HOME
The Info List - Britannicus





Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Britannicus
Britannicus
(c. 12 February AD 41 – 11 February AD 55), usually called Britannicus, was the son of Roman emperor Claudius
Claudius
and his third wife Valeria Messalina. For a time he was considered his father's heir, but that changed after his mother's downfall in 48, when it was revealed she had a bigamous marriage without Claudius' knowledge. The next year, his father married Agrippina the Younger, Claudius' fourth and final marriage. Their marriage was followed by the adoption of Agrippina's son, Lucius Domitius, whose name became Nero
Nero
as a result. His step-brother would later be married to his sister Octavia, and soon eclipsed him as Claudius' heir. Following his father's death in October 54, Nero became emperor. The sudden death of Britannicus
Britannicus
shortly before his fourteenth birthday is reported by all extant sources as a poisoning on Nero's orders—as Claudius' natural son, he represented a threat to Nero's claim to the throne.

Contents

1 Name 2 Background and family 3 During his father's marriage to Messalina

3.1 Education 3.2 Fall of Messalina

4 During his father's marriage to Agrippina

4.1 Rise of Nero

5 Death of his father, Claudius 6 Downfall 7 Post mortem 8 Britannicus
Britannicus
in popular culture 9 Ancestry 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography

12.1 Primary sources 12.2 Secondary sources

13 External links

Name[edit] Britannicus' name at birth was Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Germanicus. The agnomen, his first surname Germanicus, was first awarded to his paternal grandfather Drusus the Elder
Drusus the Elder
after his death in 9 BC to commemorate his victories over the Germanic tribes. Accordingly, Drusus' sons ( Claudius
Claudius
and Germanicus) inherited the name and passed it to their sons as well. Britannicus
Britannicus
was given to his father in AD 43 following his conquest of Britain. Claudius
Claudius
never used it himself and gave the name to his son instead, and his full name became: Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Caesar Britannicus. He came to be known by his new name which seems to have replaced Germanicus
Germanicus
altogether.[1][2] Background and family[edit]

A sestertius issued to commemorate Britannicus' birth

Britannicus
Britannicus
was born on or about 12 February 41 in Rome, to Emperor Claudius
Claudius
and his third wife Valeria Messalina. As such, he was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, specifically of the gens Claudia.[note 1] Britannicus' father had been reigning for less than a month, and his position was boosted greatly by the birth of an heir. To mark the birth, the emperor issued sestertii with the obverse Spes Augusta – the hope of the imperial family.[3] Britannicus
Britannicus
had four siblings: a half-brother, Claudius
Claudius
Drusus, by Claudius' first wife (Plautia Urgulanilla) who died at the age of 3 or 4; a half-sister, Antonia, by Claudius' second wife (Aelia Paetina); a sister by the same mother named Octavia; and an adoptive brother, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus (the future emperor Nero), who was adopted in AD 49 and renamed Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar as a result.[4][5] Two years later, in 43, Claudius
Claudius
was granted the honorific "Britannicus" by the senate as a reward for his conquest of Britain. The emperor never used the name himself, but allowed his son to inherit it. This is the name by which the boy became known to posterity. Gaius Suetonius
Suetonius
Tranquillus, a Roman historian writing from the late first century, says that Claudius
Claudius
adored Britannicus, carrying him around at public events, and "would wish him happy auspices, joined by the applauding throng."[6] During his father's marriage to Messalina[edit] Education[edit] Britannicus
Britannicus
was tutored by Sosibius, who was a close associate of Publius Suillius Rufus and a friend of his mother.[7] He was educated alongside Titus
Titus
Vepsasianus, the future emperor of Rome. They were brought up together and taught similar subjects by the same tutors.[8] In 47, Sosibius gave Claudius
Claudius
a reminder of the power and wealth which threatened the Emperor's throne. His tutor then, as part of his mother's contrivances, told the emperor of Decimus Valerius Asiaticus's involvement in the murder of Caligula
Caligula
and of his growing popularity in Rome. Sosibius went on, saying Asiaticus meant to rally Roman legions in Germany against the throne. Asiaticus was apprehended immediately, and brought to Rome
Rome
in chains.[7] Sullius successfully pursued charges against other equestrians in the Senate.[9] According to Cassius Dio, Asiaticus was put to death as a favor to Messalina
Messalina
for his property (the Gardens of Lucullus).[10][11] It was later voted by the Senate that Sosibius be given a million sesterces for giving Britannicus
Britannicus
the benefit of his teachings and Claudius
Claudius
that of his counsel (i.e. for his involvement in the case against Asiaticus).[12] Fall of Messalina[edit]

Messalina
Messalina
holding her son Britannicus, Louvre.

Brittanicus took part in the celebrations of Rome's 800th anniversary (47). It was the sixth ever Ludi Saeculares ("Secular Games") and sixty-four years since the last one held in the summer of 17 BC by Augustus. Britannicus' father was there as was Lucius Domitius and his mother Agrippina who were the last surviving descendants of Germanicus. Claudius
Claudius
watched the young nobility, including Britannicus and Domitius, enact the Battle of Troy
Troy
in the circus. Tacitus
Tacitus
says Domitius was greeted with more enthusiasm than Britannicus.[note 2][13][14] The games were seen as the introduction of Agrippina and Domitius to public life, and his mother Messalina
Messalina
must have been aware of this and jealous of Agrippina. Tacitus
Tacitus
writes that Messalina
Messalina
was too busy engaging in an "insane" affair to plot the destruction of Agrippina.[15] He says:[16]

She had grown so frantically enamoured of Gaius Silius, the handsomest of the young nobility of Rome, that she drove from his bed Junia Silana, a high-born lady, and had her lover wholly to herself. Silius was not unconscious of his wickedness and his peril; but a refusal would have insured destruction, and he had some hope of escaping exposure; the prize too was great, and so he consoled himself by awaiting the future and enjoying the present. As for her, careless of concealment, she went continually with a numerous retinue to his house, she haunted his steps, showered on him wealth and honours, and, at last, as though empire had passed to another, the slaves, the freedmen, the very furniture of the emperor were to been seen in the possession of the paramour. — Tacitus, The Annales, 11.12

The affair continued into the next year. It was then that the affair between Messalina
Messalina
and Silius took a new turn. Silius, who had no children of his own, proposed to marry Messalina
Messalina
on condition that she allow him to adopt Britannicus.[note 3] The plan was to overthrow Claudius
Claudius
and rule together as regents of Britannicus. She acquiesced and waited for Claudius
Claudius
to leave Rome
Rome
before performing the sacrifice and entering the bigamous marriage. The illegal union was made known to Claudius
Claudius
by Callistus and Narcissus, freedmen in his service. Claudius
Claudius
had Messalina, Silius, and others who knew of the affair put to death. Messalina
Messalina
was given a knife to kill herself with, though a tribune of the Praetorian Guard
Praetorian Guard
had to force it through her neck.[11] Images and statues of Silius and his associates were ordered destroyed.[17][18] During his father's marriage to Agrippina[edit] The fall of Silius and Messalina
Messalina
opened the way for Agrippina the Younger to become his father's fourth wife. His father claimed to be disinterested in another marriage,[19] but it wouldn't be long. Unlike his uncle Germanicus, his father had never been adopted into the Julii. Claudius
Claudius
thought marrying his niece would bring his family closer to that of Augustus, as Agrippina and Domitius were the last living descendants of Germanicus. So, in 49, despite a marriage between uncle and niece being incestuous under Roman law, his father remarried.[20][21] Rise of Nero[edit]

Bust of the young Nero

In 49, during the term of consul-elect Mammius Pollio (March–June), Domitius was betrothed to his sister Octavia and thus became his equal in rank. Tacitus
Tacitus
suggests this move had the support of those who feared the vengeance of Britannicus
Britannicus
against those who wronged his mother.[22][23] Through the insistence of Pallas, his father was convinced to adopt Domitius as his son. Claudius
Claudius
was convinced to do as Augustus
Augustus
had done in adopting Gaius and Lucius Caesar, and as Tiberius
Tiberius
had done in adopting Germanicus
Germanicus
despite having a son already. It was in February 50 that his father passed a law adopting Domitius into the Claudii and naming him Nero, and Domitius became " Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Caesar". Nero
Nero
and Britannicus
Britannicus
then became joint-heirs to the emperor, and Agrippina was then given the title of Augusta.[24][23] In AD 51, his brother Nero
Nero
assumed the toga virilis despite not yet being 14. The Senate also decided then that Nero
Nero
should hold the consulship during his twentieth year (AD 56) and, as consul-elect, that he should enjoy imperium proconsulare ("proconsular authority") beyond the limits of Rome
Rome
with the title of princeps iuventutis ("prince of the youth of Rome"). The progress of Nero
Nero
seems to have followed in the footsteps of Gaius and Lucius Caesar. To mark the occasion, a donative was given to the soldiery of Rome, and presents to the people. His step-brother's status, along with that of Agrippina, is echoed on contemporary coinage.[25][23] By contrast, Britannicus
Britannicus
was progressively isolated. At the games of the circus Nero
Nero
appeared in triumphal robes while Britannicus
Britannicus
was still dressed as a boy. Tacitus
Tacitus
says their clothing at the games affected the expectations of the people: with Nero
Nero
in a general's clothing, and Britannicus
Britannicus
in the dress of boyhood. He wouldn't be due for the toga until 12 February AD 55. He and his supporters were seen as a potential problem for Nero. Agrippina replaced his tutors with her own nominees, having convinced Claudius
Claudius
to order their executions, including the execution of Sosibius.[25][26] Not just his tutors, but the two prefects of the Praetorian Guard, Lusius Geta and Rufius Crispinus, were replaced as well. They were thought to be sympathetic to the cause of Britannicus
Britannicus
and his mother, as Tacitus
Tacitus
reports: it would have been risky to surround Nero
Nero
with any but those loyal to Claudius
Claudius
and Agrippina.[27] His step-mother had them replaced with Sextus Afranius Burrus who was a good soldier, but knew to whom he owed his allegiance.[28][23] Nero's career progressed steadily: he gave speeches in AD 51 and 52. The speech in 51 thanked the emperor for honours given to him, and that of 52 was a vow for the safe recovery of the emperor from illness.[23] It was in 53 that Nero
Nero
married Britannicus' sister Octavia, who first had to be legally transferred to another family to obviate charges of incest.[29] By this time it became clear that Nero was the unambiguous designate.[30] His step-brother became more politically active following his marriage to Octavia: he exempted Illium
Illium
from all public burdens arguing that Rome
Rome
was descended from Troy
Troy
through Aeneas
Aeneas
(the founder of the Julian line), procured funds for the colony of Bononia (modern Bologna, Italy) which had been devastated by fire, and the people of Rhodes
Rhodes
had their freedom restored.[31] Meanwhile, Britannicus
Britannicus
himself was kept in reserve in case Nero
Nero
died, with deaths of princes being recent (such as Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus). Though Nero
Nero
was clearly the heir-designate, he was not named princeps designate to avoid hurting both Republican sentiment and the Augustan compromise of a principate that lay between monarchy and magistracy.[32] Death of his father, Claudius[edit]

O: head of Claudius TI KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP CΕΒACTOC

R: bust of Britannicus BPETANNIKOC ΘECCAΛONI

bronze coin struck in Thessalonica
Thessalonica
53 - 54 AD; ref.: RPC 1588

Suetonius
Suetonius
reports that Claudius
Claudius
wished Rome
Rome
to have a "real Caesar", and Britannicus
Britannicus
enjoyed support from Claudius' loyal and influential freedman, Narcissus. There are possible signs of support for Britannicus
Britannicus
seen on coins from Moesia and North Africa, placing Britannicus' head and title on the obverse side.[33] Claudius
Claudius
became aware of his wife's actions and began preparing for the end of her power. His father wished to bestow upon him the toga, and to declare Britannicus
Britannicus
as his heir. According to Suetonius, when Claudius mentioned his intention to give Britannicus
Britannicus
the toga of manhood he said, "That the Roman people may at last have a genuine Caesar."[34][35][36] The actions Claudius
Claudius
took to preserve his rule in the short-term were not easily undone as Britannicus
Britannicus
approached manhood. In late 54, Britannicus
Britannicus
was within 6 months of reaching manhood by Roman tradition, and had matured early. According to the historian Suetonius, Claudius
Claudius
began to mention divorcing Agrippina and dismissing Nero
Nero
now that he was no longer needed. In preparation, Claudius
Claudius
commended both his son and adopted son to the Senate as equals in his last Senate address. Suetonius
Suetonius
reports that Claudius
Claudius
now admonished his son to grow up quickly, implying that everything would be righted when he assumed the toga virilis.[34] On 13 October 54, Claudius
Claudius
died, either by natural causes or poison. In the accounts of his death by poison, Agrippina, aware of Claudius' intentions of placing Britannicus
Britannicus
on the throne, had a well-known poisoner, Locusta, infuse mushrooms with poison that were fed to the emperor.[35][36][33] There were those who preferred Britannicus
Britannicus
over Nero, such as Claudius' freedman Narcissus.[37] Unfortunately for his cause, Narcissus was away in Campania
Campania
when the emperor was poisoned, while Britannicus
Britannicus
and his sisters, Octavia and Antonia, were kept out of sight in their rooms by Agrippina.[35] That way none could challenge Nero's succession. If one thought that Britannicus' claim should take precedence, the response was that Nero
Nero
too was the son of Claudius, with Agrippina linking him back to Augustus.[38] It didn't help that many were convinced that Britannicus
Britannicus
was no longer in the line of succession, a direct effect of the propaganda against him by Agrippina.[29] Nero
Nero
spoke the eulogy at the emperor's funeral and took sole power. Claudius' new will, which either granted joint-rule to Britannicus
Britannicus
and Nero
Nero
or just Britannicus, was suppressed by the new emperor's men in the senate.[note 4] Downfall[edit]

Agrippina crowns her young son Nero
Nero
with a laurel wreath.

Immediately following the death of Claudius, Agrippina set upon removing those she had seen as a threat. Marcus Junius Silanus, proconsul of Asia whose brother Lucius had been eliminated by her as well, was poisoned for no other reason than that he had been the great-great-grandson of Augustus. Claudius' freedman Narcissus, Britannicus' champion according to Tacitus, had been driven to suicide after a harsh imprisonment. In Tacitus
Tacitus
XIII, this was carried out by Agrippina against the wishes of Nero.[39][40] Before Nero's consulship in 55, Nero
Nero
forbade the persecution of a Julius
Julius
Densus, an equestrian whose partiality for Britannicus
Britannicus
had been construed as a crime.[41] During his consulship, Nero
Nero
had become more independent from his mother's influence. He began a relationship with a slave girl, and removed Pallas, a favorite of Agrippina, from his post as secretary of the treasury. In response, Agrippina threatened to champion the cause of Britannicus
Britannicus
to keep her son in line.[42] In the account of Tacitus, Agrippina says to Nero:[43]

that Britannicus
Britannicus
was now of full age, he who was the true and worthy heir of his father's sovereignty, which a son, by mere admission and adoption, was abusing in outrages on his mother. She shrank not from an utter exposure of the wickedness of that ill-starred house, of her own marriage, to begin with, and of her poisoner's craft. All that the gods and she herself had taken care of was that her stepson was yet alive; with him she would go to the camp, where on one side should be heard the daughter of Germanicus; on the other, the crippled Burrus and the exile Seneca, claiming, forsooth, with disfigured hand, and a pedant's tongue, the government of the world. — Tacitus, The Annales, 13.14

Tacitus
Tacitus
recounts Nero's numerous attempts to publicly undermine Britannicus' image. In one such attempt, during the feast of Saturn (the Saturnalia), he and Nero
Nero
were playing a game among a group of their friends, and Nero
Nero
chose Britannicus
Britannicus
to sing a song with the expectation that Britannicus
Britannicus
would embarrass himself. Britannicus however, not only avoided humiliation, but also generated sympathy amongst the guests, after singing a poem telling the tale of how he had been cast aside in favour of Nero. The young emperor immediately began plotting his step-brother's assassination.[42] According to Suetonius, Nero
Nero
moved against Britannicus, employing the same poisoner, Locusta, who had been hired to murder his father, Claudius. The first dose failed, and Nero
Nero
decided to throw caution to the wind. In the account of Suetonius, he had Locusta
Locusta
brought to his room to mix a faster acting poison before his very eyes. After many tests on kids, there was a mixture that killed an animal instantly. Being pleased, Nero
Nero
had the concoction brought immediately to the dining room.[44] Britannicus
Britannicus
was poisoned at a dinner party attended by his sister, Octavia, Agrippina, and several other notables. Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that the assassin avoided being given away by a food taster by adding the poison to his drink when Britannicus
Britannicus
asked for it to be cooled, as he felt it was too hot. The substance was instantly fatal, and Britannicus
Britannicus
fell to the floor foaming at the mouth. Nero
Nero
claimed to those present that Britannicus
Britannicus
was merely suffering from an epileptic fit, and that he had been afflicted with the condition since childhood.[42] He died sometime between December and his 14th birthday, on 11 February 55, when he was to assume manhood, and just four months after his father's death.[42][27] For her service, the emperor had Locusta
Locusta
rewarded with large estates, and even sent her pupils. [44] Tacitus
Tacitus
alleges that Britannicus
Britannicus
was sexually abused by his step-brother in the period leading up to his death, and claims that, because he was a victim of sexual abuse, his death was not cruel.[42][45] Post mortem[edit] Britannicus
Britannicus
was cremated and his ashes placed with those of his father in the Mausoleum of Augustus. Nero
Nero
held his funeral the very next day in the rain and gave no eulogy, saying it was "a tradition in the case of untimely deaths not to oppress the public with eulogies and processions." Dio says that Nero
Nero
had the corpse covered in gypsum to cover the effects of the poison on the skin. While he was being carried through the Forum, the rain had uncovered the body making plain to all who could see that he had been poisoned.[46] Author and historian Beacham considers Dio's account to be "theatrical".[47] Given his and Nero's relationship, it was not surprising when Britannicus
Britannicus
died just before his fourteenth birthday. Britannicus criticized Nero's singing voice, and referred to his adoptive brother by his original name of Lucius Domitius.[48] In favoring Nero, Claudius
Claudius
sealed the fate of his son, and perhaps his own. Ominously for Agrippina, Seneca and Burrus did not complain: either they had been bought off, or regarded Britannicus' death as inevitable given his relationship with Nero. Instead, they concentrated on growing their influence with Nero.[49][27] According to Suetonius, Britannicus
Britannicus
was good friends with the future Emperor Titus, whose father Vespasian
Vespasian
had commanded legions in Britain. As part of the Flavians' attempts to link themselves with the Julio-Claudians, Titus
Titus
claimed that he had been seated with Britannicus
Britannicus
on the night he was killed. He even claimed to have tasted the poison, which resulted in a serious and long illness. Titus
Titus
would go on to erect a gold statue of his friend, and issue coins in his memory.[50] Britannicus
Britannicus
in popular culture[edit] Britannicus
Britannicus
is portrayed in Britannicus
Britannicus
(1669) by French playwright Jean Racine. [51] He was played by Graham Seed in I, Claudius, a 1976 television series by Jack Pulman.[52] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Britannicus[53][54]

16. Drusus Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
I

8. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero

17. Claudia

4. Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus

18. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus

9. Livia Drusilla

19. Aufidia

2. Claudius

20. Marcus Antonius Creticus

10. Mark Antony
Mark Antony
(=30.)

21. Julia Antonia

5. Antonia Minor

22. Gaius Octavius

11. Octavia Minor
Octavia Minor
(=27. & 31.)

23. Atia Balba Caesonia

1. Britannicus

24. Appius Claudius
Claudius
Pulcher

12. Marcus Valerius Messala Barbatus Appianus

6. Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus

26. Gaius Claudius
Claudius
Marcellus Minor

13. Claudia Marcella Minor

27. Octavia Minor
Octavia Minor
(=11. & 31.)

3. Valeria Messalina

28. Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus

14. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

29. Aemilia Lepida

7. Domitia Lepida the Younger

30. Mark Antony
Mark Antony
(=10.)

15. Antonia Major

31. Octavia Minor
Octavia Minor
(=11. & 27.)

Notes[edit]

^ It is uncertain what the exact date of Britannicus' birthday was, with the earliest possible date being early 39 or 40, and the latest as AD 42. The year 41 is widely accepted due to the fact that Britannicus
Britannicus
was almost 14, and therefore on the cusp of assuming the toga virilis, when he was killed in 55 (Smith 1880, p. 505). The day 12 February is based off the testimony of Suetonius
Suetonius
that Britannicus
Britannicus
was born on the twenty-second day of his fathers' reign. (Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Life of Claudius, 27 Archived 2017-01-06 at the Wayback Machine.). ^ Tacitus
Tacitus
claims the enthusiasm in which the future emperor Nero
Nero
was greeted is a sign of his greatness. He wrote during the reign of Nero and in this same passage claims to have overseen the seventh Ludi Saeculares as it was his duty being a member of the Quindecimviri sacris faciundis and holding the title of praetor (Tacitus, The Annals, XI.11–12). ^ In the account of Cassius Dio, she proposed to marry him as she not only wanted to have affairs, but to hold many husbands as well. She also grants him a royal residence and grants him a consulship (Dio, LX.31). ^ Barrett argues that Tacitus' reference to the will being suppressed so as to prevent outrage about Nero
Nero
meant that the will did not name Nero
Nero
as primary or sole heir. Therefore the Senate's elevation of Nero would have caused outrage if the will were read (Barrett 1996, p. 174).

References[edit]

^ Hornblower, Spawforth & Esther 2012, p. 325 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.2 for Germanicus; Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.22 Archived 2012-07-17 at Archive.is
Archive.is
for Britannicus ^ Levick 2012, p. 55 ^ Osgood 2011, p. 207 ^ Shotter 1997, p. 9 ^ Suetonius, Life of Claudius, 27 Archived 2012-06-30 at Archive.is ^ a b Tacitus, XI.1 ^ Suetonius, Life of Titus, 2 ^ Tacitus, XI.2–3 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.29 ^ a b Dando-Collins 2008, p. 152 ^ Tacitus, XI.4 ^ Tacitus, The Annals, XI.11 ^ Shotter 1997, p. 8 ^ Shotter 1997, p. 8 ^ Tacitus, The Annals, XI.12 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XI.29–38 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.31 ^ Suetonius, Life of Claudius
Claudius
26 Archived 2012-06-30 at Archive.is ^ Osgood 2011, p. 222 ^ Shotter 1997, pp. 6-8 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XII.9 ^ a b c d e Shotter 1997, p. 9 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XII.25–26 ^ a b Tacitus, The Annales, XII.41 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.32 ^ a b c Osgood 2011, p. 333 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XII.42 ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.33 ^ Osgood 2011, p. 227 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XII.58 ^ Osgood 2011, p. 232 ^ a b Shotter 1997, p. 10 ^ a b Suetonius, Life of Claudius, 43 Archived 2012-06-30 at Archive.is ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History, LX.34 ^ a b Tacitus, The Annales, XII.65–69 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XII.65 ^ Osgood 2011, p. 247 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XIII.1 ^ Osgood 2011, p. 250 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XIII.10 ^ a b c d e Tacitus, The Annales, XIII.12–17 ^ Tacitus, The Annales, XIII.14 ^ a b Suetonius, Life of Nero, 33 ^ Woodman 2009, p. 135 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXI.7 ^ Beacham 1999, p. 200 ^ Suetonius, Life of Nero, 7 ^ Shotter 1997, p. 12 ^ Suetonius, Life of Titus, 2 ^ Burgwinkle, Hammond & Wilson 2011, p. 1669 ^ Newcomb 1997, p. 1158 ^ Anderson, James (1732). Royal Genealogies, Or the Genealogical Tables of Emperors, Kings and Princes. Bettenham. p. 12. Archived from the original on 10 February 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.  ^ Ronald Syme, Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), p.147.

Bibliography[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Dio Cassius. Historia Romanum. Books LX-LXII. Suetonius. Twelve Caesars. Life of Claudius. Suetonius. Twelve Caesars. Life of Titus. Tacitus. Annals. Books XI-XIII.

Secondary sources[edit]

Barrett, Anthony A. (1996). Agrippina: Mother of Nero. B. T. Batsford. ISBN 0-203-48106-2.  Barrett, Anthony (1999). Agrippina: Sex, Power, and Politics in the Early Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.  Beacham, Richard C. (1999). Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07382-8.  Burgwinkle, William; Hammond, Nicholas; Wilson, Emma (2011). The Cambridge History of French. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521897860.  Dando-Collins, Stephen (2008). Blood of the Caesars: How the Murder of Germanicus
Germanicus
Led to the Fall of Rome. Wiley. ISBN 9780470137413.  Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Esther, Eidinow (2012). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199545568.  Momigliano, Arnaldo (1934). Claudius: the Emperor and His Achievement. Cambridge: Trans. W.D. Hogarth. W. Heffer and Sons.  Oost, S.V. (1958). "The Career of M. Antonius Pallas". American Journal of Philology. 79: 113–139.  Osgood, Josiah (2011). Claudius
Claudius
Caesar: Image and Power in the Early Roman Empire. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521881814.  Newcomb, Horace (1997), Encyclopedia of Television, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-203-93734-1  Scramuzza, Vincent (1940). The Emperor Claudius. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  Shotter, David (2014). Nero
Nero
Caesar Augustus: Emperor of Rome. Routledge. ISBN 9781317865902.  Shotter, David (1997). Nero. Routledge. ISBN 9780415129312.  Levick, Barbara (2012). Claudius. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9781135107710.  Woodman, A.J. (2009), The Cambridge Companion to Tacitus, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521874601  Girolamo Cardano Neronis Encomium Translated by Angelo Paratico as Nero. An Exemplary Life. Inkstone Books, 2012.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1880). "Britannicus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. p. 505. 

External links[edit]

(in French) Britannicus
Britannicus
de Jean Racine : Analysis, Plot overview Britannicus
Britannicus
de Jean Racine
Jean Racine
in a new translation by Timberlake Wertenbaker

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 23621133 LCCN: n86071071 ISNI: 0000 0000 2849 1981 GND

.