monarchy.[148]

The silver-gilt Coronation Spoon

Robes and ornaments

The anointing is followed by investment with coronation robes and ornaments.[o]


Queen Victoria wearing a copy of the Imperial Mantle, which can be seen at the Museum of London,[149] 1838

All the robes have priestly connotations and their form has changed little since the Middle Ages. A tradition of wearing St Edward's robes came to an end in 1547 after the English Reformation but was revived in 1603 by James I to emphasise his belief in the divine nature of kingship.[150] As well as robes, a monarch also wore either cloth-of-gold buskins or sandals, depending on the size of his or her feet.[151] The holy relics were destroyed along with royal crowns and ornaments in the Civil War, and new robes were made for each monarch starting with Charles II, a practice that ended in 1911.[150] George V wore the Supertunica, a dalmatic over the Colobium Sindonis; and a cope known as the Imperial Mantle. Both robes, made for George IV in 1821,[p] are of gold thread and together weigh approximately 10 kg (22 lb).[153] They were also worn by his successors George VI and Elizabeth II. A new stole was made in 1953 for Elizabeth II by the Worshipful Company of Girdlers. It is adorned with floral emblems of Australia, Canada, Ceylon, India, New Zealand, and the four countries of the United Kingdom – members of the Commonwealth, which is headed by the Queen.[154]


Prick spurs remade for Charles II are presented to the monarch. They are made of solid gold, richly embossed with floral patterns and scrolls, and have straps of crimson velvet embroidered in gold. Both necks terminate in a Tudor rose with a spike at its centre. Also known as St George's Spurs, they are one of the emblems of knighthood and chivalry, and denote the sovereign's role as Commander-in-chief of the British Armed Forces.[155] Gold spurs are first known to have been used in 1189 at the coronation of Richard I, though it is likely they were introduced for Henry the Young King in 1170, and this element of the service was probably inspired by the initiation ceremony of knights. A pair of mid 14th-century spurs were added to St Edward's regalia at the Abbey in 1399 and used at all coronations until they were destroyed in 1649.[156] Historically, spurs were fastened to the monarch's feet, but since the Restoration they are simply brushed against the heels of kings or shown to queens and placed on the altar.[155]


The Armills are gold bracelets of sincerity and wisdom.[157] Like spurs, they were first used at English coronations in the 12th century.[158] By the 17th century, armills were no longer delivered to the monarch, but simply carried at the coronation. A new pair had to be made in 1661; they are 4 cm (1.6 in) wide, 7 cm (2.8 in) in diameter, and champlevé enamelled on the surface with roses, thistles and harps – the national symbols of England, Scotland and Ireland – as well as fleurs-de-lis.[159] For Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953, the medieval tradition was revived, and a new set of plain 22-karat gold armills lined with crimson velvet was presented to the Queen on behalf of various Commonwealth governments. Each bracelet is fitted with an invisible hinge and a clasp in the form of a Tudor rose. The hallmark includes a tiny portrait of the Queen,[160] who continued to wear the armills on leaving the abbey and could be seen wearing them later, with the Imperial State Crown and Sovereign's Ring, at her appearance on the balcony of Buckingham Palace.[161]


Sovereign's Orb

An orb, a type of globus cruciger, was first used at an English coronation by Henry VIII in 1509 and then by all subsequent monarchs, apart from early Stuart kings James I and Charles I, who opted for the medieval coronation order. The Tudor orb was deposited with St Edward's regalia at Westminster Abbey in 1625.[162] The Sovereign's Orb used today is a hollow gold sphere about 16.5 cm (6.5 in) in diameter and weighing 1.2 kg (2.6 lb) (more than twice as heavy as the original)[162] made for Charles II in 1661.[163] A band of gems and pearls runs along the equator and there is a half-band on the top hemisphere. Atop the orb is an amethyst surmounted by a jewelled cross, symbolising the Christian world, with a sapphire on one side and an emerald on the other.[164] Altogether, the orb is decorated with 375 pearls, 365 diamonds, 18 rubies, 9 emeralds, 9 sapphires, 1 amethyst and 1 piece of glass.[165] It is handed to the sovereign during the investiture rite of the coronation and is borne later in the left hand when leaving Westminster Abbey.[166] Queen Mary II's Orb, originally set with hired gems, is a smaller version made in 1689 for Mary II to hold at her joint coronation with William III; it was never used again at a coronation, and is now set with imitation gems and cultured pearls. The orb is 14.6 cm (5.7 in) in diameter and weighs 1.07 kg (2.4 lb).[163] Both orbs were laid on Queen Victoria's coffin at her state funeral in 1901. Officially, no reason was given for using Mary II's orb, but it may have been intended to reflect Victoria's position as Empress of India.[141]


Before 1831, each monarch generally received a new ring to symbolise his or her "marriage" to the nation.[79] An exception was the Stuart Coronation Ring, probably used at the English coronations of Charles I and Charles II, and certainly that of James II, who took the ring to France after the Glorious Revolution. It returned to the United Kingdom 100 years later and is now part of the Royal Collection of Gems and Jewels. The gold ring has a large ruby etched with a Cross of St George and bordered by 26 diamonds applied in the 19th century.[167] Rubies symbolise all the kingly virtues and have featured on coronation rings since the early Middle Ages.[168] Since 1830, the ring has been on permanent loan from Windsor Castle to Edinburgh Castle, where it is displayed with the Honours of Scotland.[167]

The Sovereign's Ring has been used by all monarchs from William IV in 1831 to Queen Elizabeth II, with the exception of Queen Victoria, whose fingers were too small to retain it.[79] In the centre of the gold ring is an octagonal sapphire overlaid with a square ruby and four long, narrow rubies forming a cross. Around the sapphire are 14 brilliant diamonds.[169] The general design is intended to represent the red Cross of St George on the blue background of St Andrew's Cross.[160] A small copy of the ring was made for Victoria, who wrote in a letter: "The Archbishop had (most awkwardly) put the ring on the wrong finger, and the consequence was that I had the greatest difficulty to take it off again, which I at last did with great pain".[170] In fact, the ring had been sized to fit the queen's little finger instead of her ring finger due to a misunderstanding by the jewellers.[171] In 1919, it was deposited at the Tower of London along with the Sovereign's Ring and Queen Consort's Ring, which has been worn by all wives of kings from Queen Adelaide onwards.[172]


The sceptre, a symbolic ornamental rod held by the monarch at a coronation, is most likely derived from the shepherd's staff, via the crozier of a bishop; it may, however, be a remnant of the ceremonial spear that was presented to kings and queens at coronations in different parts of the world in early history.[173]

Head of the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross

Two gold sceptres made in 1661 are part of the coronation regalia. The Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross is a token of his or her temporal power as head of state. The whole object is 92 cm (3.0 ft) long, weighs around 1.17 kg (2.6 lb), and is decorated with 333 diamonds, 31 rubies, 15 emeralds, 7 sapphires, 6 spinels and 1 composite amethyst.[174] In 1910, it was redesigned to incorporate Cullinan I, also known as the Great Star of Africa, which, at over 530 carats (106 g), is still the largest clear cut diamond in the world.[175] It was part of a rough diamond weighing 3,106 carats (621.2 g) found in South Africa in 1905 and was named after the chairman of the mining company, Thomas Cullinan. The gold clasps holding it can be opened and the stone removed to be worn as a pendant hanging from Cullinan II, which is set in the Imperial State Crown, to form a brooch – Queen Mary, wife of George V, often wore it like this.[99] Above the pear-shaped diamond is the amethyst surmounted by a cross pattée encrusted with an emerald and small diamonds. During the coronation, the monarch bears the Sceptre with Cross in the right hand.[176]

George VI holding the Sovereign's Sceptres and wearing the robes, 1937

The less ornate Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove, which has also been known traditionally as the Rod of Equity and Mercy, is emblematic of his or her spiritual role. It is a bit longer at 1.1 m (3.6 ft) but weighs about the same as the Sceptre with Cross. The sceptre is decorated with 285 gemstones, including 94 diamonds, 53 rubies, 10 emeralds, 4 sapphires and 3 spinels.[174] At the top is a gold monde set with diamonds and topped by a plain cross, on which sits a white champlevé enamelled dove with its wings outspread; the eyes, beak and feet are gold leaf. The dove has been used to represent the Holy Ghost, who guides the sovereign's actions, for many centuries. Circling the rod are bands of precious stones.[177] The Sceptre with Dove is the final piece of regalia delivered to the monarch in the investment part of a coronation. It is borne in the left hand, and as the monarch holds both sceptres, he or she is crowned with St Edward's Crown.[171]

The Crown Jewels include two sceptres originally made for Mary of Modena, the wife of James II, in 1685: a gold sceptre with a cross known as the Queen Consort's Sceptre with Cross and another topped by a dove known as the Queen Consort's Ivory Rod with Dove, which, as the name suggests, is made of ivory. Unlike the sovereign's dove, this one has folded wings and is relatively small.[178] It was last used by Queen Elizabeth, later known as the Queen Mother, at the coronation of her husband George VI in 1937. For the coronation of Mary II, the wife and joint sovereign of William III, a more elaborate gold sceptre with dove was commissioned in 1689. It has not been used since, and went missing for several decades, only to be found in 1814 at the back of a cupboard in the Tower of London.[165]

Altar plate

Altar dishes behind George V at his coronation in 1911

In the Jewel House there is a collection of chalices, patens, flagons, candlesticks and dishes – all silver-gilt except five gold communion vessels – that are displayed on the high altar or in front of the royal box at Westminster Abbey during a coronation, and some are also used at various other times.[179] Although not held or worn by a monarch, such items are classified as Crown Jewels by virtue of their long association with the Jewel House.[180] One of the most striking pieces is a large dish 95 cm (3.12 ft) across and weighing 13 kg (28.7 lb), in the centre of which is a relief depiction of the Last Supper. Around the edge are four engravings of biblical scenes: the Washing of the Feet, the Walk to Emmaus, the Coming of the Holy Ghost, and Christ's Commission to the Apostles. Made in 1664 for James, Duke of York, and later acquired by Charles II, it stands on the high altar during a coronation ceremony.[181] At each end of the altar stands a 96-centimetre (3.1 ft) tall candlestick made in the 17th century, which is engraved all over with scrolls, leaves and flowers, and they were also used at the lying in state of Edward VII at Buckingham Palace in 1910.[182]

An altar dish and flagon were made in 1691 for the royal Church of St Peter ad Vincula at the Tower of London. The dish measures 70 cm (2.3 ft) across; it also has a depiction of the Last Supper, below which is the coat of arms of co-regents William III and Mary II.[183] The flagon stands 42.5 cm (1.4 ft) tall.[184] Both pieces are still used in the chapel on Easter, Whitsun and Christmas, and they were first displayed at a coronation in 1821.[185] Another dish still in regular use is the Maundy Dish – one of six used by the Queen at Royal Maundy for handing out alms to elderly people in recognition of their service to the church and local community. The ceremony, which takes place in a different cathedral every year, entirely replaced the ancient custom of washing the feet of the poor in 1730, and the dish, though it bears the royal cypher of William and Mary, dates from the reign of Charles II. Two purses containing specially minted coins are taken from the dish and presented to each recipient.[186]

Banqueting plate

Until the 19th century, the coronation was followed by a banquet at Westminster Hall; the last banquet was held in 1821 for George IV.[187] Silverware used at the banquets include the Plymouth Fountain, a wine fountain made around 1640 by a German goldsmith and presented to Charles II by the city of Plymouth. Gilded for George II in 1726, it is 77.5 cm (2.5 ft) tall and decorated with flowers, fruit, dolphins, mermaids and sea monsters.[188] No record exists of it being used as a fountain, though it may have served as a fruit bowl.[185]

The nautical theme is continued in the silver-gilt Wine Cistern, also known as the Grand Punch Bowl, which is cast as a giant oyster shell. It weighs 257 kg (40.5 st), is 0.76 m (2.5 ft) tall, 1.38 m (4.5 ft) long and 1.01 m (3.3 ft) wide, and can hold 144 bottles of wine on ice.[189] It was made in 1829 for George IV but completed after his death. Weighing almost a quarter of a ton, it is the heaviest surviving piece of English banqueting plate.[190] In 1841, the cistern was re-purposed as a punch bowl by Queen Victoria, with the addition of a ladle. The ivory-stemmed ladle is 1.05 m (3.4 ft) long and has a silver-gilt bowl in the form of a nautilus shell.[191]

External video
Video of the Exeter Salt with commentary by the Royal Collection Trust (3:23)

The Exeter Salt, a 45-centimetre (1.5 ft) tall salt cellar in the form of a castle on a rocky outcrop, was presented to Charles II after the Restoration by the city of Exeter. Each of its four main compartments, in the turrets, held about 29 g (1.0 oz) of salt, and smaller compartments in the walls held pepper and spices.[192] It was made in 1630 by a German goldsmith in Hamburg and is set with 73 gems.[193] Eleven smaller salts named after St George were originally made for a St George's Day banquet of the Knights of the Garter and Charles II in the 17th century. Another, the Queen Elizabeth Salt, was made in 1572 during the reign of Elizabeth I for a member of the aristocracy; it was acquired by the Crown at the time of Charles II. Complementing the salts are twelve salt spoons made for George IV in 1820.[194]

Christening fonts

Lily Font on top of the Charles II Font and Basin at the christening of Edward, Prince of Wales, 1842

Charles II, unmarried when he took the throne, persuaded his Treasury to pay for a christening font and basin. His marriage to Catherine of Braganza produced no heir, but the font may have been used to baptise some of his 13 illegitimate children. It was last used to baptise George IV's daughter, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, while the basin found a new role as an altar dish in the 19th century.[195]

A christening ewer and basin made by the Garrard & Co. founder George Wickes in 1735 were used at the christening of the future George III in 1738. His father, Frederick, Prince of Wales, had been banished from the royal court by George II and was forbidden to use the Charles II Font.[195] An inscription at the front of the ewer records its use at the christening of George III's son, Prince Alfred, in 1780. The handle of the ewer is topped by a figure of Hercules slaying the Hydra, symbolising the triumph of virtue over vice.[196]

The silver-gilt Lily Font was made in 1840 by E.E.J. & W. Barnard for the christening of Victoria, Princess Royal, the first child of Queen Victoria, who declined to use the Charles II Font because of its unseemly history.[195] The font weighs approximately 10 kg (22.0 lb) and is decorated with water lilies, symbolising purity and new life, and cherubs plucking lyres. It has been used for the christenings of all of Elizabeth II's children and grandchildren except Princess Eugenie, with holy water from the River Jordan.[196]

Ownership, management and value

The Crown Jewels, part of the Royal Collection,[197] do not belong to the state,[198] but are owned by a monarch in right of the Crown.[199] Their ownership is regarded as inalienable and passes from one monarch to the next.[200] However, a 17th-century ruling by Sir Edward Coke, which states "the ancient jewels of the crown are heirloomes and shall descend to the next successor and are not devisable by testament", contains an exception allowing the monarch to dispose of objects via letters patent under the Great Seal or Privy Seal.[201][q] In practice it is unlikely the Crown Jewels will ever be sold,[200] nor are they insured against loss,[203] and are officially priceless.[204] Their maintenance falls to the Crown Jeweller, a member of the Royal Household, who cleans them in situ at the Tower of London each January after visiting hours. Older items, such as the Coronation Spoon, are cleaned by experts from the British Museum. He or she also accompanies the regalia and plate whenever they leave the Tower, for example at State Openings of Parliament and royal christenings.[205] The Royal Collection Trust keeps an inventory of the regalia,[4] and Historic Royal Palaces is responsible for their display.[206]

See also


  1. ^ Three maces from the Jewel House are on permanent loan to the Palace of Westminster.[1] Objects can be temporarily moved to other locations. For instance, a mace, items of altar plate, the Exeter Salt, a caddinet, five St George's Salts, and Mary of Modena's crown all feature in the Charles II: Art & Power exhibition at the Queen's Gallery, Buckingham Palace, from December 2017 until May 2018.[2]
  2. ^ This figure counts pairs of items as one object.
  3. ^ Technically, the Crown Jewels are the regalia and vestments used or worn by monarchs at a coronation.[4] However, since at least the 17th century, the term has been commonly used to refer to the contents of the Jewel House.[5] The inventory in Keay (2011) extends to items displayed in the Martin Tower.
  4. ^ Husbands of queens regnant are not crowned in the United Kingdom.[8]
  5. ^ British Museum number 1990,0102.24
  6. ^ British Museum number 1957,0207.15
  7. ^ British Museum number 1939,1010.160
  8. ^ Thomas Frederick Tout gives an illuminating second-hand account of one such theft in A Mediæval Burglary (1916).
  9. ^ Edward the Confessor's feast day was 13 October and Edward the Martyr's 18 March.
  10. ^ Full statement is available in John Rushworth (1721), Historical Collections, volume 4, p. 736.
  11. ^ Vyner outsourced work to fellow members of the Goldsmiths' Company.[67]
  12. ^ A popular theory that the Ampulla pre-dates the Restoration because of its antiquated style was conclusively rejected in Claude Blair's 1998 history and catalogue raisonné on the Crown Jewels.[71]
  13. ^ A comprehensive list of additions and alterations up to the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1838 can be found in Jones, pp. 63–72. For a timeline of changes between 1855 and 1967 see Holmes and Sitwell, pp. 76–78. A thorough history is contained in Blair, volume 2.
  14. ^ All swords carried before the monarch are swords of state but only this one is named the Sword of State.[121]
  15. ^ Objects are listed in the order in which they are presented to a monarch.
  16. ^ George IV did not wear the Supertunica, and both robes were given to Westminster Abbey before passing on to a private individual, who gifted them to the Crown in 1911.[152]
  17. ^ While this common law was made before the Interregnum, it was cited by lawyers for the Crown in a 1709 legal case, and jurist Charles Viner wrote in his A General Abridgment of Law and Equity: "the King cannot dispose of … the Jewels of the Crown", i.e. objects in the custody of the Keeper of the Jewel House.[202]


  1. ^ Dixon-Smith, et al., p. 12.
  2. ^ "Charles II: Art & Power". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 14 December 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Keay (2011), pp. 189–195.
  4. ^ a b "Crown Jewels". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). 267. United Kingdom: House of Commons. 27 November 1995. col. 447W. 
  5. ^ Keay (2002), p. 3.
  6. ^ Mears, et al., p. 5.
  7. ^ Keay (2011), dust jacket.
  8. ^ Allison and Riddell, p. 451.
  9. ^ Keay (2011), p. 9.
  10. ^ Parfitt, p. 86.
  11. ^ Twining, p. 102.
  12. ^ Keay (2011), p. 12.
  13. ^ a b Barker, pp. 25–29.
  14. ^ "The Sutton Hoo Helmet". British Museum. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  15. ^ Keay (2011), pp. 13–18.
  16. ^ Keay (2011), p. 17.
  17. ^ a b Steane, p. 31.
  18. ^ Twining, p. 102.
  19. ^ a b Rose, p. 22.
  20. ^ a b Twining, p. 103.
  21. ^ Rose, p. 7.
  22. ^ Hinton, p. 142.
  23. ^ a b c Keay (2011), pp. 18–20.
  24. ^ Nicholas, p. 220.
  25. ^ Strong, pp. 118–119.
  26. ^ Rose, p. 13.
  27. ^ Rose, p. 16.
  28. ^ a b Ronald Lightbown in Blair, vol. 1. pp. 257–353.
  29. ^ Rose, p. 14.
  30. ^ Holmes, p. 216.
  31. ^ Twining, p. 132.
  32. ^ Rose, p. 24.
  33. ^ Keay (2011), p. 22.
  34. ^ Williams, p. xxxii.
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  37. ^ Breeze, et al., p. 216.
  38. ^ "The Wars of Independence". Scotland's History. BBC Scotland. Retrieved 26 July 2016. 
  39. ^ Twining, p. 117.
  40. ^ Steane, p. 34.
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  42. ^ Collins, p. 75.
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  44. ^ a b Collins, p. 11.
  45. ^ Dale Hoak in Hoak, pp. 55, 63.
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  47. ^ David Dean in Hoak, p. 243.
  48. ^ Arnold, pp. 731–732.
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  52. ^ a b Ronald Lightbown in MacGregor, p. 257.
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  56. ^ Barker, pp. 48–49.
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  66. ^ Barclay, pp. 157–159.
  67. ^ Jacobsen, p. 16.
  68. ^ a b Mears, et al., p. 6.
  69. ^ a b "Crown Jewels factsheet 2" (PDF). Historic Royal Palaces. Retrieved 29 January 2016. 
  70. ^ Kathryn Jones (17 December 2014). "Royal Gold: Reflections of Power" (Podcast). Royal Collection Trust. 13:03 minutes in. Retrieved 14 February 2018. 
  71. ^ Barclay, p. 152.
  72. ^ Dixon-Smith, et al., p. 7.
  73. ^ Collins, p. 12.
  74. ^ Shirley Bury in Blair, vol. 1. p. 368.
  75. ^ Mears, et al., pp. 46–47.
  76. ^ Hammond, p. 20.
  77. ^ Rose, p. 20.
  78. ^ Barker, p. 66.
  79. ^ a b c Lawrence E. Tanner (6 June 1953). "The Queen's coronation: The story of the regalia". Country Life. pp. 52–61. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  80. ^ Douglas S. Mack in McCracken-Flesher, p. 145.
  81. ^ Younghusband, pp. 32–33.
  82. ^ Aronson, p. 81.
  83. ^ Steve Hendrix (13 January 2018). "As the Nazis bombed Britain, the royals hid the crown jewels in the least likely place". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  84. ^ Hennessy, p. 237.
  85. ^ Holmes and Sitwell, p. 76.
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  91. ^ Barclay, pp. 150, 151, 167.
  92. ^ Dixon-Smith, et al., p. 61.
  93. ^ "Victorian Coat of Arms". Victoria State Government. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  94. ^ Mears, et al., p. 29.
  95. ^ Keay (2011), pp. 174–175.
  96. ^ Dixon-Smith, et al., p. 30.
  97. ^ Keay (2011), p. 183.
  98. ^ "The Imperial State Crown". Royal Collection Trust. Inventory no. 31701. 
  99. ^ a b Mears, et al., p. 30.
  100. ^ Dixon-Smith, et al., p. 38.
  101. ^ Mears, et al., p. 25.
  102. ^ Keay (2011), p. 137.
  103. ^ Cathcart, p. 127.
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