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Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52

Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: 

Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese) (English: "Order and Progress")

Anthem: 

"Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")

Flag anthem: Hino à Bandeira Nacional[1] (English: "National Flag Anthem")

National seal

Selo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of Brazil

Location of  Brazil  (dark green) in South America  (grey)

Capital Brasília 15°47′S 47°52′W / 15.783°S 47.867°W / -15.783; -47.867

Largest city São Paulo 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633

Official language and national language Portuguese[2]

Ethnic groups (2010[3])

47.73% White 43.13% Pardo 7.61% Black 1.09% Asian 0.43% Amerindian

Religion

64.6% Catholic 22.2% Protestant 8.0% Irreligion 2.0% Spiritism 3.2% Others[4]

Demonym Brazilian

Government Federal presidential constitutional republic

• President

Michel Temer

• Vice President

Vacant[5]

• President of the Chamber of Deputies

Rodrigo Maia

• President of the Federal Senate

Eunício Oliveira

• President of the Supreme Federal Court

Cármen Lúcia

Legislature National Congress

• Upper house

Federal Senate

• Lower house

Chamber of Deputies

Independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves

• Declared

7 September 1822

• Recognized

29 August 1825

• Republic

15 November 1889

•  Treaty
Treaty
of Petrópolis

11 November 1903

• Current constitution

5 October 1988

Area

• Total

8,515,767 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi) (5th)

• Water (%)

0.65

Population

• 2018 estimate

208,733,102[6] (6th)

• Density

25/km2 (64.7/sq mi) (196th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$3.330 trillion[7] (8th)

• Per capita

$15,919[7] (86th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$2.200 trillion (8th)

• Per capita

$10,514[7] (68th)

Gini (2015)  51.3[8] high

HDI (2015)  0.754[9] high · 79th

Currency Real (R$) (BRL)

Time zone BRT (UTC−2 to −5)

• Summer (DST)

BRST (UTC−2 to −5)

Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)

Drives on the right

Calling code +55

ISO 3166 code BR

Internet TLD .br

Brazil
Brazil
(Portuguese: Brasil [bɾaˈziw]),[10] officially the Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil
Brazil
(Portuguese: República Federativa do Brasil,  listen (help·info)[11]), is the largest country in both South America
South America
and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles)[12] and with over 208 million people, Brazil
Brazil
is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. The capital is Brasília, and the most populated city is São Paulo. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas.[13][14] Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
on the east, Brazil
Brazil
has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers (4,655 mi).[15] It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador
Ecuador
and Chile
Chile
and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.[16] Its Amazon River basin
Amazon River basin
includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.[15] This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil
Brazil
one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection. Brazil
Brazil
was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil
Brazil
remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves. Independence
Independence
was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic.[17] The federation is composed of the union of the Federal District, the 26 states, and the 5,570 municipalities. Brazil's economy is the world's eighth-largest by both nominal GDP and GDP (PPP) as of 2017[update].[18][19] A member of the BRICS
BRICS
group, Brazil
Brazil
until 2010 had one of the world's fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence.[20] Brazil's national development bank plays an important role for the country's economic growth.[21] Brazil
Brazil
is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States
Organization of Ibero-American States
and the CPLP. Brazil
Brazil
is a regional power in Latin America
Latin America
and recently a great power in international affairs,[22][23] with some analysts identifying it as a potential superpower.[24] One of the world's major breadbaskets, Brazil
Brazil
has also been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[25]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-Cabraline era 2.2 Portuguese colonization 2.3 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with Portugal 2.4 Independent Empire 2.5 Early republic 2.6 Contemporary era

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and environment

4 Government and politics

4.1 Law 4.2 Military 4.3 Foreign policy 4.4 Law enforcement and crime 4.5 Administrative divisions

5 Economy

5.1 Components and energy 5.2 Tourism

6 Infrastructure

6.1 Science and technology 6.2 Transport 6.3 Health 6.4 Education 6.5 Media and communication

7 Demographics

7.1 Race and ethnicity 7.2 Religion 7.3 Urbanization 7.4 Language

8 Culture

8.1 Architecture 8.2 Music 8.3 Literature 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Cinema 8.6 Theatre 8.7 Visual
Visual
arts 8.8 Sports 8.9 National holidays

9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology Main article: Name of Brazil It is likely that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.[26] In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from Latin brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).[27] As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.[28] Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.[29] The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz),[30] but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) because of the brazilwood trade.[31] The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots".[32] In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil
Brazil
is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".[33] History Main articles: History of Brazil
History of Brazil
and Timeline of Brazilian history Pre-Cabraline era

Marajoara culture
Marajoara culture
of pre-colonial Brazil

Funerary urn, Collection H. Law

Burial urn, American Museum of Natural History

Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years.[34][35] The earliest pottery ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
of Brazil
Brazil
and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago (6000 BC). The pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture.[36] The Marajoara culture
Marajoara culture
flourish between 800 CE and 1400 CE; they developed sophisticated pottery, social stratification, supported large populations, mound building, and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.[37] Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil
Brazil
had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people,[38] mostly semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. The indigenous population of Brazil
Brazil
comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups (e.g. the Tupis, Guaranis, Gês and Arawaks). The Tupí people
Tupí people
were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, and there were also many subdivisions of the other groups.[39] Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs.[40] These wars also involved large-scale military actions on land and water, with cannibalistic rituals on prisoners of war.[41][42] While heredity had some weight, leadership status was more subdued over time, than allocated in succession ceremonies and conventions.[40] Slavery
Slavery
among the Indians had a different meaning than it had for Europeans, since it originated from a diverse socio-economic organization, in which asymmetries were translated into kinship relations.[43] Portuguese colonization Main articles: Colonial Brazil, War of the Emboabas, and Inconfidência Mineira

Representation of the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral
Pedro Álvares Cabral
in Porto Seguro, 1500. Painting of 1922.

The land now called Brazil
Brazil
was claimed for the Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.[44] The Portuguese encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani
Tupi–Guarani
family, and fought among themselves.[45] Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization effectively began in 1534, when King Dom João III of Portugal
Portugal
divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.[46][47] However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.[47][48] In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other.[49][50][51][52] By the mid-16th century, cane sugar had become Brazil's most important export,[45][53] and slaves purchased in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the slave market of Western Africa[54] (not only those from Portuguese allies of their colonies in Angola
Angola
and Mozambique), had become its largest import,[55][56] to cope with plantations of sugarcane, due to increasing international demand for Brazilian sugar.[57][58]

Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil. Painting of 1914.

By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline,[59] and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes in the 1690s would become the new backbone of the colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold Rush[60] which attracted thousands of new settlers to Brazil
Brazil
from Portugal
Portugal
and all Portuguese colonies around the world.[61] This increased level of immigration in turn caused some conflicts between newcomers and old settlers.[62] Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras gradually advanced the Portugal
Portugal
colonial original frontiers in South America
South America
to approximately the current Brazilian borders.[63][64] In this era other European powers tried to colonize parts of Brazil, in incursions that the Portuguese had to fight, notably the French in Rio during the 1560s, in Maranhão
Maranhão
during the 1610s, and the Dutch in Bahia
Bahia
and Pernambuco, during the Dutch–Portuguese War, after the end of Iberian Union.[65] The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil
Brazil
had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares,[66] and to repress all movements for autonomy or independence, such as the Minas Conspiracy.[67]

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with Portugal Main article: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves

The Acclamation of King João VI of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Portugal, Brazil
Brazil
and the Algarves in Rio de Janeiro, 6 February 1818

In late 1807, Spanish and Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal, causing Prince Regent
Prince Regent
João, in the name of Queen Maria I, to move the royal court from Lisbon
Lisbon
to Brazil.[68] There they established some of Brazil's first financial institutions, such as its local stock exchanges,[69] and its National Bank, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil
Brazil
to other nations. In 1809, in retaliation for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent
Prince Regent
ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana.[70] With the end of the Peninsular War
Peninsular War
in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent
Prince Regent
João return to Portugal, deeming it unfit for the head of an ancient European monarchy to reside in a colony. In 1815, to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for the prior six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, thus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state.[71] However, such a ploy didn't last long, since the leadership in Portugal, resentful of the new status of its larger colony, continued to require the return of court to Lisbon
Lisbon
(as postulated by the Liberal Revolution of 1820), and also groups of Brazilians, impatient for practical and real changes, still demanded independence and a republic, as demonstrated by the 1817 Pernambucan Revolt.[71] In 1821, as a demand of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto,[72] D. João VI was unable to hold out any longer, and departed for Lisbon. There he swore an oath to the new constitution, leaving his son, Prince Pedro de Alcântara, as Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil.[73] Independent Empire Main articles: Independence of Brazil
Independence of Brazil
and Empire of Brazil

Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.

Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians
Brazilians
increased, and the Portuguese Cortes, guided by the new political regime imposed by the 1820 Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil
Brazil
as a colony.[74] The Brazilians
Brazilians
refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to stand with them, declaring the country's independence from Portugal
Portugal
on 7 September 1822.[75] A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil, with the royal title of Dom Pedro I, resulting in the foundation of the Empire of Brazil.[76] The Brazilian War of Independence, which had already begun along this process, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina
Cisplatina
province.[77] When the last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824,[78] Portugal
Portugal
officially recognized Brazil
Brazil
on 29 August 1825.[79] On 7 April 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissent with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession,[80] and unreconciled to the way that absolutists in Portugal
Portugal
had given in the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal
Portugal
to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the royal title of Dom Pedro II).[81]

Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil
Brazil
between 1831 and 1889.

As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly.[82] In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, such as the Cabanagem
Cabanagem
in Grão- Pará
Pará
Province, the Malê Revolt in Salvador da Bahia, the Balaiada
Balaiada
(Maranhão), the Sabinada (Bahia), and the Ragamuffin War
Ragamuffin War
beginning in Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul
and supported by Giuseppe Garibaldi. These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.[83] This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt in Pernambuco, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841.[84] During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade
Atlantic slave trade
was abandoned in 1850,[85] as a result of the British Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished.[86] The foreign affairs in the monarchy were basically related to issues with the countries of the Southern Cone
Southern Cone
with which Brazil
Brazil
had borders. Long after the Cisplatine War
Cisplatine War
that resulted in independence for Uruguay,[87] Brazil
Brazil
won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II. These were the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the devastating Paraguayan War, the largest war effort in Brazilian history.[88][89] Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians
Brazilians
to change the country's form of government,[90], on 15 November 1889, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.[91] Early republic Main articles: First Brazilian Republic, Estado Novo (Brazil), and Second Brazilian Republic

Proclamation of the Republic, 1893, oil on canvas by Benedito Calixto.

The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both at Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power".[92] In 1894, following the unfoldings of two severe crises, an economic along with a military one, the republican civilians rose to power.[93][94][95] If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,[96] only broken by the Acre War
Acre War
(1899–1902) and its involvement in World War I (1914–1918),[97][98][99] followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations;[100] Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento[101][102][103] and the Armada Revolts,[104] a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began Until the 1920s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian[105][106][107] and military.[108][109][110]

In half of the first 100 years of republic, the Army exercised power directly or through figures like Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
(center).

Soldiers of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force
Brazilian Expeditionary Force
greet Italian civilians in Massarosa, during World War II.

Little by little, a cycle of general instability sparked by these crises undermined the regime to such an extent, that in the wake of the murder of his running mate, the defeated opposition presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
supported by most of the military, successfully led the October 1930 Coup.[111][112] Vargas and the military were supposed to assume power temporarily, but instead closed the Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with their own supporters.[113][114] In the 1930s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in 1932, led by the Paulista oligarchy. The second was a Communist uprising in November 1935, and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May 1938.[115][116][117] The 1935 uprising created a security crisis in which the Congress transferred more power to the executive. The 1937 coup d'état resulted in the cancellation of the 1938 election, installed Vargas as a dictator, and began the Estado Novo era, noted for government brutality and censorship of the press.[118] Foreign policy during Vargas years was marked by the antecedents and World War II. Brazil
Brazil
remained neutral until August 1942, when the country entered on the allied side,[119][120] after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy, in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.[121] In addition to its participation in the battle of the Atlantic, Brazil
Brazil
also sent an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian campaign.[122] With the Allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier.[123] Vargas committed suicide in August 1954 amid a political crisis, after having returned to power by election in 1950.[124][125] Contemporary era Main articles: Brazilian military government
Brazilian military government
and History of Brazil since 1985 Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide.[126] Juscelino Kubitschek
Juscelino Kubitschek
became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.[127] The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,[128] but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960.[129]

Construction of Brasília, the new capital, in 1959.

M41s along the Avenida Presidente Vargas
Avenida Presidente Vargas
during the military government.

Kubitschek's successor, Jânio Quadros, resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.[130] His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition[131] and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.[132] The new regime was intended to be transitory[133] but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.[134] Oppression was not limited to those who resorted to guerrilla tactics to fight the regime, but also reached institutional opponents, artists, journalists and other members of civil society,[135][136] inside and outside the country through the infamous "Operation Condor".[137][138] Despite its brutality, like other totalitarian regimes, due to an economic boom, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached a peak in popularity in the early 1970s.[139] Slowly however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,[140] plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel
Ernesto Geisel
and Golbery do Couto e Silva.[141] With the enactment of the Amnesty Law in 1979, Brazil
Brazil
began a slow return to democracy, which was completed during the 1980s.[84] Civilians returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney
José Sarney
assumed the presidency. He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime.[142] Sarney's unsuccessful government led to the election in 1989 of the almost-unknown Fernando Collor, subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.[143] Collor was succeeded by his vice-president, Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Minister of Finance. In 1994, Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real,[144] that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy.[145][146] Cardoso won the 1994 election, and again in 1998.[147]

Ulysses Guimarães
Ulysses Guimarães
holding the Constitution
Constitution
of 1988 in his hands.

The peaceful transition of power from Cardoso to his main opposition leader, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
(elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006), was seen as proof that Brazil
Brazil
had achieved a long-sought political stability.[148][149] However, sparked by indignation and frustrations accumulated over decades from corruption, police brutality, inefficiencies of the political establishment and public service, numerous peaceful protests erupted in Brazil
Brazil
from the middle of first term of Dilma Rousseff, who had succeeded Lula after winning election in 2010.[150][151] Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,[152][153] with large street protests for and against her,[154] Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in 2016.[5][155] In 2017, the Supreme Court has asked for the investigation of 71 Brazilian lawmakers and nine ministers in President Michel Temer's cabinet allegedly linked to the Petrobras corruption scandal.[156] President Temer is himself accused of corruption.[157] Geography Main article: Geography of Brazil

Topographic map of Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,[158] sharing land borders with Uruguay
Uruguay
to the south; Argentina
Argentina
and Paraguay
Paraguay
to the southwest; Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru
Peru
to the west; Colombia
Colombia
to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname
Suriname
and France
France
(French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north. It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador
Ecuador
and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz.[15] Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse.[158] Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W. Brazil
Brazil
is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of 8,515,767.049 km2 (3,287,956 sq mi),[159] including 55,455 km2 (21,411 sq mi) of water.[15] It spans four time zones; from UTC−5 comprising the state of Acre and the westernmost portion of Amazonas, to UTC−4 in the western states, to UTC−3 in the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 in the Atlantic islands.[160] Brazil
Brazil
is the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
running through it. It is also the only country to have contiguous territory both inside and outside the tropics. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between 200 metres (660 ft) and 800 metres (2,600 ft) in elevation.[161] The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country.[161] The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.[161]

Chapada Diamantina, in the Chapada Diamantina
Chapada Diamantina
National Park, Bahia.

Serra dos Órgãos, part of the Serra do Mar.

The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).[161] These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.[161] In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
from rivers that empty into the Orinoco
Orinoco
River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil
Brazil
is the Pico da Neblina
Pico da Neblina
at 2,994 metres (9,823 ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.[15] Brazil
Brazil
has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.[162] Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira
Madeira
and Tapajós rivers.[162] Climate Main article: Climate of Brazil

Brazil
Brazil
map of Köppen climate classification

The climate of Brazil
Brazil
comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical.[15] According to the Köppen system, Brazil
Brazil
hosts six major climatic subtypes: desert, equatorial, tropical, semiarid, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.[163] Many regions have starkly different microclimates.[164][165] An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls.[163] Temperatures average 25 °C (77 °F),[165] with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.[164] Over central Brazil
Brazil
rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate.[164] This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude.[163] In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than 800 millimetres (31.5 in) of rain,[166] most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year[167] and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought.[164] Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca
Grande Seca
(Great Drought), the worst in Brazil's history,[168] caused approximately half a million deaths.[169] A similarly devastating drought occurred in 1915.[170] South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year.[163] The south enjoys subtropical conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding 18 °C (64.4 °F);[165] winter frosts and snowfall are not rare in the highest areas.[163][164] Biodiversity
Biodiversity
and environment

The Amazon rainforest, the most biodiverse rainforest in the world.

Main articles: Wildlife of Brazil, Deforestation in Brazil, and Conservation in Brazil Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,[171] with the Atlantic Forest
Atlantic Forest
and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.[172] In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions.[172] The rich wildlife of Brazil
Brazil
reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.[172] Larger mammals include carnivores pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes, and herbivores peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos. Deer
Deer
are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.[172][173] Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.[174] Brazil's Amazon Basin is home to an extremely diverse array of fish species, including the red-bellied piranha. Despite its reputation as a ferocious freshwater fish, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger.

Female pantanal jaguar in Piquirí River, Pantanal.

Golden lion tamarin, an endemic animal of Brazil, in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve.

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
can contribute to agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries extraction. However, almost all economically exploited species of plants, such as soybeans and coffee, or animals, such as chickens, are imported from other countries, and the economic use of native species still crawls. In the Brazilian GDP, the forest sector represents just over 1% and fishing 0.4%. The natural heritage of Brazil
Brazil
is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species.[171] In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.[175] Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.[174][176] At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including the controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.[177] Government and politics Main articles: Politics of Brazil, Federal government of Brazil, and Elections in Brazil

Palácio do Planalto
Palácio do Planalto
("Plateau Palace"), the official workplace of the President of Brazil.

The form of government is that of a democratic federative republic, with a presidential system.[17] The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term,[17] with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Michel Temer, who replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment.[178] The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government.[17] Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Brazil
Brazil
is a democracy, according to the Democracy
Democracy
Index 2010.[179] The Brazilian Federation
Federation
is the "indissoluble union" of the States, the Municipalities
Municipalities
and the Federal District.[17] The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The federation is set on five fundamental principles:[17] sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution.[17] The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/ Federal District spheres.

National Congress, seat of the legislative branch.

All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.[180][181][182] Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams.[180] For most of its democratic history, Brazil
Brazil
has had a multi-party system, proportional representation. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.[17] Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy
Democracy
Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party
(PMDB) and Democrats (DEM). Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly.[183] Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive. Law Main articles: Law of Brazil, Law enforcement in Brazil, and Crime in Brazil Brazilian law is based on the civil law legal system[184] and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.

Supreme Federal Court of Brazil
Supreme Federal Court of Brazil
serves primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country

The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.[185] As of April 2007[update], there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.[186] Municipalities
Municipalities
and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas), which act in a similar way to constitutions.[187] Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms.[17] Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution
Constitution
allows the Federal Senate
Federal Senate
to pass on legal judgments.[17] There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts.[17] The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court. This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.[188] Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube.[189][190] More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter
Twitter
to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.[191] Military

Brazilian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Saab Gripen NG.

Brazilian Army
Brazilian Army
Astros 2020.

Brazilian Navy's flagship Ocean (L12).

Main article: Brazilian Armed Forces The armed forces of Brazil
Brazil
are the largest in Latin America
Latin America
by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment.[192] It consists of the Brazilian Army
Brazilian Army
(including the Army Aviation Command), the Brazilian Navy
Brazilian Navy
(including the Marine Corps and Naval Aviation), and the Brazilian Air Force. Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservist annually.[193] Numbering close to 236,000 active personnel,[194] the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America, including armored transports and tanks.[195] It is also unique in Latin America for its large, elite forces specializing in unconventional missions, the Brazilian Special
Special
Operations Command,[196][197][198] and the versatile Strategic Rapid Action Force, made up of highly mobilized and prepared Special
Special
Operations Brigade, Infantry Brigade Parachutist,[199][200] 1st Jungle Infantry Battalion (Airmobile)[201] and 12th Brigade Light Infantry (Airmobile)[202] able to act anywhere in the country, on short notice, to counter external aggression.[203] The states' Military Police and the Military Firefighters Corps
Military Firefighters Corps
are described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but are under the control of each state's governor.[17] Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two Minas Geraes-class dreadnoughts, which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.[204] Today, it is a green water force and has a group of specialized elite in retaking ships and naval facilities, GRUMEC, unit specially trained to protect Brazilian oil platforms along its coast.[205] It's the only navy in Latin America that operates an aircraft carrier, NAe São Paulo,[206] and one of the ten navies of the world to operate one.[195] The Air Force is the largest in Latin America
Latin America
and has about 700 manned aircraft in service and effective about 67,000 personnel.[207] Brazil
Brazil
has not been invaded since 1865 during the Paraguayan War.[208] Additionally, Brazil
Brazil
has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighbours[209] and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile
Chile
and Bolivia
Bolivia
have with each other.[210][211] The Brazilian military has also three times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government.[212] It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti
Haiti
and East Timor.[213] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign relations of Brazil

Itamaraty Palace, the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.[214] According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.[215] Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.[216] Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.[217] An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries.[218] Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels.[218] Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes:[218]

Diplomatic missions of Brazil

technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC)) an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation

In addition, Brazil
Brazil
manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million).[218] This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China
China
and India.[218] The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."[219] Law enforcement and crime Main articles: Law enforcement in Brazil
Law enforcement in Brazil
and Crime in Brazil

Helicopter of the Federal Police Department

In Brazil, the Constitution
Constitution
establishes five different police agencies for law enforcement: Federal Police Department, Federal Highway Police, Federal Railroad Police, Military Police and Civil Police. Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments. All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers.[17] The National Public Security Force
National Public Security Force
also can act in public disorder situations arising anywhere in the country.[220] The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide. In 2012, the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) estimated the number of 32 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest rates of intentional homicide of the world.[221] The number considered tolerable by the WHO is about 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.[222] However, there are differences between the crime rates in the Brazilian states. While in São Paulo
São Paulo
the homicide rate registered in 2013 was 10.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, in Alagoas
Alagoas
it was 64.7 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.[223] Brazil
Brazil
also has high levels of incarceration and the third largest prison population in the world (behind only China
China
and the United States), with an estimated total of approximately 700,000 prisoners around the country (June 2014), an increase of about 300% compared to the index registered in 1992.[224] The high number of prisoners eventually overloaded the Brazilian prison system, leading to a shortfall of about two hundred thousand accommodations.[225] Administrative divisions

Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean North Region Northeast Region Central-West Region Southeast Region South Region Acre Amazonas Pará Roraima Amapá Rondônia Tocantins Maranhão Bahia Piauí Ceará Rio Grande do Norte Paraíba Pernambuco Alagoas Sergipe Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Federal District Goiás Minas Gerais São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Espírito Santo Paraná Santa Catarina Rio Grande do Sul Argentina Bolivia Chile Colombia French Guiana Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

States of Brazil
States of Brazil
and Regions of Brazil

Main articles: States of Brazil
States of Brazil
and Municipalities
Municipalities
of Brazil See also: Regions of Brazil Brazil
Brazil
is a federation composed of 26 States, one Federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and Municipalities.[17] States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.[17] The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects. Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government.[17] Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).

Economy Main article: Economy of Brazil See also: Brazilian real

Quotes panel of BM&F Bovespa, in São Paulo, the country's stock exchange.

A KC-390 military transport aircraft, developed by Brazilian company Embraer, the third largest producer of civil aircraft, after Airbus and Boeing.[226]

Brazil
Brazil
is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's eighth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP) according to the 2017 estimates. Brazil
Brazil
has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014 amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests. Its GDP (PPP) per capita was $15,919 in 2017[227] putting Brazil
Brazil
in the 77th position according to IMF data. Active in agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil
Brazil
has a labor force of over a 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide).[228] The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.[229] Brazil
Brazil
has been the world's largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.[25]

Combine harvester
Combine harvester
in a rice plantation in Santa Catarina. Brazil
Brazil
is the third largest exporter of agricultural products in the world.[230]

Central Bank of Brazil
Central Bank of Brazil
in Brasília

Brazil
Brazil
has become the fourth largest car market in the world.[231] Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.[232] In total, Brazil
Brazil
ranks 23rd worldwide in value of exports. Brazil
Brazil
pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998[233] and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil
Central Bank of Brazil
temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float[234] scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.[235] Brazil
Brazil
received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,[236] then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.[237] One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil
Brazil
recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.[238] Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.[239] Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.[240] Between 1993 and 2010, 7012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazilian firms have been announced.[241] The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with 115 billion USD
USD
of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia. Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at US$18.9 billion. Corruption costs Brazil
Brazil
almost $41 billion a year alone, with 69.9% of the country's firms identifying the issue as a major constraint in successfully penetrating the global market.[242] Local government corruption is so prevalent that voters perceive it as a problem only if it surpasses certain levels, and only if a local media e.g. a radio station is present to divulge the findings of corruption charges.[243] Initiatives, like this exposure, strengthen awareness which is indicated by the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index; ranking Brazil
Brazil
69th out of 178 countries in 2012.[244] The purchasing power in Brazil
Brazil
is eroded by the so-called Brazil
Brazil
cost.[245] Components and energy Main articles: Agriculture
Agriculture
in Brazil, Mining
Mining
in Brazil, Industry in Brazil, and Energy policy of Brazil

P-51, an oil platform of Petrobras

Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services.[246] Agriculture
Agriculture
and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007.[247] Brazil
Brazil
is one of the largest producer of oranges, coffee, sugar cane, cassava and sisal, soybeans and papayas.[248] The industry – from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft and consumer durables – accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product.[247] Industry is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto
Porto
Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.[249] Brazil
Brazil
is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; the Itaipu Dam
Itaipu Dam
is the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation.[250] The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in 1978 and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in 2005.[251] Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer
Pre-salt layer
have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.[252] The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.[253]

The Itaipu Dam
Itaipu Dam
on the Paraná River, located on the border between Brazil
Brazil
and Paraguay, is the second largest of the world (the first is the Three Gorges Dam, in China). Approximately 75% of the Brazilian energy matrix, one of the cleanest in the world, comes from hydropower.

Tourism Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in Brazil

Sancho Bay in Fernando de Noronha
Fernando de Noronha
Archipelago, Pernambuco, voted the most beautiful beach in the world by TripAdvisor[254]

Iguazu Falls, Paraná, in Brazil- Argentina
Argentina
border

Tourism in Brazil
Tourism in Brazil
is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6.36 million visitors in 2015, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the main destination in South America
South America
and second in Latin America after Mexico.[255] Revenues from international tourists reached US$6 billion in 2010, showing a recovery from the 2008–2009 economic crisis.[256] Historical records of 5.4 million visitors and US$6.8 billion in receipts were reached in 2011.[257][258] Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation, mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel, as well as cultural tourism. Among the most popular destinations are the Amazon Rainforest, beaches and dunes in the Northeast Region, the Pantanal
Pantanal
in the Center-West Region, beaches at Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and Santa Catarina, cultural tourism in Minas Gerais and business trips to São Paulo
São Paulo
city.[259] In terms of the 2015 Travel and Tourism
Tourism
Competitiveness Index (TTCI), which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil
Brazil
ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas, after Canada
Canada
and United States.[260][261] Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites. The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 116th), with the quality of roads ranking in 105th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (ranked 114th), due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in 2011, up from 128th in 2008.[261] According to the World Tourism Organization
World Tourism Organization
(WTO), international travel to Brazil
Brazil
accelerated in 2000, particularly during 2004 and 2005. However, in 2006 a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in 2007–08.[262][263][264]

Bonito, Mato Grosso
Mato Grosso
do Sul. The rivers in the region are known for their crystal clear waters.

The city of Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
is featured in tourism in Brazil

In spite of this trend, revenues from international tourism continued to rise, from USD
USD
4 billion in 2005 to 5 billion in 2007, despite 330 000 fewer arrivals. This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real, which began in 2004, but which makes Brazil
Brazil
a more expensive international destination.[265] This trend changed in 2009, when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession
Great Recession
of 2008–09.[266] By 2010, the industry had recovered, and arrivals grew above 2006 levels to 5.2 million international visitors, and receipts from these visitors reached USD
USD
6 billion.[256] In 2011 the historical record was reached with 5.4 million visitors and US$6.8 billion in receipts.[257][258] Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since 2003, resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians
Brazilians
than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil. Tourism expenditures abroad grew from USD
USD
5.8 billion in 2006, to USD 8.2 billion in 2007, a 42% increase, representing a net deficit of USD
USD
3.3 billion in 2007, as compared to USD
USD
1.5 billion in 2006, a 125% increase from the previous year.[267] This trend is caused by Brazilians
Brazilians
taking advantage of the stronger Real to travel and making relatively cheaper expenditures abroad.[267] Brazilians traveling overseas in 2006 represented 4% of the country's population.[268] In 2005, tourism contributed with 3.2% of the country's revenues from exports of goods and services, and represented 7% of direct and indirect employment in the Brazilian economy.[269] In 2006 direct employment in the sector reached 1.9 million people.[270] Domestic tourism is a fundamental market segment for the industry, as 51 million people traveled throughout the country in 2005,[271] and direct revenues from Brazilian tourists reached USD 22 billion,[272] 5.6 times more receipts than international tourists in 2005. In 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Foz do Iguaçu, São Paulo, Florianópolis and Salvador were the most visited cities by international tourists for leisure trips. The most popular destinations for business trips were São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
and Porto
Porto
Alegre.[273] In 2006 Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza
Fortaleza
were the most popular destinations for business trips. Infrastructure Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Brazil

National Synchrotron
Synchrotron
Light Laboratory in Campinas, state of São Paulo, the only particle accelerator in Latin America.

VLS-1
VLS-1
at the Alcântara Launch Center
Alcântara Launch Center
of the Brazilian Space Agency

Technological research in Brazil
Brazil
is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.[274] Brazil's most esteemed technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE.[275][276] The Brazilian Space Agency
Brazilian Space Agency
has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellite.[277] Owner of relative technological sophistication, the country develops submarines, aircraft, as well as being involved in space research, having a Vehicle Launch Center Light and being the only country in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
the integrate team building International Space Station
International Space Station
(ISS).[278] The country is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep water, from where it extracts 73% of its reserves. Uranium
Uranium
is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory, mostly for research purposes (as Brazil obtains 88% from its electricity from hydroelectricity[279]) and the country's first nuclear submarine was delivered in 2015 (by France).[280] Brazil
Brazil
is one of the three countries in Latin America[281] with an operational Synchrotron
Synchrotron
Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil
Brazil
is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant, the CEITEC.[282] According to the Global Information Technology Report 2009-2010 of the World Economic Forum, Brazil
Brazil
is the world's 61st largest developer of information technology.[283] Brazil
Brazil
also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Among the most renowned Brazilian inventors are priests Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Landell de Moura
Landell de Moura
and Francisco João de Azevedo, besides Alberto Santos-Dumont,[284] Evaristo Conrado Engelberg,[285] Manuel Dias de Abreu,[286] Andreas Pavel[287] and Nélio José Nicolai.[288] Brazilian science is represented by the likes of César Lattes (Brazilian physicist Pathfinder of Pi Meson),[289] Mário Schenberg
Mário Schenberg
(considered the greatest theoretical physicist of Brazil),[290] José Leite Lopes (only Brazilian physicist holder of UNESCO Science Prize),[291] Artur Ávila
Artur Ávila
(the first Latin American winner of Fields Medal)[292] and Fritz Müller
Fritz Müller
(pioneer in factual support of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin).[293]

Transport

Terminal 3 of the São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, the second busiest airport in Latin America.

BR-116
BR-116
in Lages, Santa Catarina, the longest highway in the country, with 4,385 km (2,725 mi) of extension.[294]

Aerial view of Port
Port
of Santos, São Paulo, the busiest port in Latin America.[295]

Main article: Transport in Brazil Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,419 mi) (114,425 mi) in 2002.[296] The first investments in road infrastructure have given up in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luis, being pursued in the governments of Getúlio Vargas
Getúlio Vargas
and Eurico Gaspar Dutra.[297] President Juscelino Kubitschek
Juscelino Kubitschek
(1956–61), who designed and built the capital Brasília, was another supporter of highways. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country (Volkswagen, Ford and General Motors
General Motors
arrived in Brazil
Brazil
during his rule) and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways. With the implementation of Fiat
Fiat
in 1976 ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the 1990s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco, Renault, Peugeot, Citroen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Hyundai, Toyota
Toyota
among others.[298] Brazil
Brazil
is the seventh most important country in the auto industry.[299] Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,185 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007.[300] The São Paulo
São Paulo
Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto
Porto
Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina
Teresina
and Fortaleza. The country has an extensive rail network of 28,538 kilometres (17,733 miles) in length, the tenth largest network in the world.[301] Currently, the Brazilian government, unlike the past, seeks to encourage this mode of transport; an example of this incentive is the project of the Rio– São Paulo
São Paulo
high-speed rail, that will connect the two main cities of the country to carry passengers. There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States.[302] São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport with nearly 20 million passengers annually, while handling the vast majority of commercial traffic for the country.[303] For freight transport waterways are of importance, e.g. the industrial zones of Manaus
Manaus
can be reached only by means of the Solimões–Amazonas waterway (3,250 kilometres (2,020 miles) with 6 metres (20 feet) minimum depth). The country also has 50,000 kilometres (31,000 miles) of waterways.[301] Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay
Paraguay
have been given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus
Manaus
and São Francisco do Sul are the most important.[304] Bulk carriers have to wait up to 18 days before being serviced, container ships 36,3 hours on average.[305] Health Main article: Health in Brazil

The Albert Einstein Hospital
Albert Einstein Hospital
in São Paulo.

The Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System (SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of government,[306] being the largest system of this type in the world.[307] On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a complementary role.[308] Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. However, the construction and maintenance of health centers and hospitals are financed by taxes, and the country spends about 9% of its GDP on expenditures in the area. In 2012, Brazil
Brazil
had 1.85 doctors and 2.3 hospital beds for every 1,000 inhabitants.[309][310] Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in 1988, there are still several public health problems in Brazil. In 2006, the main points to be solved were the high infant (2.51%) and maternal mortality rates (73.1 deaths per 1000 births). The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) and cancer (72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), also has a considerable impact on the health of the Brazilian population. Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused 14.9% of all deaths in the country.[311] The Brazilian health system was ranked 125th among the 191 countries evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000.[312] Education

Courtyard of the former Royal Academy of Artillery, Fortification and Design, the first institution of higher education in Brazil, created in 1792

Classroom in the main campus of the University
University
of Campinas, São Paulo

Main article: Education in Brazil The Federal Constitution
Constitution
and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Federal Government, States, Federal District and municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 18% of federal taxes and municipal taxes for education.[313] According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population.[314] Illiteracy is highest in the Northeast, where 19.9% of the population is illiterate.[315] Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense. Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten, elementary and medium educations are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing. The University
University
of São Paulo
São Paulo
is the third best university in Latin America, according to recent 2018 QS World University
University
Rankings. Of the top 20 Latin Americans universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public.[316] Media and communication Main article: Telecommunications in Brazil See also: Media ownership in Brazil

Former President Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff
at Jornal Nacional
Jornal Nacional
news program. Rede Globo is the second largest commercial television network of the world.[317]

The Brazilian press had its beginnings in 1808 with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil, hitherto forbidden any activity of the press – was the publication of newspapers or books. The Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
on 13 May 1808, with the creation of the Royal Printing, National Press by the Prince Regent Dom João.[318] The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September 1808.[319] The largest newspapers nowadays are Folha de S.Paulo
Folha de S.Paulo
(from the state of São Paulo), Super Notícia ( Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
296.799), O Globo
O Globo
(RJ 277.876) and O Estado de S. Paulo
O Estado de S. Paulo
(SP 235.217).[320] Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro."[321] Television in Brazil
Television in Brazil
began officially on 18 September 1950, with the founding of TV Tupi
TV Tupi
by Assis Chateaubriand.[322] Since then television has grown in the country, creating large public networks such as Globo, SBT, Record and Bandeirantes. Today it is the most important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society, indicated by research showing that as much as 67%[323][324] of the general population follow the same daily soap opera broadcast. Digital Television, using the SBTVD
SBTVD
standard (based on the Japanese standard ISDB-T), was adopted 29 June 2006 and launched on 2 November 2007.[325] In May 2010, Brazil launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries.[326]

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Brazil
Demographics of Brazil
and Brazilian people See also: Immigration to Brazil
Immigration to Brazil
and List of Brazilian states by population density

Population density of Brazilian municipalities

The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million[327] (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometre or 57.8/sq mi), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1[328] and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.[329] The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants. The first census in Brazil
Brazil
was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478.[330] From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived.[331] Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years[332] and to 72.6 years in 2007.[333] It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050[334] thus completing the demographic transition.[335] In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48%[336] and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor.[337] Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.[338] Race and ethnicity Main article: Race and ethnicity in Brazil

Immigration Museum of the State of São Paulo
São Paulo
in the neighborhood of Mooca, in São Paulo
São Paulo
city.

According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Pardo (brown), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian (officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.[339] In 2007, the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil
Brazil
has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in 2005. Brazil
Brazil
is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.[340] Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable miscegenation between Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%).[341][342][343][344]

Race and ethnicity in Brazil[345][346][347]   White (47.7%)    Pardo (Multiracial) (43.1%)   Black (7.6%)   Asian (1.1%)   Natives (0.4%)

Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.[348] Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because a minority of pardos are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward.[349] Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Afro- Brazilians
Brazilians
are evenly mixed and European ancestry is dominant in Whites and pardos with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great).[344][350][351][352] The brown population (officially called pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially moreno)[353][354] is a broad category that includes caboclos (assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), mulatos (descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians) and cafuzos (descendants of Afro- Brazilians
Brazilians
and Natives).[353][354][355][356][357] People of considerable Amerindian ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions.[358] Higher percents of Blacks, mulattoes and tri-racials can be found in the eastern coast of the Northeastern region from Bahia
Bahia
to Paraíba[357][359] and also in northern Maranhão,[360][361] southern Minas Gerais[362] and in eastern Rio de Janeiro.[357][362] From the 19th century, Brazil
Brazil
opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil
Brazil
between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, and Arab origin.[363][364] Religion Main article: Religion in Brazil Further information: Roman Catholicism in Brazil
Roman Catholicism in Brazil
and Protestantism in Brazil

Religion in Brazil
Religion in Brazil
(2010 Census)

Religion

Percent

Roman Catholicism

64.6%

Protestantism

22.2%

No religion

8.0%

Spiritism

2.0%

Others

3.2%

Religion in Brazil
Religion in Brazil
was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples.[365] This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil
Brazil
led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Catholic Church, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities,[366] and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism
Spiritism
(a religion which incorporates elements of spiritualism and Christianity). Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century,[367] and the Protestant community has grown to include over 22% of the population.[368] The most common Protestant denominations are Pentecostal and Evangelical ones. Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Lutherans and the Reformed tradition.[369]

The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
is one of the most famous religious statues worldwide[371][372]

Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
in Aparecida, São Paulo, is the second largest Catholic church in the world[370]

Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
is the country's predominant faith. Brazil
Brazil
has the world's largest Catholic population.[373] According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; 1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Brazilian
religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; 0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.[374] However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism
and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.[375] After Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 7% of the population as of the 2000 census. The cities of Boa Vista, Salvador, and Porto
Porto
Velho have the greatest proportion of Irreligious residents in Brazil. Teresina, Fortaleza, and Florianópolis
Florianópolis
were the most Roman Catholic in the country.[376] Greater Rio de Janeiro, not including the city proper, is the most irreligious and least Roman Catholic Brazilian periphery, while Greater Porto
Porto
Alegre and Greater Fortaleza
Fortaleza
are on the opposite sides of the lists, respectively.[376] Urbanization Main articles: List of largest cities in Brazil
List of largest cities in Brazil
and Municipalities
Municipalities
of Brazil According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants.[377] The largest urban agglomerations in Brazil
Brazil
are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte
Belo Horizonte
– all in the Southeastern Region – with 21.1, 12.3, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively.[378][379][380] The majority of state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina.[381]

 

v t e

Largest urban agglomerations in Brazil 2016 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics estimates[378][382][383]

Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.

São Paulo

Rio de Janeiro 1 São Paulo São Paulo 21,166,641 11 Belém Pará 2,142,147

Belo Horizonte

Recife

2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 12,340,927 12 Manaus Amazonas 2,094,391

3 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 5,107,020 13 Campinas São Paulo 2,082,372

4 Recife Pernambuco 3,995,949 14 Vitória Espírito Santo 1,813,977

5 Brasília Federal District 3,908,762 15 Baixada Santista São Paulo 1,689,184

6 Porto
Porto
Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 3,879,783 16 São José dos Campos São Paulo 1,558,233

7 Salvador Bahia 3,835,024 17 São Luís Maranhão 1,409,162

8 Fortaleza Ceará 3,567,037 18 Natal Rio Grande do Norte 1,333,153

9 Curitiba Paraná 3,354,869 19 Maceió Alagoas 1,222,962

10 Goiânia Goiás 2,313,886 20 João Pessoa Paraíba 1,155,808

Language Main articles: Languages of Brazil, Portuguese language, Brazilian Portuguese, and List of endangered languages in Brazil

Museum of the Portuguese Language
Museum of the Portuguese Language
in São Paulo
São Paulo
city, São Paulo.

Oca of the Kamayurá people, Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso

The official language of Brazil
Brazil
is Portuguese[384] (Article 13 of the Constitution
Constitution
of the Federal Republic
Republic
of Brazil), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. The most famous exception to this is a strong sign language law that was passed by the National Congress of Brazil. Legally recognized in 2002,[385] the law was regulated in 2005.[386] The law mandates the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services must provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.[387] Brazilian Portuguese
Brazilian Portuguese
has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese[388] (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only.[389] As a result,[citation needed] the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal
Portugal
and other Portuguese-speaking countries
Portuguese-speaking countries
(the dialects of the other countries, partly because of the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connection to contemporary European Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.[389] Brazil
Brazil
is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.[390]

Pomerode, Santa Catarina, is one of the municipalities with a cooficial language. In this region, Hunsrückisch and East Pomeranian, German dialects, are two of the minor languages (see Brazilian German).

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil
Brazil
on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil
Brazil
on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables.[391] Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants.[389] In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a currently endangered South American creole language – or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian
Indigenous Brazilian
languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista, once was a major lingua franca in Brazil[citation needed], being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes)[excessive detail?], Baniwa and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese.[392] There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language.[393][394] Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul,[395] and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities.[396] Learning at least one second language (generally English or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). Brazil
Brazil
is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto
Esperanto
to secondary students.[397]

Culture

Interior of the São Francisco Church and Convent
São Francisco Church and Convent
in Salvador, Bahia, one of the richest expressions of Brazilian baroque.

Main article: Culture of Brazil The core culture of Brazil
Brazil
is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese Empire.[398] Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
and colonial architectural styles. The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.[399] Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European as well Japanese, Jewish and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil
Brazil
during the 19th and 20th centuries.[400] The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.[401] Brazilian art
Brazilian art
has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque
Baroque
(the dominant style in Brazil
Brazil
until the early 19th century)[402][403] to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism
Surrealism
and Abstractionism. Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim since the 1960s.[404] Architecture Main article: Architecture of Brazil

The Museum of the Inconfidência
Museum of the Inconfidência
in Minas Gerais, an example of Portuguese colonial architecture.

The Cathedral of Brasilia, an example of Modern architecture

The architecture of Brazil
Brazil
is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal. It has a history that goes back 500 years to the time when Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil
Brazil
in 1500. Portuguese colonial architecture was the first wave of architecture to go to Brazil.[405] It is the basis for all Brazilian architecture of later centuries.[406] In the 19th century during the time of the Empire of Brazil, Brazil
Brazil
followed European trends and adopted Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. Then in the 20th century especially in Brasilia, Brazil
Brazil
experimented with Modernist architecture. The colonial architecture of Brazil
Brazil
dates to the early 16th century when Brazil
Brazil
was first explored, conquered and settled by the Portuguese. The Portuguese built architecture familiar to them in Europe in their aim to colonise Brazil. They built Portuguese colonial architecture which included Churches, civic architecture including houses and forts in Brazilian cities and the countryside. During 19th Century Brazilian architecture saw the introduction of more European styles to Brazil
Brazil
such as Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. This was usually mixed with Brazilian influences from their own heritage which produced a unique form of Brazilian architecture. In the 1950s the modernist architecture was introduced when Brasilia
Brasilia
was built as new federal capital in the interior of Brazil
Brazil
to help develop the interior. The architect Oscar Niemeyer
Oscar Niemeyer
idealized and built Government buildings, Churches and civic buildings was constructed in the modernist style.[407][408] Music Main article: Music of Brazil

Heitor Villa-Lobos, one of the great Latin composers

Vinicius de Moraes, one of the leading names of bossa nova

The music of Brazil
Brazil
was formed mainly from the fusion of European and African elements.[409] Until the nineteenth century, Portugal
Portugal
was the gateway to most of the influences that built Brazilian music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.[410] The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century.[409] Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian sound, with samba considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list.[411] Maracatu
Maracatu
and Afoxê are two Afro-Brazilian
Afro-Brazilian
music traditions that have been popularized by their appearance in the annual Brazilian Carnivals.[412] The sport of capoeira is usually played with its own music referred to as capoeira music, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music.[413] Choro
Choro
is a very popular music instrumental style. Its origins are in 19th-century Rio de Janeiro. In spite of the name, the style often has a fast and happy rhythm, characterized by virtuosity, improvisation, subtle modulations and full of syncopation and counterpoint.[414] Bossa nova
Bossa nova
is also a well-known style of Brazilian music developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s.[415] The phrase "bossa nova" means literally "new trend".[416] A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following starting in the 1960s.[417]

The Rio Carnival, a type of samba parade

Literature

Machado de Assis, poet and novelist, founder of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Main article: Brazilian literature Brazilian literature
Brazilian literature
dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and commentary about the indigenous population that fascinated European readers.[418] Brazil
Brazil
produced significant works in Romanticism
Romanticism
– novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo
Joaquim Manuel de Macedo
and José de Alencar
José de Alencar
wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarani, Iracema
Iracema
and Ubirajara.[419] Machado de Assis, one of his contemporaries, wrote in virtually all genres and continues to gain international prestige from critics worldwide.[420][421][422] Brazilian Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art
Week of Modern Art
in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature,[423] while Post- Modernism
Modernism
brought a generation of distinct poets like João Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Cora Coralina, Graciliano Ramos, Cecília Meireles, and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects like Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa, Clarice Lispector and Manuel Bandeira.[424][425][426] Cuisine Main article: Brazilian cuisine See also: List of Brazilian dishes

Brigadeiro
Brigadeiro
is a national candy and one most and is recognized as one of the main dishes of the Brazilian cuisine.

Feijoada
Feijoada
is a typical Brazilian dish

Brazilian cuisine
Brazilian cuisine
varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's varying mix of indigenous and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.[427] Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish;[428] and regional foods such as beiju (pt), feijão tropeiro (pt), vatapá, moqueca, polenta (from Italian cuisine) and acarajé (from African cuisine).[429] The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça
Cachaça
is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.[430] A typical meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef, salad, french fries and a fried egg.[431] Often, it's mixed with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.[432] Popular snacks are pastel (a fried pastry); coxinha (a variation of chicken croquete); pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca); pamonha (corn and milk paste); esfirra (a variation of Lebanese pastry); kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine); empanada (pastry) and empada, little salt pies filled with shrimps or heart of palm. Brazil
Brazil
has a variety of desserts such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), bolo de rolo (roll cake with goiabada), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with goiabada). Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, lime, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.[433] Cinema

Gramado Film Festival

Fernando Meirelles

Main article: Cinema of Brazil The Brazilian film industry began in the late 19th century, during the early days of the Belle Époque. While there were national film productions during the early 20th century, American films such as Rio the Magnificent were made in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
to promote tourism in the city.[434] The films Limite
Limite
(1931) and Ganga Bruta
Ganga Bruta
(1933), the latter being produced by Adhemar Gonzaga through the prolific studio Cinédia, were poorly received at release and failed at the box office, but are acclaimed nowadays and placed among the finest Brazilian films of all time.[435] The 1941 unfinished film It's All True was divided in four segments, two of which were filmed in Brazil and directed by Orson Welles; it was originally produced as part of the United States' Good Neighbor Policy
Good Neighbor Policy
during Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo government. During the 1960s, the Cinema Novo movement rose to prominence with directors such as Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Saraceni and Arnaldo Jabor. Rocha's films Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964) and Terra em Transe (1967) are considered to be some of the greatest and most influential in Brazilian film history.[436] During the 1990s, Brazil
Brazil
saw a surge of critical and commercial success with films such as O Quatrilho
O Quatrilho
(Fábio Barreto, 1995), O Que É Isso, Companheiro? (Bruno Barreto, 1997) and Central do Brasil (Walter Salles, 1998), all of which were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, the latter receiving a Best Actress nomination for Fernanda Montenegro. The 2002 crime film City of God, directed by Fernando Meirelles, was critically acclaimed, scoring 90% on Rotten Tomatoes,[437] being placed in Roger Ebert's Best Films of the Decade list[438] and receiving four Academy Award nominations in 2004, including Best Director. Notable film festivals in Brazil
Brazil
include the São Paulo
São Paulo
and Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
International Film Festivals and the Gramado Festival. Theatre

São Paulo
São Paulo
Municipal Theater

Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Municipal Theater

The theatre in Brazil
Brazil
has its origins in the period of Jesuit expansion when theater was used for the dissemination of Catholic doctrine in the 16th century. in the 17th and 18th centuries the first dramatists who appeared on the scene of European derivation was for court or private performances.[439] During the 19th century, dramatic theater gained importance and thickness, whose first representative was Luis Carlos Martins Pena (1813–1848), capable of describing contemporary reality. Always in this period the comedy of costume and comic production was imposed. Significant, also in the nineteenth century, was also the playwright Antônio Gonçalves Dias.[440] There were also numerous operas and orchestras. The Brazilian conductor Antônio Carlos Gomes
Antônio Carlos Gomes
became internationally known with operas like Il Guarany. At the end of century 19th century orchestrated dramaturgias became very popular and were accompanied of songs of famous artists like the conductress Chiquinha Gonzaga.[441] Already in the early 20th century there was the presence of theaters, entrepreneurs and actor companies, but paradoxically the quality of the products staggered, and only in 1940 the Brazilian theater received a boost of renewal thanks to the action of Paschoal Carlos Magno and his student's theater, the comedians group and the Italian actors Adolfo Celi, Ruggero Jacobbi and Aldo Calvo, founders of the Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia. From the 1960s it was attended by a theater dedicated to social and religious issues and to the flourishing of schools of dramatic art. The most prominent authors at this stage were Jorge Andrade
Jorge Andrade
and Ariano Suassuna.[440] Visual
Visual
arts Main article: Painting in Brazil

Discovery of the Land mural, by Brazilian painter Candido Portinari, at the Library of Congress

Brazilian painting
Brazilian painting
emerged in the late 16th century,[442] influenced by Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Modernism, Expressionism, Surrealism, Cubism
Cubism
and Abstracionism making it a major art style called Brazilian academic art.[443][444] The Missão Artística Francesa (French Artistic Mission) arrived in Brazil
Brazil
in 1816 proposing the creation of an art academy modeled after the respected Académie des Beaux-Arts, with graduation courses both for artists and craftsmen for activities such as modeling, decorating, carpentry and others and bringing artists like Jean-Baptiste Debret.[444] Upon the creation of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, new artistic movements spread across the country during the 19th century and later the event called Week of Modern Art
Week of Modern Art
broke definitely with academic tradition in 1922 and started a nationalist trend which was influenced by modernist arts. Among the best-known Brazilian painters are Ricardo do Pilar and Manuel da Costa Ataíde
Manuel da Costa Ataíde
(baroque and rococo), Victor Meirelles, Pedro Américo
Pedro Américo
and Almeida Junior
Almeida Junior
(romanticism and realism), Anita Malfatti, Ismael Nery, Lasar Segall, Emiliano di Cavalcanti, Vicente do Rego Monteiro, and Tarsila do Amaral (expressionism, surrealism and cubism), Aldo Bonadei, José Pancetti and Cândido Portinari
Cândido Portinari
(modernism).[445] Sports

Stamp for the victory of the Brazilian team at the 1970 FIFA World Cup

Senna, one of the biggest names in F1's history

Main article: Sport in Brazil The most popular sport in Brazil
Brazil
is football.[446] The Brazilian men's national team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times.[447][448] Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. The Brazil
Brazil
men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football,[449] futsal (indoor football)[450] and footvolley emerged in Brazil
Brazil
as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira,[451] Vale tudo,[452] and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.[453] In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One
Formula One
world championship eight times.[454][455][456] Brazil
Brazil
has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, like the 1950 FIFA World Cup[457] and recently has hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[458] The São Paulo
São Paulo
circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.[459] São Paulo
São Paulo
organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.[460] On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games and 2016 Paralympic Games, making it the first South American city to host the games[461] and second in Latin America, after Mexico
Mexico
City. Furthermore, the country hosted the FIBA
FIBA
Basketball
Basketball
World Cups in 1954 and 1963. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team
Brazil national basketball team
won one of its two world championship titles.[462] National holidays

Date Local name Name Observation

1 January Confraternização Mundial New Year's Day Beginning of the calendar year

21 April Tiradentes Tiradentes In honor of the martyr of the Minas Conspiracy

1 May Dia do Trabalhador Labor Day Tribute to all workers

7 September Independência Independence
Independence
of Brazil Proclamation of Independence
Independence
against Portugal

12 October Nossa Senhora Aparecida Our Lady of Aparecida Patroness of Brazil

2 November Finados All Souls' Day Day of remembrance for the dead

15 November Proclamação da República Proclamation of the Republic Transformation of Empire into Republic

25 December Natal Christmas Traditional Christmas celebration

See also

Brazil
Brazil
portal Latin America
Latin America
portal

Index of Brazil-related articles Outline of Brazil

References

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of California Press. ^ Fernandez, Oscar Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and His Novels The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Apr. 1971), pp. 255–256 ^ Beatriz Mugayar Kühl, Arquitetura do ferro e arquitetura ferroviária em São Paulo: reflexões sobre a sua preservação, p.202. Atelie Editorial, 1998. ^ Daniel Balderston and Mike Gonzalez, Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900–2003, p.288. Routledge, 2004. ^ Sayers, Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil
Brazil
in Transitn, "Literature". U of Minnesota Press, 1 January 1999. ^ Marshall C. Eakin and Paulo Roberto de Almeida, Envisioning Brazil: A Guide to Brazilian Studies in the United States: "Literature, Culture and Civilization". University
University
of Wisconsin Press, 31 October 2005. ^ "Way of Life". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2008.  ^ Roger, "Feijoada: The Brazilian national dish Archived 29 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine." braziltravelguide.com. ^ Cascudo, Luis da Câmara. História da Alimentação no Brasil. São Paulo/Belo Horizonte: Editora USP/Itatiaia, 1983. ^ Bayor, Ronald H. (2011). Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans. Georgia Institute of Technology. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-313-35786-2.  ^ Barbosa, Lívia (2007). "Feijão com arroz e arroz com feijão: o Brasil no prato dos brasileiros". Horizontes Antropológicos. 13 (28). doi:10.1590/S0104-71832007000200005.  ^ Ferraccioli, Patrícia; Silveira, Eliane Augusta da (2010). "Cultural feeding influence on palative memories in the usual brazilian cuisine". Rev. Enferm. UERJ. 18 (2): 198–203.  ^ Freyre, Gilberto. Açúcar. Uma Sociologia do Doce, com Receitas de Bolos e Doces do Nordeste do Brasil. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 1997. ^ "Rio the Magnificent (1932)". YouTube. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ Larry, Rohter (9 November 2010). "Brazil's Best, Restored and Ready for a 21st-Century Audience". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2010.  ^ Tose, Juliano. "Editorial". Contracampo – revista de cinema. Revista Contracampo. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ "Cidade de Deus (City of God) (2003) – Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixter. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ Ebert, Roger. "The best films of the decade". RogerEbert.com. Retrieved 19 October 2015.  ^ PADRE ANCHIETA Brasil Escola. ^ a b "Brazilian Theatre: An Introduction". Ambasciata brasiliana a Ottawa. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ O Teatro no Brasil Secretaria da Educação do Paraná. ^ Louzada, Maria Alice & Louzada, Julio. Os Primeiros Momentos da Arte Brasileira Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Júlio Louzada Artes Plásticas Brasil. Acesso 5 out 2010 ^ Leite, José Roberto Teixeira & Lemos, Carlos A.C. Os Primeiros Cem Anos, in Civita, Victor. Arte no Brasil. São Paulo: Abril Cultural, 1979 ^ a b Biscardi & Rocha 2006 ^ Sevcenko, Nicolau. Pindorama revisitada: cultura e sociedade em tempos de virada. Série Brasil cidadão. Editora Peirópolis, 2000. pp. 39–47 ^ "Futebol, o esporte mais popular do Brasil, é destaque no Via Legal :: Notícias". Jusbrasil.com.br. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ "Football in Brazil". Goal Programme. International Federation
Federation
of Association Football. 15 April 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Zirin, 2014. Chapter 4 "Futebol: The Journey from Daring to Fear" ^ " Beach
Beach
Soccer". International Federation
Federation
of Association Football. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Futsal". International Federation
Federation
of Association Football. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "The art of capoeira". BBC. 20 September 2006. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "Brazilian Vale Tudo". I.V.C. Retrieved 6 June 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ "International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Federation". International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu
Federation. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Emerson Fittipaldi". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Nelson Piquet". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Donaldson, Gerald. "Ayrton Senna". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "1950 FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
Brazil". Previous FIFA World Cups. International Federation
Federation
of Association Football. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "2014 FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
Brazil". International Federation
Federation
of Association Football. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ "The Official Formula 1 Website". Formula One
Formula One
Administration. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.  ^ Ming Li; Eric W. MacIntosh; Gonzalo A. Bravo (2011). International Sport Management. Human Kinetics – College of Business at Ohio University. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-4504-2241-3.  ^ "Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio," The Guardian, 2 October 2009. ^ " FIBA
FIBA
World Championship History (pdf)" (PDF). FIBA. 1 January 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 

Bibliography

Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971. (in Portuguese) Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University
University
Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-3510-7 Boxer, Charles R.. O império marítimo português 1415–1825. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0292-9 (in Portuguese) Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (in Portuguese) ISBN 85-08-08213-4 Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002. (in Portuguese) Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (in Portuguese) Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996. (in Portuguese) Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004. (in Portuguese) Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (in Portuguese) Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. ISBN 85-7326-308-3 (in Portuguese) Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0277-5 (in Portuguese) Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (in Portuguese) Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v.1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (in Portuguese) Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v.3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (in Portuguese) Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. ISBN 85-359-0807-2 (in Portuguese) Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981. (in Portuguese) Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942. Peres, Damião (1949) O Descobrimento do Brasil por Pedro Álvares Cabral: antecedentes e intencionalidade Porto: Portucalense. (in Portuguese) Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87021-295-8. Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. ISBN 85-7164-837-9. (in Portuguese) Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. (in Portuguese) ISBN 85-219-0313-8 Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (in Portuguese) ISBN 978-85-200-0864-5. Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. ISBN 85-7302-441-0 (in Portuguese) Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988. (in Portuguese) Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (in Portuguese) Zirin, Dave. Brazil's Dance with the Devil: The World Cup, The Olympics, and the Fight for Democracy
Democracy
Haymarket Books 2014. ISBN 9781608463602

Further reading

Alves, Maria Helena Moreira (1985). State and Opposition in Military Brazil. Austin, TX: University
University
of Texas Press.  Amann, Edmund (1990). The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso. World Development (pp. 1805–1819).  "Background Note: Brazil". US Department of State. Retrieved 16 June 2011.  Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life. London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc.  Bethell, Leslie (1991). Colonial Brazil. Cambridge: CUP.  Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University
University
of California Press.  Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge: CUP.  Furtado, Celso. The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. Berkeley, CA: University
University
of California Press.  Leal, Victor Nunes (1977). Coronelismo: The Municipality
Municipality
and Representative Government in Brazil. Cambridge: CUP.  Malathronas, John (2003). Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul. Chichester: Summersdale.  Martinez-Lara, Javier (1995). Building Democracy
Democracy
in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change. Macmillan.  Prado Júnior, Caio (1967). The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil. Los Angeles, CA: University
University
of California Press.  Schneider, Ronald (1995). Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse. Boulder Westview.  Skidmore, Thomas E. (1974). Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. Oxford: Oxford University
University
Press.  Wagley, Charles (1963). An Introduction to Brazil. New York, New York: Columbia University
University
Press.  The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil. New York, NY: World Almanac Books. 2006. 

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Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong ( Porto
Porto
Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence
Independence
and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America
South America
& Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão- Pará
Pará
and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão- Pará
Pará
and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão
Maranhão
and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 15°45′S 47°57′W / 15.750°S 47.950°W / -15.750; -47.950 (Brasilia)

v t e

Countries and dependencies of South America

Sovereign states

Entire

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

In part

France

French Guiana

Dependencies

Falkland Islands / South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

UK

International membership

v t e

Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Community of Portuguese Language Countries
(CPLP)

Category

Membership

Members

Angola Brazil Cape Verde East Timor Equatorial Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mozambique Portugal São Tomé and Príncipe

Observers

Georgia Japan Mauritius Namibia Senegal Turkey

Organization

CPLP Games Flag TV CPLP

ACOLOP

Lusophony Games

Portuguese-using countries

v t e

Union of South American Nations

Member states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Proposed: Trinidad and Tobago

Summits

2004 2008 2009 Ecuador 2009 Argentina 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Topics

Cusco Declaration Constitutive Treaty President Pro Tempore Secretary General Bank of the South South American Parliament Initiative for Infrastructure Integration of South America Mercosur Andean Community

v t e

Mercosur
Mercosur
· Mercosul

(Southern Common Market)

Treaties

Treaty
Treaty
of Asunción Protocol of Ouro Preto

Members

Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Venezuela
Venezuela
(suspended)

Currencies

Argentine peso Brazilian real Paraguayan guaraní Uruguayan peso Venezuelan bolívar Gaucho

Associates

Bolivia Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru

Observers

Mexico New Zealand

Institutions

Parliament

v t e

Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS)

Members

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Barbados Brazil Belize Bahamas Bolivia Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Kitts and Nevis Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States Uruguay

Renounced

Venezuela

Organization

Secretariat for Political Affairs Secretariat for Multidimensional Security General Assembly Inter-American Commission of Women Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Court of Human Rights Pan American Union Building

Politics

Charter Inter-American Treaty
Treaty
of Reciprocal Assistance American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man American Convention on Human Rights Pan-American Conference Summits of the Americas

Americas Pan American Sports Organization

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Group of Eight
Group of Eight
(G8) and Group of Eight
Group of Eight
+ Five (G8+5)

G8 members

 Canada  France  Germany  Italy  Japan  Russia  United Kingdom  United States

Representative

 European Union

G8+5

 Brazil  China  India  Mexico  South Africa

See also

Group of Six Group of Seven G7+1

v t e

G20
G20
major economies

 Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  European Union  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa   Republic
Republic
of Korea  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States

v t e

Nations in the Group of 15
Group of 15
(G-15)

Summits

1990 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2004 2006 2010 2012

Members

Algeria Argentina Brazil Chile Egypt India Indonesia Iran Jamaica Kenya Malaysia Mexico Nigeria Senegal Sri Lanka Venezuela Zimbabwe

v t e

BRICS

Membership

Brazil Russia India China South Africa

Summits

Yekaterinburg 2009 Brasília
Brasília
2010 Sanya 2011 New Delhi 2012 Durban 2013 Fortaleza
Fortaleza
2014 Ufa 2015 Goa
Goa
2016 Xiamen 2017 Johannesburg 2018 Brazil
Brazil
2019

Bilateral relations

Brazil–China Brazil–India Brazil–Russia Brazil–South Africa China–India China–Russia China–South Africa India–Russia India–South Africa Russia–South Africa

Leaders

Temer Putin Modi Xi Ramaphosa

Related

New Development Bank BRICS
BRICS
Contingent Reserve Arrangement BRICS
BRICS
Leaders BRICS
BRICS
Cable BRICS
BRICS
Universities League

BRICS
BRICS
U-17 Football Cup

2016 Goa

v t e

Arab League

Arab League Lists Portal Arab world

Politics

Charter Council Flag Geography Headquarters History Military Joint Defence Council Parliament Arab Union

Membership

Members

Algeria Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen
Yemen
(until 2017)

Observers

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Suspended

Syria

Candidates

Chad South Sudan

Diplomacy

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Arab League
monitors in Syria Arab League– European Union
European Union
relations Foreign relations

Life

Demographics Economy

GDP Economic and Social Council

Institutions Sport Transport

Pan-Arabism Union of Arab National Olympic Committees

Arab Games

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 142985214 LCCN: n79128015 ISNI: 0000 0001 2197 2691 GND: 4008003-1 SELIBR: 141619 SUDOC: 02643895X BNF: cb11868637v (data) HDS:

.