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The Brazilian Navy
Navy
(Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil) is the naval service branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces, responsible for conducting naval operations. The Brazilian Navy
Navy
is the largest navy in South America
South America
and in Latin America, and the second largest navy in the Americas, after the United States Navy.[2] The navy was involved in Brazil's war of independence from Portugal. Most of Portugal's naval forces and bases in South America
South America
were transferred to the newly independent country. In the initial decades following independence, the country maintained a large naval force and the navy was later involved in the Cisplatine War, the River Plate conflicts, the Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
as well as other sporadic rebellions that marked Brazilian history. By the 1880s the Brazilian Imperial Navy
Navy
was the most powerful in South America
South America
and the 5th most powerful in the world. After the 1893 naval rebellion, there was a hiatus in the development of the navy until 1905, when Brazil
Brazil
acquired two of the most powerful and advanced dreadnoughts of the day which sparked a dreadnought race with Brazil's South American neighbours. The Brazilian Navy
Navy
participated in both World War I
World War I
and World War II, engaging in anti-submarine patrols in the Atlantic. The modern Brazilian Navy
Navy
includes British-built guided missile frigates (FFG), locally built corvettes (FFL), coastal diesel-electric submarines (SSK) and many other river and coastal patrol craft.

Contents

1 Mission 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Imperial Navy
Navy
(1822–1889)

2.2.1 War of Independence 2.2.2 Cisplatine War
Cisplatine War
and rebellions (1825–1849) 2.2.3 Platine & Paraguayan wars (1849–1870) 2.2.4 Expansion and the end of the Empire (1870–1889)

2.3 Early republic (1889–1917)

2.3.1 Naval revolts 2.3.2 South American naval rivalry 2.3.3 Revolt of the Lash

2.4 World Wars (1917–1945)

2.4.1 First World War (1917–1918) 2.4.2 Second World War (1942–1945)

2.5 Cold War period (1945–2000)

2.5.1 Lobster War
Lobster War
(1961–1963) 2.5.2 1964 coup d'état

2.6 Peacekeeping and SAR missions (2000–present) 2.7 Notable search and rescue missions

2.7.1 AFF447 (2009) 2.7.2 Disappearance of ARA San Juan (2017)

2.8 Peacekeeping operations (2004–present)

2.8.1 Haiti 2.8.2 Lebanon

3 Notable naval battles involving the Brazilian Navy

3.1 Brazilian War of Independence 3.2 Cisplatine War 3.3 Platine War 3.4 Uruguayan War 3.5 Paraguayan War 3.6 World War I 3.7 World War II

4 Brazilian Navy
Navy
today

4.1 Personnel 4.2 Ships and submarines 4.3 Aircraft 4.4 Marines

5 Structure and organisation

5.1 Branches 5.2 Structure

5.2.1 Naval Operations Command

5.2.1.1 Squadron 5.2.1.2 Regional Forces

5.2.1.2.1 1st Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.2 2nd Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.3 3rd Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.4 4th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.5 5th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.6 6th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.7 7th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.8 8th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.9 9th Naval District Command 5.2.1.2.10 Squadron Naval Riflemen Command 5.2.1.2.11 Naval Electronic Warfare Center 5.2.1.2.12 Naval Control Center for Maritime Traffic

5.2.2 Support Formations

5.2.2.1 General Secretariat of the Navy 5.2.2.2 General Directorate for Material 5.2.2.3 General Directorate for Personnel 5.2.2.4 General Directorate for Navigation 5.2.2.5 General Directorate for Nuclear and Technological Development of the Navy 5.2.2.6 General Command of the Corps of Naval Riflemen

5.3 Naval bases

6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

11.1 Videos

Mission[edit] In addition to the roles of a traditional navy, the Brazilian Navy also carries out the role of organizing the merchant navy and other operational safety missions traditionally conducted by a coast guard. Other roles include:

Conducting national maritime policy Implementing and enforcing laws and regulations with respect to the sea and inland waters.

History[edit] Origins[edit]

Patron of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
Joaquim Marques Lisboa, Marquis of Tamandaré, in 1873.

The origins of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
date back to the Portuguese naval forces based in Brazil. The transfer of the Portuguese monarchy to Brazil
Brazil
in 1808 during the Napoleonic wars also resulted in the transfer of a large part of the structure, personnel and ships of the Portuguese Navy. These became the core of the Navy
Navy
of Brazil. Imperial Navy
Navy
(1822–1889)[edit] Main article: Imperial Brazilian Navy

Ships of the Imperial Navy
Navy
in training, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, 1870s.

War of Independence[edit] Main article: Independence of Brazil
Brazil
§ Independence War The Brazilian Navy
Navy
came into being with the independence of the country. Some of its members were native-born Brazilians, who under Portuguese rule had been forbidden to serve, while other members were Portuguese born who adhered to the cause of independence and foreign mercenaries. A number of establishments previously created by King João VI of Portugal
Portugal
were incorporated into the navy such as the Department of Navy, Headquarters of the Navy, the Intendancy and Accounting Department, the Arsenal (Shipyard) of the Navy, the Academy of Navy
Navy
Guards, the Naval Hospital, the Auditorship, the Supreme Military Council, the powder plant, and others. The Brazilian-born Captain Luís da Cunha Moreira was chosen as the first minister of the Navy
Navy
on 28 October 1822.[3][4] British naval officer Lord Thomas Alexander Cochrane was made the commander of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
and received the rank of "First Admiral".[5][6] At that time, the fleet was composed of one ship of the line, four frigates, and smaller ships for a total of 38 warships. The Secretary of Treasury Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada
Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada
created a national subscription to generate capital in order to increase the size of the fleet. Contributions were sent from all over Brazil. Even Emperor Pedro I acquired a merchant brig at his own expense (renamed Caboclo) and donated it to the Navy.[6][7] The navy fought in the north and also south of Brazil
Brazil
where it had a decisive role in the independence of the country.[8] After the suppression of the revolt in Pernambuco in 1824 and prior to the Cisplatine War, the navy increased significantly in size and strength. Starting with 38 ships in 1822, eventually the navy had 96 modern warships of various types with over 690 cannon. Cisplatine War
Cisplatine War
and rebellions (1825–1849)[edit] Main article: Cisplatine War

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Frigate
Frigate
Nictheroy, 1823

Escuna Bertioga, 1825

Frigate
Frigate
Amalia, 1843

Steam corvette Dom Afonso, 1850

The Navy
Navy
blocked the estuary of the Río de la Plata
Río de la Plata
hindering the contact of the United Provinces (as Argentina was then called) with the Cisplatine rebels who wanted Uruguay to joined Argentina again or become an independent country, and the outside world. Several battles had occurred between Brazilian and Argentine ships until the defeat of an Argentine flotilla composed of two corvettes, five brigs and one barquentine near the Island of Santiago in 1827. The war came to a draw and in 1828 had to accept the independence of Uruguay. When Pedro I abdicated in 1831, he left a powerful navy made up of two ships of the line and ten frigates in addition to corvettes, steamships, and other ships for a total of at least 80 warships in peace time.[9][10] During the 58-year reign of Pedro II the Brazilian Navy
Navy
achieved its greatest strength in relation to navies around the world.[11] The Arsenal, Navy
Navy
department, and the Naval Jail were improved and the Imperial Marine Corps was created. Steam navigation was adopted. Brazil
Brazil
quickly modernized its fleet acquiring ships from foreign sources while also constructing ships locally. Brazil's Navy substituted the old smoothbore cannon for new ones with rifled barrels, which were more accurate and had longer ranges. Improvements were also made in the Arsenals (shipyards) and naval bases, which were equipped with new workshops.[10] Ships were constructed in the Naval Arsenal of Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Recife, Santos, Niterói and Pelotas. The Navy
Navy
also successfully fought against all revolts that occurred during the Regency where it conducted blockades and transported the Army troops; including Cabanagem, Ragamuffin War, Sabinada, Balaiada, amongst others.[10][12] When Emperor Pedro II was declared of legal age and assumed his constitutional prerogatives in 1840, the Armada had over 90 warships: six frigates, seven corvettes, two barque-schooners, six brigs, eight brig-schooners, 16 gunboats, 12 schooners, seven armed brigantine-schooners, six steam barques, three transport ships, two armed luggers, two cutters and thirteen larger boats.[13] During the 1850s the State Secretary, the Accounting Department of the Navy, the Headquarters of the Navy
Navy
and the Naval Academy were reorganized and improved. New ships were purchased and the ports administrations were better equipped. The Imperial Mariner Corps was definitively regularized and the Marine Corps was created, taking the place of the Naval Artillery. The Service of Assistance for Invalids was also established, along with several schools for sailors and craftsmen.[14] Platine & Paraguayan wars (1849–1870)[edit] Main article: Paraguayan War

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Steam gunboat Ivahy, attack on Paraguayan Forts in 1867.

Steam frigate Recife, 1850.

Gunboat
Gunboat
a steam Araguari, 1858.

Steam corvette Parnahyba, 1860

Ironclad
Ironclad
Bahia, 1865.

Ironclad
Ironclad
Barroso during the Battle of Curuzú
Battle of Curuzú
in 1866.

The Brazilian Ironclad
Ironclad
Herval, built by Rennie in 1866.

Ironclad
Ironclad
Brasil seriously damaged after the attack on the Curuzú Fort, 1866.

Steam frigate Amazonas, 1870.

A rare photograph of the Brazilian river monitor Alagoas passing Humaitá, sometime in 1868, presumably after the fortress was captured. Notice the low profile presented to enemy artillery. From a soldier's photographic album preserved at the National Library of Brazil.

The conflicts in the Platine region did not cease after the war of 1825. The anarchy caused by the despotic Rosas and his desire to subdue Bolívia, Uruguay and Paraguay forced Brazil
Brazil
to intercede. The Brazilian Government sent a naval force of 17 warships (a ship of the line, 10 corvettes and six steamships) commanded by the veteran John Pascoe Grenfell.[15] The Brazilian fleet succeeded in passing through the Argentine line of defence at the Tonelero Pass under heavy attack and transported the troops to the theater of operations. The Brazilian Armada had a total of 59 vessels of various types in 1851: 36 armed sailing ships, 10 armed steamships, seven unarmed sailing ships and six sailing transports.[16] More than a decade later the Armada was once again modernized and its fleet of old sailing ships was converted to a fleet of 40 steamships armed with more than 250 cannons.[17] In 1864 the navy fought in the Uruguayan War
Uruguayan War
and immediately afterwards in the Paraguayan War
Paraguayan War
where it annihilated the Paraguayan navy in the Battle of Riachuelo. The navy was further augmented with the acquisition of 20 ironclads and six fluvial monitors. At least 9,177 navy personnel fought in the five years' conflict.[18] Brazilian naval constructors such as Napoleão Level, Trajano de Carvalho and João Cândido Brasil planned new concepts for warships that allowed the country's Arsenals to retain their competitiveness with other nations.[19] All damage suffered by ships was repaired and various improvements were made to them.[20] In 1870, Brazil
Brazil
had 94 modern warships[21] and had the fifth most powerful navy in the world.[22] Expansion and the end of the Empire (1870–1889)[edit]

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Ironclad
Ironclad
Sete de Setembro, 1874.

Battleship
Battleship
Riachuelo, 1885.

Cruiser
Cruiser
Imperial Marinheiro, 1882.

Battleship
Battleship
Aquidabã, 1893.

Torpedo boat
Torpedo boat
Tiradentes, 1893.

During the 1870s, the Brazilian Government strengthened the navy as the possibility of a war against Argentina over Paraguay's future became quite real. Thus, it acquired a gunboat and a corvette in 1873; an ironclad and a monitor in 1874; and immediately afterwards two cruisers and another monitor.[23][24] The improvement of the Armada continued during the 1880s. The Arsenals of the Navy
Navy
in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco, Pará
Pará
and Mato Grosso continued to build dozens of warships. Also, four torpedo boats were purchased.[25]

Cruiser
Cruiser
Almirante Barroso, 1880.

On November 30, 1883, the Practical School of Torpedoes was created along with a workshop devoted to constructing and repairing torpedoes and electric devices in the Arsenal of Navy
Navy
of Rio de Janeiro.[26] This Arsenal constructed four steam gunboats and one schooner, all with iron and steel hulls (the first of these categories constructed in the country).[25] The Imperial Armada reached its apex with the incorporation of the ironclad battleships Riachuelo and Aquidabã (both equipped with torpedo launchers) in 1884 and 1885, respectively. Both ships (considered state-of-the-art by experts from Europe) allowed the Brazilian Armada to retain its position as one of the most powerful naval forces.[27] By 1889, the navy had 60 warships[20] and was the fifth or sixth most powerful navy in the world.[28] In the last cabinet of the monarchic regime, the Minister of the Navy, Admiral José da Costa Azevedo (the Baron of Ladário), left the reorganization and modernization of the navy unfinished.[20] The coup that ended the monarchy in Brazil
Brazil
in 1889 was not well accepted by the Armada. Imperial Mariners were attacked when they tried to support the imprisoned Emperor in the City Palace. The Marquis of Tamandaré begged Pedro II to allow him to fight back the coup; however, the Emperor refused to allow any bloodshed.[29] Tamandaré would later be imprisoned by order of the dictator Floriano Peixoto
Floriano Peixoto
under the accusation of financing the monarchist military in the Federalist Revolution.[30] The Baron of Ladário remained in contact with the exiled Imperial Family, hoping to restore the monarchy, but ended up ostracized by the republican government. Admiral Saldanha da Gama led the Revolt of the Armada with the objective of restoring the Empire and allied himself with other monarchists who were fighting in the Federalist Revolution. However, all the attempts at restoration were violently crushed. High-ranking Monarchist officers were imprisoned, banished or executed by firing squad without due process of law and their subordinates also suffered harsh punishments.[31] Early republic (1889–1917)[edit]

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Protected cruiser Republica, 1892

Protected cruiser Almirante Barroso, 1896

Protected cruiser Tamandaré, 1897.

Coastal defence Deodoro, 1898.

Destroyer
Destroyer
Gustavo Sampaio, 1898.

Torpedo
Torpedo
cruiser Tupy, 1900.

Pará-class destroyer Rio Grande do Norte, 1908.

Battleship
Battleship
São Paulo, 1910.

Cruiser
Cruiser
Bahia, 1917.

Battleship
Battleship
Minas Geraes after its 1930s modernization, possibly during the Second World War.

Naval revolts[edit] Main article: Revolta da Armada The military coup that led to the proclamation of the Brazilian Republic (1889), accentuated the decline of shipbuilding in the country. For four decades, between 1890 and 1930 no new ships were built in Brazil. The focus of republican governments was to equip the army to fight internal uprisings in the new regime's early years. The Navy
Navy
was perceived as a threat to the new republican regime, as it had been more loyal to the Monarchy. The situation became precarious in just over a decade as the Naval Battalion was reduced to 295 soldiers and Imperial Marines to 1,904 men. The equipment and vessels acquired were considered outdated by Navy
Navy
officials, who criticized the abandonment of repair shops. Naval officers participated in two riots, known as Naval Riots. The second, avowedly monarchist, cost the officers their careers and their lives, without entering the military justice process. The sailors who obeyed orders and took part in the attempt to restore monarchy suffered cruelly.[32][page needed] South American naval rivalry[edit] Main article: South American dreadnought race

Battleship
Battleship
Minas Gerais (1910–1952).

Battleship
Battleship
São Paulo (1910–1951).

Brazil's navy fell into disrepair and obsolescence in the aftermath of the 1889 revolution, which deposed Emperor Pedro II, after naval officers led a revolt in 1893–94.[33] Meanwhile, although the Argentine–Chilean agreement had limited their naval expansion, they still retained the numerous vessels built in the interim,[34] so around the start of the 20th century the Brazilian Navy
Navy
lagged far behind its Argentine and Chilean counterparts in quality and total tonnage,[35] despite Brazil
Brazil
having nearly three times the population of Argentina and almost five times that of Chile.[36] The navy had just forty-five percent of its authorized personnel in 1896, and the only modern armored ships were two small coast-defense vessels launched in 1898.[37] Rising demand for coffee and rubber brought Brazil
Brazil
an influx of revenue in the early 1900s.[38] Simultaneously, there was a drive on the part of prominent Brazilians, most notably Pinheiro Machado and the Baron of Rio Branco,[A] to have the country recognized as an international power. A strong navy was seen as crucial to this goal.[40] The National Congress of Brazil
Brazil
drew up and passed a large naval acquisition program in late 1904, but it was two years before any ships were ordered.[41] Law no. 1452 was passed on 30 December 1905, which authorized £4,214,550 for new warship construction, £1,685,820 in 1906, three small battleships, three armored cruisers, six destroyers, twelve torpedo boats, three submarines, and two river monitors were ordered.[42] Though the Brazilian government later eliminated the armored cruisers for reasons of cost, the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Júlio César de Noronha, signed a contract with Armstrong Whitworth for three small battleships on 23 July 1906.[43] British shipyards were ordered to build two dreadnought battleships, Minas Gerais and São Paulo; this started a naval arms race with Argentina and Chile. Later Rio de Janeiro was ordered and sold and another Riachuelo was never completed as a result of the First World War. Revolt of the Lash[edit]

João Cândido Felisberto
João Cândido Felisberto
with reporters, officers and sailors on board Minas Geraes on 26 November 1910, the last day of the Revolt of the Lash

Main article: Revolt of the Lash Soon after São Paulo's arrival, a major rebellion known as the Revolt of the Lash, or Revolta da Chibata, broke out on four of the newest ships in the Brazilian Navy. The initial spark was provided on 21 November 1910 when Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Brazilian
sailor Marcelino Rodrigues Menezes was brutally flogged 250 times for insubordination. Many Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Brazilian
sailors were sons of former slaves, or were former slaves freed under the Lei Áurea
Lei Áurea
(abolition) but forced to enter the navy. They had been planning a revolt for some time, and Menezes became the catalyst. Further preparations were needed, so the rebellion was delayed until 22 November. The crewmen of Minas Geraes, São Paulo, the twelve-year-old Deodoro, and the new Bahia
Bahia
quickly took their vessels with only a minimum of bloodshed: two officers on Minas Geraes and one each on São Paulo and Bahia
Bahia
were killed.[44] The ships were well-supplied with foodstuffs, ammunition, and coal, and the only demand of mutineers—led by João Cândido Felisberto—was the abolition of "slavery as practiced by the Brazilian Navy". They objected to low pay, long hours, inadequate training for incompetent sailors, and punishments including bôlo (being struck on the hand with a ferrule) and the use of whips or lashes (chibata), which eventually became a symbol of the revolt. By 23 November, the National Congress had begun discussing the possibility of a general amnesty for the sailors. Senator Ruy Barbosa, long an opponent of slavery, lent a large amount of support, and the measure unanimously passed the Federal Senate on 24 November. The measure was then sent to the Chamber of Deputies.[45] Humiliated by the revolt, naval officers and the president of Brazil were staunchly opposed to amnesty, so they quickly began planning to assault the rebel ships. The former believed such an action was necessary to restore the service's honor. Late on 24 November, the President ordered the naval officers to attack the mutineers. Officers crewed some smaller warships and the cruiser Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia's sister ship with ten 4.7-inch (119 mm) guns. They planned to attack on the morning of 25 November, when the government expected the mutineers would return to Guanabara Bay. When they did not return and the amnesty measure neared passage in the Chamber of Deputies, the order was rescinded. After the bill passed 125–23 and the president signed it into law, the mutineers stood down on 26 November.[46] During the revolt, the ships were noted by many observers to be well-handled, despite a previous belief that the Brazilian Navy
Navy
was incapable of effectively operating the ships even before being split by a rebellion. World Wars (1917–1945)[edit]

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

The Brazilian submarine Humaytá. Humaytá was a modified Balilla-class submarine
Balilla-class submarine
built in Italy for the Brazilian Navy.

Minelayer Camocim, 1940.

Monitor Paraguassú, 1940.

Cannon-class destroyer Beberibe, 1943.

Marcílio Dias-class destroyer Greenhalgh, 1944.

Corvette-minelayer Cabedelo, 1944.

First World War (1917–1918)[edit] Main articles: Brazil
Brazil
during World War I
World War I
and U-boat
U-boat
Campaign (World War I)

Warship
Warship
silhouettes of the Brazilian Navy, 1914

After the declaration of war on the Central Powers
Central Powers
in October 1917 the Brazilian Navy
Navy
participated in the war. On 21 December 1917 the British government requested that a Brazilian naval force of light cruisers be placed under Royal Navy
Navy
control and a squadron comprising the cruisers Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
and Bahia, the destroyers Paraíba, Rio Grande do Norte, Piauí, and Santa Catarina, and the support ship Belmonte and the ocean-going tugboat Laurindo Pitta was formed, designated the Divisão Naval em Operações de Guerra ("Naval Division in War Operations"). The DNOG sailed on 31 July 1918 from Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha
for Sierra Leone, arriving at Freetown
Freetown
on 9 August, and sailing onwards to its new base of operations, Dakar, on 23 August. On the night of 25 August the division believed it had been attacked by a U-boat
U-boat
when the auxiliary cruiser Belmonte sighted a torpedo track. The purported submarine was depth-charged, fired on, and reportedly sunk by Rio Grande do Norte, but the sinking was never confirmed. The DNOG patrolled the Dakar–Cape Verde– Gibraltar
Gibraltar
triangle, which was suspected to be used by U-boats waiting on convoys, until 3 November 1918 when it sailed for Gibraltar
Gibraltar
to begin operations in the Mediterranean Sea, with the exception of Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Norte, and Belmonte. The Division arrived at Gibraltar
Gibraltar
on 10 November; while passing through the Straits of Gibraltar, they mistook three United States Navy
Navy
subchasers for U-boats but no damage was caused.[47] Second World War (1942–1945)[edit]

Transport Vital de Oliveira, sunk in 1942.

Cruiser
Cruiser
Bahia
Bahia
(1910–1945 sunk by an explosion).

Main articles: Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
and Brazil
Brazil
during World War II Having the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
blocked and the necessity to go beyond to the far East, Germany used the Atlantic Ocean to maintain its supply of material necessities. In World War II, Brazil's navy was obsolete. In early 1942, German submarines aimed to interdict supplies from reaching Britain and the Soviet Union. Between 1942 and 1944, Brazil's navy was supported by the United States Navy. During this period several naval bases were established in the North and Northeast of Brazil, becoming the headquarters of the Allied Command Atlantic South. Within their limitations and with the refitting and reorganization promoted with American resources, the Brazilian Navy
Navy
participated actively in the fight against U-boats in the South, Central Atlantic and also the Caribbean. They guarded Allied convoys bound for North Africa and the Mediterranean. Between 1942 and 1945 the navy was responsible for conducting 574 convoy operations protecting 3,164 merchant ships of various nationalities. Enemy submarines managed to sink only three vessels. According to German documentation the Brazilian Navy
Navy
made over sixty-six attacks against German submarines. A total of nine U-boats known German submarines were destroyed along the Brazilian coast. Those were: U-164, U-128, U-590, U-513, U-662, U-598, U-199, U-591, and U-161 About 1,100 Brazilians died during the Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
as a result of the sinking of 32 Brazilian merchant vessels and a naval warship. Among the 972 dead from the merchant vessels, 470 were crew and 502 were civilian passengers.[48] Besides these, 99 sailors died in the sinking of Vital de Oliveira when she was attacked by German submarines, in addition to some 350 deaths in accidents that resulted in the sinking of the corvette Camaquã on 21 July 1944. The cruiser Bahia
Bahia
was sunk by an explosion on 4 July 1945 which resulted in the deaths of over 300 men. Cold War period (1945–2000)[edit]

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Destroyer
Destroyer
Araguari, in 1949.

Brooklyn-class cruiser
Brooklyn-class cruiser
Barroso, in 1967

Fletcher-class destroyer
Fletcher-class destroyer
Piaui, in 1963.

Aircraft carrier Minas Gerais, in 1970.

Submarine
Submarine
Riachuelo, in 1975.

Corvette
Corvette
Solimões, in 1980.

Frigate
Frigate
Constituição, in 1990

Destroyer
Destroyer
Parana, in 2000.

Troop transport Ary Parreira, in 2002.

Frigate
Frigate
Bosísio, in 2012

Lobster War
Lobster War
(1961–1963)[edit] Main articles: Lobster War
Lobster War
and Brazil– France
France
relations

Brazilian Navy
Navy
in Lobster War.

In 1961, some groups of French fishermen who were operating very profitably off the coast of Mauritania extended their search to the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, settling on a spot off the coast of Brazil
Brazil
where lobsters are found on submerged ledges at depths of 250–650 ft (76–198 m). Local fishermen complained that large boats were coming from France
France
to catch lobster off the state of Pernambuco, so the Brazilian Admiral Arnoldo Toscano ordered two corvettes to sail to the area where the French fishing boats were located. Seeing that the fishermen's claim was justifiable, the captain of the Brazilian vessel then demanded that the French boats retreat to deeper water, leaving the continental shelf to smaller Brazilian vessels. The situation became very tense once the French rejected this demand and radioed a message asking for the French government to send a destroyer to accompany the lobster boats, which prompted the Brazilian government to put fleet in a state of alert. The French Government dispatched a T 53-class destroyer
T 53-class destroyer
on 21 February to watch over the French fishing boats. The French vessel withdrew after the arrival of a Brazilian warship and the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais. 1964 coup d'état[edit] Although corporal punishment was officially abolished after the Revolt of the Lash, or Revolta da Chibata, at the end of 1910, improvement in working conditions and career plans were still contentious in early 1960. The dissatisfaction with officialdom and conservative politicians, coupled with the lack of vision and inability of the general policy of then president João Goulart, led the sailors, encouraged by leaders such as Corporal Anselmo, to the military coup of 1964. The purges carried out later (not just the navy but for all the armed forces), and the establishment of certain criteria for selection of its new members were a military term in the Brazilian tradition among its members openly harboring various currents of political thought. The Colossus-class aircraft carrier
Colossus-class aircraft carrier
Minas Gerais served the Navy
Navy
until its decommissioning in 2001. The carrier was commissioned as NAeL Minas Gerais (named for Kubitschek's home state) on 6 December 1960. She departed Rotterdam for Rio de Janeiro on 13 January 1961. The duration of the refit meant that while the carrier was the first purchased by a Latin American nation, she was the second to enter service, after another Colossus-class carrier entered service with the Argentine Navy
Navy
as ARA Independencia in July 1959. Peacekeeping and SAR missions (2000–present)[edit]

Example of vessels commissioned during this period:

Aircraft carrier São Paulo, in 2005.

Amphibious warfare vessels Almirante Saboia, in 2009.

Patrol ship Macau, in 2014.

Corvette/Patrol ship Araguari, in 2014.

Research vessel
Research vessel
Vital de Oliveira, in 2015.

Notable search and rescue missions[edit] AFF447 (2009)[edit] Flight 447 was due to pass from Brazilian airspace into Senegalese airspace at approximately 02:20 (UTC) on 1 June, and then into Cape Verdean airspace at approximately 03:45. Shortly after 04:00, when the flight had failed to contact air traffic control in either Senegal
Senegal
or Cape Verde, the controller in Senegal
Senegal
attempted to contact the aircraft. When he received no response, he asked the crew of another Air France
France
flight (AF459) to try to contact AF447; this also met with no success.[49] The Brazilian Navy
Navy
also moved three vessels initially, being the patrol vessel Grajaú, the frigate Constituição and the corvette Caboclo to aid in the searches. Subsequently, the tanker Almirante Gastão Motta and the frigate Bosisio were sent, increasing the search force of the navy to five boats. During the search period, 51 bodies were recovered, more than 600 pieces of the aircraft, as well as passengers' luggage. A total of 1,344 officers of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
and eleven vessels, 35,000 miles, were directly involved in the search, rescue and support.[50] Disappearance of ARA San Juan (2017)[edit] On 15 November 2017, the submarine San Juan in service with the Argentine Navy, stopped communicating during a routine patrol in the South Atlantic
South Atlantic
off the coast of Argentina. A multi-nation search operation was mounted to try to locate the submarine, which was believed to have suffered an electrical malfunction. Within hours of San Juan's last transmission, reports describe an explosive noise, detected in the vicinity of the vessel's last known location. The frigate Rademaker, the submarine relief ship NSS Felinto Perry and the polar ship NPo Almirante Maximiano of the Brazilian Navy participate in the multinational search for the lost submarine.[51] Peacekeeping operations (2004–present)[edit] Haiti[edit] On 28 May 2004 four Brazilian Navy
Navy
ships (Mattoso Maia, Rio de Janeiro, Almirante Gastão Motta, Bosísio) departed from Rio de Janeiro bound for Haiti
Haiti
on a peace mission coordinated by the United Nations (UN). The ships transported part of the military contingent that was involved in Haitian reconstruction. In addition to 150 Marines and Army troops, the ships carried most of the materiel for the Brazilian stabilization force — approximately 120 vehicles, 26 trailers of various types, and 81 containers loaded with equipment and supplies.[52] On 28 February 2010, the Brazilian Navy
Navy
ship Garcia D'Avila sailed from Rio de Janeiro with 900 tons of cargo, including humanitarian aid supplies to earthquake victims in Haiti
Haiti
as well as equipment for the Brazilian military that operates in that country. Ammunition was brought for Brazilian soldiers in addition to 14 power generators and 30 vehicles, including trucks, ambulances and armored vehicles. The ship's crew consisted of 350 mariners.[53] Lebanon[edit]

Brazilian frigate União

On 15 February 2011, Brazil
Brazil
assumed command of the Maritime Task Force (MTF) of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
(UNIFIL).[54] On 4 October the Brazilian Ministries of Defence and Foreign Relations informed authorities that Brazil
Brazil
was sending a Navy
Navy
vessel with up to 300 crew members, equipped with an aircraft, to join the fleet in Lebanon
Lebanon
and the vessel was authorized by the National Congress.[55] On 25 November 2011 the frigate União with 239 officers and sailors aboard joined the task force, bringing to nine the number of vessels assisting the Lebanese Navy
Navy
in monitoring Lebanese territorial waters. The frigate served as the flagship for Rear Admiral Luiz Henrique Caroli of Brazil
Brazil
who had been Commander of UNIFIL-MTF since February.[56] On 10 April 2012 the frigate Liberal left Rio de Janeiro bound for Lebanon
Lebanon
to join the force.[57] It was relieved in January 2013 by the frigate Constituição which joined a multinational group comprising nine ships; three from Germany, two from Bangladesh, one from Greece, one from Indonesia and one from Turkey. The crew comprised 250 military officials. The return to Rio was scheduled for August 2013.[58]

Brazilian corvette Barroso

On 8 August 2015 the corvette Barroso left Rio de Janeiro to replace União and later that month carried out maritime interdiction operations and provided training to the Lebanese Navy.[59] On 4 September 2015 it rescued 220 Syrian migrants in the Mediterranean Sea, as reported by the Ministry of Defense in a statement released on its website. The Brazilian ship was sailing towards Beirut in Lebanon when it received an alert from the Italian Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) about a sinking vessel taking immigrants to Europe.[59] Notable naval battles involving the Brazilian Navy[edit] Brazilian War of Independence[edit]

Battle of 4 May
Battle of 4 May
– The largest naval battle of the War of Independence. The Brazilian and Portuguese fleets clashed with inconclusive results. Siege of Salvador
Siege of Salvador
– Brazilian Imperial warships surrounding troops and Portuguese ships in Salvador, Bahia. Battle of Montevideo – Imperial naval forces sought to capture the last Portuguese redoubt in the Cisplatina province.

Cisplatine War[edit]

Battle of Monte Santiago
Battle of Monte Santiago
– The Imperial Navy, commanded by James Norton, surprised and chased an Argentine squad.

Platine War[edit]

Battle of The Tonelero Pass
Battle of The Tonelero Pass
– An Imperial naval force forced passage under an artillery barrage from the Argentine Army.

Uruguayan War[edit]

Siege of Salto – Imperial Navy
Navy
blockade and bombing of the city of Salto, Uruguay. Siege of Paysandú
Siege of Paysandú
– Imperial warships siege and bombard the city of Paysandú.

Paraguayan War[edit]

Battle of Riachuelo
Battle of Riachuelo
– Largest naval battle of the Brazilian Navy history, one of the most important in South America. Involved Brazilian and Paraguayan naval forces. Battle of Paso de Cuevas
Battle of Paso de Cuevas
– Brazilian and Argentine warships successfully pass Argentine troops at the Cuevas Pass on the Rio Paraná. Battle of Curuzú
Battle of Curuzú
– Brazilian Imperial warships bombardment of Curuzú fortifications. Siege of Humaitá
Siege of Humaitá
– Passage of the Imperial fleet before the fortification of Humaitá on the Rio Paraguay.

World War I[edit]

U-boat Campaign (World War I)
U-boat Campaign (World War I)
– Brazilian squad created to patrol the area between Dakar-Cape Verde-Gibraltar, during World War I.

World War II[edit]

Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic
– Brazilian warships against German submarines in World War II.

Brazilian Imperial Navy
Navy
in the Battle of 4 May.

The Brazilian fleet blockading Buenos Aires celebrates the end of the Cisplatine War
Cisplatine War
in 1828.

Passage of the Tonelero
Passage of the Tonelero
during the Platine War
Platine War
(1851–52).

The Naval Battle of Riachuelo
Battle of Riachuelo
was a key victory during the Paraguayan War, 1865.

Battle of Curuzú
Battle of Curuzú
Naval Warfare in Paraguay: Brazilian Ironclad
Ironclad
Rio de Janeiro, launched 1866 and sunk by a mine the same year on the Paraná River.

Paraguayan Canoes giving approach to Brazilian monitor Alagoas, riverine warfare in 1866.

Imperial fleet bombing the fortification Humaitá.

Brazilian navy in anti-submarine warfare, Atlantic ocean, 1942.

Brazilian Navy
Navy
today[edit] Personnel[edit] As of 2011, the Brazilian Navy
Navy
has a reported strength of 60,000 active personnel,[60] of which approximately 15,000 are naval infantry. The current Navy
Navy
Commander is Admiral Eduardo Leal Ferreira.[61] Ships and submarines[edit] Main article: List of ships of the Brazilian Navy

The aircraft carrier São Paulo

An AF-1 Skyhawk of the Brazilian Navy

As of 2012, the Brazilian Navy
Navy
had about 100 commissioned ships,[62] with others undergoing construction, acquisition and modernization. Between 1996 and 2005 the Navy
Navy
retired 21 ships.[63] The Brazilian Navy
Navy
operated one Clemenceau-class aircraft carrier, São Paulo, formerly the French Navy's Foch. It was retired in 2017.[64] Its possible replacements are presently in the early stage of planning and are not expected to be in service until at least 2025.[65] Four Tupi-class and one Tikuna-class Type 209 submarines are in the fleet. The Tupi-class submarines will be upgraded by Lockheed Martin at a cost of $35 million.[66] The modernization includes the replacement of existing torpedoes with new MK 48
MK 48
units.[67] On 14 March 2008, the Navy
Navy
purchased four Scorpène-class submarines from France.[68] The Navy
Navy
is currently developing its first nuclear submarine.[69] The Navy
Navy
plans to have the Scorpène-class submarines in service in 2017, and their first nuclear-powered submarine commissioned in 2023.[70] In August 2008 the Navy
Navy
incorporated the corvette Barroso, which was designed and built in Brazil[71] at a cost of $263 million.[72] In August 2012 the Navy
Navy
requested four new ships based on the Barroso class but using a stealth design. The PROSUPER program plans to acquire, firstly, five new 6,000-ton frigates, five new offshore patrol vessels and one Logistics Support Vessel. In January 2012 BAE Systems
BAE Systems
contracted to supply three patrol vessels that were Port of Spain-class corvettes. The contract is worth £133m. The offshore patrol vessels are already built, originally ordered by the government of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
in a contract which was terminated in 2010.[73][74] The first vessel was commissioned at the end of June 2012, the second was scheduled for December 2012 and the last for April 2013.[75] In March 2014, the Brazilian Navy
Navy
announced plans to domestically build an aircraft carrier, to enter service around 2029. Originally, São Paulo was to be modernized until its introduction, but escalating repair costs forced its retirement in February 2017. The carrier will likely be based on an existing project and be built with a foreign partner. French company DCNS has a strong presence in Brazil
Brazil
and is already engaged in building five submarines and a naval base in the country. The company has been showcasing their DEAC Aircraft Carrier project based on the Charles de Gaulle carrier's design and aviation systems including launching conventional take-off aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicle integration, advanced conventional propulsion, and platform stabilization systems. American company General Atomics
General Atomics
is marketing their Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System
Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System
(EMALS) to Brazil. Possible aircraft to be operated by the carrier may include the Saab Sea Gripen, given that the Air Force has chosen the land-based version as their new jet fighter.[76] Aircraft[edit] As of 2011, the Naval Aviation arm of the Navy
Navy
operates around 85 aircraft. All the aircraft, with the exception of the A-4 Skyhawks, are helicopters.

A Brazilian Westland Super Lynx Mk-21A.

A Brazilian Aérospatiale AS-332 Super Puma

A Brazilian SH-3 Sea King

A Brazilian Bell 206
Bell 206
Jet Ranger

A Brazilian HB350 Esquilo

A Brazilian McDonnell Douglas AF-1 Skyhawk

A Brazilian S-70B Seahawk

A Brazilian EC-725 Cougar

A Brazilian Eurocopter AS355

Marines[edit] The Brazilian Marine Corps
Brazilian Marine Corps
(Portuguese: Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais; CFN)[77] is the land combat branch of the Brazilian Navy.

Brazilian marines protection in response to chemical emergencies

Marines corps in riverine operations.

Brazilian AAV amphibious vehicle in action

Landing ship dock amphibious vehicles.

Rocket artillery in Brazilian Marines Corps

Marines on patrol boat for river

convoy of AAV vehicles

Mowag Piranha III 8x8

Anti-aircraft cannon

Mistral missile system

Structure and organisation[edit] Branches[edit]

The Type 22 frigate
Type 22 frigate
Rademaker

The main branches of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
are:[78]

The "Comando de Operações Navais" (Naval Operations Command)

The "Comando da Força de Superfície" (Surface Force Command) The "Comando da Força de Submarinos" ( Submarine
Submarine
Force Command) The "Comando da Força Aeronaval" (Naval Aviation Force Command) The "Comando Geral do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais" (Marine Corps General Command)

On top of the naval chain of command stands the Commander of the Navy (Comandante da Marinha - CM) with his directly subordinated administrative units. He also relies on the expertise of the Admiralty (Almirantado), which is a collective board without operational functions, but advises the Commander on day to day matters and planning of the service. The Naval Staff (Estado-Maior da Armada - EMA) is the administrative oversight body of the service. The operational forces of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
are organized in the Naval Operations Command (Comando de Operações Navais - ComOpNav). The structure of the Marinha do Brasil completes with five General Directorates and the Marines General Command. These are support organizations in charge of personnel, supply, navigation infrastructure and other tasks not directly connected to naval combat operations. Structure[edit] High Command: COMMANDER OF THE NAVY (Comandante da Marinha - CM)[79]

Admiralty (Almirantado) Naval Staff (Estado-Maior da Armada - EMA)

Naval Operations Command[edit] Naval Operations Command (Comando de Operações Navais - ComOpNav) Squadron[edit]

Squadron (Comando-em-Chefe da Esquadra - ComemCh, the oceangoing component of the naval combat forces)

Surface Force Command (Comando da Força de Superfície - ComForSup)

1st Escort Squadron Command (Comando do 1º Esquadrão de Escolta - ComEsqdE-1)

F-40 Niterói (Niterói-class frigate) F-41 Defensora(Niterói-class frigate) F-42 Constituição (Niterói-class frigate) F-43 Liberal (Niterói-class frigate) F-44 Independência (Niterói-class frigate) F-45 União (Niterói-class frigate)

2nd Escort Squadron Command (Comando do 2º Esquadrão de Escolta - ComEsqdE-2)

F-46 Greenhalgh (Greenhalgh class (British Type 22 Batch 1 frigate)) F-49 Rademaker (Greenhalgh class (British Type 22 Batch 1 frigate)) V-31 Jaceguai (Inhaúma-class corvette) V-32 Julio de Noronha (Inhaúma-class corvette) V-34 Barroso (Barroso-class (improved Inhaúma-class) corvette)

1st Support Squadron Command (Comando do 1º Esquadrão de Apoio - ComEsqdAp-1)

G-28 Mattoso Maia (US Newport-class tank landing ship) G-29 Garcia D’Avila (British Round Table-class landing ship logistics) G-25 Almirante Sabóia (British Round Table-class landing ship logistics) G-23 Almirante Gastão Motta (tanker) G-40 Bahia
Bahia
(French Foudre-class landing platform dock) L-20 Marambaia (general purpose landing craft of Brazilian design)

U-27 Brasil (training ship (modified Niterói-class frigate)) U-20 Cisne Branco (training tallship)

Submarine
Submarine
Force Command (Comando da Força de Submarinos - ComForS)

S-30 Tupi (Tupi class) S-31 Tamoio (Tupi class) S-32 Timbira (Tupi class) S-33 Tapajó (Tupi class) S-34 Tikuna (Tikuna (upgraded Tupi) class) K-11 Felinto Perry (submarine rescue ship) Base "Adm. Castro e Silva" (Base Almirante Castro e Silva - BACS) Training and Education Center "Almirante Áttila Monteiro Aché" (Centro de Instrução e Adestramento Almirante Áttila Monteiro Aché - CIAMA) Combat Divers Groupment (Grupamento de Mergulhadores de Combate - GRUMEC) - the Frogmen special operations unit of the Navy

Aerial Naval Force Command (Comando da Força Aeronaval - ComForAerNav)

1st Interception and Attack Airplane Squadron (1º Esquadrão de Aviões de Interceptação e Ataque - VF-1) 1st Anti- Submarine
Submarine
Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (1º Esquadrão de Helicópteros Anti-Submarino - HS-1) 1st Reconnaissance and Attack Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (1º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Esclarecimento e Ataque - HA-1) 1st General Purpose Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (1º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Emprego Geral - HU-1) 2nd General Purpose Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (2º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Emprego Geral - HU-2) 1st Helicopter
Helicopter
Training Squadron (1º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Instrução - HI-1) São Pedro da Aldeia Naval Air Base (Base Aérea Naval de São Pedro da Aldeia - BAeNSPA) Aerial Naval Training and Education Center (Centro de Instrução e Adestramento Aeronaval - CIAAN) São Pedro da Aldeia Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência de São Pedro da Aldeia - CeIMSPA) São Pedro da Aldeia Naval Policlinic (Policlínica Naval de São Pedro da Aldeia - PNSPA)

Command of the 1st Division of the Squadron (Comando da 1ª Divisão da Esquadra - ComDiv-1, standing task force staff) Command of the 2nd Division of the Squadron (Comando da 2ª Divisão da Esquadra - ComDiv-2, standing task force staff) Operational Systems Support Center (Centro de Apoio a Sistemas Operativos - CASOP) Rio de Janeiro Naval Base (Base Naval do Rio de Janeiro - BNRJ) Training Center "Adm. Marquis de Leão" (Centro de Adestramento Almirante Marques de Leão - CAAML) Small Craft Maintenance Center (Centro de Manutenção de Embarcações Miúdas - CMEM) Medical Unit of the Squadron (Unidade Médica da Esquadra - UMEsq)

Regional Forces[edit] 1st Naval District Command[edit] 1st Naval District Command (Comando do 1º Distrito Naval - Com1ºDN) (Rio de Janeiro-RJ)

Southeastern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Comando do Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Sudeste - ComGptPatNavSE) - patrol flotilla Rio de Janeiro Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais do Rio de Janeiro - GptFNRJ) - marine security battalion Rio de Janeiro Naval Radio Transmitter (Estação Rádio da Marinha no Rio de Janeiro - ERMRJ) Campos Novos Naval Signals Intelligence Station (Estação Radiogoniométrica da Marinha em Campos Novos - ERMCN) Rio de Janeiro Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ) Espírito Santo Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Espírito Santo - CPES) Espírito Santo School for Seamen Apprentices (Escola de Aprendizes-Marinheiros do Espírito Santo - EAMES) Naval Detention (Presídio da Marinha - PM)

2nd Naval District Command[edit] 2nd Naval District Command (Comando do 2º Distrito Naval - Com2ºDN) (Salvador-BA)

Eastern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Comando do Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Leste - ComGptPatNavL) - patrol flotilla Minelaying and Minesweeping Force Command (Comando da Força de Minagem e Varredura - ComForMinVar) - mine warfare ships flotilla Salvador Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais de Salvador - GptFNSa) - marine security battalion Salvador Naval Radio Transmitter (Estação Rádio da Marinha em Salvador - ERMS) Aratu Naval Base (Base Naval de Aratu - BNA) Salvador Naval Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Salvador - CeIMSa) Salvador Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Salvador - HNSa) Bahia
Bahia
Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos da Bahia
Bahia
- CPBA) São Francisco do Sul Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial de São Francisco do Sul - CFSF) Sergipe Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos de Sergipe - CPSE) Nautical Signalization Service East (Serviço de Sinalização Náutica do Leste - SSN-2)

3rd Naval District Command[edit] 3rd Naval District Command (Comando do 3º Distrito Naval - Com3ºDN) (Natal-RN)

Northeastern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Comando do Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Nordeste - ComGptPatNavNE) - patrol flotilla Natal Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais de Natal - GptFNNa) - marine security battalion Natal Naval Signals Intelligence Station (Estação Radiogoniométrica da Marinha em Natal - ERMN) Natal Naval Base (Base Naval de Natal - BNN) Natal Naval Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Natal - CeIMNa) Natal Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Natal - HNNa) Recife Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Recife - HNRe) Ceará Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Ceará - CPCE) Rio Grande do Norte
Rio Grande do Norte
Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Rio Grande do Norte - CPRN) Paraíba Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos da Paraíba - CPPB) Pernambuco Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos de Pernambuco - CPPE) Alagoas Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos de Alagoas - CPAL) Ceará School for Seamen Apprentices (Escola de Aprendizes-Marinheiros do Ceará - EAMCE) Pernambuco School for Seamen Apprentices (Escola de Aprendizes-Marinheiros de Pernambuco - EAMPE) Nautical Signalization Service Northeast (Serviço de Sinalização Náutica do Nordeste - SSN-3)

4th Naval District Command[edit] 4th Naval District Command (Comando do 4º Distrito Naval - Com4ºDN) (Belém-PA)

Northern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Comando do Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Norte - ComGptPatNavN) - patrol flotilla 2nd Riverine
Riverine
Operations Battalion (2º Batalhão de Operações Ribeirinhas - 2ºBtlOpRib) - riverine amphibious marine battalion Belém Naval Signals Intelligence Station (Estação Radiogoniométrica da Marinha em Belém - ERMBe) Val-de-Cães Naval Base (Base Naval de Val-de-Cães - BNVC) Belém Naval Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Belém - CeIMBe) Belém Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Belém - HNBe) Training Center "Adm. Braz de Aguiar" (Centro de Instrução Almirante Braz de Aguiar - CIABA) Eastern Amazônia Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos da Amazônia Oriental - CPAOR) Amapá Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Amapá - CPAP) Maranhão Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Maranhão - CPMA) Piauí Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Piauí - CPPI) Santerém Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitaná Fluvial de Santerém - CFS) Northern Hydrographic and Navigation Center (Centro de Hidrografia e Navegação do Norte - CHN-4)

5th Naval District Command[edit] 5th Naval District Command (Comando do 5º Distrito Naval - Com5ºDN) (Rio Grande-RS)

Southern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Comando do Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Sul - ComGptPatNavS) - patrol flotilla Rio Grande Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais de Rio Grande - GptFNRG) - marine security battalion 5th General Purpose Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (5º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Emprego Geral - HU-5) Rio Grande Naval Signals Intelligence Station (Estação Radiogoniométrica da Marinha no Rio Grande - ERMRG) Rio Grande Naval Station (Estação Naval do Rio Grande - ENRG) Rio Grande Naval Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Rio Grande - CeIMRG) Rio Grande Naval Policlinic (Policlínica Naval de Rio Grande - PNRG) Santa Catarina Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos de Santa Catarina - CPSC) Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Rio Grande do Sul - CPRS) Porto Alegre Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial de Porto Alegre - CFPA) Santa Catarina School for Seamen Apprentices (Escola de Aprendizes-Marinheiros de Santa Catarina - EAMSC) Southern Nautical Signalization Service (Serviço de Sinalização Náutica do Sul - SSN-5)

6th Naval District Command[edit] 6th Naval District Command (Comando do 6º Distrito Naval - Com6ºDN) (Ladário-MS)

Mato Grosso Flotilla Command (Comando da Flotilha de Mato Grosso - ComFlotMT) Ladário Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais de Ladário - GptFNLa) - marine security battalion 4th General Purpose Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (4º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Emprego Geral - HU-4) Ladário Riverine
Riverine
Base (Base Fluvial de Ladário - BFLa) Ladário Naval Quartermaster Center (Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Ladário - CeIMLa) Ladário Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Ladário - HNLa) Pantanal Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial do Pantanal - CFPN) Western Nautical Signalization Service (Serviço de Sinalização Náutica do Oeste - SSN-6)

7th Naval District Command[edit] 7th Naval District Command (Comando do 7º Distrito Naval - Com7ºDN) (Brasilia-DF)

Brasília
Brasília
Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais de Brasília
Brasília
- GptFNB) - marine security battalion Brasília
Brasília
Naval Hospital (Hospital Naval de Brasília
Brasília
- HNBra) Brasília
Brasília
Naval Radio Transmitter (Estação Rádio da Marinha em Brasília
Brasília
- ERMB) Brasília
Brasília
Training and Education Center (Centro de Instrução e Adestramento de Brasília
Brasília
- CIAB) Araguaia-Tocantins Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial do Araguaia-Tocantins - CFAT) Brasília
Brasília
Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial de Brasília
Brasília
- CFB)

8th Naval District Command[edit] 8th Naval District Command (Comando do 8º Distrito Naval - Com8ºDN) (São Paulo-SP)

South-Southeastern Naval Patrol Groupment Command (Grupamento de Patrulha Naval do Sul-Suldeste - ComGptPatNavSSE) - patrol flotilla São Paulo Naval Riflemen Groupment (Grupamento de Fuzileiros Navais em São Paulo - GptFNSP) - marine security battalion São Paulo Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos de São Paulo - CPSP) Tietê-Paraná Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial do Tietê-Paraná - CFTP) Paraná Ports Captaincy (Capitania dos Portos do Paraná - CPPR) Rio Paraná Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial do Rio Paraná - CFRP) Guaíra Riverine
Riverine
Representation (Delegacia Fluvial de Guaíra - DelGuaira)

9th Naval District Command[edit] 9th Naval District Command (Comando do 9º Distrito Naval - Com9ºDN) (Manaus-AM)

Amazonian Flotilla Command (Comando da Flotilha do Amazonas - ComFlotAM) 1st Riverine
Riverine
Operations Battalion (Primeiro Batalhão de Operações Ribeirinhas - 1ºBtlOpRib) - riverine amphibious marine battalion 3rd General Purpose Helicopter
Helicopter
Squadron (3º Esquadrão de Helicópteros de Emprego Geral - HU-3) Rio Negro Naval Station (Estação Naval do Rio Negro - ERNR) Manaus Naval Quartermaster Center (CeIMMa – Centro de Intendência da Marinha em Manaus - CeIMMa) Tabatinga Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial de Tabatinga - CFT) Western Amazônia Riverine
Riverine
Captaincy (Capitania Fluvial da Amazônia Ocidental - CFAOC) Manaus Naval Policlinic (Policlínica Naval de Manaus - PNMa) Northwestern Nautical Signalization Service (Serviço de Sinalização Náutica do Noroeste - SSN-9)

Squadron Naval Riflemen Command[edit]

Squadron Naval Riflemen Command (Comando da Força de Fuzileiros da Esquadra - ComFFE) - the expeditionary component of the Brazilian Marines

Naval Riflemen Special
Special
Operations Battalion "Tonelero Battalion" (Batalhão de Operações Especiais de Fuzileiros Navais - BtlOpEspFuzNav - "Batalhão Tonelero") Amphibious Division Command (Comando da Divisão Anfíbia - ComDivAnf)

Command and Control Battalion (Batalhão de Comando e Controle - BtlCmdoCt) 1st Naval Riflemen Infantry Battalion "Riachuelo Battalion" (1º Batalhão de Infantaria de Fuzileiros Navais - 1ºBtlInfFuzNav - "Batalhão Riachuelo") - motorised 2nd Naval Riflemen Infantry Battalion "Humaitá Battalion" (2º Batalhão de Infantaria de Fuzileiros Navais - 2ºBtlInfFuzNav - "Batalhão Humaitá") - motorised 3rd Naval Riflemen Infantry Battalion "Paissandu Battalion" (3º Batalhão de Infantaria de Fuzileiros Navais - 3ºBtlInfFuzNav - "Batalhão Paissandu") - motorised Naval Riflemen Armored Battalion (Batalhão de Blindados de Fuzileiros Navais - BtlBldFuzNav) - one light tank, one tracked APC and one wheeled APC companies Naval Riflemen Artillery Battalion (Batalhão de Artilharia de Fuzileiros Navais - BtlArtFuzNav) - towed artillery and MLRS Air Tactical Control and Air Defence Battalion (Batalhão de Controle Aerotático e Defesa Antiaérea - BtlCtAetatDAAe) - MANPADS Ilha do Governador Naval Riflemen Base (Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha do Governador - BFNIG)

Reinforcement Troop Command (Comando da Tropa de Reforço - ComTrRef)

Naval Riflemen Engineer Battalion (Batalhão de Engenharia de Fuzileiros Navais - BtlEngFuzNav)

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defence Company (Companhia de Defesa Nuclear, Biológica, Química e Radiológica - CiaDefNQBR)

Amphibious Vehicles Battalion (Batalhão de Viaturas Anfíbias - BtlVtrAnf) Landing Support Company (Companhia de Apoio ao Desembarque - CiaApDbq) Police Company (Companhia de Polícia - CiaPol) Naval Riflemen Logistics Battalion (Batalhão Logístico de Fuzileiros Navais - BtlLogFuzNav) Naval Expeditionary Medical Unit (Unidade Médica Expedicionária da Marinha - UMEM) Ilha das Flores Naval Riflemen Base (Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha das Flores - BFNIF)

Landing Troop Command (Comando da Tropa de Desembarque - CmdoTrDbq) Rio Meriti Naval Riflemen Base (Base de Fuzileiros Navais do Rio Meriti - BFNRM)

Naval Electronic Warfare Center[edit] Naval Electronic Warfare Center (Centro de Guerra Eletrônica da Marinha - CGEM) Naval Control Center for Maritime Traffic[edit] Naval Control Center for Maritime Traffic (Comando do Controle Naval do Tráfego Marítimo - COMCONTRAM) Support Formations[edit] General Secretariat of the Navy[edit] General Secretariat of the Navy
Navy
(Secretaria-Geral da Marinha - SGM) General Directorate for Material[edit] General Directorate for Material (Diretoria-Geral do Material da Marinha - DGMM) General Directorate for Personnel[edit] General Directorate for Personnel (Diretoria-Geral do Pessoal da Marinha - DGPM) General Directorate for Navigation[edit] General Directorate for Navigation (Diretoria Geral de Navegação - DGN) General Directorate for Nuclear and Technological Development of the Navy[edit] General Directorate for Nuclear and Technological Development of the Navy
Navy
(Diretoria-Geral de Desenvolvimento Nuclear e Tecnológico da Marinha - DGDNTM) General Command of the Corps of Naval Riflemen[edit] General Command of the Corps of Naval Riflemen (Comando-Geral do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais - CGCFN)[80] - the service support formation of the Brazilian Marines

Naval Riflemen Material Command (Comando do Material de Fuzileiros Navais - CMatFN)

Naval Battalion (Batalhão Naval - BtlNav) - includes honor guard and military orchestra companies

Military Police of the Naval Battalion (Companhia de Polícia do Batalhão Naval - CiaPolBtlNav) - the Brazilian Marines' Military Police, attached to the Naval Battalion

Technological Center of the Corps of Naval Riflemen (Centro Tecnológico do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais - CTecCFN)

Naval Riflemen Personnel Command (Comando do Pessoal de Fuzileiros Navais - CPesFN)

Training Center "Adm. Sylvio de Camargo" (Centro de Instrução Almirante Sylvio de Camargo - CIASC) Training Center "Adm. Milcíades Portela Alves" (Centro de Instrução Almirante Milcíades Portela Alves - CIAMPA)

Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defence Battalion Itaguaí (Batalhão de Defesa Nuclear, Biológica, Química e Radiológica de Itaguaí - BtlDefNQBR-Itaguaí) - planned to provide NBCR protection on site to the Itaguaí Naval Base (Base Naval de Itaguaí)[81][82], (in construction as of 2018) the homeport of the Brazilian nuclear submarine force.[83] Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defence Battalion ARAMAR (Batalhão de Defesa Nuclear, Química, Biologica e Radiológica de ARAMAR - BtlDefNQBR - ARAMAR) - provides NBCR protection on site to the ARAMAR Experimental Center (Centro Experimental Aramar), where the propulsion systems for Brazil's nuclear submarines are being developed and constructed. Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defence Center of the Brazilian Navy
Navy
(Centro de Defesa Nuclear, Biológica, Quiímica e Radiológica da MB - CDefNBQR-MB) - the Brazilian Navy's nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological defence center of excellence Naval Sports Commission (Comissão de Desportos da Marinha - CDM) Physical Training Center "Adm. Adalberto Nunes" (Centro de Educação Física Almirante Adalberto Nunes - CEFAN) Doctrine Development Command of the Corps of Naval Riflemen (Comando do Desenvolvimento Doutrinário do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais - CDDCFN)

Ilha do Marambaia Training Center (Centro de Adestramento da Ilha da Marambaia - CADIM)

The Brazilian Navy
Navy
frigate Bosísio fires at an unmanned aerial vehicle during a drone exercise (DRONEX) with ship.

Naval bases[edit]

A GRUMEC
GRUMEC
visit, board, search, and seizure (VBSS) team attached to the frigate Independência conducts a simulated boarding operation.

As of 2009, the main naval bases in use are:[84]

Rio de Janeiro:

"Base Naval Almirante Castro e Silva", submarine base "Base Naval do Rio de Janeiro", main naval base "Arsenal da Marinha do Rio de Janeiro", naval shipyard "Base Aérea Naval de São Pedro da Aldeia", naval aviation base "Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha do Governador", marine corps base "Base de Fuzileiros Navais da Ilha das Flores", marine corps base "Base de Fuzileiros Navais do Rio Meriti", marine corps base

Bahia:

"Base Naval de Aratu", naval base and repair facility

Rio Grande do Norte:

"Base Naval de Natal", naval base "Base Naval Almirante Ary Parreiras", naval base and repair facility

Pará:

"Base Naval de Val-de-Cães", naval base and repair facility

Mato Grosso do Sul:

"Base Fluvial de Ladário", riverine naval base, heliport and repair facility

Amazonas:

"Estação Naval do Rio Negro", riverine naval station and repair facility

Rio Grande do Sul:

"Estação Naval do Rio Grande", naval station

Gallery[edit]

Brazilian Navy
Navy
ship Greenhalgh steams through the Atlantic during the Iwo Jima Expeditionary Strike Group composite unit training exercise

Brazilian submarine formation

Brazilian Navy
Navy
corvette Júlio de Noronha

Tupi-class submarine Tamoio

River patrol boat Rondônia

The river monitor Parnaíba

River patrol boat Pampeiro camouflaged Amazon region

The Brazilian frigate Constituição

Destroyer
Destroyer
Paraíba

Imperial Marinheiro-class corvette Solimões

Destroyer
Destroyer
Pará

Brazilian Navy
Navy
in the Amazonian River Basin.

Brazilian aircraft carrier Minas Gerais

Brazilian submarine Tikuna

See also[edit]

Brazil
Brazil
portal Military portal

Armed Forces of the Empire of Brazil Imperial Brazilian Navy Naval Revolt Brazilian Marine Corps Brazilian Naval Aviation Brazilian Army Brazilian Air Force Military history of Brazil Military ranks of Brazil Brazil
Brazil
and weapons of mass destruction

Notes[edit]

^ A professional diplomat and the son of the famed Viscount of Rio Braco, the Baron of Rio Branco was named as Brazil's Foreign Minister in 1902 after a distinguished career as a diplomat, and served there until his death in 1912. In that time, he oversaw the signing of many treaties and mediated territorial disputes between Brazil
Brazil
and its neighbors, and became a famous name in his own right.[39]

References[edit]

^ Comandante da Marinha confirma nova esquadra no Nordeste [Navy commander confirms new Northeastern fleet] (in Portuguese), Marinha do Brasil, 2009-01-26, archived from the original on 2011-05-24, retrieved 2009-02-01 . ^ "Oceanographic and Meteorological Data Buoys", Hydro International, retrieved 2009-06-10 . ^ de Holanda 1974, p. 260. ^ Maia 1975, p. 53. ^ Maia 1975, pp. 58–61. ^ a b de Holanda 1974, p. 261. ^ Maia 1975, pp. 54–57. ^ de Holanda 1974, p. 272. ^ Maia 1975, pp. 133–35. ^ a b c de Holanda 1974, p. 264. ^ Maia 1975, p. 216. ^ Maia 1975, pp. 205–6. ^ Maia 1975, p. 210. ^ Janotti 1986, pp. 207–8. ^ de Holanda 1974, p. 265. ^ Carvalho 1975, p. 181. ^ de Holanda 1974, p. 266. ^ Salles 2003, p. 38. ^ Maia 1975, p. 219. ^ a b c Janotti 1986, p. 208. ^ Schwarcz 2002, p. 305. ^ Doratioto 2002, p. 23. ^ Holanda 1974, p. 272. ^ Doratioto 2002, p. 466. ^ a b Maia 1975, p. 225. ^ Maia 1975, p. 221. ^ Maia 1975, pp. 221, 227. ^ Calmon 2002, p. 265. ^ Calmon 1975, p. 1603. ^ Janotti 1986, p. 66. ^ Janotti 1986, p. 209. ^ Janotti 1986. However, the question directly involved in the revolt was confined to the text of Brazilian Constitution of 1891
Brazilian Constitution of 1891
regarding the vacancy of the President. ^ Grant, Rulers, Guns, and Money, 148; Martins, A marinha brasileira, 56, 67; Livermore, " Battleship
Battleship
Diplomacy," 32; Topliss, "Brazilian Dreadnoughts", 240. ^ Scheina, Naval History, 45–52; Garrett, "Beagle Channel", 86–88. ^ Martins, A marinha brasileira, 50–51; Martins, "Colossos do mares", 75; Livermore, " Battleship
Battleship
Diplomacy," 32. ^ Scheina, "Brazil", 403; Livermore, " Battleship
Battleship
Diplomacy", 32. ^ Love, Revolt, 16; Sondhaus, Naval Warfare, 216; Scheina, "Brazil", 403. ^ Scheina, "Brazil", 403. ^ Love, Revolt, 8–9. ^ Love, Revolt, 14; Scheina, Naval History, 80. ^ Scheina, Naval History, 80; Scheina, "Brazil", 403; Topliss, "Brazilian Dreadnoughts", 240. ^ English, Armed Forces, 108; Scheina, Naval History, 80; Grant, Rulers, Guns, and Money, 147; Martins, A marinha brasileira, 75, 78. ^ Martins, A marinha brasileira, 80; Topliss, "Brazilian Dreadnoughts," 240–46. ^ Morgan, "The Revolt of the Lash," 32–38, 50. ^ Morgan, The Revolt of the Lash, 40–42. ^ Morgan, "The Revolt of the Lash," 44–46. ^ Scheina, Robert L. (2003). Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900–2001. Brassey's. pp. 38–39. ISBN 1-57488-452-2.  ^ Bento, Cláudio Moreira (1995), "Participação das Forças Armadas e da Marinha Mercante do Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (1942–1945)" [Participation of the Armed Forces and Merchant Navy
Navy
of Brazil
Brazil
in World War II
World War II
(1942–1945)], Gazetilha (in Portuguese), Volta Redonda, RJ: AHIMTB . ^ BEA first 2009, §1.9.2 "Coordination between the control centres". ^ "Nota Final - Término das buscas do Voo 447 da Air France". 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-06-27.  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help) ^ "En detalle: la tecnología que enviaron empresas privadas y otros países para la búsqueda del ARA San Juan". La Nacion. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017.  ^ "Brazilian ships leave for Haiti
Haiti
on peace mission". Agência Brasil. EBC. 2004-05-27. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ "Brazilian Navy
Navy
ship leaves for Haiti
Haiti
with humanitarian aid and military equipment". Portal
Portal
Brasil. Brazilian government. 2010-02-28. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ "Participação brasileira na Unifil" [Brazilian Unifil participation] (in Portuguese). Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ "Brazilian Navy
Navy
ship to travel to Lebanon". Agência de Notícias Brasil Árabe. BR: Acha notícias. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ " United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
(UNIFIL)". UN missions. Archived from the original on 2012-07-30. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ "Marinha do Brasil envia navio para operação de paz no Líbano" [Brazilian Navy
Navy
sends ship to peace operations in Lebanon] (in Portuguese). Tecnologia & Defesa. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Diplomacia [Diplomacy] (news) (in Portuguese), Anba . ^ a b http://agenciabrasil.ebc.com.br/en/internacional/noticia/2015-09/brazilian-navys-corvette-rescues-migrants-mediterranean-sea ^ Comandante da Marinha confirma nova esquadra no Nordeste [Navy Commander confirms new fleet in the Northeast] (in Portuguese), Brazilian Navy, archived from the original on 2011-05-24, retrieved 2009-02-01  ^ Comandantes da Marinha na República [Republican Navy
Navy
Commanders] (in Portuguese), Brazilian Navy, archived from the original on December 15, 2009, retrieved June 10, 2009  ^ "Navios", Meios Operativos [Operational Means] (in Portuguese), Brazilian Navy . ^ "Uma nova agenda militar" [A new military agenda], Época (in Portuguese), archived from the original on 2017-03-25, retrieved 2008-10-09 . ^ BRAZILIAN NAVY RETIRES SAO PAOLO CARRIER ^ Guisnel, Jean (6 December 2011), " France
France
is in the running for two aircraft carriers for Brazilian Navy", World Naval Forces News, Navy recognition . ^ " Brazil
Brazil
seeks to modernize submarine Force", Mercopress, 2008-02-05, retrieved 2014-01-19 . ^ " Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Awarded $35 Million Contract to Modernize Brazilian Navy
Navy
Submarine
Submarine
Force", Money, CNN.com, retrieved 2008-02-05 . ^ " Brazil
Brazil
To Start With Scorpène", Strategy Page, retrieved 2009-06-10 . ^ " Brazil
Brazil
to get nuclear sub technology from France", Americas, CNN, retrieved 2009-06-10 . ^ " Navy
Navy
plans to get first nuclear sub", Dmilt, March 6, 2013 . ^ Incorporação da Corveta Barroso [Barroso corvette commissioning] (in Portuguese), Brazilian Navy, retrieved 2008-11-25  ^ "Navio Mais Barato" [Cheaper ship], Dinheiro (in Portuguese), Istoé, retrieved 2008-08-14 . ^ " BAE Systems
BAE Systems
sells patrol vessels to Brazil". BBC News. 2012-01-02.  ^ Defense news . ^ Фрегат ‘Таркаш’ планируется передать ВМС Индии в ноябре этого года [ Frigate
Frigate
‘Tarkash’ planned to be delivered to the Indian Navy
Navy
in November] (in Russian). RU: Flotprom. 2012-06-26. Retrieved 2012-09-02.  ^ Brazil
Brazil
planning to build an Aircraft Carrier with a foreign partner - Navyrecognition.com, 12 March 2014 ^ Trevor Nevitt Dupuy (1993). International military and defense encyclopedia, Volume 1. Brassey's (US). p. 137.  ^ "Estrutura de Comando", A estrutura militar do Brasil [The Brazilian military structure] (in Portuguese), Defesa Brasil, retrieved 2009-06-10  ^ herik (2016-12-02). "Estrutura Organizacional". Marinha do Brasil (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-01-29.  ^ https://www.marinha.mil.br/cgcfn/?q=organograma ^ https://fuzenave.blogspot.bg/2016/02/a-defesa-nuclear-biologica-quimica-e.html ^ http://www.naval.com.br/blog/2018/01/13/submarino-riachuelo-e-movimentado-para-base-naval-de-itaguai/ ^ "Estaleiros e Base Naval PROSUB". www.marinha.mil.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-01-30.  ^ Wertheim, Eric (2007), The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, Naval Institute Press, ISBN 978-1-59114-955-2, retrieved 2009-10-06 .

Sources[edit]

Doratioto, Francisco (2002). Maldita Guerra: Nova história da Guerra do Paraguai [Cursed War: New War history of Paraguay] (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.  English, Adrian J. (1984), Jane's Armed Forces of Latin America, London and New York: Jane's, ISBN 0-7106-0321-5, OCLC 11537114  Garrett, James L (Autumn 1985), "The Beagle Channel Dispute: Confrontation and Negotiation in the Southern Cone", Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Miami, 27 (3): 81–109, doi:10.2307/165601, JSTOR 165601 . Grant, Jonathan A (Mar 2007), Rulers, Guns & Money: The Global Arms Trade in the Age of Imperialism (hardback), Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0-674-02442-7 . de Holanda, Sérgio Buarque (1974). Declínio e queda do Império [Decline and Fall of the Empire]. História Geral da Civilização Brasileira (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). São Paulo: Difusão européia do livro.  Janotti, Maria de Lourdes Monaco (1986). Os Subversivos da República [The Republic’s subversives] (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Brasiliense.  Livermore, Seward W (Mar 1944), " Battleship
Battleship
Diplomacy in South America: 1905–1925", The Journal of Modern History, The University of Chicago Press, 16 (1): 31–48, doi:10.1086/236787, JSTOR 1870986 . Love, Joseph L (2012), The Revolt of the Whip, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-8109-5, OCLC 757838402 . Maia, Prado (1975). A Marinha do Brasil na colônia e no Império [The Navy
Navy
of Brazil
Brazil
in the Colony and the Empire] (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Rio de Janeiro: Cátedra.  Martins, João Roberto filho (2007), "Colossos do mares" [Sea colossuses], Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, 3 (27): 74–77, ISSN 1808-4001, OCLC 61697383 . ——— (2010), A marinha brasileira na era dos encouraçados, 1885–1910: tecnologia, Forças Armadas e política [The Brazilian Navy
Navy
in the ironclads era, 1885–1910: technology, armed forces & politics] (in Portuguese), Rio de Janeiro: FGV, ISBN 978-85-225-0803-7, OCLC 679733899 . Morgan, Zachary R (2003), "The Revolt of the Lash, 1910", in Bell, Christopher M; Elleman, Bruce A, Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective, Portland, OR: Frank Cass, pp. 32–53, ISBN 0-7146-8468-6, OCLC 464313205 . Scheina, Robert L (1984), "Brazil", in Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal, Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, pp. 403–7, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, OCLC 12119866 . ——— (1987), Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987 (ill ed.), Annapolis, MD: Naval Inst Press, ISBN 978-0-87021-295-6, OCLC 15696006 . Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz (2002), As Barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos [The Emperor’s beard: D. Peter II, a king in the tropics] (in Portuguese) (2 ed.), São Paulo: Companhia das Letras . Topliss, David (1988), "The Brazilian Dreadnoughts, 1904–1914", Warship
Warship
International, 25 (3): 240–89, ISSN 0043-0374, OCLC 1647131 .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brazilian Navy.

Brazilian Navy
Navy
Official website (in Portuguese) Poder Naval Brazilian warships and naval aviation (in Portuguese) Official histories of Brazilian ships (in Portuguese) Global Security Brazilian Navy
Navy
profile History of World's Navy's Ships of the Brazilian Navy History of VF-1 "Falcões" (Hawks) in the Brazilian Navy Brazilian naval flags Base Militar Web Magazine's Brazilian military aircraft data base Military Orders and Medals from Brazil
Brazil
(in Portuguese)

Videos[edit]

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Navy
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