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The Special
Special
Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army. The SAS was founded in 1941 as a regiment, and later reconstituted as a corps in 1950.[5] The unit undertakes a number of roles including covert reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, direct action and hostage rescue. Much of the information and actions regarding the SAS is highly classified, and is not commented on by the British government or the Ministry of Defence due to the sensitivity of their operations.[10][11][12] The corps currently consists of the 22nd Special
Special
Air Service Regiment, the regular component under operational command of United Kingdom Special
Special
Forces, as well as the 21st (Artists) Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(Reserve) and the 23rd Special
Special
Air Service Regiment (Reserve), which are reserve units under operational command of the 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Brigade.[13] The Special
Special
Air Service traces its origins to 1941 and the Second World War. It was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, named the 21st Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(Artists Rifles). The 22nd Special
Special
Air Service Regiment, which is part of the regular army, gained fame and recognition worldwide after its televised rescue of all but one of the hostages held during the 1980 Iranian Embassy siege.[14]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Second World War 1.2 Post-war

1.2.1 Malayan Scouts

1.3 22 SAS Regiment 1.4 Influence on other special forces

2 Organisation

2.1 Squadrons 2.2 Special
Special
projects team 2.3 Operational command

2.3.1 Regular 2.3.2 Reserve

3 Recruitment, selection and training 4 Uniform distinctions 5 Battle honours 6 Order of precedence 7 Memorials 8 Alliances 9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

History[edit] Further information: History of the Special
Special
Air Service, List of SAS operations, and List of former SAS personnel Second World War[edit] The Special
Special
Air Service was a unit of the British Army
British Army
during the Second World War that was formed in July 1941 by David Stirling
David Stirling
and originally called "L" Detachment, Special
Special
Air Service Brigade—the "L" designation and Air Service name being a tie-in to a British disinformation campaign, trying to deceive the Axis into thinking there was a paratrooper regiment with numerous units operating in the area (the real SAS would "prove" to the Axis that the fake one existed).[1][15] It was conceived as a commando force to operate behind enemy lines in the North African Campaign[16] and initially consisted of five officers and 60 other ranks.[17] Its first mission, in November 1941, was a parachute drop in support of the Operation Crusader offensive.[15] Due to German resistance and adverse weather conditions, the mission was a disaster; 22 men, a third of the unit, were killed or captured.[18] Its second mission was a major success. Transported by the Long Range Desert Group, it attacked three airfields in Libya, destroying 60 aircraft with the loss of 2 men and 3 jeeps.[18] In September 1942, it was renamed 1st SAS, consisting at that time of four British squadrons, one Free French, one Greek, and the Folboat Section.[19]

SAS patrol in North Africa during WW2

In January 1943, Colonel Stirling was captured in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Paddy Mayne replaced him as commander.[20] In April 1943, the 1st SAS was reorganised into the Special
Special
Raiding Squadron under Mayne's command and the Special
Special
Boat Squadron was placed under the command of George Jellicoe.[21] The Special
Special
Raiding Squadron fought in Sicily and Italy along with the 2nd SAS, which had been formed in North Africa in 1943 in part by the renaming of the Small Scale Raiding Force.[22][23] The Special
Special
Boat Squadron fought in the Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
and Dodecanese until the end of the war.[24] In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS and the Belgian 5th SAS.[25] It was tasked with parachute operations behind the German lines in France[2] and carried out operations supporting the Allied advance through France, (Operations Houndsworth, Bullbasket, Loyton and Wallace-Hardy) Belgium, the Netherlands (Operation Pegasus), and eventually into Germany (Operation Archway).[25][26] As a result of Hitler's issuing of the Commando Order on 18 October 1942, the members of the unit faced the additional danger that they would be summarily executed if ever captured by the Germans. In July 1944, following Operation Bulbasket, 34 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. In October 1944, in the aftermath of Operation Loyton
Operation Loyton
another 31 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans.[27] Post-war[edit] At the end of the war the British government saw no further need for the force and disbanded it on 8 October 1945.[2] The following year it was decided there was a need for a long-term deep-penetration commando unit and a new SAS regiment was to be raised as part of the Territorial Army.[28] Ultimately, the Artists Rifles, raised in 1860 and headquartered at Dukes Road, Euston, took on the SAS mantle as 21st SAS Regiment
Regiment
(V) on 1 January 1947.[3][28] Malayan Scouts[edit]

21 SAS soldier after a night parachute drop exercise in Denmark, 1955

In 1950, a 21 SAS squadron was raised to fight in the Korean War. After three months of training in Britain, it was informed that the squadron would no longer be required in Korea and so it instead volunteered to fight in the Malayan Emergency.[29] Upon arrival in Malaya, it came under the command of Mike Calvert
Mike Calvert
who was forming a new unit called the Malayan Scouts (SAS).[29] Calvert had already formed one squadron from 100 volunteers in the Far East, which became A Squadron—the 21 SAS squadron then became B Squadron; and after a recruitment visit to Rhodesia
Rhodesia
by Calvert, C Squadron was formed from 1,000 Rhodesian volunteers.[30] The Rhodesians returned home after three years service and were replaced by a New Zealand
New Zealand
squadron.[31] By this time the need for a regular army SAS regiment had been recognised; the 22nd SAS Regiment
Regiment
was formally added to the army list in 1952 and has been based at Hereford
Hereford
since 1960.[8] In 1959 the third regiment, the 23rd SAS Regiment, was formed by renaming the Reserve Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Unit, which had succeeded MI9
MI9
and whose members were experts in escape and evasion.[32] 22 SAS Regiment[edit] Since serving in Malaya, men from the regular army 22 SAS Regiment have taken part in covert reconnaissance and surveillance by patrols and some larger scale raiding missions in Borneo.[33] An operation against communist guerillas included the Battle of Mirbat
Battle of Mirbat
in the Oman.[34] They have also taken part in operations in the Aden Emergency,[35] Northern Ireland,[36] and Gambia.[33] Their Special projects team assisted the West German counterterrorism group GSG 9
GSG 9
at Mogadishu.[33] The SAS counter terrorist wing famously took part in a hostage rescue operation during the Iranian Embassy Siege
Iranian Embassy Siege
in London.[37] During the Falklands War
Falklands War
B squadron were prepared for Operation Mikado
Operation Mikado
before it was subsequently cancelled while D and G squadrons were deployed and participated in the raid on Pebble Island.[38] Operation Flavius
Operation Flavius
was a controversial operation in Gibraltar
Gibraltar
against the Provisional Irish Republican Army
Provisional Irish Republican Army
(PIRA).[33] 22 SAS also directed NATO
NATO
aircraft onto Serb
Serb
positions and hunted war criminals in Bosnia.[39][40] They were also involved in the Kosovo War helping KLA guerillas behind Serbian lines. According to Albanian sources one SAS sergeant was killed by Serbian special forces.[41] The Gulf War, in which A, B and D squadrons deployed, was the largest SAS mobilisation since the Second World War, also notable for the failure of the Bravo Two Zero
Bravo Two Zero
mission.[42] In Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
it took part in Operation Barras, a hostage rescue operation, to extract members of the Royal Irish Regiment.[33] Following the September 11 attacks on the United States by al-Qaeda in 2001, 2 squadrons of 22 SAS, reinforced by members of both the territorial SAS units deployed to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as part of the Coalition invasion at the start of the War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–present), to dismantle and destroy al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by removing the Taliban
Taliban
from power in the War on Terror. The Regiment
Regiment
carried out Operation Trent – the largest operation in its history, which included its first wartime HALO parachute jump. Following the invasion, the Regiment
Regiment
continued to operate in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
against the Taliban
Taliban
and other insurgents until 2006, where its deployment Iraq became its focus of operations until 2009, when the SAS redeployed to Afghanistan.[43][44] The regiment took part in the Iraq War, notably carrying out operations in Iraq before the 2003 invasion. Following the invasion, it formed part of Task Force Black/Knight to combat the postinvasion insurgency; in late 2005/early 2006, the SAS were integrated into JSOC and focused its counterinsurgency efforts on combating al-Qaeda in Iraq and the Sunni insurgency alongside Delta Force. The counter-insurgency was successful, and the UKSF mission in Iraq ended in May 2009.[43][44][45] Various British newspapers have speculated on SAS involvement in Operation Ellamy
Operation Ellamy
and the 2011 Libyan civil war. The Daily Telegraph reports that “defence sources have confirmed that the SAS has been in Libya
Libya
for several weeks, and played a key role in coordinating the fall of Tripoli.”[46] While The Guardian
The Guardian
reports “They have been acting as forward air controllers—directing pilots to targets—and communicating with NATO
NATO
operational commanders. They have also been advising rebels on tactics.”[47] Members of the Special
Special
Air Service were deployed to Northern Iraq in late August 2014, and according to former MI6 chief Richard Barrett, would also be sent to Syria, tasked with trying to track down the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL) terrorist group that the press labelled the Beatles.[48][49][50][51] In October 2014, the SAS began executing raids against ISIL supply lines in western Iraq, using helicopters to drop light vehicles manned by sniper squads. It has been claimed that the SAS have killed up to eight ISIL fighters per day since the raids began.[52] In recent years SAS officers have risen to the highest ranks in the British Army. General Peter de la Billière was the commander in chief of the British forces in the 1990 Gulf War.[53] General Michael Rose became commander of the United Nations Protection Force
United Nations Protection Force
in Bosnia
Bosnia
in 1994.[54] In 1997 General Charles Guthrie became Chief of the Defence Staff the head of the British armed forces.[55] Lieutenant-General Cedric Delves
Cedric Delves
was appointed commander of the Field Army and deputy commander in chief NATO
NATO
Regional Headquarters Allied Forces North in 2002–2003.[56] Influence on other special forces[edit] Following the post-war reconstitution of the Special
Special
Air Service, other countries in the Commonwealth recognised their need for similar units. The Canadian Special Air Service Company was formed in 1947, being disbanded in 1949.[57][58] The New Zealand
New Zealand
Special
Special
Air Service squadron was formed in June 1955 to serve with the British SAS in Malaya, which became a full regiment in 2011.[59] Australia
Australia
formed the 1st SAS Company in July 1957, which became a full regiment of the Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(SASR) in 1964.[60] On its return from Malaya, the C (Rhodesian) Squadron formed the basis for creation of the Rhodesian Special Air Service
Rhodesian Special Air Service
in 1961.[32] It retained the name "C Squadron (Rhodesian) Special
Special
Air Service" within the Rhodesian Security Forces until 1978, when it became 1 (Rhodesian) Special
Special
Air Service Regiment.[61] Non-Commonwealth countries have also formed units based on the SAS. The Belgian Army's Special
Special
Forces Group, which wears the same capbadge as the British SAS, traces its ancestry partly from the 5th Special Air Service of the Second World War.[62][63][64][65][66][67][68] The French 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment
Regiment
(1er RPIMa) can trace its origins to the Second World War 3rd and 4th SAS, adopting its "who dares wins" motto.[69] The American unit, 1st Special
Special
Forces Operational Detachment-Delta, was formed by Colonel Charles Alvin Beckwith, who served with 22 SAS as an exchange officer, and recognised the need for a similar type of unit in the United States Army.[70] The Israeli Sayeret Matkal
Sayeret Matkal
has also been modelled after the SAS, sharing its motto. Ireland's Army Ranger Wing
Army Ranger Wing
(ARW) has also modelled its training on that of the SAS.[71] The Philippine National Police's Special Action Force
Special Action Force
was formed along the lines of the SAS.[72] Organisation[edit] Little publicly verifiable information exists on the contemporary SAS, as the British government usually does not comment on special forces matters due to the nature of their work.[73][74] The Special
Special
Air Service comprises three units: one Regular and two Army Reserve (AR) units. The regular army unit is 22 SAS Regiment
Regiment
and the reserve units are 21 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(Artists) (Reserve) (21 SAS(R)) and 23 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(23 SAS (R)), collectively, the Special
Special
Air Service (Reserve) (SAS(R)).[6] Squadrons[edit] 22 SAS normally has a strength of 400 to 600.[75] The regiment has four operational squadrons: A, B, D and G. Each squadron consists of approximately 65 men commanded by a major, divided into four troops (each troop being commanded by a captain) and a small headquarters section.[76][77] Troops usually consist of 15 men (Members of the SAS are variously known as "blade" or "Operator")[78][79][80] and each patrol within a troop consists of four men, with each man possessing a particular skill e.g. signals, demolition, medic or linguist in addition to basic skills learned during the course of his training.[77] The term "squadron" dates back to the units earliest days when the unit's name was intended to confuse German intelligence.[79] The four troops specialise in four different areas:

Boat troop – specialists in maritime skills including diving using rebreathers, using kayaks (canoes) and Rigid-hulled inflatable boats and often train with the Special
Special
Boat Service.[81] Air troop – experts in free fall parachuting and high altitude parachute operations including High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) and High Altitude High Opening (HAHO) techniques.[81] Mobility troop – specialists in using vehicles and are experts in desert warfare.[82] They are also trained in an advanced level of motor mechanics to field-repair any vehicular breakdown.[83] Mountain troop – specialists in Arctic combat and survival, using specialist equipment such as skis, snowshoes and mountain climbing techniques.[81]

In 1980 R Squadron (which has since been renamed L Detachment) was formed; its members are all ex-regular SAS regiment soldiers who have a commitment to reserve service.[77][nb 2] 22 SAS squadron duty rotations are set up as such that one squadron is maintained on Counter Terrorism duty in the UK; a second will be on a deployment; a third will be preparing for deployment whilst conducting short term training; and the fourth will be preparing for long-term overseas training such as jungle or desert exercises. In times of war, such as the 2003 invasion of Iraq, it's not uncommon for two squadrons to be deployed.[79]

22 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment 21 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
(Artists) 23 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment

'A' Squadron (Hereford)[4] 'A' Squadron (Regent's Park)[4] 'B' Squadron (Leeds)[85]

'B' Squadron[86] 'C' Squadron (Bramley Camp)[87] 'D' Squadron (Scotland)[88]

'D' Squadron 'E' Squadron (Wales)[89] 'G' Squadron (Manchester)[90]

G' Squadron[91]

Squadron Structure[92] A Squadron: 1 (Boat) Troop
Troop
– 2 (Air) Troop
Troop
– 3 (Mobility) Troop – 4 (Mountain) Troop B Squadron: 6 (Boat) Troop
Troop
– 7 (Air) Troop
Troop
– 8 (Mobility) Troop – 9 (Mountain) Troop D Squadron: 16 (Air) Troop
Troop
– 17 (Boat) Troop
Troop
– 18 (Mobility) Troop – 19 (Mountain) Troop G Squadron: 21 (Mobility) Troop
Troop
– 22 (Mountain) Troop
Troop
– 23 (Boat) Troop
Troop
– 24 (Air) Troop Special
Special
projects team[edit] The special projects team is the official name for the Special
Special
Air Service anti–hijacking counter–terrorism team.[77] It is trained in Close Quarter Battle (CQB), sniper techniques and specialises in hostage rescue in buildings or on public transport.[93] The team was formed in the early 1970s after Prime Minister Edward Heath
Edward Heath
asked the Ministry of Defence to prepare for any possible terrorist attack similar to the massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
therefore ordering that the SAS Counter Revolutionary Warfare (CRW) wing be raised.[94] Once the wing had been established, each squadron rotated on a continual basis through counter–terrorist training including hostage rescue, siege breaking, and live firing exercises—it has been reported that during CRW training each soldier expends as many as 100,000 pistol rounds. Squadrons refresh their training every 16 months, on average. The CRW's first deployment was during the Balcombe Street Siege. The Metropolitan Police
Metropolitan Police
had trapped a PIRA unit; it surrendered when it heard on the BBC
BBC
that the SAS were being sent in.[94] The first documented action abroad by the CRW wing was assisting the West German counter-terrorism group GSG 9
GSG 9
at Mogadishu.[33] In 1980, the SAS were involved in a dramatic hostage rescue during the Iranian Embassy Siege. The CT role was shared amongst the squadrons, initially on a 12-month and later six-month rotation basis to ensure that all members are eventually trained in CT and CQB techniques. The SAS train for the CT role at Pontrilas Army Training Area
Pontrilas Army Training Area
in a facility that includes the Killing House (officially known as Close Quarter Battle House) and part of a Boeing 747
Boeing 747
airliner that can be reconfigured to match the internal layouts of virtually any commercial aircraft. The on-call CT squadron is split into four troops, two of which are on immediate notice to move and are restricted to the Hereford-Credenhill area, whilst the other two conduct training and exercises across the UK, but are available for operational deployment should the need arise.[95] Operational command[edit] Regular[edit] The 22nd Special
Special
Air Service is under the operational command of the Director Special Forces (DSF), a major-general grade post. Previously ranked as a brigadier, the DSF was promoted from brigadier to major-general in recognition of the significant expansion of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces (UKSF).[96] Reserve[edit] During Operation HERRICK
Operation HERRICK
the SAS Reserve were responsible for mentoring members of the Afghan National Police. Following a review of the unit's operational capability they were withdrawn from this tasking and the task handed over to a regular infantry unit. The report found that the SAS reservists lacked a clearly defined role and also stated that the reservists lacked the military capability and skillset to serve alongside the regular special forces.[97] On 1 September 2014, 21 and 23 SAS left United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces and were placed under the command of 1st Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Brigade.[98][99] Recruitment, selection and training[edit] Main article: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces Selection

Pen y Fan
Pen y Fan
2,907 feet (886 m) above sea-level. The location for the Fan dance.

The regular elements of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Special
Special
Forces never recruit directly from the general public.[100] All current members of the UK Armed Forces
Armed Forces
can apply for special forces selection, but historically the majority of candidates have a Commando
Commando
or Airborne forces background.[101] Selections are held twice yearly, in summer and winter,[100] in Sennybridge
Sennybridge
and in the Brecon Beacons. Selection lasts for five weeks and normally starts with about 200 potential candidates.[100] Upon arrival candidates first complete a Personal Fitness Test (PFT) and an Annual Fitness Test (AFT).[nb 3] They then march cross country against the clock, increasing the distances covered each day, culminating in what is known as Endurance. This is a march of 40 miles (64 km) with full equipment scaling and descending Pen y Fan
Pen y Fan
in 20 hours.[100] By the end of the hill phase candidates must be able to run 4 miles (6.4 km) in 30 minutes and swim two miles (3.2 km) in 90 minutes or less.[100] Following the hill phase is the jungle phase that takes place in Belize, Brunei
Brunei
or Malaysia.[103] Candidates are taught navigation, patrol formation/movement and jungle survival skills.[104] Candidates returning to Hereford
Hereford
finish training in battle plans and foreign weapons and take part in combat survival exercises,[105] the final one being the week-long escape and evasion. Candidates are formed into patrols and, carrying nothing more than a tin can filled with survival equipment, are dressed in old Second World War uniforms and told to head for a point by first light. The final selection test is arguably the most grueling – resistance to interrogation (RTI), lasting for 36 hours.[106] Typically, 15–20% of candidates make it through the hill phase selection process. From the approximately 200 candidates, most will drop out within the first few days, and by the end about 30 will remain. Those who complete all phases of selection are rewarded with a transfer to an operational squadron.[107] Uniform distinctions[edit] Normal barracks headdress is the sand-coloured beret,[8] its cap badge is a downward pointing Excalibur, wreathed in flames (often incorrectly referred to as a winged dagger) worked into the cloth of a Crusader shield with the motto Who Dares Wins.[108][nb 4] SAS pattern parachute wings, designed by Lieutenant Jock Lewes and based on the stylised sacred Ibis
Ibis
wings of Isis
Isis
of Egyptian iconography depicted in the décor of Shepheard's Hotel
Shepheard's Hotel
in Cairo, are worn on the right shoulder.[110] Its ceremonial No 1 dress uniform is distinguished by a light blue stripe on the trousers. Its stable belt is a shade of blue similar to the blue stripe on the No 1 dress uniform.[8] Battle honours[edit] In the British Army, battle honours are awarded to regiments that have seen active service in a significant engagement or campaign, generally with a victorious outcome.[111] The Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
has been awarded the following battle honours:[112][113]

North-West Europe 1944–45 Tobruk 1941 Benghazi Raid North Africa 1940–43 Landing in Sicily Sicily 1943 Termoli Valli di Comacchio Italy 1943–45 Greece 1944–45 Adriatic Middle East 1943–44 Falkland Islands 1982 Western Iraq Gulf 1991

Order of precedence[edit]

Preceded by Line Infantry and Rifles British Army
British Army
Order of Precedence[114] Succeeded by Army Air Corps

Memorials[edit] The names of those members of the Regular SAS who have died on duty were inscribed on the regimental clock tower at Stirling Lines.[115] Originally funded by contributions of a day's pay by members of the regiment and a donation from Handley Page
Handley Page
in memory of Cpl. R.K. Norry who was killed in a freefall parachuting accident,[116][117][118] this was rebuilt at the new barracks at Credenhill. Those whose names are inscribed are said by surviving members to have "failed to beat the clock".[119] At the suggestion of the then Commanding Officer, Dare Wilson, inscribed on the base of the clock is a verse from The Golden Road to Samarkand by James Elroy Flecker:[120]

We are the Pilgrims, master; we shall go Always a little further: it may be Beyond that last blue mountain barred with snow Across that angry or that glimmering sea...

The other main memorial is the SAS and Airborne Forces memorial in the cloisters at Westminster Abbey. The SAS Brigade Memorial at Sennecey-le-Grand
Sennecey-le-Grand
in France commemorates the wartime dead of the Belgian, British and French SAS and recently a memorial plaque was added to the David Stirling
David Stirling
Memorial in Scotland. There are other smaller memorials "scattered throughout Europe and in the Far East".[121] The local church of St Martin's, Hereford[122] has part of its graveyard set aside as an SAS memorial, over twenty SAS soldiers are buried there. There is also a wall of remembrance displaying memorial plaques to some who could not be buried, including the 18 SAS men who lost their lives in the Sea King helicopter crash during the Falklands Campaign on 19 May 1982[123] and a sculpture and stained glass window dedicated to the SAS.[124] On 17 October 2017 Ascension, a new sculpture and window honouring the Special
Special
Air Service Regiment
Regiment
in Hereford
Hereford
Cathedral, was dedicated by the Bishop of Hereford
Hereford
at a service attended by Prince William.[125] Alliances[edit]  Australia: Special
Special
Air Service Regiment[126]  New Zealand: New Zealand
New Zealand
Special
Special
Air Service[126] See also[edit]

List of military special forces units

References[edit]

Footnotes

^ On 31 July 1947, the 21st regiment, SAS Regiment, (Artists Rifles) (Territorial Army) was formed. This was followed on 16 July 1952, when the 22 SAS Regiment
Regiment
was formed and the 23 Special
Special
Air Service Regiment (Territorial Army) was formed in February 1958.[4][5][6] ^ The Regular reserve is made up of ex-soldiers who have a mobilisation obligation by virtue of their former service in the regular army. For the most part, these reservists constitute a standby rather than ready reserve, and are rarely mobilised except in times of national emergency or incipient war.[84] ^ PFT —a minimum of 50 sit ups in two minutes, and 44 press-ups in two minutes and a 1.5 miles (2.4 km) run in 10 minutes 30 seconds. CFT — A march as a squad of 8 miles (13 km) in two hours carrying 25 kilograms (55 lb) of equipment.[102] ^ Designed by Bob Tait in 1941, it is a flaming sword, although it is often known as a winged dagger[109]

Citations

^ a b Molinari, p.22 ^ a b c Shortt & McBride, p.16 ^ a b Shortt & McBride ,p.18 ^ a b c d e f Rayment, Sean (28 December 2003). "Overstretched SAS calls up part-time troops for Afghanistan". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 March 2010.  ^ a b "Brief history of the regiment". Special
Special
Air Service Association. Retrieved 21 January 2011.  ^ a b "UK Defence Statistics 2009". Defence Analytical Services Agency. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2010.  ^ Ryan, p.216 ^ a b c d e f g Griffin, pp.150–152 ^ Moreton, Cole (11 November 2007). "Lord Guthrie: 'Tony's General' turns defence into an attack". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 28 August 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2010.  ^ "Prime Ministers Questions, Special
Special
Forces". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ " Special
Special
Forces". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ "The UK can't stay 'mum' over Russian bombing of Special
Special
Forces base in Syria - DefenceReport". DefenceReport. 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2018-01-03.  ^ Army Briefing Note 120/14, NEWLY FORMED FORCE TROOPS COMMAND SPECIALIST BRIGADES, Quote . It commands all of the Army’s Intelligence, Surveillance and EW assets, and is made up of units specifically from the former 1 MI Bde and 1 Arty Bde, as well as 14 Sig Regt, 21 and 23 SAS(R). ^ Thompson, p.8 ^ a b Haskew, p.39 ^ Thompson, p.7 ^ Thompson, p.48 ^ a b Haskew, p.40 ^ Molinari, p.25 ^ Haskew, p.42 ^ Morgan, p.15 ^ "Obituary:Lieutenant-Colonel David Danger: SAS radio operator". The Times. London. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ "Obituary: Major Roy Farran". The Times. London. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 28 March 2010.  ^ Haskew, pp.52–54 ^ a b Shortt & McBride, p.15 ^ "Society of Friends of the Airborne Museum Oosterbeek". Airborne Museum Oosterbeek. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2010.  ^ Schorley, Pete; Forsyth, Frederick (2008). Who Dares Wins: Special Forces Heroes of the SAS. Osprey Publishing, page 50 ^ a b Shortt & McBride, p.17 ^ a b "Obituary — Major Alastair McGregor". The Daily Telegraph. London. 3 October 2002. Retrieved 19 March 2010.  ^ Shortt & McBride, p.19 ^ Shortt & McBride, p.20 ^ a b Shortt & McBride, p.22 ^ a b c d e f Scholey & Forsyth, p.12 ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.104 ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.57 ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.53 ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.11 ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p.212 ^ Hawton, Nick (2 April 2004). "Karadzic escapes again as SAS swoops on church". The Times. London. Retrieved 21 March 2010.  ^ Bellamy, Christopher (11 April 1994). "Ground attack is first in Nato history: British SAS troops help US war planes to deliver a timely warning to Serbs that 'safe areas' must be respected, writes Christopher Bellamy in Split". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 March 2010.  ^ "War in Europe: SAS teams `fighting behind Serb
Serb
lines'". 16 May 1999. Retrieved 23 February 2015.  ^ Scholey & Forsyth, p. 265 ^ a b Neville, Leigh, Special
Special
Forces in the War on Terror
War on Terror
(General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908 ^ a b Neville, Leigh, The SAS 1983-2014 (Elite), Osprey Publishing, 2016, ISBN 1472814037 ISBN 978-1472814036 ^ Urban, Mark, Task Force Black: The Explosive True Story of the Secret Special
Special
Forces War in Iraq , St. Martin's Griffin , 2012 ISBN 1-250-00696-1 ISBN 978-1-250-00696-7 ^ Harding, Thomas; et al. (24 August 2011). "Libya, SAS leads hunt for Gaddafi". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (23 August 2011). "SAS troopers help co-ordinate rebel attacks in Libya". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ "Forze speciali in Iraq, caccia ai "Beatles"". la Repubblica (in Italian). 25 August 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.  ^ Rebecca Perring (25 August 2014). "Parents of murdered US journalist release final letter he sent from captivity". Express. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ "Former ISIS hostage identifies Foley executioner". Al Arabiya. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ Rachel Browne (24 August 2014). "Rapper identified as James Foley's executioner: reports". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 18 September 2014.  ^ Nicol, Mark (22 November 2014). "SAS quad bike squads kill up to 8 jihadis each day... as allies prepare to wipe IS off the map: Daring raids by UK Special
Special
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External links[edit]

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British Commando
Commando
units of the Second World War

British Army:

No. 1 Commando No. 2 Commando No. 3 Commando No. 4 Commando No. 5 Commando No. 6 Commando No. 7 Commando No. 8 (Guards) Commando No. 9 Commando No. 10 (Inter-Allied) Commando No. 11 (Scottish) Commando No. 12 Commando No. 14 (Arctic) Commando No. 50 Commando No. 51 Commando No. 52 Commando No. 62 Commando
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Royal Marine:

No. 40 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 41 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 42 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 43 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 44 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 45 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 46 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 47 (Royal Marine) Commando No. 48 (Royal Marine) Commando

Royal Navy:

Royal Naval Commandos British commando frogmen

Royal Air Force:

Royal Air Force Commandos

Joint Service:

No. 30 Commando

Brigades:

Special
Special
Service Brigade 1st Special
Special
Service Brigade 2nd Special
Special
Service Brigade 3rd Special
Special
Service Brigade 4th Special
Special
Service Brigade

Ad hoc Forces:

Forfarforce Layforce Layforce
Layforce
II Northforce Timberforce

Other Commando
Commando
forces:

Special
Special
Air Service Special
Special
Boat Squadron Special
Special
Raiding Squadron No. 1 Demolit

.