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The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India
India
and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:

During 1612–1757, the East India Company
East India Company
set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors
Mughal emperors
or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Calcutta
had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it also increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. In the new British Raj
British Raj
(1858–1947), sovereignty extended to a few new regions, such as Upper Burma. Increasingly, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces".[1]

Contents

1 British India
India
(1793-1947) 2 Administration under the Company (1793-1858)

2.1 The Presidencies 2.2 The new Provinces

3 Administration under the Crown (1858–1947)

3.1 Historical background 3.2 Regulation provinces 3.3 Major provinces 3.4 Minor provinces 3.5 Aden

4 Partition and Independence (1947) 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

British India
India
(1793-1947)[edit]

Location of the Indian Empire
Indian Empire
(British India
India
and the Princely States) in the world

In 1608 Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company
East India Company
to establish a small trading settlement at Surat
Surat
(now in the state of Gujarat), and this became the company's first headquarters town. It was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal
Bengal
in trade.[2] However, following the decline of power of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1707 by the hands of the Marathas and later due to invasion from Persia
Persia
(1739) and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1761) and after the East India
India
Company's victory at the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757 and Battle of Buxar, both in Bengal
Bengal
1764 and the abolishment of local rule (Nizamat) in Bengal
Bengal
in 1793, the Company gradually began to formally expand its territories across India.[3] By the mid-19th century, and after the three Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars the East India
India
Company had become the paramount political and military power in South Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown.[4] Company rule in Bengal
Bengal
from 1793, however, ended with the Government of India
India
Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal
Bengal
Rebellion of 1857.[4] From then known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown
British Crown
as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, and India
India
was officially known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.[5] India
India
was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament,[6] and the Princely States,[7] that were ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India
India
constituted a significant portion of India both in area and population; in 1910, for example, it covered approximately 54% of the area and included over 77% of the population.[8] In addition, there were Portuguese and French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India
India
and Pakistan, the latter also including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh. The term British India
India
also applied to Burma
Burma
for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, and by 1886, almost two thirds of Burma
Burma
had come under British India.[6] This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma
Burma
commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India
India
did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(then Ceylon), which was a British Crown
British Crown
colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate. At its greatest extent, in the early 20th-century, the territory of British India
India
extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the northwest; Nepal
Nepal
in the north, Tibet in the northeast; and China, French Indo-China
French Indo-China
and Siam
Siam
in the east. It also included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula.[9] Administration under the Company (1793-1858)[edit] The East India
India
Company, which was incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam
Masulipatam
on the east coast in 1611 and Surat
Surat
on the west coast in 1612.[10] The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras
Madras
in 1639.[10][10] Bombay, which was ceded to the British Crown
British Crown
by Portugal
Portugal
as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company
East India Company
to be held in trust for the Crown.[10] Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640.[10] Almost a half-century later, after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb
Aurengzeb
forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small village and later renamed Calcutta
Calcutta
in 1686 making it company's new headquarter.[10] By the mid-18th century the three principal trading settlements including factories and fort, now called the Madras Presidency (or the Presidency of Fort St. George), the Bombay Presidency, and the Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
(or the Presidency of Fort William) were each administered by a Governor.[11] The Presidencies[edit]

The Indian peninsula in 1700 showing the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and the European trading settlements.

The Indian peninsula in 1760, three years after the Battle of Plassey, showing the Maratha
Maratha
Empire and other prominent political states.

The presidency town of Madras
Madras
in a 1908 map. Madras
Madras
was established as Fort St. George
Fort St. George
in 1640.

The presidency town of Bombay
Bombay
(shown here in a 1908 map) was established in 1684.

The presidency town of Calcutta
Calcutta
(shown here in a 1908 map) was established in 1690 as Fort William.

Madras
Madras
Presidency: established 1640. Bombay
Bombay
Presidency: East India
India
Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay
Bombay
(Mumbai) in 1687. Bengal
Bengal
Presidency: established 1690.

After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India
India
Company.[12] However, after the invasion of Bengal
Bengal
by the Nawab of Oudh
Oudh
in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue (land tax) in Bengal, the region of present-day Bangladesh, West Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar
Bihar
beginning from 1772 as per the treaty signed in 1765.[12] By 1773, the Company obtained the Nizāmat of Bengal
Bengal
(the "exercise of criminal jurisdiction") and thereby full sovereignty of the expanded Bengal
Bengal
Presidency.[12] During the period, 1773 to 1785, very little changed; the only exceptions were the addition of the dominions of the Raja
Raja
of Banares to the western boundary of the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency, and the addition of Salsette Island
Salsette Island
to the Bombay
Bombay
Presidency.[13] Portions of the Kingdom of Mysore
Kingdom of Mysore
were annexed to the Madras Presidency after the Third Anglo-Mysore War
Third Anglo-Mysore War
ended in 1792. Next, in 1799, after the defeat of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War more of his territory was annexed to the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[13] In 1801, Carnatic, which had been under the suzerainty of the Company, began to be directly administered by it as a part of the Madras Presidency.[14]

Map of India
India
in 1765.

Map of India
India
in 1795.

Map of India
India
in 1805.

Map of India
India
in 1823.

Map of India
India
in 1837.

Map of India
India
in 1848.

Map of India
India
in 1857.

Expansion of British Bengal
Bengal
and Burma.

The new Provinces[edit] By 1851, the East India
India
Company′s vast, and growing, holdings across the sub-continent were still grouped into just four main territories:

Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
with its capital at Calcutta Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
with its capital at Bombay Madras
Madras
Presidency with its capital at Madras North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
with the seat of the Lieutenant-Governor at Agra. The original seat of government was at Allahabad, then at Agra from 1834 to 1868. In 1833, an Act of the British Parliament (statute 3 and 4, William IV, cap. 85) promulgated the elevation the Ceded and Conquered Provinces to the new Presidency of Agra, and the appointment of a new Governor for the latter, but the plan was never carried out. In 1835 another Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
(statute 5 and 6, William IV, cap. 52) renamed the region the North Western Provinces, this time to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor, the first of whom, Sir Charles Metcalfe, would be appointed in 1836.[15]

By the time of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and the end of Company rule, the developments could be summarised as follows:

Bombay
Bombay
Presidency: expanded after the Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars. Madras
Madras
Presidency: Expanded in the mid-to-late 18th century Carnatic Wars and Anglo-Mysore Wars. Bengal
Bengal
Presidency: Expanded after the battles of Plassey (1757) and Buxar (1764), and after the Second and Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
Wars. Penang: became residency within the Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
in 1786, became the fourth presidency of India
India
in 1805, and then part of the presidency of the Straits Settlements until 1830, when the Straits Settlements reverted to the status of a residency within the Bengal Presidency, and were finally separated from British India
India
in 1867. Ceded and Conquered Provinces: Established in 1802 within the Bengal Presidency. Proposed to be renamed the Presidency of Agra
Agra
under a Governor in 1835, but proposal not implemented. Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri: ceded by Sindhia
Sindhia
of Gwalior
Gwalior
in 1818 at the conclusion of the Third Anglo- Maratha
Maratha
War. Coorg: Annexed in 1834. North-Western Provinces: established as a Lieutenant-Governorship in 1836 from the erstwhile Ceded and Conquered Provinces Sind: annexed to the Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
in 1843. Punjab: Established in 1849 from territories captured in the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. Nagpur Province: Created in 1853 from the princely state of Nagpur, seized by the doctrine of lapse. Merged into the Central Provinces
Central Provinces
in 1861. Oudh
Oudh
annexed in 1856 and governed thereafter until 1905 as a Chief Commissionership, as a part of North-Western Provinces
North-Western Provinces
and Oudh.

North-Western Provinces, constituted in 1836 from erstwhile Ceded and Conquered Provinces.

Punjab
Punjab
annexed in 1849.

Oudh
Oudh
annexed in 1856.

Administration under the Crown (1858–1947)[edit] Historical background[edit] The British Raj
British Raj
began with the idea of the Presidencies as the centres of government. Until 1834, when a General Legislative Council was formed, each Presidency under its Governor and Council was empowered to enact a code of so-called 'Regulations' for its government. Therefore, any territory or province that was added by conquest or treaty to a presidency came under the existing regulations of the corresponding presidency. However, in the case of provinces that were acquired but were not annexed to any of the three Presidencies, their official staff could be provided as the Governor-General pleased, and was not governed by the existing regulations of the Bengal, Madras, or Bombay
Bombay
Presidencies. Such provinces became known as "Non-Regulation Provinces" and up to 1833 no provision for a legislative power existed in such places.[16] The same two kinds of management applied for districts. Thus Ganjam and Vizagapatam were non-regulation districts.[17] Non-Regulation Provinces included:

Ajmir Province
Ajmir Province
(Ajmer-Merwara) Cis-Sutlej states Saugor and Nerbudda Territories North-East Frontier
North-East Frontier
(Assam) Cooch Behar South-West Frontier
South-West Frontier
(Chota Nagpur) Jhansi Province Kumaon Province

British India
India
in 1880: this map incorporates the Provinces of British India, the Princely States
Princely States
and the legally non-Indian Crown Colony of Ceylon.

The Indian Empire
Indian Empire
in 1893 after the annexation of Upper Burma
Upper Burma
and incorporation of Baluchistan.

The Indian Empire
Indian Empire
in 1907 during the partition of Bengal (1905–1912).

The Indian Empire
Indian Empire
in 1915 after the reunification of Bengal, the creation of the new province of Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa, and the re-establishment of Assam.

Regulation provinces[edit]

Central Provinces: Created in 1861 from Nagpur Province
Nagpur Province
and the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. Berar administered since 1903, renamed the Central Provinces and Berar
Central Provinces and Berar
in 1936. Burma: Lower Burma
Burma
annexed 1852, established as a province in 1862, Upper Burma
Upper Burma
incorporated in 1886. Separated from British India
India
in 1937 to become administered independently by the newly established British Government Burma
Burma
Office. Assam
Assam
Province: separated from Bengal
Bengal
in 1874 as the North-East Frontier non-regulation province. Incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam
Assam
in 1905. Re-established as a province in 1912. Andaman and Nicobar Islands: established as a province in 1875. Baluchistan: Organised into a province in 1887.

Madras
Madras
Presidency shown in an 1880 map.

Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
in an 1880 map.

Bengal Presidency
Bengal Presidency
in 1880.

An 1880 map of Central Provinces. The province had been constituted in 1861.

1908 map of Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar. Berar was included in 1903.

Beluchistan, shown as an independent kingdom along with Afghanistan and Turkestan, in an 1880 map.

Baluchistan in 1908: the Districts and Agencies of British Baluchistan are shown alongside the States, mostly: Kalat.

North-West Frontier Province: created in 1901 from the north-western districts of Punjab
Punjab
Province. Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam: created in 1905 upon partition of Bengal, together with the former province of Assam. Re-merged with Bengal
Bengal
in 1912, with north-eastern part re-established as the province of Assam. Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa: separated from Bengal
Bengal
in 1912. Renamed Bihar
Bihar
in 1936 when Orissa became a separate province. Delhi: Separated from Punjab
Punjab
in 1912, when it became the capital of British India. Orissa: Separate province by carving out certain portions from the Bihar- Orissa Province
Orissa Province
and the Madras
Madras
Province in 1936. Sind: Separated from Bombay
Bombay
in 1936. Panth-Piploda: made a province in 1942, from territories ceded by a native ruler.

Major provinces[edit]

A map of the British Indian Empire
Indian Empire
in 1909 during the partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1911), showing British India
India
in two shades of pink (coral and pale) and the princely states in yellow.

At the turn of the 20th century, British India
India
consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor. The following table lists their areas and populations (but does not include those of the dependent Native States):[18] During the partition of Bengal
Bengal
(1905–1912), a new Lieutenant-Governor's province of Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam
Assam
existed. In 1912, the partition was partially reversed, with the eastern and western halves of Bengal
Bengal
re-united and the province of Assam re-established; a new Lieutenant-Governor's province of Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa was also created.

Province of British India[18] Area (in thousands of square miles) Population (in millions of inhabitants) Chief Administrative Officer

Burma 170 9 Lieutenant-Governor

Bengal 151 75 Lieutenant-Governor

Madras 142 38 Governor-in-Council

Bombay 123 19 Governor-in-Council

United Provinces 107 48 Lieutenant-Governor

Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar 104 13 Chief Commissioner

Punjab 97 20 Lieutenant-Governor

Assam 49 6 Chief Commissioner

Minor provinces[edit] In addition, there were a few minor provinces that were administered by a Chief Commissioner:[19]

Minor Province[19] Area (in thousands of square miles) Population (in thousands of inhabitants) Chief Administrative Officer

North-West Frontier Province 16 2,125 Chief Commissioner

British Baluchistan 46 308 British Political Agent in Baluchistan served as ex officio Chief Commissioner

Coorg 1.6 181 British Resident in Mysore served as ex officio Chief Commissioner

Ajmer-Merwara 2.7 477 British Political Agent in Rajputana
Rajputana
served as ex officio Chief Commissioner

Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3 25 Chief Commissioner

Aden[edit]

As the Settlement of Aden, a dependency of Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
from 1839 to 1932; becomes a Chief Commissioner's province in 1932; separated from India
India
and made the Crown Colony of Aden
Colony of Aden
in 1937.

Partition and Independence (1947)[edit] At the time of independence in 1947, British India
India
had 17 provinces:

Ajmer-Merwara Andaman and Nicobar Islands Assam Baluchistan Bengal Bihar Bombay Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar Coorg Delhi Madras North-West Frontier Orissa Panth-Piploda Punjab Sind United Provinces

Upon the Partition of British India
India
into the Dominion
Dominion
of India
India
and Dominion
Dominion
of Pakistan, 11 provinces (Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Bombay, Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar, Coorg, Delhi, Madras, Panth-Piploda, Orissa, and the United Provinces) joined India, 3 (Baluchistan, North-West Frontier and Sindh) joined Pakistan, and 3 (Punjab, Bengal
Bengal
and Assam) were partitioned between India
India
and Pakistan. In 1950, after the new Indian Constitution was adopted, the provinces in India
India
were replaced by redrawn states and union territories. Pakistan, however, retained its five provinces, one of which, East Bengal, was renamed East Pakistan
East Pakistan
in 1956 and became the independent nation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971. See also[edit]

British rule in Burma Indian Princely States
Princely States
annexed by the British Salute state Maratha
Maratha
Empire Mughal Empire

Notes[edit]

^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 5 Quote: "The history of British India
India
falls ... into three periods. From the beginning of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century, the East India
India
Company is a trading corporation, existing on the sufferance of the native powers, and in rivalry with the merchant companies of Holland and France. During the next century the Company acquires and consolidates its dominion, shares its sovereignty in increasing proportions with the Crown, and gradually loses its mercantile privileges and functions. After the Mutiny of 1857, the remaining powers of the Company are transferred to the Crown ..." (p. 5) ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. II 1908, pp. 452–472 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. II 1908, pp. 473–487 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. II 1908, pp. 488–514 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. II 1908, pp. 514–530 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, pp. 46–57 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, pp. 58–103 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, pp. 59–61 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, pp. 104–125 ^ a b c d e f Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 6 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 7 ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 9 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 10 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 11 ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, vol. V, 1908 ^ "Full text of "The land systems of British India : being a manual of the land-tenures and of the systems of land-revenue administration prevalent in the several provinces"". archive.org.  ^ Geography of India
India
1870 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 46 ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV 1908, p. 56

References[edit]

The Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
(26 vol, 1908–31), highly detailed description of all of India
India
in 1901. online edition Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. II (1908), The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India
India
in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573  Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. III (1908), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502), Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India
India
in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520  Imperial Gazetteer of India
India
vol. IV (1908), The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India
India
in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552 

Further reading[edit]

Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004). From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India. New Delhi
Delhi
and London: Orient Longmans. Pp. xx, 548. ISBN 81-250-2596-0.  Brown, Judith M. (1994). Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 474. ISBN 0-19-873113-2.  Copland, Ian (2001). India
India
1885–1947: The Unmaking of an Empire (Seminar Studies in History Series). Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. 160. ISBN 0-582-38173-8.  Harrington, Jack (2010). Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-10885-1.  Judd, Dennis (2004). The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600–1947. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiii, 280. ISBN 0-19-280358-1.  Majumdar, R. C.; Raychaudhuri, H. C.; Datta, Kalikinkar (1950). An Advanced History of India. London: Macmillan and Company Limited. 2nd edition. Pp. xiii, 1122, 7 maps, 5 coloured maps.  Markovits, Claude (ed) (2005). A History of Modern India
India
1480–1950 (Anthem South Asian Studies). Anthem Press. Pp. 607. ISBN 1-84331-152-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Metcalf, Barbara; Metcalf, Thomas R. (2006). A Concise History of Modern India
India
(Cambridge Concise Histories). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xxxiii, 372. ISBN 0-521-68225-8. . Mill, James (1820). The History of British India, in six volumes. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 3rd edition, 1826.  Peers, Douglas M. (2006). India
India
under Colonial Rule 1700–1885. Harlow and London: Pearson Longmans. Pp. xvi, 163. ISBN 0-582-31738-X.  Riddick, John F. (2006). The history of British India: a chronology.  Riddick, John F. (1998). Who Was Who in British India.  Sarkar, Sumit (1983). Modern India: 1885–1947. Delhi: Macmillan India
India
Ltd. Pp. xiv, 486. ISBN 0-333-90425-7.  Smith, Vincent A. (1921). India
India
in the British Period: Being Part III of the Oxford History of India. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press. 2nd edition. Pp. xxiv, 316 (469–784).  Spear, Percival (1990) [First published 1965]. A History of India, Volume 2: From the sixteenth century to the twentieth century. New Delhi
Delhi
and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 298. ISBN 0-14-013836-6. 

External links[edit]

British India
India
Coins Wiki[permanent dead link] Statistical abstracts relating to British India, from 1840 to 1920 at uchicago.edu Digital Colonial Documents (India) Homepage at latrobe.edu.au Provinces of British India
India
at worldstatesmen.org Collection of early 20th century photographs of the cities of Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras
Madras
with other interesting Indian locations from the magazine, India
India
Illustrated, at the University of Houston Digital Library Coins of British India

v t e

Presidencies and provinces of the British Raj

Italics = outside present Indian & Pakistan

Presidencies

Agra
Agra
Presidency Bengal
Bengal
Presidency Bombay
Bombay
Presidency Madras
Madras
Presidency Presidency of Coromandel and Bengal
Bengal
Settlements Straits Settlements Presidency (at Penang) Western Presidency
Western Presidency
( Surat
Surat
Presidency)

Provinces

Aden Province
Aden Province
(associated, in Yemen, Arabia) Agra
Agra
Province Ajmer-Merwara Andaman and Nicobar Islands Assam
Assam
Province Baluchistan Bengal
Bengal
Province Berar Province Bihar
Bihar
and Orissa Province Bihar
Bihar
Province (Upper) Burma Central Provinces Central Provinces
Central Provinces
and Berar Coorg
Coorg
Province Delhi
Delhi
Province Eastern Bengal
Bengal
and Assam Lower Burma Nagpur Province North-West Frontier Province North-Western Provinces Orissa Province Panth-Piploda
Panth-Piploda
Province Punjab
Punjab
Province Sind Province United Provinces of Agra
Agra
and Oudh United Provinces of British India United Provinces

Agencies of British India British Empire
British Empire
in India British rule in Burma Districts of British India Divisions of British India List of princely states of British India
India
(alphabetical) Residencies of British India Subdivisions of British India Territorial evolution of the British Empire

v t e

Historical districts of British India

Districts in the Madras
Madras
Presidency

Ceded Districts Chingleput District Coimbatore District Godavari District Madura District Malabar District North Arcot South Arcot District South Canara Tanjore District Tinnevely District Trichinopoly District Vizagapatam District

Districts in the Bengal
Bengal
Presidency

Backergunge District Bassein District Champaran District Garo Hills district Jungle Mahals Jungle Terry Khasi and Jaintia Hills Lushai Hills District Manbhum District Naga Hills District Shahabad district Singhbhum District Tipperah District

Districts in the Bombay
Bombay
Presidency

East Khandesh Kaladgi District Khandesh District Upper Sind Frontier District West Khandesh

Other districts

Bhilsa District Chanderi District Delhi
Delhi
District Ellichpur District Garhwal District Hazara District (NW Frontier) Isagarh District Kumaon District Lyallpur District Merwara District Montgomery District Muhamdi District Nimar District North Bareilly District Quetta-Pishin District Shahpur District Sironj District Thal-Chotiali Wun District

Post independence historical districts

Bangalore District Imphal District Midnapore district West Dinajpur District

Subdivisions of British India Divisions of British India Presidencies and provinces of British India British Empire
British Empire
in India

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South

.