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Wrocław
Wrocław
(/ˈvrɔːtslɑːf/;[2] Polish: [ˈvrɔt͡swaf] ( listen); German: Breslau, pronounced [ˈbʁɛslaʊ̯]; Czech: Vratislav; Latin: Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland. It lies on the banks of the River Oder
Oder
in the Silesian Lowlands
Silesian Lowlands
of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres (220 mi) from the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
to the north and 40 kilometres (25 mi) from the Sudeten Mountains to the south. The population of Wrocław
Wrocław
in 2017 was 638,364, making it the fourth-largest city in Poland
Poland
and the main city of Wrocław agglomeration. Wrocław
Wrocław
is the historical capital of Silesia
Silesia
and Lower Silesia. Today, it is the capital of the Lower Silesian Voivodeship. The history of the city dates back over thousand years, and its extensive heritage combines almost all religions and cultures of Europe.[3] At various times, it has been part of the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Hungary, Habsburg Monarchy, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and Nazi Germany. Wrocław
Wrocław
became part of Poland
Poland
again in 1945, as a result of the border changes after the Second World War, which included a nearly complete exchange of population. A thriving multicultural centre, Wrocław
Wrocław
is home to a growing student community and acts as the financial, cultural and commercial hub of western Poland, hosting a wide variety of cultural and sport events.[4] Wrocław
Wrocław
is a university city with a student population of over 130,000, making it one of the most youthful cities in the country.[5] Since the beginning of the 20th century, the historical University of Wrocław
University of Wrocław
produced nine Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
winners[6] and is renowned for its high quality of teaching.[7] Wrocław
Wrocław
is classified as a Gamma- global city by GaWC, with very high living standards.[8] It was placed among the top 100 cities in the world for the quality of life by the consulting company Mercer.[9] The city hosted the Eucharistic Congress
Eucharistic Congress
in 1997 and the Euro
Euro
2012 football championships. In 2016, the city was a European Capital of Culture and the World Book Capital. Also in this year, Wrocław
Wrocław
hosted the Theatre Olympics, World Bridge Games and the European Film Awards. In 2017, the city is the host of the IFLA Annual Conference and the World Games.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Middle Ages 2.2 Renaissance, Reformation and Counter-Reformation 2.3 Napoleonic Wars 2.4 Prussia
Prussia
and Germany 2.5 Second World War and afterwards 2.6 After the war

3 Environment

3.1 Air pollution 3.2 Climate 3.3 Fauna 3.4 Water

4 Government and politics

4.1 Districts 4.2 Municipal government

5 Tourism

5.1 Landmarks and points of interest 5.2 Swimming 5.3 Shopping malls 5.4 Entertainment 5.5 Museums

6 Wrocław
Wrocław
in literature 7 Education 8 Transport 9 Demographics

9.1 Population 9.2 Religion

10 Professional sports

10.1 Men's sports 10.2 Women's sports

11 Economy 12 Major corporations 13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns and sister cities 13.2 Partnerships

14 Gallery 15 Notable people 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Notes 17.2 Bibliography

17.2.1 English language 17.2.2 Polish language 17.2.3 German language

18 External links

Etymology[edit] The city's name was first recorded as "Wrotizlava" in the chronicle of German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg, which mentions it as a seat of a newly installed bishopric in the context of the Congress of Gniezno. The first municipal seal stated Sigillum civitatis Wratislavie. A simplified name is given, in 1175, as Wrezlaw, Prezla or Breslaw. The Czech spelling was used in Latin
Latin
documents as Wratislavia or Vratislavia. At that time, Prezla was used in Middle High German, which became Preßlau. In the middle of the 14th century, the Early New High German
Early New High German
(and later New High German) form of the name, Breslau, began to replace its earlier versions. The city is traditionally believed to be named after Wrocisław or Vratislav, often believed to be named after Duke Vratislaus I of Bohemia. It is also possible that the city was named after the tribal duke of the Silesians
Silesians
or after an early ruler of the city called Vratislav. The city's name in various other languages is: Hungarian: Boroszló, Czech: Vratislav, German: Breslau, Hebrew: ורוצלב‎ (Vrotsláv), Yiddish: ברעסלוי‎ (Bresloi), Silesian German: Brassel, and Latin: Vratislavia or Budorgis[10] or Wratislavia.[11] The city's name in other languages is available at the list of names of European cities. Persons born or living in the city are known as "Vratislavians" (Polish: wrocławianie). History[edit] Main articles: History of Wrocław
History of Wrocław
and Timeline of Wrocław In ancient times at or near Wrocław
Wrocław
was a place called Budorigum. It has been mapped to the ancient Claudius Ptolemy
Ptolemy
map of the years 142–147 AD. The city of Wrocław
Wrocław
originated at the intersection of two trade routes, the Via Regia
Via Regia
and the Amber Road. Settlements in the area existed from the 6th century onward, during the migration period. A Slavic tribe Ślężans settled on the Oder and erected on Ostrów Tumski a gord. The city was first recorded in the 10th century as Vratislavia, the Bohemian duke Vratislaus I founded here a Bohemian stronghold.[12] Vratislavia was possibly derived from the duke's name Vratislav. In 985, Duke Mieszko I of Poland
Poland
conquered Silesia
Silesia
including Wrocław. The town was mentioned explicitly in the year 1000 AD in connection with a founding of a bishopric during the Congress of Gniezno. Middle Ages[edit]

Church of Saint Giles (pl) erected in the 1220s at Ostrów Tumski, the oldest section of Wrocław

The medieval chronicle, Gesta principum Polonorum, written by Gallus Anonymus in 1112–1116 AD, named Wrocław, along with Kraków
Kraków
and Sandomierz, as one of the three capitals of the Polish Kingdom. During Wrocław's early history, the control over it changed hands between Bohemia
Bohemia
(until 992, then 1038–1054), the Kingdom of Poland (992–1038 and 1054–1202), and after the fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, the Piast-ruled duchy of Silesia. One of the most important events during this period was the foundation of the Diocese of Wrocław
Wrocław
by the Polish Duke (from 1025 King) Bolesław the Brave
Bolesław the Brave
in 1000. Along with the Bishoprics of Kraków
Kraków
and Kołobrzeg, Wrocław was placed under the Archbishopric of Gniezno
Archbishopric of Gniezno
in Greater Poland, founded by Pope Sylvester II
Pope Sylvester II
through the intercession of the Emperor Otto III
Otto III
in 1000 AD, during the Congress of Gniezno. In the years 1034–1038 the city was affected by Pagan reaction in Poland.[13]

The oldest printed text in the Polish language
Polish language
– Statuta Synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensis printed in Wrocław
Wrocław
by Kasper Elyan, 1475

The city became a commercial centre and expanded to Wyspa Piasek
Wyspa Piasek
(Sand Island), and then to the left bank of the River Oder. Around 1000, the town had about 1,000 inhabitants.[14] In 1109 during the Polish-German war, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth
Bolesław III Wrymouth
defeated the King of Germany
Germany
Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the German march into Poland. By 1139, a settlement belonging to Governor Piotr Włostowic (a.k.a. Piotr Włast Dunin) was built, and another was founded on the left bank of the River Oder, near the present seat of the University. While the city was Polish, there were also communities of Bohemians, Jews, Walloons[13] and Germans.[15] In the 13th century, Wrocław
Wrocław
was the political centre of the divided Polish kingdom.[16] In April 1241, during the First Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
the city was abandoned by the inhabitants and burned for strategic reasons. During the battles with the Mongols the Wrocław Castle was defended by Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious
and was never captured.[17] After the Mongol invasion the town was partly populated by German settlers[18] who, in the following centuries, would gradually become its dominant ethnic group; the city, however, retained its multi-ethnic character, a reflection of its position as an important trading city on the Via Regia
Via Regia
and the Amber Road.[19]

St Martin's Church, the only remainder of a medieval Piast
Piast
stronghold that once stood in Wrocław

With the influx of settlers the town expanded and adopted in 1242 German town law. The city council used Latin
Latin
and German, and "Breslau", the Germanized name of the city, appeared for the first time in written records.[18] The enlarged town covered around 60 hectares (150 acres), and the new main market square, which was surrounded by timber frame houses, became the new centre of the town. The original foundation, Ostrów Tumski, became the religious centre. The city adopted Magdeburg rights
Magdeburg rights
in 1261. The Polish Piast dynasty[20] remained in control of the region, but the right of the city council to govern independently increased. In 1274 the prince Henryk IV Probus
Henryk IV Probus
gave the city the staple right. Wrocław, which for 350 years belonged to the Polish, after the death of Henry VI the Good
Henry VI the Good
in 1335 was incorporated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, then a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Between 1342 and 1344, two fires destroyed large parts of the city. The city joined the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in 1387. In June 5, 1443, the city was affected by an earthquake of the strength of at least 6 degrees on the Richter scale, which destroyed or seriously damaged many buildings in the city. From 1469 to 1490 it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
and the King of Hungary Matthias Corvinus even had a mistress from the city with whom he had a son. In 1474, the city left the Hanseatic League. In 1475, Kasper Elyan printed in Wrocław
Wrocław
Statuta Synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensium, first in the history of printing in the Polish language, it contains three Catholic prayers. Renaissance, Reformation and Counter-Reformation[edit]

Map of the city from 1562, with its fortifications around the Oder River

The Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
reached the town in 1518 and the city became Protestant. However, from 1526 Silesia
Silesia
was ruled by the Catholic House of Habsburg. In 1618, it supported the Bohemian Revolt out of fear of losing the right to freedom of religious expression. During the ensuing Thirty Years' War, the city was occupied by Saxon and Swedish troops, and lost 18,000 of 40,000 citizens to plague. The Austrian emperor brought in the Counter-Reformation
Counter-Reformation
by encouraging Catholic orders to settle in the city, starting in 1610 with the Franciscans, followed by Jesuits,[12] Capuchins, and finally Ursulines in 1687. These orders erected buildings which shaped the city's appearance until 1945. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, however, it was one of only a few Silesian cities to stay Protestant.

Battle of Breslau during the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
(Third Silesian War 1756–1763)

The Polish Municipal school opened in 1666. It operated until 1766. The precise record keeping of births and deaths by the city led to the use of their data for analysis of mortality, first by John Graunt
John Graunt
and then later by Edmond Halley. Halley's tables and analysis, published in 1693, are considered to be the first true actuarial tables, and thus the foundation of modern actuarial science. During the Counter-Reformation, the intellectual life of the city flourished, as the Protestant bourgeoisie lost its role to the Catholic orders as the patron of the arts. The city became the centre of German Baroque literature
Baroque literature
and was home to the First and Second Silesian school of poets.[21] The Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
annexed the town and most of Silesia
Silesia
during the War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
in the 1740s. Habsburg empress Maria Theresa ceded the territory in the Treaty of Breslau
Treaty of Breslau
in 1742. Austria attempted to recover Silesia
Silesia
with Breslau during the Seven Years' War and the Battle of Breslau, but unsuccessfully. In 1766, Giacomo Casanova
Giacomo Casanova
stayed in Breslau. Napoleonic Wars[edit]

Entry of Prince Jérôme Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I, to Breslau, 7 January 1807

During the Napoleonic Wars, it was occupied by an army of the Confederation of the Rhine. The fortifications of the city were leveled[12] and monasteries and cloisters were secularised. The Protestant Viadrina European University
Viadrina European University
of Frankfurt (Oder)
Frankfurt (Oder)
was relocated to Breslau in 1811, and united with the local Jesuit University to create the new Silesian Frederick-William University (Schlesische Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität, now University of Wrocław). The city became the centre of the German Liberation movement against Napoleon, and the gathering place for volunteers from all over Germany, with the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
military decoration founded by Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
in early March 1813. The city was the centre of Prussian mobilisation for the campaign which ended at Leipzig.[22] Prussia
Prussia
and Germany[edit] Napoleonic redevelopments increased prosperity in Silesia
Silesia
and the city. The levelled fortifications opened space for the city to grow beyond its old limits. Breslau became an important railway hub and industrial centre, notably of linen and cotton manufacture and metal industry. The reconstructed university served as a major centre of sciences, while the secularisation of life laid the base for a rich museum landscape. Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
wrote his Academic Festival Overture to thank the university for an honorary doctorate awarded in 1881. In 1821, (Arch) Diocese
Diocese
of Breslau was disentangled from the Polish ecclesiastical province (archbishopric) in Gniezno and made Breslau an exempt bishopric. On 10 October 1854, the Jewish Theological Seminary opened. The institution was the first modern rabbinical seminary in Central Europe. In 1863 the brothers Karl and Louis Stangen founded the travel agency Stangen, this was the second travel agency in the world.[23]

Town Hall, 1900

The Unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 turned Breslau into the sixth-largest city in the German Empire. Its population more than tripled to over half a million between 1860 and 1910. The 1900 census listed 422,709 residents. In 1890, construction began on the forts of Breslau Fortress. Important landmarks were inaugurated in 1910, the Kaiser bridge and the Technical University, which now houses the Wrocław University
Wrocław University
of Technology. The 1900 census listed 98% as German-speakers, with 5,363 Polish-speakers (1.3%), and another 3,103 (0.7%) speaking both German and Polish.[24] The population was 58% Protestant, 37% Catholic (including at least 2% Polish)[25] and 5% Jewish (totaling 20,536 in the 1905 census).[24] The Jewish community
Jewish community
of Breslau was among the most important in Germany, producing several distinguished artists and scientists.[26] Since 1912 Head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Wrocław
Wrocław
and director of the Clinic of Psychiatry (Königlich Psychiatrischen und Nervenklinik) was Alois Alzheimer
Alois Alzheimer
and, in the same year, professor William Stern introduced the concept of IQ.

Market Square, 1890–1900

Feniks Department Store, built in the years 1902–1904

In 1913, the newly built Centennial Hall
Centennial Hall
housed an exhibition commemorating the 100th anniversary of the historical German Wars of Liberation against Napoleon and the first award of the Iron Cross. Following the First World War, Breslau became the capital of the newly created Prussian Province of Lower Silesia
Silesia
of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
in 1919. After the war the Polish community began holding masses in the Polish language
Polish language
at the Church of Saint Anne, and, as of 1921, at St. Martin's and a Polish School was founded by Helena Adamczewska.[27] In 1920 a Polish consulate was opened on the Main Square. In August 1920, during the Polish Silesian Uprising in Upper Silesia, the Polish Consulate
Consulate
and School were destroyed, while the Polish Library was burned down by a mob. The number of Poles as a percentage of the total population fell to just 0.5% after the reconstitution of Poland
Poland
in 1918, when many moved to Poland.[25] Antisemitic riots occurred in 1923.[28] The city boundaries were expanded between 1925 and 1930 to include an area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) with a population of 600,000. In 1929, the Werkbund opened WuWa (German: Wohnungs- und Werkraumausstellung) in Breslau-Scheitnig, an international showcase of modern architecture by architects of the Silesian branch of the Werkbund. In June 1930, Breslau hosted the Deutsche Kampfspiele, a sporting event for German athletes after Germany
Germany
was excluded from the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
after World War I. The number of Jews
Jews
remaining in Breslau fell from 23,240 in 1925 to 10,659 in 1933.[29] Up to the beginning of World War II, Breslau was the largest city in Germany east of Berlin.[30]

Aerial view of pre-war Breslau, 1920

Known as a stronghold of left wing liberalism during the German Empire,[31] Breslau eventually became one of the strongest support bases of the Nazis, who in the 1932 elections received 44% of the city's vote, their third-highest total in all Germany.[32] KZ Dürrgoy, one of the first concentration camps in the Third Reich, was set up in Breslau in 1933. After Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in 1933, political enemies of the Nazis were persecuted, and their institutions closed or destroyed; the Gestapo
Gestapo
began actions against Polish and Jewish students (see: Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau), Communists, Social Democrats, and trade unionists. Arrests were made for speaking Polish in public, and in 1938 the Nazi-controlled police destroyed the Polish cultural centre.[33][34] Many of the city's 10,000 Jews, as well as many others seen as "undesirable" by the Third Reich, were sent to concentration camps; those Jews
Jews
who remained were killed during the Holocaust.[33] A network of concentration camps and forced labour camps was established around Breslau, to serve industrial concerns, including FAMO, Junkers
Junkers
and Krupp. Tens of thousands were imprisoned there.[35] The last big event organised by the National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise, called Deutsches Turn-und-Sportfest (Gym and Sports Festivities), took place in Breslau from 26 to 31 July 1938. The Sportsfest was held to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the German Wars of Liberation against Napoleon's invasion.[36] Second World War and afterwards[edit]

Blindfolded German army officers walking to negotiate the capitulation of Festung Breslau, 6 May 1945

For most of World War II, the fighting did not affect Breslau. In 1941 the remnants of the pre-war Polish minority in the city, as well as Polish slave labourers, organised a resistance group called Olimp. The organisation gathered intelligence, carrying out sabotage and organising aid for Polish slave workers. As the war continued, refugees from bombed-out German cities, and later refugees from farther east, swelled the population to nearly one million,[37] including 51,000 forced labourers in 1944, and 9,876 Allied PoWs. At the end of 1944 an additional 30,000–60,000 Poles were moved into the city after Germans
Germans
crushed the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising.[38] In February 1945 the Soviet Red Army
Red Army
approached the city. Gauleiter Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
declared the city a Festung (fortress) to be held at all costs. Hanke finally lifted a ban on the evacuation of women and children when it was almost too late. During his poorly organised evacuation in January 1945, 18,000 people froze to death in icy snowstorms and −20 °C (−4 °F) weather. By the end of the Battle of Breslau, half the city had been destroyed. An estimated 40,000 civilians lay dead in the ruins of homes and factories. After a siege of nearly three months, Festung Breslau capitulated on 6 May 1945, two days before the end of the war.[39] In August the Soviets placed the city under the control of German anti-fascists.[40] Along with almost all of Lower Silesia, however, the city became part of Poland
Poland
under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. The Polish name of "Wrocław" was declared official. There had been discussion among the Western Allies to place the southern Polish-German boundary on the Glatzer Neisse, which meant post-war Germany
Germany
would have been allowed to retain approximately half of Silesia, including Breslau. However, the Soviets insisted the border be drawn at the Lusatian Neisse farther west. After the war[edit]

Fighting Solidarity
Fighting Solidarity
logo

Wrocław
Wrocław
dwarf

In August 1945, the city had a German population of 189,500, and a Polish population of 17,000. After World War II
World War II
the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union.[40] Almost all of the German inhabitants fled or were forcibly expelled between 1945 and 1949 and were settled in the Soviet occupation zone
Soviet occupation zone
and Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. The city's last pre-war German school was closed in 1963. A small German minority (about 1,000 people) remains in the city.[41] The Polish population was dramatically increased by the resettlement of Poles during postwar population transfers during the forced deportations from Polish lands annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the east region, many of whom came from Lviv
Lviv
(Lwów), Volhynia
Volhynia
and Vilnius Region. Wrocław
Wrocław
is now a unique European city of mixed heritage, with architecture influenced by Bohemian, Austrian and Prussian traditions, such as Silesian Gothic and its Baroque
Baroque
style of court builders of Habsburg Austria (Fischer von Erlach). Wrocław
Wrocław
has a number of notable buildings by German modernist architects including the famous Centennial Hall
Centennial Hall
(Hala Stulecia or Jahrhunderthalle) (1911–1913) designed by Max Berg. In 1948, Wrocław
Wrocław
organised the Recovered Territories Exhibition and the World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace. In 1963 Wrocław
Wrocław
was declared a closed city because of a smallpox epidemic. In 1982, during martial law in Poland, the anti-communist underground organizations Fighting Solidarity
Fighting Solidarity
and Orange Alternative were founded in Wrocław. Wrocław's dwarfs
Wrocław's dwarfs
made of bronze famously commemorate Orange Alternative. In 1983 and 1997, Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
visited the city. PTV Echo, the first non-state television station in Poland
Poland
and in the post-communist countries, began to broadcast in Wrocław
Wrocław
on 6 February 1990. In May 1997, Wrocław
Wrocław
hosted the 46th International Eucharistic Congress. In July 1997, the city was heavily affected by a flood of the River Oder, the worst flooding in post-war Poland, Germany
Germany
and the Czech Republic. About one-third of the area of the city was flooded.[42] An earlier equally devastating flood of the river took place in 1903.[43] A small part of the city was also flooded during the flood in 2010. From 2012 to 2015 the Wrocław
Wrocław
water node (pl) was renovated and redeveloped to prevent further flooding. It cost more than 900 million PLN (c. 220 million euro). Three matches in Group A of the UEFA Euro 2012
Euro 2012
championship were played in the then newly constructed Municipal Stadium in Wrocław. In 2016 Wrocław
Wrocław
was European Capital of Culture. In 2017 Wrocław
Wrocław
hosted the 2017 World Games. Wrocław
Wrocław
won the European Best Destination title in 2018.[44] Environment[edit] The city stretches for 26.3 kilometers on the east-west line and 19.4 kilometers on the north-south line. Air pollution[edit]

Map of Wrocław's areas where PM10 standards were exceeded in 2015

Wrocław
Wrocław
is one of the most polluted European and Polish cities. In a report by French Respire organization from 2014, Wrocław
Wrocław
was named the eighth most polluted European city, with 166 days of bad air quality yearly[45]. According to the Wrocław University
Wrocław University
research from 2017, high concentration of particular matters (PM2.5 and PM 10) in the air causes 942 premature deaths of Wrocław
Wrocław
inhabitants per year.[46] Air pollution also causes 3297 cases of bronchitis among Wrocław's children per year[46]. 84% of Wrocław
Wrocław
inhabitants think, that air pollution is a serious social problem, according to the poll from May 2017. 73% of people think, that air quality is bad.[47] In 2012, there were 71 days, when the PM10 standards, set by Cleaner Air For Europe Directive, were exceeded. In 2014, there were 104 such days.[48] In February 2018 Wrocław
Wrocław
was the most polluted city on Earth, according to the Airvisual website, which measures the air quality index[49][50]. In 2014, inhabitants founded an organization, called the Lower Silesian Smog Alert (Dolnośląski Alarm Smogowy, DAS), to tackle the air polution problem. Its goals are to educate the public and to reduct emission of harmful substances[51]. Climate[edit] Wrocław
Wrocław
has a humid continental climate (Dfb in the Koeppen climate classification). It is one of the warmer cities in Poland. Lying in the Silesian Lowlands
Silesian Lowlands
between Trzebnickie Hills
Trzebnickie Hills
and the Sudetes, the mean annual temperature is 9.04 °C (48 °F). The coldest month is January (average temperature −0.7 °C), with snow being common in winter, and the warmest is July (average temperature 18.9 °C). The highest temperature in Wrocław
Wrocław
was recorded on August 19, 1892[52] and August 8, 2015 (+38.9 °C).[53] The previous records were +38 °C on June 27, 1935 and +37.9 °C on July 31, 1994. The lowest temperature was recorded on February 11, 1956 (−32 °C).

Climate data for Wrocław

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.3 (61.3) 19.7 (67.5) 25.2 (77.4) 32.0 (89.6) 33.9 (93) 38.0 (100.4) 37.9 (100.2) 38.9 (102) 35.3 (95.5) 26.6 (79.9) 22.0 (71.6) 17.7 (63.9) 38.9 (102)

Average high °C (°F) 2.4 (36.3) 3.9 (39) 8.4 (47.1) 14.4 (57.9) 19.6 (67.3) 22.2 (72) 24.6 (76.3) 24.3 (75.7) 19.3 (66.7) 14.0 (57.2) 7.4 (45.3) 3.2 (37.8) 13.6 (56.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7 (30.7) 0.5 (32.9) 3.9 (39) 8.9 (48) 14.1 (57.4) 16.8 (62.2) 18.9 (66) 18.5 (65.3) 13.9 (57) 9.3 (48.7) 4.0 (39.2) 0.4 (32.7) 9.0 (48.2)

Average low °C (°F) −4.2 (24.4) −3.5 (25.7) −0.4 (31.3) 3.2 (37.8) 7.9 (46.2) 11.2 (52.2) 13.1 (55.6) 12.5 (54.5) 8.9 (48) 4.7 (40.5) 0.4 (32.7) −2.7 (27.1) 4.3 (39.7)

Record low °C (°F) −29.4 (−20.9) −32 (−26) −22.1 (−7.8) −6.3 (20.7) −3.1 (26.4) 1.1 (34) 4.7 (40.5) 2.9 (37.2) −4 (25) −6 (21) −15.5 (4.1) −22.7 (−8.9) −32 (−26)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 27 (1.06) 25 (0.98) 32 (1.26) 33 (1.3) 59 (2.32) 71 (2.8) 81 (3.19) 67 (2.64) 47 (1.85) 32 (1.26) 35 (1.38) 32 (1.26) 541 (21.3)

Average precipitation days 14 12 12 10 13 12 14 13 11 13 15 12 151

Average relative humidity (%) 84 82 77 71 71 72 71 72 78 81 86 86 77.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 54 74 125 204 250 251 251 247 166 119 67 47 1,855

Source: [54] [55] [56] [57] [58]

Fauna[edit] In Wrocław, the presence of over 200 species of birds has been registered, of which over 100 have nesting places here. As in other large Polish cities, the most numerous are pigeons. Other common species are the sparrow, tree sparrow, siskin, rook, crow, jackdaw, magpie, swift, martin, swallow, Kestrel, mute swan, mallard, coot, merganser, black-headed gull, great tit, blue tit, Long-tailed Tit, Greenfinch, Hawfinch, Collared Dove, Common wood pigeon, fieldfare, redwing, Common starling, gray heron, white stork, Common chaffinch, blackbird, jay, nuthatch, bullfinch, cuckoo, waxwing, Lesser spotted woodpecker, Great Spotted Woodpecker, White-backed woodpecker, white wagtail, blackcap, Black redstart, Old World flycatcher, Emberizidae, goldfinch, Western marsh harrier, Little bittern, Common moorhen, reed bunting, Remiz, Great reed warbler, Little crake, Little ringed plover and White-tailed eagle. In addition, in the city they live rats, hedgehogs, foxes, wild boars, bats, martens, squirrels, deer, hares, beavers, polecats, otters, badgers, weasels, stoats and raccoon dogs. May also appear Muskrat, American mink, raccoon. Water[edit] The city lies on the Oder
Oder
River and its four tributaries, which supply it within the city limits: Bystrzyca, Oława, Ślęza
Ślęza
and Widawa. In addition, the Dobra River and many streams flow through the city area. Wrocław
Wrocław
draws drinking water from the area of water - bearing areas supplied with groundwater and surface waters of the Oława and Nysa Kłodzka rivers through the Nysa-Oława Canal. The city has a sewage treatment plant on the Janówek estate. Government and politics[edit]

Wrocław
Wrocław
New City Hall – seat of the city mayor

Wrocław
Wrocław
is the capital city of Lower Silesian Voivodeship, a province (voivodeship) created in 1999. It was previously the seat of Wrocław Voivodeship. The city is a separate urban gmina and city county (powiat). It is also the seat of Wrocław
Wrocław
County, which adjoins but does not include the city. Districts[edit] Wrocław
Wrocław
was previously subdivided into five boroughs (dzielnica):

Fabryczna ("Factory Quarter") Krzyki, (German: Krietern, meaning "Wranglers") Psie Pole
Psie Pole
(German: Hundsfeld, "Dogs' Field", named so after the alleged Battle of Psie Pole
Psie Pole
or poor quality of the fields) Stare Miasto (old town) Śródmieście (midtown)

However, the city is now divided into 48 osiedles (districts): Bieńkowice, Biskupin-Sępolno-Dąbie-Bartoszowice, Borek, Brochów, Gaj, Gajowice, Gądów-Popowice Płd., Grabiszyn-Grabiszynek, Huby, Jagodno, Jerzmanowo-Jarnołtów-Strachowice-Osiniec, Karłowice-Różanka, Klecina, Kleczków, Kowale, Krzyki-Partynice, Księże, Kuźniki, Leśnica, Lipa Piotrowska, Maślice, Muchobór Mały, Muchobór Wielki, Nadodrze, Nowy Dwór, Ołbin, Ołtaszyn, Oporów, Osobowice-Rędzin, Pawłowice, Pilczyce-Kozanów-Popowice Płn., Plac Grunwaldzki, Polanowice-Poświętne-Ligota, Powstańców Śląskich, Pracze Odrzańskie, Przedmieście Oławskie, Przedmieście Świdnickie, Psie Pole-Zawidawie, Sołtysowice, Stare Miasto, Strachocin-Swojczyce-Wojnów, Szczepin, Świniary, Tarnogaj, Widawa, Wojszyce, Zacisze-Zalesie-Szczytniki, and Żerniki. Municipal government[edit] Wrocław
Wrocław
is currently governed by the city's mayor and a municipal legislature known as the city council. The city council is made up of 39 councillors and is directly elected by the city's inhabitants. The remit of the council and president extends to all areas of municipal policy and development planning, up to and including development of local infrastructure, transport and planning permission. However, it is not able to draw taxation directly from its citizens, and instead receives its budget from the Polish national government whose seat is in Warsaw. The city's current mayor is Rafał Dutkiewicz, who has served in this position since 2002. Previous mayors include Stanisław Apoznański (25.05.1984–13.12.1985), Stefan Skąpski (26.03.1986–4.06.1990), Bogdan Zdrojewski
Bogdan Zdrojewski
(5.06.1990–8.05.2001) and Stanisław Huskowski
Stanisław Huskowski
(8.05.2001–19.11.2002).[citation needed] Tourism[edit]

Old Town Hall in the Market Square

Salt Market Square

Tenement houses on south side of Market Square

Centennial Hall

Wrocław
Wrocław
Fountain

Africarium- Oceanarium
Oceanarium
in the ZOO

Hydropolis

Wrocław Opera
Wrocław Opera
by night

The Tourist Information Centre (Polish: Centrum Informacji Turystycznej) is located on the Main Market Square (Rynek) in building No. 14. Free wireless Internet (Wi-Fi) is available at a number of places around town. Landmarks and points of interest[edit] Ostrów Tumski is the oldest part of the city of Wrocław. It was formerly an island (ostrów in Old Polish) known as the Cathedral Island between the branches of the Oder
Oder
River, featuring the Wrocław Cathedral built originally in the mid 10th century. The 13th century Main Market Square (Rynek) features the Old Town Hall. In the north-west corner of the market square there is the St. Elisabeth's Church (Bazylika Św. Elżbiety) with its 91.46 m tower, which has an observation deck (75 m). North of the church are the Shambles with Monument of Remembrance of Animals for Slaughter (pl). The Salt Square (now a flower market) is located at the south-western corner of the market square. Close to the square, between Szewska and Łaciarska streets, there is the St. Mary Magdalene Church (Kościół Św. Marii Magdaleny) established in the 13th century. The St. Vincent and St. James' Church and the Holy Cross and St. Bartholomew's Collegiate Church are burial sites of Polish monarchs Henry II the Pious
Henry II the Pious
and Henry IV Probus
Henry IV Probus
respectively. Pan Tadeusz Museum- Operating since May 2016 year. Located in the building of the Golden Sun in the Market. You'll find the manuscript of the national epos- "Pan Tadeusz", multimedia exhibits, interactive educational halls and museum workshops there. The Centennial Hall
Centennial Hall
(Hala Stulecia; German: Jahrhunderthalle), designed by Max Berg
Max Berg
in 1911–13, is a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
inscribed by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 2006. Other points of interest include:

Wrocław Zoo
Wrocław Zoo
with an Africarium- Oceanarium
Oceanarium
– The oldest zoo in Poland. The third zoo in the world in terms of number of animal species. Multimedia Fountain Szczytnicki Park
Szczytnicki Park
with Japanese Garden (Wrocław) (pl) Miniature park
Miniature park
and Dinosaur park on the Wróblewskiego Street 9 Botanical Garden in Wrocław (pl) – founded 1811 Olympic Stadium Municipal Stadium – UEFA Euro 2012
Euro 2012
arena The Sky Tower (212 m) – tallest building in Poland
Poland
with a vantage point at an altitude of 200 meters. Poland's largest model railway "Kolejkowo" on Station Świebodzki Hydropolis – water multimedia museum University of Wrocław
University of Wrocław
with Mathematical Tower Church of the Name of Jesus (pl) Wrocław
Wrocław
water tower The Royal Palace which houses the Wrocław
Wrocław
City Museum White Stork Synagogue Old Jewish Cemetery, Wrocław Cemetery of Italian Soldiers Wrocław
Wrocław
Main Station Wrocław
Wrocław
Opera Polinka – gondola lift Ropes course
Ropes course
on the Opatowicka Island

Small passenger vessels on the Oder
Oder
offer city tours, as do historic trams or the converted open-topped historic bus Jelcz
Jelcz
043. Another interesting way to explore the city is seeking out Wrocław's dwarfs, small bronze figurines found throughout the town. In Wrocław
Wrocław
functions "Free Walking Tour" – https://freewalkingtour.com/wroclaw/ A frequent destination for tourists visiting Wrocław
Wrocław
is the Sudety Mountains, especially the nearby Mount Ślęża. Swimming[edit]

Aquapark Wrocław
Wrocław
(all year) Wrocław
Wrocław
SPA Center (all year) Orbita (all year) swimming pool AWF Wrocław
Wrocław
(all year) swimming pool WKS Śląsk Wrocław
Śląsk Wrocław
(all year) Sports center and swimming "Redeco" (all year) Morskie Oko (only in summer) Glinianki WakePark Wrocław
Wrocław
(Pedalo, Skimboarding, Wakeboarding, Waterskiing)(only in summer) Królewiecki pond (only in summer) swimming pool Kłokoczyce (only in summer)

Shopping malls[edit]

Wroclavia Galeria Handlowa Sky Tower Galeria Dominikańska Pasaż Grunwaldzki Arkady Wrocławskie Centrum Handlowe Borek Magnolia Park Wrocław
Wrocław
Fashion Outlet Futura Park Centrum Handlowe Korona Renoma, a 1930s department store of architectural interest over and above its shopping value Feniks Wrocław
Wrocław
Market Hall Marino Aleja Bielany in Bielany Wrocławskie
Bielany Wrocławskie
– the largest shopping mall in Poland

Entertainment[edit]

Świdnicka Cellar Restaurant

National Forum of Music

The city is well known for its large number of nightclubs and pubs. Many are in or near the Market Square, and in the Niepolda passage, the railway wharf on the Bogusławskiego street. The basement of the old City Hall houses one of the oldest restaurants in Europe – Piwnica Świdnicka (operating since around 1275), while the basement of the new City Hall contains the brewpub Spiż. There are many other craft breweries in Wrocław: three brewpubs – Browar Stu Mostów, Browar Staromiejski Złoty Pies, Browar Rodzinny Prost; two microbrewery – Profesja and Warsztat Piwowarski; and seven contract breweries – Doctor Brew, Genius Loci, Solipiwko, Pol A Czech, Baba Jaga, wBrew, Wielka Wyspa. Every year on the second weekend of June the Festival of Good Beer
Festival of Good Beer
takes place. It is the biggest beer festival in Poland. Every year in November and December the Christmas market
Christmas market
is held at the Market Square. Museums[edit] The National Museum at pl. Powstańców Warszawy, one of Poland's main branches of the National Museum system, holds one of the largest collections of contemporary art in the country.[59]

City Museum of Wrocław
Wrocław
(pl) The Museum of Bourgeois
Bourgeois
Art in the Old Town Hall Panorama Racławicka (Racławice Panorama) Museum of Architecture Archaeological Museum (pl) Museum of Natural History at University of Wrocław Archdiocese Museum (pl) Museum of Military in the Arsenal Princes Lubomirski Museum (pl) Museum of Pharmacy (pl) Post and Telecommunications Museum (pl) Geological Museum (pl) Mineralogical Museum (pl) Ethnographic Museum (pl) Ossolineum
Ossolineum
Library with history of major World War II
World War II
theft of collections after the takeover of Lwów by the Soviet Union

Wrocław
Wrocław
in literature[edit] The history of Wrocław
Wrocław
is described in minute detail in the monograph Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City by Norman Davies
Norman Davies
and Roger Moorhouse. A number of books have been written about Wrocław following World War II. Wrocław
Wrocław
philologist and writer Marek Krajewski
Marek Krajewski
wrote a series of crime novels about detective Eberhard Mock, a fictional character from the city of Breslau. Accordingly, Michał Kaczmarek published Wrocław according to Eberhard Mock – Guide based on the books by Marek Krajewski. In 2011 appeared the 1104-page Lexicon of the architecture of Wrocław, and in 2013 a 960-page Lexicon about the greenery of Wrocław. In March 2015 Wrocław
Wrocław
filed an application to become a UNESCO's City of Literature. Education[edit]

University of Wrocław

Wrocław University of Technology
Wrocław University of Technology
– Faculty of Architecture

Wrocław
Wrocław
is the third largest educational centre of Poland, with 135,000 students in 30 colleges which employ some 7,400 staff.[60]

Wrocław University
Wrocław University
of Environmental and Life Sciences

List of ten public colleges and universities:

Wrocław University
Wrocław University
(Uniwersytet Wrocławski):[61] over 47,000 students, ranked fourth among public universities in Poland
Poland
by the "Wprost" weekly ranking in 2007[62] Wrocław University of Technology
Wrocław University of Technology
(Politechnika Wrocławska):[63] over 40,000 students, the best university of technology in Poland
Poland
by the "Wprost" weekly ranking in 2007[64] Wrocław Medical University
Wrocław Medical University
(Uniwersytet Medyczny we Wrocławiu)[65] University School of Physical Education in Wrocław (pl)[66] Wrocław University
Wrocław University
of Economics (Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu)[67] over 18,000 students, ranked fifth best among public economic universities in Poland
Poland
by the "Wprost" weekly ranking in 2007[68] Wrocław University
Wrocław University
of Environmental and Life Sciences (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu):[69] over 13,000 students, ranked third best among public agricultural universities in Poland
Poland
by the "Wprost" weekly ranking in 2007[70] Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław
Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław
(Akademia Sztuk Pięknych we Wrocławiu),[71] Karol Lipiński University of Music
Karol Lipiński University of Music
(Akademia Muzyczna im. Karola Lipińskiego we Wrocławiu)[72] Ludwik Solski Academy for the Dramatic Arts, Wrocław
Wrocław
Campus (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna w Krakowie filia we Wrocławiu)[73] The Tadeusz Kościuszko Land Forces Military Academy
Tadeusz Kościuszko Land Forces Military Academy
(Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Wojsk Lądowych)[74]

Private universities:

University of Social Sciences and Humanities
University of Social Sciences and Humanities
(SWPS Uniwersytet Humanistycznospołeczny)

Other cultural institutions:

Alliance Française in Wrocław Austrian Institute in Wrocław British Council in Wrocław Dante Alighieri Society in Wrocław Grotowski Institute in Wrocław

Transport[edit] Wrocław
Wrocław
is a major road junction. Wrocław
Wrocław
is skirted on the south by the A4 highway, which allows for a quick connection with Upper Silesia, Kraków
Kraków
and further east to Ukraine, and Dresden, Leipzig, Berlin
Berlin
to the west. The A8 highway ( Wrocław
Wrocław
ring road) around the west and north of the city connects the A4 highway with the S5 express road that leads to Poznań, Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
and S8 express road that leads to Oleśnica, Łódź, Warsaw, Białystok
Białystok
and National road 5 and National road 8 to the Czech Republic. Under construction is the eastern part of the Wrocław
Wrocław
ring road. The city is served by Copernicus Airport Wrocław
Copernicus Airport Wrocław
(airport code WRO) which handles flights from Ryanair, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Eurowings, LOT Polish Airlines, SprintAir
SprintAir
and Scandinavian Airlines. The main rail station is Wrocław
Wrocław
Główny supported by PKP Intercity, Przewozy Regionalne
Przewozy Regionalne
and Koleje Dolnośląskie. Journey times from Wrocław: Warsaw
Warsaw
– 3 h 36 minutes, Poznań
Poznań
– 2 h 26 minutes, Szczecin
Szczecin
- 6 h, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
– 5 h, Kraków
Kraków
– 3 h 14 minutes. Adjacent to the railway station, is a central bus station located in the basement of the shopping mall of "Wroclavia", with services offered by PKS, PolskiBus.com, Eurolines
Eurolines
and others. The city has a river port on the Oder
Oder
and several marinas. Public transport
Public transport
in Wrocław
Wrocław
includes bus lines and 22 tram lines operated by Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne (MPK, the Municipal Transport Company).[75] Rides are paid for, tickets can be bought above kiosks and vending machines, which are located at bus stops and vehicles. The tickets are available for purchase in the electronic form via mobile. Tickets are one-ride or temporary (0,5h, 1h, 1,5h, 24h, 48h, 72h, 168h). Several private taxicab firms, Uber
Uber
and iTaxi operate in the city. In Wrocław
Wrocław
there are 255 km of cycling paths and about 100 km paths on flood embankments. Wrocław
Wrocław
has a bike rental network – Wrocław
Wrocław
City Bike. It has 810 bicycles and 81 self-service stations. Operating every year from 1 March to 30 November.

Transport in Wrocław

Wrocław
Wrocław
Main Station

Pendolino
Pendolino
ED250 on the Wrocław
Wrocław
Main Station

MAN Lion's City
MAN Lion's City
bus

Škoda 19 T
Škoda 19 T
tram

Wrocław
Wrocław
City Bike

"Polinka" – Gondola lift
Gondola lift
over the Oder

Copernicus Airport Wrocław
Copernicus Airport Wrocław
– Main Terminal (T2)

Roads in Wrocław

Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

[citation needed] Religion[edit]

Wrocław Cathedral
Wrocław Cathedral
in the oldest district of Ostrów Tumski

Wrocław's population is predominantly Catholic (Roman Catholic). The diocese was founded in the city as early as 1000, it was one of the first dioceses in Poland
Poland
at that time. Now the city is the seat of an Archdiocese. Prior to World War II, Breslau had a majority of Protestants, a large Roman Catholic and a small Jewish minority. In 1939, of 620,976 inhabitants 368,464 were Protestants (United Protestants—mostly Lutherans
Lutherans
and minority Reformed—in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union), 193,805 Catholics, 2,135 other Christians and 10,659 Jews. Post-war resettlements from Poland's ethnically and religiously more diverse former eastern territories (known in Polish as Kresy) and the eastern parts of post-1945 Poland
Poland
(see Operation Vistula) account for a comparatively large portion of Greek Catholics and Orthodox Christians of mostly Ukrainian and Lemko descent. Wrocław
Wrocław
is also unique for its " Dzielnica Czterech Świątyń" (Borough of Four Temples)—a part of Stare Miasto (Old Town) where a Synagogue, a Lutheran Church, a Roman Catholic church and an Eastern Orthodox church stand near each other. Other Christian denominations present in Wrocław
Wrocław
include: Adventist, Baptist, Free Christians, Jehovah's Witnesses, Latter-day Saints, Methodist and Pentecostal. There also exist associations practicising and promoting Slavic neopaganism.[76][77] In 2007, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Wrocław
Wrocław
established the Pastoral Centre for English Speakers, which offers Mass on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, as well as other sacraments, fellowship, retreats, catechesis and pastoral care for all English-speaking Catholics and non-Catholics interested in the Catholic Church. The Pastoral Centre is under the care of Order of Friars Minor, Conventual (Franciscans) of the Kraków
Kraków
Province in the parish of St Charles Borromeo (Św Karol Boromeusz). Prior to World War II, Wrocław, then known as Breslau, had the third largest Jewish population of all cities in Germany.[78] Its White Stork Synagogue was built in 1840.[78] It was only rededicated in 2010.[78] Four years later, in 2014, it celebrated its first ordination of four rabbis and three cantors since the Second World War.[78] The Polish authorities together with the German Foreign Minister attended the official ceremony.[78] Professional sports[edit]

Municipal Stadium

Interior of the Municipal Stadium

The Wrocław
Wrocław
area has many popular professional sports teams. The most popular sport today is football, thanks to Śląsk Wrocław
Śląsk Wrocław
– Polish Champion in 1977 and 2012. In second place is basketball, thanks to Śląsk Wrocław
Śląsk Wrocław
– the award-winning men's basketball team (17 times Polish Champion). Matches of Group A UEFA Euro
Euro
2012's were held at Wrocław
Wrocław
at the Municipal Stadium. Matches of EuroBasket 1963 and EuroBasket 2009, as well as 2009 Women's European Volleyball Championship, 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship and 2016 European Men's Handball Championship
2016 European Men's Handball Championship
were held in Wrocław. Wrocław
Wrocław
was the host of the 2013 World Weightlifting Championships and will the host World Championship 2016 of Duplicate bridge
Duplicate bridge
and World Games
World Games
2017, a competition in 37 non-Olympic sport disciplines. A marathon takes place in Wrocław
Wrocław
every year in September.[79] Wrocław
Wrocław
also hosts the Wrocław
Wrocław
Open, a professional tennis tournament which is part of the ATP Challenger Tour. Men's sports[edit]

Śląsk Wrocław: men's football team, Polish Championship in Football 1977, 2012; Polish Cup
Polish Cup
winner 1976, 1987; Polish SuperCup winner 1987, 2012; Polish League Cup winner 2009. Now in Ekstraklasa
Ekstraklasa
(Polish Premier League). Śląsk Wrocław
Śląsk Wrocław
(previous names: BASCO Śląsk Wrocław, ASCO Śląsk Wrocław, Bergson Śląsk Wrocław, Era Śląsk Wrocław, Deichmann Śląsk Wrocław, Idea Śląsk Wrocław, Zepter Idea Śląsk Wrocław, Zepter Śląsk Wrocław, Śląsk ESKA Wrocław, PCS Śląsk Wrocław, WKS Śląsk Wrocław)—men's basketball team, 17 times Polish Champion, six times runner-up, 14 times third place; 12 times Polish Cup winner. Śląsk Wrocław: men's handball team, 15-time Polish Champion. WTS Sparta Wrocław: motorcycle speedway team, four-time Polish Champion. KS Rugby Wrocław: rugby union team. Panthers Wrocław: american football team.

Women's sports[edit]

KŚ AZS Wrocław: women's football team. AZS AWF Wrocław: women's handball team. AZS AE Wrocław: women table tennis team.

Economy[edit]

Sky Tower – tallest building in Poland, residential complex offering office, commercial and recreational space

401 Millionaires live in Wroclaw, or individuals whose annual income exceeds 1 million PLN (as per 2014). Wrocław's industry manufactures buses, railroad cars, home appliances, chemicals and electronics. The city houses factories and development centres of many foreign and domestic corporations, such as WAGO, Siemens, Bosch, Bosch-Siemens, Nokia Networks, Volvo, HP, IBM, Google, Opera Software, QAD, Bombardier Transportation, DeLaval, Whirlpool Corporation, WABCO, Tieto, PPG Deco Poland
Poland
and others. In Wrocław, offices are also located large Polish companies, including Getin Holding, Akwawit- Polmos Wrocław, Telefonia Dialog, PGS Software, Gazoprojekt, MCI Management SA, Selena, Rawplug, AB SA, Impel, Kogeneracja SA, EKO Holding, Inter-System, Supra Invest, Toya SA, has its main headquarters are also Kaufland
Kaufland
Poland. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the city has had a developing high-tech sector. Many high-tech companies are located in the Wrocław Technology Park, such as Baluff, CIT Engineering, Caisson Elektronik, ContiTech, Ericsson, Innovative Software Technologies, IBM, IT-MED, IT Sector, LiveChat Software, Mitsubishi Electric, Maas, PGS Software, Technology Transfer Agency Techtra and Vratis. In Biskupice Podgórne (Community Kobierzyce) there are factories of LG (LG Display, LG Electronics, LG Chem, LG Innotek), Dong Seo Display, Dong Yang Electronics, Toshiba, and many other companies, mainly from the electronics and home appliances sectors, while the Nowa Wieś Wrocławska factory and distribution center of Nestlé
Nestlé
Purina and factories a few other enterprises. In the years 2013–15 was built Engine Business. In Wrocław Industrial Park operates over 250 companies from nearly 60 different industries. In Wrocław
Wrocław
is a research and development center aviation industry – Global Engineering Centre, the American company UTC Aerospace Systems. The city is the seat of Wrocław
Wrocław
Research Centre EIT+, which contains, inter alia, geological research laboratories to the unconventional and Lower Silesian Cluster of Nanotechnology. The following banks have their headquarters in Wrocław: Crédit Agricole Bank of Poland, Bank Zachodni WBK, Euro
Euro
Bank, Santander Consumer Bank; as well as financial and accounting centers: Volvo, Hewlett-Packard, KPIT Cummins, UBS, GE Money Bank, Credit Suisse. The city is home to the largest number of leasing companies and debt collection in the country, including the largest European Leasing Fund. Also AmRest
AmRest
has its headquarters in Wrocław, the largest food service company in Poland, a franchisee network of KFC, Pizza Hut, Burger King, La Tagliatella, and Starbucks. Wrocław
Wrocław
is a major center for the pharmaceutical industry: U.S. Pharmacia, Hasco-Lek, Galena, Avec Pharma, 3M, Labor, S-Lab, Herbapol, and Cezal. In February 2013, Qatar Airways
Qatar Airways
launched its Wrocław
Wrocław
European Customer Service. In Wrocław, there are logistics centers DHL, FedEx
FedEx
and UPS. Closely related to Wrocław
Wrocław
is Poland's largest shopping mall – Bielany Avenue (pl. Aleja Bielany) and Bielany Trade Center, located in Bielany Wrocławskie
Bielany Wrocławskie
where supermarkets Auchan, Decathlon, Leroy Merlin, Makro, Tesco, IKEA, Jula, OBI, Castorama, Black Red White, Poco, factories E. Wedel, Cargill, warehouses Prologis, Panattoni, and two logistics center of Amazon.com. Due to the proximity of the borders with Germany
Germany
and the Czech Republic, Wrocław
Wrocław
and the region of Lower Silesia
Silesia
is a large import and export partner with these countries. Major corporations[edit]

3M AB SA Akwawit– Polmos S.A. – plant "Wratislavia vodka" AmRest Bombardier Transportation
Bombardier Transportation
Polska The Bank of New York
York
Mellon Bank Zachodni WBK Bosch-Siemens-Hausgeräte GmbH (BSH) Cargill
Cargill
Poland CH Robinson Worldwide DHL Dolby
Dolby
Labs Eko Holding Eurobank S.A. Ernst & Young Europejski Fundusz Leasingowy SA Crédit Agricole
Crédit Agricole
Poland Credit Suisse[80] Deichmann DeLaval
DeLaval
Operations Poland Dolby Fortum S.A. Qatar Airways Gigaset
Gigaset
Communications Google Hasco-Lek S.A. Herbapol Wrocław Hewlett Packard Hologram Industries Polska Hutmen SA IBM[81] Impel SA Intakus SA Inter-System S.A. IT Consulting KGHM Polska Miedź Kinnarps Poland KOGENERACJA S.A. Komsa Polska LiveChat Software LG Electronics McKinsey & Company Microsoft[82] Mphasis Wyde MSI (Micro Star International) Polska National Bank of Poland Nokia Networks Opera Software Parker Hannifin PGS Software PPG Deco Polska PZ Cussons
PZ Cussons
Polska S.A. PZU QAD Robert Bosch GmbH SAP Polska Santander Consumer Bank Selena Siemens Société Générale Insurance Poland Supra Invest S.A. Südzucker Swiftway Sp. z o.o. Telefonia Dialog SA Tieto UBS United Technologies Corporation UPM Raflatac Viessmann Volvo
Volvo
Polska sp. z o.o. WABCO Polska Whirlpool Polska S.A. Work Service Zender sp. z o.o.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Wrocław
Wrocław
is twinned with:[83]

Breda, Netherlands[83] Dresden, Germany, since 1963[83][84] Charlotte, North Carolina, United States[83] Hrodno, Belarus[83] Guadalajara, Mexico[83][85] Hradec Králové, Czech Republic[83] Kaunas, Lithuania,[83] Lviv, Ukraine.[83] Ramat Gan, Israel, since 1997[83][86] Wiesbaden, Germany, since 1987[83][87] Montevideo, Uruguay[83]

Partnerships[edit]

Vienne, French département.[83]

Gallery[edit]

Ostrów Tumski (Cathedral Island)

Wrocław
Wrocław
Cathedral

John of Nepomuk
John of Nepomuk
Monument on Cathedral Island

Cathedral of St. Vincent and St. James

Royal Palace

Tenement houses at Wrocław
Wrocław
Market Square

Market Square and St. Elizabeth's Church

Aleksander Fredro
Aleksander Fredro
Monument

Salt Square

Podwale District Court

University of Wrocław
University of Wrocław
by night

Aula Leopoldina at the University of Wrocław

National Museum

Wrocław
Wrocław
Puppet Theater

St. Michael the Archangel Church

Wrocław
Wrocław
water tower

St. Elizabeth Church

Piast
Piast
Hotel

Wrocław
Wrocław
Market Hall

Ossolineum

Renoma Department Store

Grunwald Square

Sky Tower

"Profile of Time" by Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
at the Sky Tower

Monopol Hotel

Podwale tenement houses

Centennial Hall

White Stork Synagogue

Rędziński Bridge

Grunwald Bridge

Wrocław
Wrocław
Main Station

Public bath, now a Spa

Archbishop's Palace

Ethnographic Museum

Leśnica Castle

Notable people[edit] See also: Category:People from Wrocław, List of people from Wrocław, and List of people from Breslau

Alois Alzheimer Adolf Anderssen, chess master Đorđe Andrejević-Kun, painter Natalia Avelon, actress Max Berg, architect Dietrich Bonhoeffer, theologian, anti-Nazi dissident Edmund Bojanowski, blessed of the Catholic Church Max Born, theoretical physicist and mathematician Hermann Fernau Władysław Frasyniuk, politician Hans Freeman, biochemist Henryk Gulbinowicz, archbishop Jerzy Grotowski, theater director Fritz Haber, chemist Mirosław Hermaszewski, astronaut Carl Gotthard Langhans, architect Clara Immerwahr, chemist Alfred Kerr, German-Jewish critic August Kopisch, poet Heinrich Gerhard Kuhn, physicist Wojciech Kurtyka, mountaineer Alexander Moszkowski, satirist, writer and philosopher Moritz Moszkowski, composer, pianist, and teacher Ruth Neudeck, German SS death camps supervisor and war criminal Sepp Piontek, football manager Manfred von Richthofen, fighter pilot Wanda Rutkiewicz, mountaineer Auguste Schmidt, educationist and feminist Marlene Schmidt, Miss Germany
Germany
1961, Miss Universe 1961 Angelus Silesius
Angelus Silesius
(Johann Scheffler), convertite from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism, mystic and religious poet Max Simon, Waffen-SS officer Daniel Speer, author Eva Stachniak, writer Edith Stein, philosopher and Roman Catholic martyr Charles Proteus Steinmetz, electrical engineer William Stern, psychologist August Tholuck, theologian Henryk Tomaszewski, mime Dagmara Wozniak
Dagmara Wozniak
(born 1988), Polish-American U.S. Olympic sabre fencer

See also[edit]

Poland
Poland
portal European Union portal

14th High School in Wrocław 2003 Wrocław
Wrocław
football riot Fighting Solidarity History of Wrocław Jan (bishop of Wrocław) Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City Province of Silesia
Silesia
(historic, 1815–1919) Wrocław
Wrocław
Global Forum Ślęża

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Wyniki badań bieżących – Baza Demografia – Główny Urząd Statystyczny". Demografia.stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Wrocław". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Wroclaw-info – oficjalny serwis informacji turystycznej Wrocławia". Wroclaw-info.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Guess where I 'm going next!". Arrivalguides.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Administrator. "Wroclaw – Dark Tourism – the guide to dark & weird places around the world". Dark-tourism.com. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ " University of Wrocław
University of Wrocław
– University of Wrocław". International.uni.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Russian Universities Lead 2016 Rankings for EECA Region". Topuniversities.com. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2012". Lboro.ac.uk. Retrieved 19 May 2017.  ^ "2015 Quality of Living survey". Uk.mercer.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ Grässe, J. G. T. (1861). Orbis latinus oder Verzeichniss der lateinischen Benennungen der bekanntesten Städte etc., Meere, Seen, Berge und Flüsse in allen Theilen der Erde nebst einem deutsch-lateinischen Register derselben. Dresden: G. Schönfeld's Buchhandlung (C. A. Werner). p. 40.  ^ "Wratislavia sive Budorgis celebris Elysiorum metropolis". Sbc.org.pl. 2012-02-10. Retrieved 2013-04-24.  ^ a b c "Historical Overview of Wrocław
Wrocław
Wrocław
Wrocław
In Your Pocket". Inyourpocket.com. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ a b Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Mikrokosmos" pages 110–115 ^ Weczerka, p. 39 ^ Weczerka, p. 41 ^ Benedykt Zientara (1997). Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy (in Polish). Warsaw: Trio. pp. 317–320. ISBN 83-85660-46-1.  ^ Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Mikrokosmos" page 114 ^ a b Thum, p. 316 ^ Norman Davies
Norman Davies
"Mikrokosmos" page 110 ^ Piotr Górecki (2007). A Local Society in Transition: The Henryków Book and Related Documents. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. pp. 27, 62. ISBN 978-0-88844-155-3.  ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "How Wrocław
Wrocław
found itself by saving its German-Polish literary heritage - Books - DW - 26.04.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ "1813 and the lead up to the Battle of Leipzig
Leipzig
- napoleon.org". Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ Sharma, K. K. (16 March 1999). "Tourism and Culture". Sarup & Sons. Retrieved 16 March 2018 – via Google
Google
Books.  ^ a b Cf. Meyers Großes Konversationslexikon: 20 vols., 6th ed., Leipzig
Leipzig
and Vienna: Bibliographisches Institut, 1903–1908, vol. 3: Bismarck-Archipel bis Chemnitz (1903), article: Breslau (Stadt), pp. 394–399, here p. 396. No ISBN ^ a b Harasimowicz, p. 466f ^ see Till van Rahden: Jews
Jews
and Other Germans: Civil Society, Religious Diversity, and Urban Politics in Breslau, 1860–1925, ISBN 978-0-299-22694-7 ^ Microcosm, page 361 ^ Davies, Moorhouse, p. 396; van Rahden, Juden, p. 323–6 ^ "Territorial organisation of Breslau (German)". Verwaltungsgeschichte.de. Retrieved 2012-03-08.  ^ "Thum, G.: Uprooted: How Breslau Became Wroclaw during the Century of Expulsions. (eBook and Paperback)". Press.princeton.edu. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ van Rahden, Till (2008). Jews
Jews
and other Germans: civil society, religious diversity, and urban politics in Breslau, 1860–1925. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 234.  ^ Norman Davies, Mikrokosmos, page 369 ^ a b Davies, Moorhouse, p. 395 ^ Kulak, p. 252 ^ "see article "Concentration Camps in and around Breslau 1940–1945"". Roger Moorhouse. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "Breslau bonczek sportfest". Sportfest1938.prv.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ www.wroclaw.pl (27 July 2010). "History of Wrocław". Wroclaw.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Norman Davies, Mikrokosmos, page 232 ^ "Festung Breslau (Breslau Fortress) siege by the Soviet Army – photo gallery". Wratislavia.net. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ a b Mazower, M(2008) Hitler's Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe, Penguin Press P544 ^ "NTKS Wrocław". Ntkswroclaw.vdg.pl. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "1997 great flood of Oder
Oder
River – photo gallery". Miasta.gazeta.pl. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "1903 great flood of the Oder
Oder
river – photo gallery". Breslau-wroclaw.de. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ Wrocław
Wrocław
z tytułem European Best Destination 2018! ^ "Największy smog w Europie: Kraków
Kraków
na podium, debiut Wrocławia, Warszawa w dziesiątce (http://www.tvn24.pl)". TVN24.pl. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ a b "Wpływ zanieczyszczeń powietrza na zdrowie mieszkańców Dolnego Śląska". Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "73% wrocławian źle ocenia jakość powietrza w mieście". Radio Wrocław. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "Ekspert: Po Wrocławiu powinno się już chodzić z maseczką na twarzy. Taki jest smog". Wroclaw.wyborcza.pl. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "Niechlubne zwycięstwo Wrocławia. Jest na czele najbardziej zanieczyszczonych miast na świecie [ZDJĘCIA]". Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "Dolnośląski Alarm Smogowy: Wrocław
Wrocław
był w piątek najbardziej zanieczyszczonym miastem na świecie!". Radio Wrocław. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "Ogłosili Dolnośląski Alarm Smogowy. Będą walczyć o czystsze powietrze we Wrocławiu". Tuwroclaw.com. Retrieved 10 February 2018.  ^ "Rekordy ciepła w Polsce. Zobacz, gdzie i kiedy było najcieplej". tvnmeteo.tvn24.pl. Retrieved 16 March 2018.  ^ "We Wrocławiu padł rekord ciepła: 38,9 stopni Celsjusza". Gazetawroclawska.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "КЛИМАТ ВРОЦЛАВА". pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Averages". Retrieved 25 September 2015. [dead link] ^ "32 stopnie we Wrocławiu. Padł rekord z 1968 Roku". Tvnmeteo.tvn24.pl. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "Rekordy temperatury w Polsce - Pogoda i Klimat". Meteomodel.pl. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ Iwona Gołaj, Grzegorz Wojturski (2006). "The National Museum in Wrocław. History". Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu. Przewodnik (in Polish and English). Muzeum Narodowe we Wrocławiu. Retrieved October 9, 2012.  ^ Fitch Rating Report on Wrocław
Wrocław
dated July 2008, p.3 ^ "Strona główna – Uniwersytet Wrocławski". Uni.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Ranking Szkół Wyższych tygodnika WPROST". Szkoly.wprost.pl. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Politechnika Wrocławska". Pwr.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Ranking Szkół Wyższych tygodnika WPROST". Szkoly.wprost.pl. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Uniwersytet Medyczny im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu". Umed.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu". Awf.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu – Najlepsze studia ekonomiczne". Ae.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Ranking Szkół Wyższych tygodnika WPROST". Szkoly.wprost.pl. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu". Up.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Ranking Szkół Wyższych tygodnika WPROST". Szkoly.wprost.pl. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Akademia Sztuk Pięknych we Wrocławiu". Asp.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Akademia Muzyczna --". Amuz.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Teatralna im. Ludwika Solskiego w Krakowie Filia we Wrocławiu". Pwst.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Uczelnia". Wso.wroc.pl. Retrieved 17 April 2017.  ^ "Home page" (in Polish). Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne. Retrieved 28 August 2010.  ^ "Sprawozdanie z III Ogólnopolskiego Zjazdu Rodzimowierców – Rodzima Wiara – oficjalna strona". Rodzimawiara.org.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ Polska, Grupa Wirtualna. "Tak świętują Dziady. Tajemniczy obrzęd polskich pogan". sfora.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2017-04-02.  ^ a b c d e Polish city marks first rabbinic ordination since World War II, The Times of Israel, September 3, 2014 ^ "wroclawmaraton.pl". wroclawmaraton.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ " Credit Suisse
Credit Suisse
opens Centre of Excellence in Wrocław". 5 March 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ " IBM
IBM
Opens Service Delivery Center in Wrocław". 13 September 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2011.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
opens software development centre in Wrocław". 30 September 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m " Wrocław
Wrocław
Official Website – Partnership Cities of Wrocław" (in English, German, French, and Polish). Retrieved 23 October 2008.  ^ " Dresden
Dresden
– Partner Cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008.  ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara
Guadalajara
municipal government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ " Ramat Gan
Ramat Gan
Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2008.  ^ "Wiesbaden's international city relations". Retrieved 24 December 2012. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Wrocław English language[edit]

Davies, Norman; Roger Moorhouse
Roger Moorhouse
(2002). Microcosm: Portrait of a Central European City. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-06243-3.  Till van Rahden, Jews
Jews
and Other Germans: Civil Society, Religious Diversity, and Urban Politics in Breslau, 1860–1925 (2008. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press Gregor Thum, Uprooted. How Breslau Became Wrocław
Wrocław
During the Century of Expulsions (2011. Princeton: Princeton University Press Strauchold, Grzegorz; Eysymontt, Rafał (2016). Wrocław/Breslau. Historical-Topographical Atlas of Silesian Towns. Volume 5. Translated by Connor, William. Marburg: Herder Institute for Historical Research on East Central Europe. ISBN 978-3-87969-411-2. 

Polish language[edit]

Harasimowicz, Jan; Suleja, Włodzimierz (2006). Encyklopedia Wrocławia. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. ISBN 83-7384-561-5.  Kulak, Teresa (2006). Wrocław. Przewodnik historyczny (A to Polska właśnie). Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie. ISBN 83-7384-472-4.  Gregor Thum, Obce miasto: Wrocław
Wrocław
1945 i potem, Wrocław: Via Nova, 2006

German language[edit]

Scheuermann, Gerhard (1994). Das Breslau-Lexikon (2 vols.). Dülmen: Laumann n. BidVerlagsgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-89960-132-9.  van Rahden, Till (2000). Judenbiskupln nund andere Breslauer: Die Beziehungen zwischen Juden, Protestanten und Katholiken in einer deutschen Großstadt von 1860 bis 1925. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-35732-X.  Thum, Gregor (2002). Die fremde Stadt: Breslau 1945. Berlin: Siedler. ISBN 3-88680-795-9.  Weczerka, Hugo (2003). Handbuch der historischen Stätten: Schlesien. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner Verlag. ISBN 3-520-31602-1. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutWrocławat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage

Municipal website (in Polish) (in English) (in French) Tourist Information Centre website (in Polish) (in English) MPK Wrocław
Wrocław
(transport company website) (in Polish) Christmas market
Christmas market
(in Polish) (in English) Wrocław
Wrocław
in tripadvisor

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Lower Silesian Voivodeship

City counties

Wrocław
Wrocław
(capital) Jelenia Góra Legnica Wałbrzych

Land counties

Bolesławiec Dzierżoniów Głogów Góra Jawor Jelenia Góra Kamienna Góra Kłodzko Legnica Lubań Lubin Lwówek Śląski Milicz Oława Oleśnica Polkowice Środa Śląska Strzelin Świdnica Trzebnica Wałbrzych Wołów Wrocław Ząbkowice Śląskie Zgorzelec Złotoryja

v t e

Wrocław
Wrocław
County

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Kąty Wrocławskie Gmina
Gmina
Siechnice Gmina
Gmina
Sobótka

Rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Czernica Gmina
Gmina
Długołęka Gmina
Gmina
Jordanów Śląski Gmina
Gmina
Kobierzyce Gmina
Gmina
Mietków Gmina
Gmina
Żórawina

Seat (not part of the county)

Wrocław

v t e

World Games
World Games
host cities

   

1981: Santa Clara 1985: London 1989: Karlsruhe 1993: The Hague 1997: Lahti

2001: Akita 2005: Duisburg 2009: Kaohsiung 2013: Cali 2017: Wrocław

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg City
Luxembourg City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

v t e

World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port
Port
Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145367499 LCCN: n80050802 GND: 4008216-7 BNF:

.