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Bricha
Bricha
(Hebrew: בריחה‬, translit. Briẖa, "escape" or "flight") was the underground organized effort that helped Jewish Holocaust survivors escape post– World War II
World War II
Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine in violation of the White Paper of 1939. It ended when Israel
Israel
declared independence and annulled the White Paper.

July 15, 1945. Buchenwald
Buchenwald
survivors arrive in Haifa
Haifa
to be arrested by the British.

The movement of Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees
from the Displaced Persons camp
Displaced Persons camp
in which they were held (one million persons classified as "not repatriable" remained in Germany
Germany
and Austria) to Palestine was illegal on both sides, as Jews
Jews
were not officially allowed to leave the countries of Central and Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its allies, nor were they permitted to settle in Palestine by the British. In late 1944 and early 1945, Jewish members of the Polish resistance met up with Warsaw ghetto
Warsaw ghetto
fighters in Lubin
Lubin
to form Bricha
Bricha
as a way of escaping the antisemitism of Europe, where they were convinced that another Holocaust would occur. After the liberation of Rivne, Eliezer and Abraham Lidovsky, and Pasha (Isaac) Rajchmann, concluded that there was no future for Jews
Jews
in Poland. They formed an artisan guild to cover their covert activities, and they sent a group to Cernăuţi, Romania
Romania
to seek out escape routes. It was only after Abba Kovner, and his group from Vilna
Vilna
joined, along with Icchak Cukierman, who had headed the Jewish Combat Organization
Jewish Combat Organization
of the Polish uprising of August 1944, in January 1945, that the organization took shape. They soon joined up with a similar effort led by the Jewish Brigade
Jewish Brigade
and eventually the Haganah
Haganah
(the Jewish clandestine army in Palestine). Officers of the Jewish Brigade
Jewish Brigade
of the British army assumed control of the operation, along with operatives from the Haganah
Haganah
who hoped to smuggle as many displaced persons as possible into Palestine through Italy. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee
funded the operation. Almost immediately, the explicitly Zionist
Zionist
Berihah became the main conduit for Jews
Jews
coming to Palestine, especially from the displaced person camps, and it initially had to turn people away due to too much demand. After the Kielce pogrom
Kielce pogrom
of 1946, the flight of Jews
Jews
accelerated, with 100,000 Jews
Jews
leaving Eastern Europe in three months. Operating in Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
through 1948, Berihah transferred approximately 250,000 survivors into Austria, Germany, and Italy
Italy
through elaborate smuggling networks. Using ships supplied at great cost[citation needed] by the Mossad Le'aliyah Bet, then the immigration arm of the Yishuv, these refugees were then smuggled through the British cordon around Palestine. Bricha
Bricha
was part of the larger operation known as Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet, and ended with the establishment of Israel, after which immigration to the Jewish state was legal, although emigration was still sometimes prohibited, as happened in both the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
and Arab countries, see, for example refusenik. See also[edit]

Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet Mossad Le Aliyah
Aliyah
Bet Tilhas Tizig Gesheften

References[edit]

Bauer, Yehuda (1970). Flight and Rescue: Brichah. New York: Random House. OCLC 80809.  Snippet view only. Mankowitz, Zeev W. (2002). Life between Memory and Hope: The Survivors of the Holocaust in Occupied Germany. Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare no. 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521037565. OCLC 124025531. 

External links[edit]

Brihah United States Holocaust Memorial Museum - Brihah Bricha, Emigration History of the Jewish People provides information on Brichah (Lublin, Poland), Brichah (Romania) and Brichah (Rovno, Ukraine) Displaced Jews
Jews
in Europe Matt Rosenberg traces the Migration Following World War II
World War II
in Europe - 1945-1951 The background to Bricha A film review about a documentary film about the Bricha

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Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

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fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

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Elsewhere

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Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people (gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

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Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials an

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