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Military stalemate

Internal partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
according to the Dayton Accords. Over 101,000 dead, mainly Bosniaks. First case of genocide in Europe since World War II. Deployment of NATO-led forces to oversee the peace agreement. Establishment of the Office of the High Representative
Office of the High Representative
to oversee the civilian implementation of the peace agreement.

Belligerents

1992:  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia

1992: Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia  Serbian Krajina

1992–94:  Bosnia and Herzegovina Supported by:  Pakistan[1][2][3]a

1992–94:  Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia

1992–94: Republika Srpska  Serbian Krajina AP Western Bosnia
AP Western Bosnia
(from 1993) Supported by:  Yugoslavia

1994–95:  Bosnia and Herzegovinab  Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia   NATO
NATO
(bombing operations, 1995)

1994–95: Republika Srpska  Serbian Krajina AP Western Bosnia Supported by:  Yugoslavia

Commanders and leaders

Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Haris Silajdžić (Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović ( ARBiH
ARBiH
Chief of Staff 1992–1993) Rasim Delić ( ARBiH
ARBiH
Commander of the General Staff 1993–1995) Enver Hadžihasanović ( ARBiH
ARBiH
Chief of Staff 1992–1993)

Leighton W. Smith (Commander of AFSOUTH) …and others

Franjo Tuđman (President of Croatia) Gojko Šušak (Minister of Defence of Croatia) Janko Bobetko (HV Chief of Staff)

Mate Boban (President of Herzeg-Bosnia) Milivoj Petković (HVO Chief of Staff) Slobodan Praljak (HVO Chief of Staff) …and others

Slobodan Milošević (President of Serbia) Radovan Karadžić (President of Republika Srpska) Ratko Mladić (VRS Chief of Staff) Momčilo Perišić (VJ Chief of Staff)

Fikret Abdić (President of AP Western Bosnia) …and others

Strength

ARBiH: 110,000 troops 100,000 reserves 40 tanks 30 APCs[4] HVO: 45,000–50,000 troops[5] 75 tanks 50 APCs 200 artillery pieces[6] HV: 15,000 troops[7] VRS: 80,000 troops 300 tanks 700 APCs 800 artillery pieces[8] AP Western Bosnia: 4,000–5,000 troops[9]

Casualties and losses

30,521 soldiers killed 31,583 civilians killed[10][11] 6,000 soldiers killed 2,484 civilians killed[10][11] 21,173 soldiers killed 4,179 civilians killed[10][11]

additional 5,100 killed whose ethnicity and status are unstated[12]

a ^ From 1992 to 1994, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
was not supported by the majority of Bosnian Croats
Bosnian Croats
and Serbs. Consequently, it represented mainly the Bosnian Muslims.

b ^ Between 1994 and 1995, the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was supported and represented by both Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats. This was primarily because of the Washington Agreement.

v t e

Yugoslav Wars

Breakup of Yugoslavia Slovenia Croatia Bosnia and Herzegovina

Croatia-Bosnia

Kosovo Preševo Valley Macedonia

v t e

Bosnian War

Sarajevo Foča Zvornik Doboj Prijedor Siege of Srebrenica

Massacre

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
JNA column Tuzla
Tuzla
JNA column Bihać Jackal Vrbas '92 Corridor 92 Korićani Cliffs Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War Battle of Žepče Kravica Duša Štrpci Mostar Deny Flight Ahmići Trusina Sovići/Doljani Dobrinja Mokronoge Grabovica Neretva
Neretva
'93 Stupni Do massacre Križančevo Selo 1st Markale Banja Luka Tvigi 94 Washington Agreement Bøllebank Amanda Tiger Spider 2nd Kupres Winter '94 Leap 1 Orašje Tuzla Vrbanja Bridge Leap 2 Mrkonjić Grad Vozuća Miracle Summer '95 Storm 2nd Markale Deliberate Force Mistral 2 Sana Una Southern Move

The Bosnian War
Bosnian War
was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
between 1992 and 1995. Following a number of violent incidents in early 1992, the war is commonly viewed as having started on 6 April 1992. The war ended on 14 December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb
Serb
and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Herzeg-Bosnia, which were led and supplied by Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia, respectively.[13][14][15] The war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1991, the multi-ethnic Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
– which was inhabited by mainly Muslim Bosniaks
Bosniaks
(44 percent), as well as Orthodox Serbs
Serbs
(32.5 percent) and Catholic Croats (17 percent) – passed a referendum for independence on 29 February 1992. This was rejected by the political representatives of the Bosnian Serbs, who had boycotted the referendum. Following Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of independence (which gained international recognition), the Bosnian Serbs, led by Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
and supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
and the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA), mobilised their forces inside Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in order to secure ethnic Serb
Serb
territory, then war soon spread across the country, accompanied by ethnic cleansing. The conflict was initially between the Yugoslav Army
Yugoslav Army
units in Bosnia which later transformed into the Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
(VRS) on the one side, and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
(ARBiH) which was largely composed of Bosniaks, and the Croat forces in the Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO) on the other side. Tensions between Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
increased throughout late 1992, resulting in the Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
that escalated in early 1993.[16] The Bosnian War was characterised by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing and systematic mass rape, mainly perpetrated by Serb,[citation needed] and to a lesser extent, Croat[17] and Bosniak[18] forces. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
later became iconic of the conflict. The Serbs, although initially militarily superior due to the weapons and resources provided by the JNA, eventually lost momentum as the Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats
Croats
allied themselves against the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
in 1994 with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Washington agreement. Pakistan
Pakistan
defied the UN's ban on supply of arms and airlifted missiles to the Bosnian Muslims, while after the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
and Markale massacres, NATO
NATO
intervened in 1995 with Operation Deliberate Force
Operation Deliberate Force
targeting the positions of the Army of the Republika Srpska, which proved key in ending the war.[19][20][better source needed] The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in Paris
Paris
on 14 December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
and were finalised on 21 November 1995.[21] By early 2008, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
had convicted 45 Serbs, 12 Croats
Croats
and 4 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
of war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia.[22][needs update] The most recent estimates suggest that around 100,000 people were killed during the war.[23][24] Over 2.2 million people were displaced,[25] making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.[26][27] In addition, an estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak.[28][29]

Contents

1 Chronology 2 Background

2.1 Breakup of Yugoslavia 2.2 Beginning of the Yugoslav Wars 2.3 Final political crisis 2.4 March 1992 unrest

3 Factions

3.1 Bosnian 3.2 Croat 3.3 Serb 3.4 Paramilitary
Paramilitary
and volunteers

4 Prelude 5 Course of the war

5.1 1992

5.1.1 Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
relations in late 1992

5.2 1993

5.2.1 Outbreak of the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War

5.2.1.1 Central Bosnia 5.2.1.2 Herzegovina

5.2.2 June–July Offensives 5.2.3 May–June 1993 UN Safe Areas extension

5.3 1994

5.3.1 Markale massacre 5.3.2 Washington Agreement 5.3.3 UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
and NATO

5.4 1995

6 Casualties

6.1 RDC figures 6.2 ICTY
ICTY
figures 6.3 Other statistics

7 War crimes

7.1 Ethnic cleansing 7.2 Genocide 7.3 Rape 7.4 Prosecutions and legal proceedings 7.5 Reconciliation

8 Assessment

8.1 Civil war or a war of aggression

9 In popular culture

9.1 Film

9.1.1 Drama series 9.1.2 Documentaries

9.2 Books 9.3 Music 9.4 Games

10 See also 11 References 12 Sources

12.1 Books 12.2 Journals 12.3 Other sources

13 External links

13.1 Related films

Chronology[edit] There is debate over the start date of the Bosnian War. Clashes between Bosnian Muslims, Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
started in late February 1992, and "full-scale hostilities had broken out by 6 April",[7] the same day that the United States[30] and European Economic Community (EEC)[31] recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina.[32][33] Misha Glenny gives a date of 22 March, Tom Gallagher gives 2 April, while Mary Kaldor and Laura Silber and Allan Little give 6 April.[34] Philip Hammond, currently the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, claimed that the most common view is that the war started on 6 April 1992.[32] Serbs
Serbs
consider the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting, when a groom's father was killed on the second day of the Bosnian independence referendum, 1 March 1992, to have been the first victim of the war.[35] The Sijekovac killings of Serbs
Serbs
took place on 26 March and the Bijeljina massacre (of mostly Bosniaks) on 1–2 April. On April 5, when a huge crowd approached a barricade, a demonstrator was killed by Serb forces.[36] The war was brought to an end by the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, negotiated at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
between 1 and 21 November 1995 and signed in Paris
Paris
on 14 December 1995.[37] Background[edit] Breakup of Yugoslavia[edit]

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Main articles: Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and Timeline of Yugoslav breakup The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
came about as a result of the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. A crisis emerged in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
as a result of the weakening of the confederational system at the end of the Cold War. In Yugoslavia, the national communist party, the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, was losing its ideological potency. Meanwhile, ethnic nationalism experienced a renaissance in the 1980s, after violence broke out in Kosovo.[38] While the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to the federalisation and the decentralisation of the state.[39] Bosnia and Herzegovina, a former Ottoman province, has historically been a multi-ethnic state. According to the 1991 census, 44% of the population considered themselves Muslim (Bosniak), 32.5% Serb
Serb
and 17% Croat, with 6% describing themselves as Yugoslav.[40] In March 1989, the crisis in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
deepened after the adoption of amendments to the Serbian Constitution which allowed the government of Serbia
Serbia
to dominate the provinces of Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina.[41] Until then, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Vojvodina's decision-making had been independent and both autonomous provinces also had a vote at the Yugoslav federal level. Serbia, under newly elected President Slobodan Milošević, thus gained control over three out of eight votes in the Yugoslav presidency. With additional votes from Montenegro, Serbia
Serbia
was thus able to heavily influence the decisions of the federal government. This situation led to objections from the other republics and calls for the reform of the Yugoslav Federation. At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, on 20 January 1990, the delegations of the republics could not agree on the main issues facing the Yugoslav federation. As a result, the Slovene and Croatian delegates left the Congress. The Slovene delegation, headed by Milan Kučan
Milan Kučan
demanded democratic changes and a looser federation, while the Serbian delegation, headed by Milošević, opposed it.[citation needed] In the first multi-party election in Bosnia and Herzegovina, in November 1990, votes were cast largely according to ethnicity, leading to the success of the Bosniak
Bosniak
Party of Democratic Action, the Serbian Democratic Party and the Croatian Democratic Union.[42] Parties divided power along ethnic lines so that the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
was a Bosniak, the president of the Parliament was a Serb
Serb
and the prime minister a Croat. Separatist nationalist parties attained power in other republics, including Croatia
Croatia
and Slovenia.[43] Beginning of the Yugoslav Wars[edit]

Ethnic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 1991    Bosniaks
Bosniaks
   Serbs
Serbs
  Croats

Serbian Autonomous Oblasts in November 1991

Numerous meetings were held in early 1991 between the leaders of the six Yugoslav republics and the two autonomous regions to discuss the ongoing crisis in Yugoslavia.[44] The Serbian leadership favoured a federal solution, whereas the Croatian and Slovenian leadership favoured an alliance of sovereign states. Izetbegović proposed an asymmetrical federation in February, where Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
would maintain loose ties with the 4 remaining republics. Shortly after that, he changed his position and opted for a sovereign Bosnia as a prerequisite for such a federation.[45] On 25 March, Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
and Serbian President Slobodan Milošević held a meeting in Karađorđevo.[46] The meeting became controversial in later months due to claims by some Yugoslav politicians that the two presidents agreed to the partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[47] On 6 June, Izetbegović and Macedonian president Kiro Gligorov proposed a weak confederation between Croatia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and a federation of the other four republics, which was rejected by Milošević.[48] On 25 June 1991, both Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
declared independence, which led to a short armed conflict in Slovenia
Slovenia
called the Ten-Day War, and an all-out war in Croatia
Croatia
in the Croatian War of Independence in areas with a substantial ethnic Serb
Serb
population. In the second half of 1991, the war was intensifying in Croatia. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) also attacked Croatia
Croatia
from Bosnia and Herzegovina.[49] In July 1991, representatives of the Serb
Serb
Democratic Party (SDS), including SDS president Radovan Karadžić, and Muhamed Filipović and Adil Zulfikarpašić from the Muslim Bosniak Organisation (MBO), drafted an agreement known as the Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement which would leave SR Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in a state union with SR Serbia
Serbia
and SR Montenegro. The agreement was denounced by Croat political parties. Although initially welcoming the initiative, Izetbegović later dismissed the agreement.[50][51] Between September and November 1991, the SDS organised the creation of six " Serb
Serb
Autonomous Regions" (SAOs).[52] This was in response to the Bosniaks' steps towards seceding from Yugoslavia.[53] Similar steps were taken by the Bosnian Croats.[53] In September 1991, the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
hosted a conference[which?] in an attempt to prevent Bosnia and Herzegovina sliding into war. On 25 September 1991, the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council passed Resolution 713, imposing an arms embargo on all of the former Yugoslav territories. The embargo hurt the Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
the most because the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
inherited the lion's share of the Yugoslav People Army's arsenal and the Croatian Army could smuggle weapons through its coast. Over 55% of the armories and barracks of the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
were located in Bosnia, owing to its mountainous terrain in anticipation of a guerrilla war had Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
been invaded, but many of those factories (such as the UNIS PRETIS factory in Vogošća) were under Serb
Serb
control, and others were inoperable due to a lack of electricity and raw materials.[citation needed] In September 1991, Croatian National Guard
Croatian National Guard
(ZNG) organised armed incursions across the Croatian border into Bosnia. ZNG opened mortar fire on Bosanska Dubica on 13 September 1991, and raided Bosanski Brod on 15 September 1991.[54][55][unreliable source?] On 19 September 1991, the JNA moved extra troops to the area around the city of Mostar, which was publicly protested by the local government. On 20 September 1991, the JNA transferred troops to the front at Vukovar via the Višegrad
Višegrad
region of northeastern Bosnia. In response, local Croats and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
set up barricades and machine-gun posts. They halted a column of 60 JNA tanks but were dispersed by force the following day. More than 1,000 people had to flee the area. This action, nearly seven months before the start of the Bosnian War, caused the first casualties of the Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
in Bosnia.[56] Five days later, the JNA attacked the Croat village of Ravno in eastern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
on their way to attack Dubrovnik, and in the first days of October it leveled it, killing eight Croat civilians. The objectives of the nationalists in Croatia
Croatia
were shared by Croat nationalists in Bosnia and, especially, western Herzegovina.[57] The ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), organised and controlled the branch of the party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By the latter part of 1991, the more extreme elements of the party, under the leadership of Mate Boban, Dario Kordić, Jadranko Prlić, Ignac Koštroman, as well as local leaders such as Anto Valenta,[57] and with the support of Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
and Gojko Šušak, had taken effective control of the party. This coincided with the peak of the Croatian War of Independence. On 6 October 1991, Bosnian president Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
gave a televised proclamation of neutrality that included the statement 'Remember, this is not our war. Let those who want it have it. We do not want that war'.[58] In the meantime, Izetbegović made the following statement before the Bosnian parliament on October 14 with regard to the JNA: 'Do not do anything against the Army. (…) the presence of the Army is a stabilizing factor to us, and we need that Army (…). Until now we did not have problems with the Army, and we will not have problems later.'[59] Throughout 1990, the RAM Plan was developed by SDB and a group of selected Serb
Serb
officers of the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) with the purpose of organizing Serbs
Serbs
outside Serbia, consolidating control of the fledgling SDS parties and the prepositioning of arms and ammunition.[60] The plan was meant to prepare the framework for a third Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in which all Serbs
Serbs
with their territories would live together in the same state.[61] Journalist Giuseppe Zaccaria summarised a meeting of Serb
Serb
army officers in Belgrade in 1992, reporting that they had adopted an explicit policy to target women and children as the most vulnerable portion of the Muslim religious and social structure.[62] The RAM plan is thought to have been drawn up in the 1980s.[63] Its existence was leaked by Ante Marković, the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia, an ethnic Croat. The existence and possible implementation of it alarmed the Bosnian government.[64][61] Final political crisis[edit] On 15 October 1991, the parliament of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
passed a "Memorandum on the Sovereignty of Bosnia-Herzegovina" by a simple majority.[65][66] The Memorandum was hotly contested by the Bosnian Serb
Serb
members of parliament, arguing that Amendment LXX of the Constitution required procedural safeguards and a two-thirds majority for such issues. The Memorandum was debated anyway, leading to a boycott of the parliament by the Bosnian Serbs, and during the boycott the legislation was passed.[67] The Serb political representatives proclaimed the Assembly of the Serb
Serb
People of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on 24 October 1991, declaring that the Serb people wished to remain in Yugoslavia.[53] The SDA, supported by Europe and the U.S., was determined to pursue independence.[68] The SDS made it clear that if independence was declared, Serbs
Serbs
would secede as it was their right to exercise self-determination.[68] The Croat leadership organised autonomous communities in areas with a Croat majority. On 12 November 1991, the Croatian Community of Bosnian Posavina
Posavina
was established in Bosanski Brod. It covered eight municipalities in northern Bosnia.[69] On 18 November 1991, the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
was established in Mostar. Mate Boban was chosen as its president.[70] Its founding document said: "The Community will respect the democratically elected government of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
for as long as exists the state independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in relation to the former, or any other, Yugoslavia".[71] Jović's memoirs show that Milošević had on 5 December 1991 ordered for the JNA troops in BiH to be reorganised, its non-Bosnian personnel to be withdrawn, in case recognition would result in the perceival of the JNA as a foreign force; left would be Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
to form the nucleus of a Bosnian Serb
Serb
army.[72] Accordingly, by the end of the month the JNA in BiH had only 10–15% from outside the republic.[72] Silber and Little note that Milošević secretly ordered all Bosnian-born JNA soldiers to be transferred to BiH.[72] Jović's memoirs suggest that Milošević planned for an attack on Bosnia well in advance.[72] On 9 January 1992, the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
proclaimed the "Republic of the Serbian People in Bosnia-Herzegovina" (SR BiH, later Republika Srpska), but did not officially declare independence.[53] The Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia in its 11 January 1992 Opinion No. 4 on Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
stated that the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
should not be recognised because the country had not yet held a referendum on independence.[73] On 25 January 1992, an hour after the session of parliament was adjourned, the parliament called for a referendum on independence on 29 February and 1 March.[65] The debate had ended after Serb
Serb
deputies withdrew after the majority Bosniak–Croat delegates turned down a motion that the referendum question be placed before the not yet established Council of National Equality.[74] The referendum proposal was adopted in the form as proposed by Muslim deputies, in the absence of SDS members.[74] As Burg and Shoup notes, 'the decision placed the Bosnian government and the Serbs
Serbs
on a collision course'.[74] The upcoming referendum made international concern in February.[75] The Croatian War would result in United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 743 on 21 February 1992, which created the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).

Carrington-Cutillero plan. Serbian cantons shown in red, Bosniak cantons shown in green, Croat cantons shown in blue.

During the talks in Lisbon on 21–22 February a peace plan was presented by EC mediator José Cutileiro, which proposed independent state of Bosnia to be divided into three constituent units. Agreement was denounced by the Bosniak
Bosniak
leadership on 25 February.[75] On 28 February 1992, the Constitution of the SR BiH declared that the territory of that Republic included "the territories of the Serbian Autonomous Regions and Districts and of other Serbian ethnic entities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the regions in which the Serbian people remained in the minority due to the genocide conducted against it in World War II", and it was declared to be a part of Yugoslavia.[76] The Bosnian Serb
Serb
assembly members advised Serbs
Serbs
to boycott the referendums held on 29 February and 1 March 1992. The turnout to the referendums was reported as 63.7%, with 92.7% of voters voting in favour of independence (implying that Bosnian Serbs, which made up approximately 34% of the population, largely boycotted the referendum).[77] The Serb
Serb
political leadership used the referenda as a pretext to set up roadblocks in protest. Independence
Independence
was formally declared by the Bosnian parliament on 3 March 1992.[30] March 1992 unrest[edit] During the referendum on 1 March, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was quiet except for a shooting on a Serbian wedding.[78] The brandishing of Serbian flags in the Baščaršija
Baščaršija
was seen by Muslims as a deliberate provocation on the day of the referendum which was supported by most Bosnian Croats and Muslims but boycotted by most of the Bosnian Serbs.[79] Nikola Gardović, the bridegroom's father was killed while a Serbian Orthodox priest was wounded. Witnesses identified the killer as Ramiz Delalić, also known as "Celo", a minor gangster who had become an increasingly brazen criminal since the fall of communism and was also stated to have been a member of the Bosniak
Bosniak
paramilitary group "Green Berets". Arrest warrants were issued against him and another suspected assailant. SDS denounced the killing and claimed that the failure to arrest him was due to SDA or Bosnian government complicity.[80][81] A SDS spokesman stated it was an evidence that Serbs
Serbs
were in mortal danger and would be further so in independent Bosnia which was rejected by Sefer Halilović, founder of Patriotic League, who stated that it wasn't a wedding but a provocation and accused the wedding guests of being SDS activists. Barricades appeared in the following early morning at key transit points across the city and were manned by armed and masked SDS supporters.[82] On 18 March 1992, all three sides signed the Lisbon Agreement: Alija Izetbegović for the Bosniaks, Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
for the Serbs
Serbs
and Mate Boban
Mate Boban
for the Croats. However, on 28 March 1992, Izetbegović, after meeting with the then-US ambassador to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Warren Zimmermann in Sarajevo, withdrew his signature and declared his opposition to any type of ethnic division of Bosnia.

What was said and by whom remains unclear. Zimmerman denies that he told Izetbegovic that if he withdrew his signature, the United States would grant recognition to Bosnia as an independent state. What is indisputable is that Izetbegovic, that same day, withdrew his signature and renounced the agreement.[83]

In late March 1992, there was fighting between Serbs
Serbs
and combined Croat and Bosniak
Bosniak
forces in and near Bosanski Brod,[84] resulting in the killing of Serb
Serb
villagers in Sijekovac.[85] Serb
Serb
paramilitaries committed the Bijeljina massacre, most of the victims of which were Bosniaks, on 1–2 April 1992.[86] Factions[edit] There were three factions in the Bosnian War:

Bosnian (or Bosniak), loyal to the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croat, loyal to the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
and Croatia. Serb
Serb
(or Yugoslav), loyal to the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and FR Yugoslavia.

The three ethnic groups predominantly supported their respective ethnic or national faction. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
mainly the ARBiH, Croats
Croats
the HVO, Serbs
Serbs
the VRS. There were foreign volunteers in each faction. Bosnian[edit]

Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
during his visit to the United States
United States
in 1997.

The Bosniaks
Bosniaks
mainly organised into the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(Armija Republike Bosne i Hercegovine, ARBiH) as the armed forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
were divided into five Corps. 1st Corps operated in the region of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Goražde
Goražde
while the stronger 5th Corps was positioned in the western Bosanska Krajina pocket, which cooperated with HVO units in and around Bihać. The Bosnian government forces were poorly equipped and unprepared for war.[according to whom?][87] Sefer Halilović, Chief of Staff of the Bosnian Territorial Defense, claimed in June 1992 that his forces were 70% Muslim, 18% Croat and 12% Serb.[88] The percentage of Serb
Serb
and Croat soldiers in the Bosnian Army was particularly high in Sarajevo, Mostar
Mostar
and Tuzla.[89] The deputy commander of the Bosnian Army's Headquarters, was general Jovan Divjak, the highest-ranking ethnic Serb
Serb
in the Bosnian Army. General Stjepan Šiber, an ethnic Croat was the second deputy commander. Izetbegović also appointed colonel Blaž Kraljević, commander of the Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
in Herzegovina, to be a member of Bosnian Army's Headquarters, seven days before Kraljević's assassination, in order to assemble a multi-ethnic pro-Bosnian defense front.[90] This diversity was to reduce over the course of the war.[88][91] The Bosnian government lobbied to have the arms embargo lifted, but that was opposed by the United Kingdom, France and Russia. U.S. proposals to pursue this policy were known as lift and strike. The US congress passed two resolutions calling for the embargo to be lifted but both were vetoed by President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
for fear of creating a rift between the US and the aforementioned countries. Nonetheless, the United States
United States
used both "black" C-130 transports and back channels, including Islamist
Islamist
groups, to smuggle weapons to Bosnian-Muslim forces, as well as allowed Iranian-supplied arms to transit through Croatia
Croatia
to Bosnia.[92][93][94] However, in light of widespread NATO opposition to American (and possibly Turkish) endeavors in coordinating the "black flights of Tuzla", the United Kingdom and Norway expressed disapproval of these measures and their counterproductive effects on NATO
NATO
enforcement of the arms embargo.[95] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
also played an active role during 1992–1995 and secretly supplied the Muslim fighters with arms, ammunition and guided anti tank missiles to give them a fighting chance against the Serbs. Pakistan
Pakistan
defied the UN's ban on supply of arms to Bosnian Muslims and General Javed Nasir later claimed that Pakistan's intelligence agency, ISI, had airlifted anti-tank guided missiles to Bosnia which ultimately turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs
Serbs
to lift the siege.[96][97][98] In his book The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President from 2009, historian and author Taylor Branch, a friend of U.S. President Bill Clinton, made public more than 70 recorded sessions with the president during his presidency from 1993 through 2001.[99][100] According to a session taped on 14 October 1993, it is stated that:

Clinton said U.S. allies in Europe blocked proposals to adjust or remove the embargo. They justified their opposition on plausible humanitarian grounds, arguing that more arms would only fuel the bloodshed, but privately, said the president, key allies objected that an independent Bosnia would be "unnatural" as the only Muslim nation in Europe. He said they favored the embargo precisely because it locked in Bosnia's disadvantage. [..] When I expressed shock at such cynicism, reminiscent of the blind-eye diplomacy regarding the plight of Europe's Jews during World War II, President Clinton only shrugged. He said President François Mitterrand
François Mitterrand
of France had been especially blunt in saying that Bosnia did not belong, and that British officials also spoke of a painful but realistic restoration of Christian Europe. Against Britain and France, he said, German chancellor Helmut Kohl among others had supported moves to reconsider the United Nations
United Nations
arms embargo, failing in part because Germany did not hold a seat on the U.N. Security Council. — Taylor Branch, The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President[101]

Croat[edit] The Croats
Croats
started organizing their military forces in late 1991. On 8 April 1992, the Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(Hrvatsko vijeće obrane, HVO) was founded as the "supreme body of Croatian defence in Herzeg-Bosnia".[102] The HVO was organised in four Operative Zones with headquarters in Mostar, Tomislavgrad, Vitez
Vitez
and Orašje.[103] In February 1993, the HVO Main Staff estimated the strength of the HVO at 34,080 officers and men.[104] Its armaments included around 50 main battle tanks, mainly T-34 and T-55, and 500 various artillery weapons.[105] At the beginning of the war, the Croatian government helped arm both the Croat and Bosniak
Bosniak
forces.[106] Logistics centres were established in Zagreb and Rijeka for the recruitment of soldiers for the ARBiH.[107] The Croatian National Guard
Croatian National Guard
(Zbor Narodne Garde, ZNG), later renamed officially to Croatian Army
Croatian Army
(Hrvatska vojska, HV) was engaged in Bosnian Posavina, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Western Bosnia against the Serb
Serb
forces.[108] During the Croat- Bosniak
Bosniak
conflict, the Croatian government provided arms for the HVO and organised the sending of units of volunteers, with origins from Bosnia and Herzegovina, to the HVO.[109] The Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS), the paramilitary wing of the Croatian Party of Rights, fought against the Serb
Serb
forces together with the HVO and ARBiH. The HOS was disbanded shortly after the death of their commander Blaž Kraljević
Blaž Kraljević
and incorporated into the HVO and ARBiH.[110] Serb[edit] The Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
(Vojska Republike Srpske, VRS) was established on 12 May 1992. It was loyal to Republika Srpska, a Serb breakaway state that sought unification with FR Yugoslavia. Serbia
Serbia
provided logistical support, money and supplies to the VRS.[111] Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
had made up a substantial part of the JNA officer corps.[111] Milošević relied on the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
to win the war themselves.[111] Most of the command chain, weaponry, and higher-ranked military personnel, including General Ratko Mladić, were JNA. Paramilitary
Paramilitary
and volunteers[edit] See also: Foreign fighters in the Bosnian War Various paramilitary units were operated during the Bosnian War: the Serb
Serb
"White Eagles" (Beli Orlovi), "Serbian Volunteer Guard" (Srpska Dobrovoljačka Garda), Bosnians
Bosnians
"Patriotic League" (Patriotska Liga) and "Green Berets" (Zelene Beretke), and Croat "Croatian Defence Forces" (Hrvatske Obrambene Snage), etc. The Serb
Serb
and Croat paramilitaries involved volunteers from Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia, and were supported by nationalist political parties in those countries.[citation needed] The Serbs
Serbs
received support from Christian Slavic fighters from various countries in Eastern Europe.[112][113] Greek volunteers of the Greek Volunteer Guard were reported to have taken part in the Srebrenica Massacre, with the Greek flag being hoisted in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
when the town fell to the Serbs.[114] Some individuals from other European countries, volunteered to fight for the Croat side, including Neo-Nazis, such as Jackie Arklöv, who was charged with war crimes upon his return to Sweden. Later he confessed he committed war crimes on Bosnian Muslim civilians in the Heliodrom and Dretelj camps as a member of Croatian forces.[115] The Bosnians
Bosnians
received support from Muslim groups. Pakistan
Pakistan
supported Bosnia while providing technical and military support.[116][117] Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence
Inter-Services Intelligence
(ISI) allegedly ran an active military intelligence program during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
which started in 1992 lasting until 1995. Executed and supervised by Pakistani General Javed Nasir, the program provided logistics and ammunition supplies to various groups of Bosnian mujahideen
Bosnian mujahideen
during the war. The ISI Bosnian contingent was organised with financial assistance provided by Saudi Arabia, according to the British historian Mark Curtis.[118] According to Washington Post, Saudi Arabia provided $300 million in weapons to government forces in Bosnia with the knowledge and tacit cooperation of the United States, a claim denied by US officials.[119] Foreign Muslim fighters also joined the ranks of the Bosnian Muslims, including from the Lebanese guerrilla organisation Hezbollah.[120] These were reserved for duties requiring close combat engagements, simply because their skill and experience was too valuable to be wasted in other less complicated duties.[citation needed] The war attracted foreign fighters and mercenaries from various countries. Volunteers came to fight for a variety of reasons including religious or ethnic loyalties and in some cases for money. As a general rule, Bosniaks
Bosniaks
received support from Islamic countries, Serbs
Serbs
from Eastern Orthodox countries, and Croats
Croats
from Catholic countries. The presence of foreign fighters is well documented, however none of these groups comprised more than 5 percent of any of the respective armies' total manpower strength. Prelude[edit] During the war in Croatia, arms had been pouring into the country. The JNA armed Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
and the Croatian Defence Force the Herzegovinian Croats.[121] The Bosnian Muslim Green Berets and Patriotic League were established already in fall 1991, and drew up a defense plan in February 1992.[121] It was estimated that 250–300,000 Bosnians
Bosnians
were armed, and that some 10,000 were fighting in Croatia.[122] By March 1992, perhaps three quarters of the country were claimed by Serb
Serb
and Croat nationalists.[122] On 4 April 1992, when Izetbegović ordered all reservists and police in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to mobilise, and SDS called for evacuation of the city's Serbs, came the 'definite rupture between the Bosnian government and Serbs'.[123] Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
received international recognition on 6 April 1992.[30] The most common view is that the war started that day.[124] Course of the war[edit] 1992[edit] Main articles: Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing, Operation Vrbas '92, Operation Corridor 92, Siege of Sarajevo, and Bijeljina massacre

A victim of a mortar attack delivered to a Sarajevo
Sarajevo
hospital in 1992.

The war in Bosnia escalated in April.[125] On 3 April, the Battle of Kupres began between the JNA and a combined HV-HVO force that ended in a JNA victory.[126] On 6 April Serb
Serb
forces began shelling Sarajevo, and in the next two days crossed the Drina
Drina
from Serbia
Serbia
proper and besieged Muslim-majority Zvornik, Višegrad
Višegrad
and Foča.[123] All of Bosnia was engulfed in war by mid-April.[123] On 23 April, the JNA evacuated its personnel by helicopters from the barracks in Čapljina,[127] which was under blockade since 4 March.[128] There were some efforts to halt violence.[129] On 27 April, the Bosnian government ordered the JNA to be put under civilian control or expelled, which was followed by a series of conflicts in early May between the two.[130] Prijedor
Prijedor
was taken over by Serbs
Serbs
on 30 April.[citation needed] On 2 May, the Green Berets and local gang members fought back a disorganised Serb
Serb
attack aimed at cutting Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in two.[130] On May 3, Izetbegović was kidnapped at the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
airport by JNA officers, and used to gain safe passage of JNA troops from down-town Sarajevo.[130] However, Muslim forces dishonoured the agreement and ambushed the leaving JNA convoy, which embittered all sides.[130] A cease-fire and agreement on evacuation of the JNA was signed on 18 May, while on 20 May the Bosnian presidency declared the JNA an occupation force.[130]

Our optimum is a Greater Serbia, and if not that, then a Federal Yugoslavia.[131]

— Radovan Karadžić, 13 February 1992

The Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
was newly established, put under the command of General Ratko Mladić, in a new phase of the war.[130] Shellings on Sarajevo
Sarajevo
on 24, 26, 28 and 29 May were attributed to Mladić by Boutros-Ghali.[132] Civilian casualties of a 27 May shelling of the city led to Western intervention, in the form of sanctions imposed on 30 May through UNSCR 757.[132] That same day Bosnian forces attacked the JNA barracks in the city, which was followed by heavy shelling.[132] On 5 and 6 June the last JNA personnel left the city during heavy street fighting and shelling.[132] The 20 June cease-fire, executed in order for UN takeover of the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
airport for humanitarian flights, was broken as both sides battled for control of the territory between the city and airport.[132] The airport crisis led to Boutros-Ghali's ultimatum on 26 June, that the Serbs
Serbs
stop attacks on the city, allow the UN to take control of the airport, and place their heavy weapons under UN supervision.[132] Meanwhile, media reported that Bush considered the use of force in Bosnia.[132] World public opinion was 'decisively and permanently against the Serbs' following media reports on the sniping and shelling of Sarajevo.[133]

Goran Jelisić
Goran Jelisić
shooting at a Bosnian Muslim victim in Brčko
Brčko
in 1992

Outside of Sarajevo, the combatants' successes varied greatly during this year.[133] Serbs
Serbs
had seized Muslim-majority cities along the Drina
Drina
and Sava rivers and expelled their Muslim population, within months.[133] A joint Muslim–HVO offensive in May, having taken advantage of the confusion following JNA withdrawal, reversed Serb advances into Posavina
Posavina
and central Bosnia.[133] The offensive continued southwards, besieging Doboj, thereby cutting of Serb
Serb
forces in Bosanska Krajina
Bosanska Krajina
from Semberija
Semberija
and Serbia.[133] In mid-May, Srebrenica
Srebrenica
was retaken by Muslim forces under Naser Orić.[133] Serb forces had a costly defeat in eastern Bosnia in May, when according to Serbian accounts Avdo Palić's force ambushed near Srebrenica, killing 400.[133] From May to August, Goražde
Goražde
was besieged by the VRS, until they were pushed out by the ARBiH. In April 1992, Croatian Defence Council (HVO) entered the town of Orašje and, according to Croatian sources, began a mass campaign of harassment against local Serb civilians, including torture, rape and murder.[134][135] On 15 May 1992, a JNA column was ambushed in Tuzla. 92nd Motorised JNA Brigade (stationed in "Husinska buna" barracks in Tuzla) received orders to leave the city of Tuzla
Tuzla
and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and to enter Serbia. An agreement was made with the Bosnian government that JNA units will be allowed until 19 May to leave Bosnia peacefully. Despite the agreement, the convoy was attacked in Tuzla's Brčanska Malta district with rifles and rocket launchers; mines were also placed along its route. 52 JNA soldiers were killed and over 40 were wounded, most of them ethnic Serbs.[136][137] The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
was admitted as a member State of the United Nations
United Nations
on 22 May 1992.[138] From May to December 1992, the Bosnian Ministry of the Interior
Bosnian Ministry of the Interior
(BiH MUP), Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO) and later the Bosnian Territorial Defence Forces (TO RBiH) operated the Čelebići prison camp. It was used to detain 700 Bosnian Serb
Serb
prisoners of war arrested during military operations that were intended to de-block routes to Sarajevo and Mostar
Mostar
in May 1992 that had earlier been blocked by Serb
Serb
forces. Of these 700 prisoners, 13 died while in captivity.[139] Detainees at the camp were subjected to torture, sexual assaults, beatings and otherwise cruel and inhuman treatment. Certain prisoners were shot and killed or beaten to death.[140][141] By June 1992, the number of refugees and internally displaced persons had reached 2.6 million.[142]

Model of the Čelebići camp
Čelebići camp
near Konjic. Presented as evidence in the Mucić et al. trial.

Map of Operation Corridor 92, fought between the VRS and the HV-HVO

On 6 May 1992, Mate Boban
Mate Boban
met with Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
in Graz, Austria, where they reached an agreement for a ceasefire and discussed the details of the demarcation between a Croat and Serb
Serb
territorial unit in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[143] However, the ceasefire was broken on the following day when the JNA and Bosnian Serb
Serb
forces mounted an attack on Croat-held positions in Mostar.[144] By September 1992, Croatia
Croatia
had accepted 335,985 refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina, mostly Bosniak
Bosniak
civilians (excluding men of drafting age).[145] The large number of refugees significantly strained the Croatian economy and infrastructure.[146] Then-U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter Galbraith, tried to put the number of Muslim refugees in Croatia
Croatia
into a proper perspective in an interview on 8 November 1993. He said the situation would be the equivalent of the United States taking in 30,000,000 refugees.[147] The number of Bosnian refugees in Croatia
Croatia
was at the time surpassed only by the number of the internally displaced persons within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
itself, at 588,000.[145] Serbia
Serbia
took in 252,130 refugees from Bosnia, while other former Yugoslav republics received a total of 148,657 people.[145] In June 1992, the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
started Operation Vrbas 92
Operation Vrbas 92
and Operation Corridor 92. The reported deaths of twelve newborn babies in Banja Luka
Banja Luka
hospital due to a shortage of bottled oxygen for incubators was cited as an immediate cause for the action,[148] but the veracity of these deaths has since been questioned. Borisav Jović, a contemporary high-ranking Serbian official and member of the Yugoslav Presidency, has claimed that the report was just wartime propaganda, stating that Banja Luka
Banja Luka
had two bottled oxygen production plants in its immediate vicinity and was virtually self-reliant in that respect.[149] Operation Corridor began on 14 June 1992, when the 16th Krajina Motorised Brigade of the VRS, aided by a VRS tank company from Doboj, began the offensive near Derventa. The operation was a complete success for the VRS. The Croatian Army
Croatian Army
(HV) lost, according to Croatian sources, around 12.000 men and it was pushed out from the cities of Brčko, Bosanski Brod
Bosanski Brod
and Derventa
Derventa
back into Croatia.[150] The Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO) was pushed out of Odžak
Odžak
but still controlled Orašje. ARBiH
ARBiH
suffered heavy losses. On 21 June 1992, Bosniak
Bosniak
forces entered the Bosnian Serb
Serb
village of Ratkovići near Srebrenica
Srebrenica
and murdered 24 Serb
Serb
civilians.[151] In June 1992, the UNPROFOR, originally deployed in Croatia, had its mandate extended into Bosnia and Herzegovina, initially to protect the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
International Airport. In September, the role of UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
was expanded to protect humanitarian aid and assist relief delivery in the whole Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as to help protect civilian refugees when required by the Red Cross.[citation needed] On 4 August 1992, the IV Knight Motorised Brigade of the ARBiH attempted to break through the circle surrounding Sarajevo, and a fierce battle ensued between the ARBiH
ARBiH
and the VRS in and around the damaged FAMOS factory in the suburb of Hrasnica (bs). The VRS repelled the attack, but failed to take Hrasnica in a decisive counterattack.[152] On 12 August 1992, the name of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was changed to Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS).[76][153] By November 1992, 400 square miles of eastern Bosnia was under Muslim control.[133] Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
relations in late 1992[edit] The Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
alliance, formed at the beginning of the war, was often not harmonious.[5] The existence of two parallel commands caused problems in coordinating the two armies against the VRS.[154] An attempt to create a joint HVO and TO military headquarters in mid-April failed.[155] On 21 July 1992, the Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation was signed by Tuđman and Izetbegović, establishing a military cooperation between the two armies.[156] At a session held on 6 August, the Bosnian Presidency accepted HVO as an integral part of the Bosnian armed forces.[157] Despite these attempts, tensions steadily increased throughout the 2nd half of 1992.[155] An armed conflict occurred in Busovača
Busovača
in early May and another one on 13 June. On 19 June, a conflict between the units of the TO on one side, and HVO and HOS units on the other side broke out in Novi Travnik. Incidents were also recorded in Konjic
Konjic
in July, and in Kiseljak and the Croat settlement of Stup in Sarajevo during August.[158] On 14 September, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
declared the proclamation of Herzeg-Bosnia unconstitutional.[159] On 18 October, a dispute over a gas station near Novi Travnik
Novi Travnik
that was shared by both armies escalated into an armed one in the town center. The situation worsened after HVO Commander Ivica Stojak was killed near Travnik on 20 October.[160] On the same day, fighting escalated on an ARBiH
ARBiH
roadblock set on the main road through the Lašva Valley. Spontaneous clashes spread throughout the region and resulted in almost 50 casualties until a ceasefire was negotiated by the UNPROFOR on 21 October.[161] On 23 October, a major battle between the ARBiH and the HVO started in the town of Prozor in northern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and resulted in an HVO victory.[162] On 29 October, the VRS captured Jajce. The town was defended by both the HVO and the ARBiH, but the lack of cooperation, as well as an advantage in troop size and firepower for the VRS, led to the fall of the town.[163][164] Croat refugees from Jajce
Jajce
fled to Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia, while around 20,000 Bosniak
Bosniak
refugees settled in Travnik, Novi Travnik, Vitez, Busovača, and villages near Zenica.[164] Despite the October confrontations, and with each side blaming the other for the fall of Jajce, there were no large-scale clashes and a general military alliance was still in effect.[165] Tuđman and Izetbegović met in Zagreb on 1 November 1992 and agreed to establish a Joint Command of HVO and ARBiH.[166] 1993[edit] Main articles: Operation Neretva
Neretva
'93, Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia, Siege of Mostar, and Operation Deny Flight

First version of the Vance-Owen plan, which would have established 10 provinces    Bosniak
Bosniak
province   Croat province    Serb
Serb
province    Sarajevo
Sarajevo
district   Present-day administrative borders

On 7 January 1993, Orthodox Christmas Day, 8th Operational Unit Srebrenica, a unit of the ARBiH
ARBiH
under the command of Naser Orić, attacked the village of Kravica near Bratunac. 46 Serbs
Serbs
died in the attack: 35 soldiers and 11 civilians.[167][168][169] The attack on a holiday was intentional, as the Serbs
Serbs
were unprepared. The Bosniak forces used the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
safe zone (where no military was allowed) to carry out attacks on Serb
Serb
villages including Kravica, and then flee back into the safe zone before the VRS could catch them. 119 Serb civilians and 424 Serb
Serb
soldiers died in Bratunac
Bratunac
during the war.[169] Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
claimed that the ARBiH
ARBiH
forces torched Serb
Serb
homes and massacred civilians. However, this could not be independently verified during the ICTY
ICTY
trials, which concluded that many homes were already previously destroyed and that the siege of Srebrenica
Srebrenica
caused hunger, forcing Bosniaks
Bosniaks
to attack nearby Serb
Serb
villages to acquire food and weapons to survive. In 2006, Orić was found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
(ICTY) on the charges of not preventing murder of Serbs, but was subsequently acquitted of all charges on appeal.[170] On 16 January 1993, soldiers of the ARBiH
ARBiH
attacked the Bosnian Serb village of Skelani, near Srebrenica.[171]</ref>[172] 69 people were killed, 185 were wounded.[171][172] Among the victims were 6 children.[173][172] On 8 January 1993, the Serbs
Serbs
killed the deputy prime minister of the RBiH Hakija Turajlić
Hakija Turajlić
after stopping the UN convoy taking him from the airport.[174] Numerous peace plans were proposed by the UN, the United States, and the European Community (EC), but with little impact on the war. The most notable proposal was the Vance-Owen Peace Plan, revealed in January 1993.[175] The plan was presented by the UN Special
Special
Envoy Cyrus Vance
Cyrus Vance
and EC representative David Owen. It envisioned Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
as a decentralised state with ten autonomous provinces.[176] On 22 February 1993, the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council passed Resolution 808 that decided "that an international tribunal shall be established for the prosecution of persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law".[177] On 15–16 May, the Vance-Owen peace plan was rejected on a referendum.[178] The peace plan was viewed by some as one of the factors leading to the escalation of the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
conflict in central Bosnia.[179] On 25 May 1993 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY) was formally established by Resolution 827 of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council.[177] On 31 March 1993, the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 816, calling on member states to enforce a no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.[180] On 12 April 1993, NATO
NATO
commenced Operation Deny Flight
Operation Deny Flight
to enforce this no-fly zone.[181] Outbreak of the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War[edit] Main article: Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War

Bodies of people killed in April 1993 around Vitez.

Novi Travnik
Novi Travnik
in 1993, during the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War

Much of 1993 was dominated by the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War.[166] In early January, the HVO and the ARBiH
ARBiH
clashed in Gornji Vakuf
Gornji Vakuf
in central Bosnia. A temporary ceasefire was reached after several days of fighting with UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
mediation.[182] The war spread from Gornji Vakuf into the area of Busovača
Busovača
in the second half of January.[183] Busovača
Busovača
was the main intersection point of the lines of communication in the Lašva Valley. By 26 January, the ARBiH
ARBiH
seized control of several villages in the area, including Kaćuni and Bilalovac on the Busovača–Kiseljak road, thus isolating Kiseljak from Busovača. In the Kiseljak area, the ARBiH
ARBiH
secured the villages northeast of the town of Kiseljak, but most of the municipality and the town itself remained in HVO control.[184] On 26 January, six POWs and a Serb
Serb
civilian were killed by the ARBiH
ARBiH
in the village of Dusina, north of Busovača.[185] The fighting in Busovača
Busovača
also led to a number of Bosniak
Bosniak
civilian casualties.[186] On 30 January 30, ARBiH
ARBiH
and HVO leaders met in Vitez, together with representatives from UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
and other foreign observers, and signed a ceasefire in the area of central Bosnia, which came into effect on the following day.[187] The situation was still tense so Enver Hadžihasanović, commander of ARBiH's 3rd Corps, and Tihomir Blaškić, commander of HVO's Operative Zone Central Bosnia, had a meeting on 13 February where a joint ARBiH-HVO commission was formed to resolve incidents.[188] The January ceasefire in central Bosnia held through the following two months and in the first weeks of April, despite numerous minor incidents.[189] The Croats
Croats
attributed the escalation of the conflict to the increased Islamic policy of the Bosniaks, while Bosniaks
Bosniaks
accused the Croat side of separatism.[16] Central Bosnia[edit] The beginning of April was marked by a series of minor incidents in central Bosnia between Bosniak
Bosniak
and Croat civilians and soldiers, including assaults, murders and armed confrontations.[190] The most serious incidents were the kidnapping of four members of the HVO outside Novi Travnik, and of HVO commander Živko Totić near Zenica by the mujahideen. The ARBiH
ARBiH
representatives denied any involvement in these incidents and a joint ARBiH-HVO commission was formed to investigate them. The HVO personnel were subsequently exchanged in May for POWs that were arrested by the HVO.[191] The April incidents escalated into an armed conflict on 15 April in the area of Vitez, Busovača, Kiseljak and Zenica. The outnumbered HVO in the Zenica municipality was quickly defeated, followed by a large exodus of Croat civilians.[192] In the Busovača
Busovača
municipality, the ARBiH
ARBiH
gained some ground and inflicted heavy casualties on the HVO, but the HVO held the town of Busovača
Busovača
and the Kaonik intersection between Busovača
Busovača
and Vitez.[193] The ARBiH
ARBiH
failed to cut the HVO held Kiseljak enclave into several smaller parts and isolate the town of Fojnica from Kiseljak.[194] Many Bosniak
Bosniak
civilians were detained or forced to leave Kiseljak.[195] In the Vitez
Vitez
area, Blaškić used his limited forces to carry out spoiling attacks on the ARBiH, thus preventing the ARBiH
ARBiH
from cutting of the Travnik– Busovača
Busovača
road and seizing the SPS explosives factory in Vitez.[196] On 16 April, the HVO launched a spoiling attack on the village of Ahmići, east of Vitez. After the attacking units breached the ARBiH
ARBiH
lines and entered the village, groups of irregular HVO units went from house to house, burning them and killing civilians. The massacre in Ahmići resulted in more than 100 killed Bosniak civilians.[197][198] Elsewhere in the area, the HVO blocked the ARBiH forces in the Stari Vitez
Vitez
quarter of Vitez
Vitez
and prevented an ARBiH advance south of the town.[199] On 24 April, mujahideen forces attacked the village of Miletići northeast of Travnik and killed four Croat civilians. The rest of the captured civilians were taken to the Poljanice camp.[185] However, the conflict did not spread to Travnik and Novi Travnik, although both the HVO and the ARBiH
ARBiH
brought in reinforcements from this area.[200] On 25 April, Izetbegović and Boban signed a ceasefire agreement.[201] ARBiH Chief of Staff, Sefer Halilović, and HVO Chief of Staff, Milivoj Petković, met on a weekly basis to solve ongoing issues and implement the ceasefire.[202] However, the truce was not respected on the ground and the HVO and ARBiH
ARBiH
forces were still engaged in the Busovača
Busovača
area until 30 April.[193] Herzegovina[edit]

Aerial photograph of destroyed buildings in Mostar

The Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
spread from central Bosnia to northern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
on 14 April with an ARBiH
ARBiH
attack on a HVO-held village outside of Konjic. The HVO responded with capturing three villages northeast of Jablanica.[203] On 16 April, 15 Croat civilians and 7 POWs were killed by the ARBiH
ARBiH
in the village of Trusina, north of Jablanica.[204] The battles of Konjic
Konjic
and Jablanica lasted until May, with the ARBiH
ARBiH
taking full control of both towns and smaller nearby villages.[203] By mid-April, Mostar
Mostar
had become a divided city with the majority Croat western part dominated by the HVO, and the majority Bosniak
Bosniak
eastern part dominated by the ARBiH. The Battle of Mostar
Mostar
began on 9 May when both the east and west parts of the city came under artillery fire.[205] Fierce street battles followed that, despite a ceasefire signed on 13 May by Milivoj Petković
Milivoj Petković
and Sefer Halilović, continued until 21 May.[206] The HVO established prison camps in Dretelj near Čapljina
Čapljina
and in Heliodrom,[207] while the ARBiH
ARBiH
formed prison camps in Potoci and in a school in eastern Mostar.[208] The battle was renewed on 30 June. The ARBiH
ARBiH
secured the northern approaches to Mostar
Mostar
and the eastern part of the city, but their advance to the south was repelled by the HVO.[209] June–July Offensives[edit]

The front lines in the Lašva Valley in 1993 between the ARBiH
ARBiH
and the HVO, including Novi Travnik, Vitez
Vitez
and Busovača

In the first week of June, the ARBiH
ARBiH
attacked the HVO headquarters in the town of Travnik and HVO units positioned on the front lines against the VRS. After three days of street fighting the outnumbered HVO forces were defeated, with thousands of Croat civilians and soldiers fleeing to nearby Serb-held territory as they were cut off from HVO held positions. The ARBiH
ARBiH
offensive continued east of Travnik to secure the rad to Zenica, which was achieved by 14 June.[210][211] On 8 June, 24 Croat civilians and POWs were killed by the mujahideen near the village of Bikoši.[212] The mujahideen moved into deserted Croat villages in the area following the end of the offensive.[213] A similar development took place in Novi Travnik. On 9 June, the ARBiH attacked HVO units positioned east of the town, facing the VRS in Donji Vakuf, and the next day heavy fighting followed in Novi Travnik.[214] By 15 June, the ARBiH
ARBiH
secured the area northwest of the town, while the HVO kept the northeastern part of the municipality and the town of Novi Travnik. The battle continued into July with only minor changes on the front lines.[215] The HVO in the town of Kakanj was overran in mid June and around 13–15,000 Croat refugees fled to Kiseljak and Vareš.[216] In the Kiseljak enclave, the HVO held off an attack on Kreševo, but lost Fojnica on 3 July.[217] On 24 June, the Battle of Žepče
Battle of Žepče
began that ended with an ARBiH
ARBiH
defeat on 30 June.[218] In late July the ARBiH seized control of Bugojno,[216] leading to the departure of 15,000 Croats.[207] A prison camp was established in the town football stadium, where around 800 Croats
Croats
were sent.[219] At the beginning of September, the ARBiH
ARBiH
launched an operation known as Operation Neretva '93
Operation Neretva '93
against the HVO in Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and central Bosnia, on a 200 km long front. It was one of their largest offensives in 1993. The ARBiH
ARBiH
expanded its territory west of Jablanica and secured the road to eastern Mostar, while the HVO kept the area of Prozor and secured its forces rear in western Mostar.[220] During the night of 8/9 September, at least 13 Croat civilians were killed by the ARBiH
ARBiH
in the Grabovica massacre. 29 Croat civilians were killed in the Uzdol massacre
Uzdol massacre
on 14 September.[221][222] On 23 October, 37 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were killed by the HVO in the Stupni Do massacre.[223] The massacre was used as an excuse for an ARBiH
ARBiH
attack on the HVO-held Vareš enclave at the beginning of November. Croat civilians and soldiers abandoned Vareš on 3 November and fled to Kiseljak. The ARBiH
ARBiH
entered Vareš on the following day, which was looted after its capture.[224] May–June 1993 UN Safe Areas extension[edit] In an attempt to protect the civilians, UNPROFOR's role was further extended in May 1993 to protect the "safe havens" that United Nations Security Council had declared around Sarajevo, Goražde, Srebrenica, Tuzla, Žepa
Žepa
and Bihać
Bihać
in Resolution 824 of 6 May 1993. On 4 June 1993 the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council passed Resolution 836 authorised the use of force by UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
in the protection of the safe zones.[225] On 15 June 1993, Operation Sharp Guard, a naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
by NATO
NATO
and the Western European Union, began but was lifted on 18 June 1996 on termination of the UN arms embargo.[225] The HVO and the ARBiH
ARBiH
continued to fight side by side against the VRS in some areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the Bihać
Bihać
pocket, Bosnian Posavina
Posavina
and the Tešanj area. Despite some animosity, an HVO brigade of around 1,500 soldiers also fought along with the ARBiH
ARBiH
in Sarajevo.[226][227] In other areas where the alliance collapsed, the VRS occasionally cooperated with both the HVO and ARBiH, pursuing a local balancing policy and allying with the weaker side.[228] 1994[edit]

Damaged buildings in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo

Main articles: Operation Tiger (1994), Operation Spider, and Operation Winter '94

"Without Serbia, nothing would have happened, we don't have the resources and we would not have been able to make war."

Radovan Karadžić, former president of Republika Srpska, to the Assembly of the Republika Srpska, May 10–11, 1994.[229]

The forced deportations of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
from Serb-held territories and the resulting refugee crisis continued to escalate. Thousands of people were being bused out of Bosnia each month, threatened on religious grounds. In turn, in mid-1994, Croatia
Croatia
was strained by 500,000 refugees, and the Croatian authorities forbade entry to a group of 462 refugees fleeing northern Bosnia, and forcing UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
to improvise shelter for them.[230] Markale massacre[edit] On 5 February 1994 Sarajevo
Sarajevo
suffered its deadliest single attack during the entire siege with the first Markale massacre, when a 120 millimeter mortar shell landed in the centre of the crowded marketplace, killing 68 people and wounding another 144. On 6 February, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
Boutros-Ghali
formally requested NATO
NATO
to confirm that future requests for air strikes would be carried out immediately.[231] On 9 February 1994, NATO
NATO
authorised the Commander of Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), US Admiral Jeremy Boorda, to launch air strikes—at the request of the UN—against artillery and mortar positions in or around Sarajevo
Sarajevo
determined by UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
to be responsible for attacks against civilian targets in that city.[225][232] Only Greece
Greece
failed to support the use of air strikes, but did not veto the proposal.[231] NATO
NATO
also issued an ultimatum to the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
demanding the removal of heavy weapons around Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by midnight of 20–21 February, or face air strikes. On 12 February, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
enjoyed its first casualty free day since April 1992;[231] the war is widely considered to have begun on 6 April 1992.[233] The large-scale removal of Bosnian- Serb
Serb
heavy weapons began on 17 February 1994.[231] Washington Agreement[edit] Main articles: Washington Agreement
Washington Agreement
and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina The Croat- Bosniak
Bosniak
war ended with the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the HVO Chief of Staff, general Ante Roso, and the ARBiH
ARBiH
Chief of Staff, general Rasim Delić, on 23 February 1994 in Zagreb. The agreement went into effect on 25 February.[234][235] A peace agreement known as the Washington Agreement, mediated by the USA, was concluded on 2 March by representatives of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia
Croatia
and Herzeg-Bosnia. The agreement was signed on 18 March 1994 in Washington. Under this agreement, the combined territory held by the HVO and the ARBiH
ARBiH
was divided into autonomous cantons within the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tuđman and Izetbegović also signed a preliminary agreement on a confederation between Croatia
Croatia
and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[236][237] The Croat- Bosniak
Bosniak
alliance was renewed, although the issues dividing them were not resolved.[235] The first military effort coordinated between the HVO and the ARBiH, following the Washington Agreement, was the advance towards Kupres that was retaken from the VRS on 3 November 1994.[238] On 29 November, the HV and the HVO initiated Operation Winter '94
Operation Winter '94
in southwestern Bosnia. After a month of fighting, Croat forces had taken around 200 square kilometres (77 square miles) of VRS-held territory and directly threatened the main supply route between Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Knin, the capital of RSK. The primary objective of relieving pressure on the Bihać
Bihać
pocket was not achieved, although the ARBiH
ARBiH
repelled VRS attacks on the enclave.[239] UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
and NATO[edit]

UN troops on their way up "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo

Main articles: Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident, Operation Bøllebank, and Operation Amanda NATO
NATO
became actively involved, when its jets shot down four Serb aircraft over central Bosnia on 28 February 1994 for violating the UN no-fly zone.[240] On 12 March 1994, the United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR) made its first request for NATO
NATO
air support, but close air support was not deployed, owing to a number of delays associated with the approval process.[241] On 20 March an aid convoy with medical supplies and doctors reached Maglaj, a city of 100,000 people, which had been under siege since May 1993 and had been surviving off food supplies dropped by US aircraft. A second convoy on 23 March was hijacked and looted.[236] On 10–11 April 1994, UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
called in air strikes to protect the Goražde
Goražde
safe area, resulting in the bombing of a Serbian military command outpost near Goražde
Goražde
by 2 US F-16 jets.[225][236][241] This was the first time in NATO's history it had ever done so.[236] This resulted in the taking of 150 U.N. personnel hostage on 14 April.[225][241] On 16 April a British Sea Harrier was shot down over Goražde
Goražde
by Serb
Serb
forces. On 15 April the Bosnian government lines around Goražde
Goražde
broke.[236] Around 29 April 1994, a Danish contingent (Nordbat 2) on peacekeeping duty in Bosnia, as part of UNPROFOR's Nordic battalion located in Tuzla, was ambushed when trying to relieve a Swedish observation post (Tango 2) that was under heavy artillery fire by the Bosnian Serb Šekovići
Šekovići
brigade at the village of Kalesija. The ambush was dispersed when the UN forces retaliated with heavy fire in what would be known as Operation Bøllebank.[citation needed] On 12 May, the US Senate adopted S. 2042 from Sen. Bob Dole
Bob Dole
to unilaterally lift the arms embargo against the Bosnians, but it was repudiated by President Clinton.[242][243] Pub.L. 103–337 was signed by the President on 5 October 1994 and stated that if the Bosnian Serbs
Serbs
had not accepted the Contact Group proposal by 15 October the President should introduce a UN Security Council proposal to end the arms embargo and that if it was not passed by 15 November only funds required by all UN members under Resolution 713 could be used to enforce the embargo, effectively ending the arms embargo.[244] On 5 August, at the request of UNPROFOR, NATO
NATO
aircraft attacked a target within the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Exclusion Zone after weapons were seized by Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
from a weapons collection site near Sarajevo. On 22 September 1994 NATO
NATO
aircraft carried out an air strike against a Bosnian Serb
Serb
tank at the request of UNPROFOR.[225] On 12–13 November, the US unilaterally lifted the arms embargo against the government of Bosnia.[244][245] Operation Amanda
Operation Amanda
was an UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
mission led by Danish peacekeeping troops, with the aim of recovering an observation post near Gradačac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on 25 October 1994.[246] On 19 November 1994, the North Atlantic Council approved the extension of Close Air Support to Croatia
Croatia
for the protection of UN forces in that country.[225] NATO
NATO
aircraft attacked the Udbina
Udbina
airfield in Serb-held Croatia
Croatia
on 21 November, in response to attacks launched from that airfield against targets in the Bihac area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 23 November, after attacks launched from a surface-to-air missile site south of Otoka (north-west Bosnia and Herzegovina) on two NATO
NATO
aircraft, air strikes were conducted against air defence radars in that area.[225] 1995[edit] Main articles: Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre, Operations Krivaja '95 and Stupčanica '95, Operation Summer '95, Operation Storm, Operation Deliberate Force, Operation Mistral 2, Operation Sana, and Dayton Agreement

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
before the Dayton Agreement

Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
signing the final peace agreement in Paris
Paris
on 14 December 1995.

On 25 May 1995, NATO
NATO
bombed VRS positions in Pale due to their failure to return heavy weapons. The VRS then shelled all safe areas, including Tuzla. Approximately 70 civilians were killed and 150 were injured.[247] During April and June, Croatian forces conducted two offensives known as Leap 1 and Leap 2. With these offensives, they secured the remainder of the Livno Valley and threatened the VRS-held town of Bosansko Grahovo.[248] On 11 July 1995, Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
(VRS) forces under general Ratko Mladić
Ratko Mladić
occupied the UN "safe area" of Srebrenica
Srebrenica
in eastern Bosnia where more than 8,000 men were killed in the Srebrenica massacre (most women were expelled to Bosniak-held territory, where some were raped and killed).[249][250] The United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR), represented on the ground by a 400-strong contingent of Dutch peacekeepers, Dutchbat, failed to prevent the town's capture by the VRS and the subsequent massacre.[251][252][253][254] The ICTY ruled this event as genocide in the Krstić case. In line with the Split Agreement
Split Agreement
signed between Tuđman and Izetbegović on 22 July, a joint military offensive by the HV and the HVO codenamed Operation Summer '95
Operation Summer '95
took place in western Bosnia. The HV-HVO force gained control of Glamoč and Bosansko Grahovo
Bosansko Grahovo
and isolated Knin
Knin
from Republika Srpska.[255] On 4 August, the HV launched Operation Storm
Operation Storm
that effectively dissolved the Republic of Serbian Krajina.[256] With this, the Bosniak-Croat alliance gained the initiative in the war, taking much of western Bosnia from the VRS in several operations in September and October. First one, Operation Una, began on 18 September 1995, when HV crossed the Una river and entered Bosnia. In 2006, Croatian authorities began investigating allegations of war crimes committed during this operation, specifically the killing of 40 civilians in the Bosanska Dubica area by troops of the 1st Battalion of the 2nd Guards Brigade.[257] The HV-HVO secured over 2,500 square kilometres (970 square miles) of territory during Operation Mistral 2, including the towns of Jajce, Šipovo
Šipovo
and Drvar. At the same time, the ARBiH
ARBiH
engaged the VRS further to the north in Operation Sana
Operation Sana
and captured several towns, including Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Petrovac, Ključ and Sanski Most.[258] A VRS counteroffensive against the ARBiH
ARBiH
in western Bosnia was launched on 23/24 September. Within two weeks the VRS was in the vicinity of the town of Ključ. The ARBiH
ARBiH
requested Croatian assistance and on 8 October the HV-HVO launched Operation Southern Move
Operation Southern Move
under the overall command of HV Major General Ante Gotovina. The VRS lost the town of Mrkonjić Grad, while HVO units came within 25 kilometres (16 miles) south of Banja Luka.[259] On 28 August, a VRS mortar attack on the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Markale marketplace killed 43 people.[260] In response to the second Markale massacre, on 30 August, the Secretary General of NATO
NATO
announced the start of Operation Deliberate Force, widespread airstrikes against Bosnian Serb positions supported by UNPROFOR
UNPROFOR
rapid reaction force artillery attacks.[261] On 14 September 1995, the NATO
NATO
air strikes were suspended to allow the implementation of an agreement with Bosnian Serbs
Serbs
for the withdrawal of heavy weapons from around Sarajevo.[citation needed] Twelve days later, on 26 September, an agreement of further basic principles for a peace accord was reached in New York City
New York City
between the foreign ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia
Croatia
and the FRY.[262] A 60-day ceasefire came into effect on 12 October, and on 1 November peace talks began in Dayton, Ohio.[262] The war ended with the Dayton Peace Agreement signed on 21 November 1995; the final version of the peace agreement was signed 14 December 1995 in Paris.[citation needed] Following the Dayton Agreement, a NATO
NATO
led Implementation Force (IFOR) was deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina. This 80,000 strong unit, heavily armed and mandated to fire at will when necessary for the successful implementation of the operation, was deployed in order to enforce the peace, as well as other tasks such as providing support for humanitarian and political aid, reconstruction, providing support for displaced civilians to return to their homes, collection of arms, and mine and unexploded ordnance (uxo) clearing of the affected areas.[citation needed] Casualties[edit]

A grave digger at a cemetery in Sarajevo, 1992

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Percent Change of Ethnic Bosniaks
Bosniaks
from 1991 to 2013

Calculating the number of deaths resulting from the conflict has been subject to considerable, highly politicised debate sometimes "fused with narratives about victimhood", from the political elites of various groups.[263] Estimates of the total number of casualties have ranged from 25,000 to 329,000. The variations are partly the result of the use of inconsistent definitions of who can be considered victims of the war, as some research calculated only direct casualties of military activity while other research included those who died from hunger, cold, disease or other war conditions. Early overcounts were also the result of many victims being entered in both civilian and military lists because little systematic coordination of those lists took place in wartime conditions. The death toll was originally estimated in 1994 at around 200,000 by Cherif Bassiouni, head of the UN expert commission investigating war crimes.[264] Prof. Steven L. Burg and Prof. Paul S. Shoup, writing in 1999, observed about early high figures:

The figure of 200,000 (or more) dead, injured, and missing was frequently cited in media reports on the war in Bosnia as late as 1994. The October 1995 bulletin of the Bosnian Institute for Public Health of the Republic Committee for Health and Social Welfare gave the numbers as 146,340 killed, and 174,914 wounded on the territory under the control of the Bosnian army. Mustafa Imamovic gave a figure of 144,248 perished (including those who died from hunger or exposure), mainly Muslims. The Red Cross and the UNHCR
UNHCR
have not, to the best of our knowledge, produced data on the number of persons killed and injured in the course of the war. A November 1995 unclassified CIA memorandum estimated 156,500 civilian deaths in the country (all but 10,000 of them in Muslim- or Croat-held territories), not including the 8,000 to 10,000 then still missing from Srebrenica and Zepa enclaves. This figure for civilian deaths far exceeded the estimate in the same report of 81,500 troops killed (45,000 Bosnian government; 6,500 Bosnian Croat; and 30,000 Bosnian Serb). — Steven L. Burg and Paul S. Shoup, The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina[265]

RDC figures[edit]

Dead or disappeared figures according to RDC (as reported in June 2012)[10]

Total dead or disappeared 101,040 (total includes unknown status below, percentages ignore 'unknowns') Bosniaks 62,013 61.4%

Serbs 24,953 24.7%

Croats 8,403 8.3%

Other ethnicities 571 0.6%

Civilians 38,239 (percentages are of civilian dead) Bosniaks 31,107 81.3%

Serbs 4,178 10.9%

Croats 2,484 6.5%

Other ethnicities 470 1.2%

Soldiers 57,701 (percentages are of military dead) Bosniaks 30,906 53.6%

Serbs 20,775 36%

Croats 5,919 10.3%

Other ethnicities 101 0.2%

Unknown status (percentage is of all dead or disappeared) Ethnicity unstated 5,100 5%

In June 2007, the Sarajevo-based Research and Documentation Center published extensive research on Bosnia-Herzegovina's war deaths, (also called The Bosnian Book of the Dead ), a database that initially revealed a minimum of 97,207 names of Bosnia and Herzegovina's citizens confirmed as killed or missing during the 1992–1995 war.[266][267] The head of the UN war crimes tribunal's Demographic Unit, Ewa Tabeau, has called it "the largest existing database on Bosnian war victims"[268] and it is considered the most authoritative account of human losses in the Bosnian war.[269] More than 240,000 pieces of data were collected, checked, compared and evaluated by an international team of experts[citation needed] in order to produce the 2007 list of 97,207 victims' names. The RDC 2007 figures stated that these were confirmed figures and that several thousand cases were still being examined. All of the RDC figures are believed to be a slight undercount as their methodology is dependent on a family member having survived to report the missing relative, though the undercount is not thought to be statistically significant.[10] At least 30 percent of the 2007 confirmed Bosniak civilian victims were women and children.[266] The RDC published periodic updates of its figures until June 2012, when it published its final report.[270] The 2012 figures recorded a total of 101,040 dead or disappeared, of whom 61.4 percent were Bosniaks, 24.7 percent were Serbs, 8.3 percent were Croats
Croats
and less than 1 percent were of other ethnicities, with a further 5 percent whose ethnicity was unstated.[10] Civilian deaths were established as 38,239, which represented 37.9 percent of total deaths. Bosniaks
Bosniaks
accounted for 81.3 percent of those civilian deaths, compared to Serbs
Serbs
10.9 percent and Croats
Croats
6.5 percent.[10] The proportion of civilian victims is, moreover, an absolute minimum because the status of 5,100 victims was unestablished[10] and because relatives had registered their dead loved ones as military victims in order to obtain veteran's financial benefits or for 'honour' reasons.[271][272] Both the RDC and the ICTY's demographic unit applied statistical techniques to identify possible duplication caused by a given victim being recorded in multiple primary lists, the original documents being then hand-checked to assess duplication.[272][273] Some 30 categories of information existed within the database for each individual record, apart from basic personal information, these included place and date of death and (in the case of soldiers), the military unit to which the individual belonged.[272] This has allowed the database to present deaths by gender, military unit, year and region of death,[11] in addition to ethnicity and 'status in war' (civilian or soldier). The information category intended to describe which military formation caused the death of each victim, was the most incomplete and was deemed unusable.[272] ICTY
ICTY
figures[edit]

ICTY
ICTY
death figures[274](issued by the Demographic Unit in 2010)

Total killed 104,732 Bosniaks c. 68,101

Serbs c. 22,779

Croats c. 8,858

Others c. 4,995

Civilians killed 36,700 Bosniaks 25,609

Serbs 7,480

Croats 1,675

Others 1,935

Soldiers killed 68,031 (includes Police) Bosniaks 42,492

Serbs 15,298

Croats 7,182

Others 3,058

2010 research for the Office of the Prosecutors at the Hague Tribunal, headed by Ewa Tabeau, pointed to errors in earlier figures and calculated the minimum number of victims as 89,186, with a probable figure of around 104,732.[274][275] Tabeau noted the numbers should not be confused with "who killed who", because, for example, many Serbs
Serbs
were killed by the Serb
Serb
army during the shelling of Sarajevo, Tuzla
Tuzla
and other multi-ethnic cities.[276] The authors of this report said that the actual death toll may be slightly higher.[274][277] These figures were not based solely on 'battle deaths', but included accidental deaths taking place in battle conditions and acts of mass violence. Specifically excluded were "non-violent mortality increases" and "criminal and unorganised violence increases". Similarly 'military deaths' included both combat and non-combat deaths.[274] Other statistics[edit] There are no statistics dealing specifically with the casualties of the Croat- Bosniak
Bosniak
conflict along ethnic lines. However, according to The RDC's data on human losses in the regions, in Central Bosnia 62 percent of the 10,448 documented deaths were Bosniaks, while Croats constituted 24 percent and Serbs
Serbs
13 percent. The municipalities of Gornji Vakuf
Gornji Vakuf
and Bugojno
Bugojno
are geographically located in Central Bosnia (known as Gornje Povrbasje region), but the 1,337 region's documented deaths are included in Vrbas regional statistics. Approximately 70–80 percent of the casualties from Gornje Povrbasje were Bosniaks. In the region of Neretva
Neretva
river, of 6,717 casualties, 54 percent were Bosniaks, 24 percent Serbs
Serbs
and 21 percent Croats. The casualties in those regions were mainly, but not exclusively, the consequence of Croat- Bosniak
Bosniak
conflict.[citation needed] According to the UN, there were 167 fatalities amongst UNPROFOR personnel during the course of the force's mandate, from February 1992 to March 1995. Of those who died, three were military observers, 159 were other military personnel, one was a member of the civilian police, two were international civilian staff and two were local staff.[278] In a statement in September 2008 to the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly, Dr Haris Silajdžić, said that "According to the ICRC data, 200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes. This was a veritable genocide and sociocide".[279] However, Silajdžić and others have been criticised for inflating the number of fatalities to attract international support.[280] An ICRC book published in 2010 cites the total number killed in all of the Balkan Wars in the 1990s as "about 140,000 people".[281] Many of the 34,700 people who were reported missing during the Bosnian war remain unaccounted for. In 2012 Amnesty reported that the fate of an estimated 10,500 people, most of whom were Bosnian Muslims, remained unknown.[282][283] Bodies of victims are still being unearthed two decades later. In July 2014 the remains of 284 victims, unearthed from the Tomasica mass grave near the town of Prijedor, were laid to rest in a mass ceremony in the northwestern town of Kozarac, attended by relatives.[284] The UNCHR
UNCHR
stated that the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
forced more than 2.2 million people to flee their homes, making it the largest displacement of people in Europe since the end of World War II.[25] War crimes[edit] According to a report compiled by the UN, and chaired by M. Cherif Bassiouni, while all sides committed war crimes during the conflict, Serbian forces were responsible for ninety percent of them, whereas Croatian forces were responsible for six percent, and Bosniak
Bosniak
forces four percent.[285] The report echoed conclusions published by a Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
estimate in 1995.[286][287] Ethnic cleansing[edit] Main article: Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Bosnian War

Ethnic distribution at the municipal level in Bosnia and Herzegovina before (1991) and after the war (1998)

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
was a common phenomenon in the war. This entailed intimidation, forced expulsion, or killing of the unwanted ethnic group as well as the destruction of the places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings of that ethnic group. Academics Matjaž Klemenčič and Mitja Žagar argue that: "Ideas of nationalistic ethnic politicians that Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
be reorganised into homogenous national territories inevitably required the division of ethnically mixed territories into their Serb, Croat, and Muslim parts".[40] According to numerous ICTY
ICTY
verdicts and indictments, Serb[288][289][290] and Croat[87][291][292] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership to create ethnically pure states ( Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Herzeg-Bosnia). Serb
Serb
forces carried out the atrocities known as the "Srebrenica genocide" at the end of the war.[293] The Central Intelligence Agency claimed, in a 1995 report, that Bosnian Serb
Serb
forces were responsible for 90 percent of the ethnic cleansing committed during the conflict.[287] Based on the evidence of numerous HVO attacks, the ICTY
ICTY
Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks
Bosniaks
from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan.[291] Though comparatively rare, there were also cases of pro- Bosniak
Bosniak
forces having 'forced other ethnic groups to flee' during the war.[18] Genocide[edit]

The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide
Genocide
Victims

Exhumations in Srebrenica, 1996

The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari, 2007

Main articles: Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
and Bosnian Genocide
Bosnian Genocide
Case A trial took place before the International Court of Justice, following a 1993 suit by Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
against Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro alleging genocide. The ICJ ruling of 26 February 2007 indirectly determined the war's nature to be international, though clearing Serbia
Serbia
of direct responsibility for the genocide committed by the forces of Republika Srpska. The ICJ concluded, however, that Serbia
Serbia
failed to prevent genocide committed by Serb
Serb
forces and failed to punish those responsible, and bring them to justice.[citation needed] A telegram sent to the White House on 8 February 1994 and penned by U.S. Ambassador to Croatia, Peter W. Galbraith, stated that genocide was occurring. The telegram cited "constant and indiscriminate shelling and gunfire" of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by Karadzic's Yugoslav People Army; the harassment of minority groups in Northern Bosnia "in an attempt to force them to leave"; and the use of detainees "to do dangerous work on the front lines" as evidence that genocide was being committed.[294] In 2005, the United States
United States
Congress passed a resolution declaring that "the Serbian policies of aggression and ethnic cleansing meet the terms defining genocide".[295] Despite the evidence of many kinds of war crimes conducted simultaneously by different Serb
Serb
forces in different parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, especially in Bijeljina, Sarajevo, Prijedor, Zvornik, Banja Luka, Višegrad
Višegrad
and Foča, the judges ruled that the criteria for genocide with the specific intent (dolus specialis) to destroy Bosnian Muslims were met only in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
or Eastern Bosnia in 1995.[citation needed] The court concluded the crimes committed during the 1992–1995 war, may amount to crimes against humanity according to the international law, but that these acts did not, in themselves, constitute genocide per se.[296] The Court further decided that, following Montenegro's declaration of independence in May 2006, Serbia
Serbia
was the only respondent party in the case, but that "any responsibility for past events involved at the relevant time the composite State of Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro".[297] Rape[edit] Main article: Rape in the Bosnian War An estimated 12,000–20,000 women were raped, most of them Bosniak.[28][298] This has been referred to as "Mass rape",[299][300][301] particularly with regard to the coordinated use of rape as a weapon of war by members in the VRS and Bosnian Serb police.[299][300][301][302] For the first time in judicial history, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
(ICTY) declared that "systematic rape", and "sexual enslavement" in time of war was a crime against humanity, second only to the war crime of genocide.[299] Rape was most systematic in Eastern Bosnia (e.g. during campaigns in Foča
Foča
and Višegrad), and in Grbavica during the siege of Sarajevo. Women and girls were kept in various detention centres where they had to live in intolerably unhygienic conditions and were mistreated in many ways including being repeatedly raped. A notorious example was "Karaman's house" in Foča.[303][304] Common complications among surviving women and girls include psychological, gynaecological and other physical disorders, as well as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Prosecutions and legal proceedings[edit]

Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
(left), former president of Republika Srpska, Ratko Mladić (right), former Chief of Staff of the Army of the Republika Srpska, both sentenced by the ICTY.

The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
(ICTY) was established in 1993 as a body of the UN to prosecute war crimes committed during the wars in the former Yugoslavia, and to try their perpetrators. The tribunal is an ad hoc court which is located in The Hague, the Netherlands.[305] According to legal experts, as of early 2008, 45 Serbs, 12 Croats
Croats
and 4 Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were convicted of war crimes by the ICTY
ICTY
in connection with the Balkan wars of the 1990s.[22] Both Serbs
Serbs
and Croats
Croats
were indicted and convicted of systematic war crimes (joint criminal enterprise), while Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were indicted and convicted of individual ones. Most of the Bosnian Serb
Serb
wartime leadership Biljana Plavšić,[306] Momčilo Krajišnik,[307] Radoslav Brđanin,[289] and Duško Tadić[308] were indicted and judged guilty for war crimes and ethnic cleansing. The former president of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
was held on trial[309] and was sentenced to 40 years in prison in 2016 for crimes, including crimes against humanity and genocide. Ratko Mladić was also tried by the ICTY, charged with crimes in connection with the siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre.[310] Mladić was found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment by The Hague
The Hague
in November 2017.[311] Paramilitary
Paramilitary
leader Vojislav Šešelj
Vojislav Šešelj
has been on trial since 2007 accused of being a part of a joint criminal enterprise to ethnically cleanse large areas of Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
of non-Serbs.[312] The Serbian president Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
was charged with war crimes in connection with the war in Bosnia, including grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions, crimes against humanity and genocide,[313] but died in 2006 before the trial could finish.[314] After the death of Alija Izetbegović, The Hague
The Hague
revealed that he was under investigation for war crimes; however the prosecutor did not find sufficient evidence in Izetbegović's lifetime to issue an indictment.[315] Other Bosniaks
Bosniaks
who were convicted of or are under trial for war crimes include Rasim Delić, chief of staff of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, who was sentenced to 3 years' imprisonment on 15 September 2008 for his failure to prevent the Bosnian mujahideen members of the Bosnian army from committing crimes against captured civilians and enemy combatants (murder, rape, torture).[316] Enver Hadžihasanović, a general of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was sentenced to 3.5 years for authority over acts of murder and wanton destruction in Central Bosnia.[317] Hazim Delić was the Bosniak
Bosniak
Deputy Commander of the Čelebići prison camp, which detained Serb
Serb
civilians. He was sentenced to 18 years by the ICTY Appeals Chamber on 8 April 2003 for murder and torture of the prisoners and for raping two Serbian women.[318][319] Bosnian commander Sefer Halilović was charged with one count of violation of the laws and customs of war on the basis of superior criminal responsibility of the incidents during Operation Neretva '93
Operation Neretva '93
and found not guilty.[320] Serbs
Serbs
have accused Sarajevo
Sarajevo
authorities of practicing selective justice by actively prosecuting Serbs
Serbs
while ignoring or downplaying Bosniak
Bosniak
war crimes.[321] Dario Kordić, political leader of Croats
Croats
in Central Bosnia, was convicted of the crimes against humanity in Central Bosnia i.e. ethnic cleansing and sentenced to 25 years in prison.[291] On 29 May 2013, in a first instance verdict, the ICTY
ICTY
sentenced Prlić to 25 years in prison. The tribunal also convicted five other war time leaders of the joint trial: defence minister of Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
Bruno Stojić
Bruno Stojić
(20 years), military officers Slobodan Praljak
Slobodan Praljak
(20 years) and Milivoj Petković (20 years), military police commander Valentin Ćorić
Valentin Ćorić
(20 years), and head of prisoner exchanges and detention facilities Berislav Pušić (10 years). The Chamber ruled, by majority, with the presiding judge Jean-Claude Antonetti dissenting, that they took part in a joint criminal enterprise (JCE) against the non-Croat population of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and that the JCE included the Croatian President Franjo Tuđman, Defence Minister Gojko Šušak, and general Janko Bobetko.[322] However, on 19 July 2016 the Appeals Chamber in the case announced that the "Trial Chamber made no explicit findings concerning [Tudjman's, Šušak's and Bobetko's] participation in the JCE and did not find [them] guilty of any crimes."[323][324]

Mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre.

Genocide
Genocide
at Srebrenica
Srebrenica
is the most serious war crime that any Serbs were convicted of. Crimes against humanity, a charge second in gravity only to genocide, is the most serious war crime that any Croats
Croats
were convicted of. Breaches of the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
is the most serious war crime that Bosniaks
Bosniaks
were convicted of.[325] Reconciliation[edit]

A cemetery in Mostar
Mostar
flying the flag of Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(left), the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 6 December 2004, Serbian president Boris Tadić
Boris Tadić
made an apology in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
to all those who suffered crimes committed in the name of the Serb
Serb
people.[326] Croatia's president Ivo Josipović
Ivo Josipović
apologised in April 2010 for his country's role in the Bosnian War. Bosnia and Herzegovina's then-president Haris Silajdžić
Haris Silajdžić
in turn praised relations with Croatia, remarks that starkly contrasted with his harsh criticism of Serbia
Serbia
the day before. "I'm deeply sorry that the Republic of Croatia has contributed to the suffering of people and divisions which still burden us today", Josipović told Bosnia and Herzegovina's parliament.[327] On 31 March 2010, the Serbian parliament adopted a declaration "condemning in strongest terms the crime committed in July 1995 against Bosniak
Bosniak
population of Srebrenica" and apologizing to the families of the victims, the first of its kind in the region. The initiative to pass a resolution came from President Boris Tadić, who pushed for it even though the issue was politically controversial. In the past, only human rights groups and non-nationalistic parties had supported such a measure.[328] Assessment[edit] Civil war or a war of aggression[edit] Due to the involvement of Croatia
Croatia
and Serbia, there has been a long-standing debate as to whether the conflict was a civil war or a war of aggression on Bosnia by neighbouring states. Academics Steven Burg and Paul Shoup argue that:

From the outset, the nature of the war in Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was subject to conflicting interpretations. These were rooted not only in objective facts on the ground, but in the political interests of those articulating them. — Steven L. Burg and Paul S. Shoup, The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina[265]

On the one hand, the war could be viewed as "a clear-cut case of civil war – that is, of internal war among groups unable to agree on arrangements for sharing power".[265] David Campbell is critical of narratives about "civil war", which he argues often involve what he terms "moral levelling", in which all sides are "said to be equally guilty of atrocities", and "emphasise credible Serb
Serb
fears as a rationale for their actions".[329]

In contrast to the civil war explanation, Bosniaks, many Croats, western politicians and human rights organizations claimed that the war was a war of Serbian and Croatian aggression based on the Karađorđevo and Graz
Graz
agreements, while Serbs
Serbs
often considered it a civil war. — Steven L. Burg and Paul S. Shoup, The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina[265]

Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
and Bosnian Croats
Bosnian Croats
enjoyed substantial political and military backing from Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia, and the decision to grant Bosnia diplomatic recognition also had implications for the international interpretation of the conflict. As Burg and Shoup state:

From the perspective of international diplomacy and law...the international decision to recognize the independence of Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and grant it membership in the United Nations provided a basis for defining the war as a case of external aggression by both Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia. With respect to Serbia, the further case could be made that the Bosnian Serb
Serb
army was under the de facto command of the Yugoslav army and was therefore an instrument of external aggression. With respect to Croatia, regular Croatian army forces violated the territorial integrity of Bosnia-Herzegovina, lending further evidence in support of the view that this was a case of aggression. — Steven L. Burg and Paul S. Shoup, The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina[265]

Sumantra Bose, meanwhile, argues that it is possible to characterise the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
as a civil war, without necessarily agreeing with the narrative of Serb
Serb
and Croat nationalists. He states that while "all episodes of severe violence have been sparked by 'external' events and forces, local society too has been deeply implicated in that violence" and therefore argues that "it makes relatively more sense to regard the 1992–95 conflict in Bosnia as a 'civil war' – albeit obviously with a vital dimension that is territorially external to Bosnia".[330] In the cases involving Duško Tadić and Zdravko Mucić, the ICTY concluded that the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was an international one:

[F]or the period material to this case (1992), the armed forces of the Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
were to be regarded as acting under the overall control of and on behalf of the FRY (the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Hence, even after 19 May 1992 the armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
between the Bosnian Serbs
Bosnian Serbs
and the central authorities of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
must be classified as an international armed conflict. — ICTY, Tadić judgement, 1999[331]

Similarly, in the cases involving Ivica Rajić, Tihomir Blaškić and Dario Kordić, the ICTY
ICTY
concluded that the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia
Croatia
was also an international one:

[F]or purposes of the application of the grave breaches provisions of Geneva Convention
Geneva Convention
IV, the significant and continuous military action by the armed forces of Croatia
Croatia
in support of the Bosnian Croats against the forces of the Bosnian Government on the territory of the latter was sufficient to convert the domestic conflict between the Bosnian Croats
Bosnian Croats
and the Bosnian Government into an international one. — ICTY, Rajić judgement, 1996[331]

In 2010, Bosnian Commander Ejup Ganić was detained in London on a Serbian extradition request for alleged war crimes. Judge Timothy Workman decided that Ganić should be released after ruling that Serbia's request was "politically motivated". In his decision, he characterised the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
to have been an international armed conflict as Bosnia had declared independence on 3 March 1992.[332] Academic Mary Kaldor
Mary Kaldor
argues that the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
is an example of what she terms new wars, which are neither civil nor inter-state, but rather combine elements of both.[333] In popular culture[edit]

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Film[edit] The Bosnian War
Bosnian War
has been depicted in a number of films including Hollywood films such as The Hunting Party, starring Richard Gere
Richard Gere
as journalist Simon Hunt in his bid to apprehend suspected war criminal and former Bosnian Serb
Serb
president Radovan Karadžić; Behind Enemy Lines, loosely based on the Mrkonjić Grad incident, tells about a downed US Navy pilot who uncovers a massacre while on the run from Serb
Serb
troops who want him dead; The Peacemaker, starring George Clooney and Nicole Kidman, is a story about a US Army colonel and a White House nuclear expert investigating stolen Russian nuclear weapons obtained by a revenge-fueled Yugoslav diplomat, Dušan Gavrić. In the Land of Blood and Honey, is a 2011 American film written, produced and directed by Angelina Jolie; the film was Jolie's directorial debut and it depicts a love story set against the mass rape of Muslim women in the Bosnian War. The Spanish/Italian 2013 film Twice Born, starring Penélope Cruz, based on a book by Margaret Mazzantini. It tells the story of a mother who brings her teenage son to Sarajevo, where his father died in the Bosnian conflict years ago. British films include Welcome to Sarajevo, about the life of Sarajevans during the siege. The Bosnian-British film Beautiful People directed by Jasmin Dizdar
Jasmin Dizdar
portrays the encounter between English families and arriving Bosnian refugees at the height of the Bosnian War. The film was awarded the Un Certain Regard at the 1999 Cannes Festival. The Spanish film Territorio Comanche shows the story of a Spanish TV crew during the siege of Sarajevo. The Polish film Demons of War (1998), set during the Bosnian conflict, portrays a Polish group of IFOR
IFOR
soldiers who come to help a pair of journalists tracked by a local warlord whose crimes they had taped.[citation needed] Bosnian director Danis Tanović's No Man's Land won the Best Foreign Language Film awards at the 2001 Academy Awards and the 2002 Golden Globes. The Bosnian film Grbavica, about the life of a single mother in contemporary Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in the aftermath of systematic rape of Bosniak
Bosniak
women by Serbian troops during the war, won the Golden Bear at the Berlin International Film Festival.[334][335] The 2003 film Remake, directed by Bosnian director Dino Mustafić and written by Zlatko Topčić, follows father Ahmed and son Tarik Karaga during World War II
World War II
and the Siege of Sarajevo, it premiered at the International Film Festival Rotterdam.[336][337][338] The film The Abandoned (2010), directed by Adis Bakrač and written by Zlatko Topčić, tells the story of a boy from a home for abandoned children who tries to find the truth about his origins, it being implied that he is the child of a rape. The film premiered at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.[339][340][341] The 1997 film The Perfect Circle, directed by Bosnian filmmaker Ademir Kenović, tells the story of two boys during the Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and was awarded with the François Chalais Prize at the 1997 Cannes Festival. The Serbian-American film Savior, directed by Predrag Antonijević, tells the story of an American mercenary fighting on the side of the Bosnian Serb
Serb
Army during the war. Pretty Village, Pretty Flame directed by Serbian filmmaker Srđan Dragojević, presents a bleak yet darkly humorous account of the Bosnian War. The Serbian film Life Is a Miracle, produced by Emir Kusturica, depicts the romance of a pacific Serb
Serb
station caretaker and a Muslim Bosniak
Bosniak
young woman entrusted to him as a hostage in the context of Bosniak- Serb
Serb
border clashes; it was nominated at the 2004 Cannes Festival.[citation needed] Short films such as In the Name of the Son, about a father who murders his son during the Bosnian War, and 10 Minutes, which contrasts 10 minutes of life of a Japanese tourist in Rome with a Bosnian family during the war, received acclaim for their depiction of the war.[citation needed] A number of Western films made the Bosnian conflict the background of their stories – some of those include Avenger, based on Frederick Forsyth's novel in which a mercenary tracks down a Serbian warlord responsible for war crimes, and The Peacemaker, in which a Yugoslav man emotionally devastated by the losses of war plots to take revenge on the United Nations
United Nations
by exploding a nuclear bomb in New York. The Whistleblower tells the true story of Kathryn Bolkovac, a UN peacekeeper that uncovered a human-trafficking scandal involving the United Nations
United Nations
in post-war Bosnia. Shot Through the Heart is a 1998 TV film, directed by David Attwood, shown on BBC and HBO in 1998, which covers the Siege of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
from the perspective of two Olympic-level Yugoslavian marksmen, one whom becomes a sniper.[citation needed] Drama series[edit] The award-winning British television series, Warriors, aired on BBC One in 1999. It tells the story of a group of British peacekeepers during the Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing. Many of the war's events were depicted in the Pakistani drama series, Alpha Bravo Charlie, written and directed by Shoaib Mansoor in 1998. Produced by the Inter-Services Public Relations
Inter-Services Public Relations
(ISPR), the series showed several active battlefield events and the involvement of Pakistan
Pakistan
military personnel in the UN peacekeeping missions. Alpha Bravo Charlie
Alpha Bravo Charlie
was presented on Pakistan
Pakistan
Television Corporation (PTV). Documentaries[edit] The BBC documentary series, The Death
Death
of Yugoslavia, covers the collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
from the roots of the conflict in the 1980s, to the subsequent wars and peace accords, a BBC book was issued with the same title. Other documentaries include Bernard-Henri Lévy's Bosna! about Bosnian resistance against well equipped Serbian troops at the beginning of the war; the Slovenian documentary Tunel upanja (A Tunnel of Hope) about the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tunnel constructed by the besieged citizens of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to link Sarajevo, with Bosnian government territory; the British documentary A Cry from the Grave about the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre. Portuguese director Joaquim Sapinho's documental film diary Bosnia Diaries, generated much controversy, being an unengaged European look over the Bosnian conflict in the first person.[342] Silverbullet Films worked on a documentary, Village of the Forgotten Widows, which depicts the suffering of women affected by the Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre. Watchers of the Sky
Watchers of the Sky
is a 2014 documentary about the life of Raphael Lemkin
Raphael Lemkin
and his efforts to establish genocide as a legal concept in international law. The film discusses the events in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
and General Mladić's involvement in the killings.[citation needed] Books[edit]

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Semezdin Mehmedinović's Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Blues and Miljenko Jergović's Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Marlboro are among the best known books written during the war in Bosnia. Zlata's Diary
Zlata's Diary
is a published diary kept by a young girl, Zlata Filipović, which chronicles her life in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
from 1991 to 1993. Because of the diary, she is sometimes referred to as "The Anne Frank of Sarajevo". The Bosnia List by Kenan Trebincevic and Susan Shapiro
Susan Shapiro
chronicles the war through the eyes of a Bosnian refugee returning home for the first time after 18 years in New York. Other works about the war include:

Bosnia Warriors: Living on the Front Line, by Major Vaughan Kent-Payne is an account of UN operations in Bosnia written by A British Army infantry officer who was based in Vitez, Central Bosnia for seven months in 1993.[343] Necessary Targets (by Eve Ensler) Winter Warriors – Across Bosnia with the PBI by Les Howard, a factual account by a British Territorial infantryman who volunteered to serve as a UN Peacekeeper in the latter stages of the war, and during the first stages of the NATO
NATO
led Dayton Peace Accord.[344] Pretty Birds, by Scott Simon, depicts a teenage girl in Sarajevo, once a basketball player on her high school team, who becomes a sniper. The Cellist of Sarajevo, by Steven Galloway, is a novel following the stories of four people living in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
during the war. Life's Too Short to Forgive, written in 2005 by Len Biser, follows the efforts of three people who unite to assassinate Karadzic to stop Serb atrocities. Fools Rush In, written by Bill Carter, tells the story of a man who helped bring U2 to a landmark Sarajevo
Sarajevo
concert. Evil Doesn't Live Here, by Daoud Sarhandi and Alina Boboc, presents 180 posters created by Bosnian artist which plastered walls during the war. The Avenger by Frederick Forsyth. Hotel Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by Jack Kersh. Top je bio vreo by Vladimir Kecmanović, a story of a Bosnian Serb
Serb
boy in the part of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
held by Bosnian Muslim forces during the Siege of Sarajevo. I Bog je zaplakao nad Bosnom (And God cried over Bosnia), written by Momir Krsmanović, is a depiction of war that mainly focuses on the crimes committed by Muslim people. Safe Area Goražde
Goražde
is a graphic novel by Joe Sacco
Joe Sacco
about the war in eastern Bosnia. Dampyr is an Italian comic book, created by Mauro Boselli and Maurizio Colombo and published in Italy by Sergio Bonelli Editore
Sergio Bonelli Editore
about Harlan Draka, half human, half vampire, who wages war on the multifaceted forces of Evil. The first two episodes are located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
(#1 Il figlio del Diavolo) i.e. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(#2 La stirpe della note) during the Bosnian War. Goodbye Sarajevo
Sarajevo
– A True Story of Courage, Love and Survival by Atka Reid and Hana Schofield and published in 2011, is the story of two sisters from Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and their separate experiences of the war. Love Thy Neighbor: A Story of War (by Peter Maas), published in 1997 is his account as a reporter at the height of the Bosnian War. My War Gone By, I Miss It So by Anthony Loyd is a memoir of Loyd's time spent covering the conflict as a photojournalist and writer.[345]

Music[edit] U2's "Miss Sarajevo" is among the best known pieces of music about the war in Bosnia. The song features Bono
Bono
and Luciano Pavarotti.[346] Other songs include "Bosnia" by The Cranberries, "Sarajevo" by UHF, "Christmas Eve/ Sarajevo
Sarajevo
12/24" by Savatage
Savatage
and Trans-Siberian Orchestra, "Pure Massacre" by Silverchair
Silverchair
and others. Games[edit] In 2014, in Poland, a computer game, This War of Mine, was developed, based on the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it focuses on the civilian population that survives in the besieged city. See also[edit]

List of massacres in the Bosnian War 1991 population census in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 NATO
NATO
bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Genocide Bosnian mujahideen Joint Criminal Enterprise Command responsibility High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina Land mine contamination in Bosnia and Herzegovina Peace plans offered before and during the Bosnian War Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars Foreign fighters in the Bosnian War

References[edit]

^ Wiebes, Cees (2003). Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995: Volume 1 of Studies in intelligence history. LIT Verlag. p. 195. ISBN 9783825863470. Pakistan
Pakistan
definitely defied the United Nations
United Nations
ban on supply of arms to the Bosnian Muslims and sophisticated anti-tank guided missiles were airlifted by the Pakistani intelligence agency, ISI, to help Bosnians
Bosnians
fight the Serbs.  ^ Abbas, Hassan (2015). Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror. Routledge. p. 148. ISBN 9781317463283. Javed Nasir confesses that despite the U.N. ban on supplying arms to the besieged Bosnians, he successfully airlifted sophisticated antitank guided missiles which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs
Serbs
to lift the siege.  ^ Schindler, John R. Unholy Terror. Zenith Imprint. p. 154. ISBN 9781616739645. Pakistan's notorious Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate … … violated the UN embargo and provided Bosnian Muslims with sophisticated antitank guided missiles.  ^ Ramet 2010, p. 130. ^ a b Christia 2012, p. 154. ^ Ramet 2006, p. 450. ^ a b Mulaj 2008, p. 53. ^ Finlan 2004, p. 21 ^ Ramet 2006, p. 451. ^ a b c d e f g h Calic, Marie–Janine (2012). "Ethnic Cleansing and War Crimes, 1991–1995". In Ingrao, Charles W.; Emmert, Thomas A. Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-1-55753-617-4.  Footnotes in source identify numbers as June 2012. ^ a b c d "Spolna i nacionalna struktura žrtava i ljudski gubitci vojnih formacija (1991–1996)". Prometej.  ^ After years of toil, book names Bosnian war dead ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia". Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ "ICTY: Conflict between Bosnia and Croatia".  ^ "ICJ: The genocide case: Bosnia v. Serbia
Serbia
– See Part VI – Entities involved in the events 235–241" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ a b Christia 2012, p. 172. ^ Forsythe 2009, p. 145 ^ a b CIA Report – "Ethnic Cleansing" and Atrocities in Bosnia ^ Cohen, Roger (31 August 1995). "Conflict in the Balkans: The overview; NATO
NATO
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population of the opstina.  ^ a b c "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict" (PDF).  ^ "Prosecuter v. Jadranko Prlic, Bruno Stojic, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petkovic, Valentin Coric and Berislav Pusic" (PDF). Significantly, the Trial Chamber held that a reasonable Trial Chamber, could make a finding beyond any reasonable doubt that all of these acts were committed to carry out a plan aimed at changing the ethnic balance of the areas that formed Herceg-Bosna and mainly to deport the Muslim population and other non-Croat population out of Herceg-Bosna to create an ethnically pure Croatian territory within Herceg-Bosna.  ^ Address at Potočari Memorial Cemetery Archived 3 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine., un.org, 23 June 2004. ^ Peter W. Galbraith. "Galbraith telegram" (PDF). United States Department of State.  ^ A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the massacre at Srebrenica
Srebrenica
in July 1995, thomas.loc.gov; accessed 25 April 2015. ^ "Sense Tribunal: SERBIA FOUND GUILTY OF FAILURE TO PREVENT AND PUNISH GENOCIDE". Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ Statement of the President of the Court[dead link], icj-cij.org; accessed 25 April 2015. ^ Crowe, David M. (2013). War Crimes, Genocide, and Justice: A Global History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-230-62224-1.  ^ a b c Osborn, Andrew (23 February 2001). "Mass rape ruled a war crime". London, UK: The Guardian. Retrieved 26 June 2009.  ^ a b "Hague court upholds rape charges". BBC. 12 June 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  ^ a b "Opening Statement of Senator Dick Durbin Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law Hearing on "Rape as a Weapon of War: Accountability for Sexual Violence in Conflict"". United States
United States
Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 1 April 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009.  ^ Stiglmayer, Alexandra; Marion Faber; Cynthia Enloe; Roy Gutman (1994). Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 85, 86, 198. ISBN 0-8032-9229-5.  ^ "ICTY: The attack against the civilian population and related requirements". Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2015.  ^ "The Society for Threatened Peoples (GfbV): Documentation about war crimes – Tilman Zülch". Archived from the original on 9 March 2008.  ^ 030306IA ICTY
ICTY
Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine., un.org; accessed 25 April 2015. ^ "Prosecutor v. Biljana Plavsic judgement" (PDF). Biljana Plavsic was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment.  ^ "Prosecutor v. Momcilo Krajisnik judgement" (PDF). Sentenced to 27 years' imprisonment  ^ "Prosecutor v. Duško Tadić – Judgement" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 14 July 1997. Retrieved 3 November 2009.  ^ "Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić
Radovan Karadžić
– Second Amended Indictment" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2009.  ^ "Prosecutor v. Ratko Mladic – Amended Indictment" (PDF). United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 8 November 2002. Retrieved 18 August 2009.  ^ Bowcott, Owen; Borger, Julian (2017-11-22). " Ratko Mladić
Ratko Mladić
convicted of genocide and war crimes at UN tribunal". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-11-22.  ^ "Prosecutor seeks 28-year jail term for Vojislav Šešelj". BBC News. 7 March 2012.  ^ "Milosevic charged with Bosnia genocide". BBC News. 23 November 2001.  ^ "Milosevic found dead in his cell". BBC News. 11 March 2006.  ^ Castle, Stephen (23 October 2003). "Bosnian leader was suspected of war crimes". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017.  ^ Case Information Sheet: Rasim Delić, icty.org; accessed 19 May 2015. ^ Hadzihasanovic i Kubura – sažetak - Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Celebici case: the Judgement of the Trial Chamber – press release". International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 16 November 1998. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ ""ČELEBIĆI CAMP" (IT-96-21) – case information sheet" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2009.  ^ Halilović Trial Chamber Judgement 2005, p. 8. ^ "Bosnia Opens Trial of Muslims for War Crimes" Archived 22 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Yahoo.com, 19 April 2012; retrieved 19 May 2015. ^ "Six Senior Herceg-Bosna Officials Convicted". icty.org. 29 May 2013.  ^ "Ministry: ICTY
ICTY
confirms Croatia
Croatia
wasn't responsible". EBL News. 19 July 2016.  ^ " ICTY
ICTY
denies Croatia's request to be included in Prlic et al appeal". EBL News. 19 July 2016.  ^ ICTY
ICTY
cases, indictments and proceedings Archived 6 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine., un.org; accessed 19 May 2015. ^ Serb
Serb
leader apologises in Bosnia, bbc.co.uk; accessed 19 May 2015. ^ "Croatian president apologizes to Bosnia over war". CBC. 14 April 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ "Serbian Declaration on Srebrenica Massacre
Srebrenica Massacre
an Imperfect but Important Step", International Center for Transitional Justice; accessed 19 May 2015. ^ Campbell, David (1998). "Metabosnia: Narratives of the Bosnian War". Review of International Studies. 24 (2): 261–81. doi:10.1017/S0260210598002617. JSTOR 20097522.  ^ Bose 2002, p. 21. ^ a b "Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity: Topical Digests of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia". Human Rights Watch. February 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2017.  ^ Workman, Timothy (27 July 2010). "The Government of the Republic of Serbia
Serbia
vs. Ejup Ganić" (PDF). City of Westminster Magistrates' Court. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2011.  ^ Kaldor, Mary (2007). New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 0-7456-3863-5.  ^ Hak, Andrea (5 November 2016). "5 Bosnian Films You Need to See". Culture Trip. Retrieved 24 October 2017.  ^ "Women in love". The Economist. 16 November 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2017.  ^ "IFFR: "Remake"". iffr.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "32. Internacionalni Film Festival Rotterdam". sarajevo-X.com. 22 January 2003. Retrieved 27 August 2015.  ^ "Dino Mustafić novo je veliko ime evropske kinematografije: Njegov film "Remake" najgledaniji je u Rotterdamu". infobiro.ba. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 26 August 2015.  ^ "KVIFF PROGRAMME". kviff.com. 8 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "The Abandoned". filmneweurope.com. 5 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ "Svjetska premijera filma "Ostavljeni" Adisa Bakrača". klix.ba. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2017.  ^ Infos at rosafilmes.pt: click on "ENG", then on "DIRECTORS", then on "JOAQUIM SAPINHO" ^ Whitaker, Raymond (12 April 1998). "Painful lessons in how to say no". The Independent. Retrieved 19 November 2016.  ^ Barnes, Mark (September 25, 2013). "Winter Warriors – Across Bosnia with the PBI review". War History Online. Retrieved 9 April 2016.  ^ My War Gone By, I Miss It So. ASIN 0140298541. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link) ^ "Just the 2 of U". The Irish Times. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2009. 

Sources[edit] Books[edit]

Bartos, Otomar J.; Wehr, Paul (2002). Using Conflict Theory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79446-6.  Bethlehem, Daniel; Weller, Marc (1997). The Yugoslav Crisis in International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521463041.  Bjarnason, Magnus (2001). The War and War-games in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
from 1992 to 1995: The Main Events, Disagreements and Arguments, Resulting in a "de Facto" Divided Country. M. Bjarnason. ISBN 978-9979-60-669-7.  Bose, Sumantra (2002). Bosnia After Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1-85065-585-5.  Bose, Sumantra (2009). Contested Lands. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02856-2.  Burg, Steven L.; Shoup, Paul S. (2015). Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention: Crisis in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1990-93. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-47101-1.  Burg, Steven L.; Shoup, Paul S. (1999). The War in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ethnic Conflict and International Intervention (2nd ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-3189-3.  Caspersen, Nina (2010). Contested Nationalism: Serb
Serb
Elite Rivalry in Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia in the 1990s. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-791-4.  Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis (2002). Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. ISBN 978-0-16-066472-4.  Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis (2002). Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995, Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. ISBN 978-0-16-066472-4.  Christia, Fotini (2012). Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-13985-175-6.  Donia, Robert J. (2006). Sarajevo: A Biography. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11557-X.  Finlan, Alastair (2004). The Collapse of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
1991–1999. Osprey Publishing. Retrieved 16 February 2013.  Forsythe, David P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Human Rights. 1. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 May 2013.  Hammond, Philip (2007). Framing Post- Cold War
Cold War
Conflicts: The Media and International Intervention. Manchester: Manchester University
Manchester University
Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-7696-1.  Harris, Paul (1995). Cry Bosnia. Canongate. ISBN 0-86241-564-0.  Hoff, Lee Ann (2009). Violence and Abuse Issues: Cross-Cultural Perspectives for Health and Social Services. Routledge. Retrieved 18 February 2013.  Mulaj, Klejda (2008). Politics of Ethnic Cleansing: Nation-state Building and Provision of In/security in Twentieth-century Balkans. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-1782-8.  Wood, Elisabeth J. (2013). Miranda A.H Horvath, Jessica Woodhams, ed. Handbook on the Study of Multiple Perpetrator Rape: A multidisciplinary response to an international problem. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-50044-9.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2010). Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-48750-4.  Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918–2005. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8.  Why Bosnia? Writings on the Balkan War. Stony Creek, CT: The Pamphleteer's Press, Inc. 1993. ISBN 0-9630587-9-7.  Rogel, Carole (1998). The Breakup of Yugoslavia
Breakup of Yugoslavia
and the War in Bosnia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29918-6.  Schindler, John R. (2007). Unholy Terror: Bosnia, Al-Qa'ida, and the Rise of Global Jihad. New York City: Zenith Press. ISBN 9780760330036.  Shrader, Charles R. (2003). The Muslim-Croat Civil War in Central Bosnia: A Military History, 1992–1994. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-1-58544-261-4.  Tanner, Marcus (2001). Croatia: A Nation Forged in War. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09125-0.  Trbovich, Ana S. (2008). A Legal Geography of Yugoslavia's Disintegration. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-533343-5.  Wiebes, Cees (2003). Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3-8258-6347-0. 

Journals[edit]

Krišto, Jure (April 2011). "Deconstructing a myth: Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
and Bosnia and Herzegovina". Review of Croatian History. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Institute of History. 6 (1): 37–66.  Marijan, Davor (2004). "Expert Opinion: On the War Connections of Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1991–1995)". Journal of Contemporary History. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Institute of History. 36: 249–289.  Meznaric, Silva; Zlatkovic Winter, Jelena (February 1993). "Forced Migration and Refugee Flows in Croatia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Bosnia-Herzegovina: Early Warning, Beginning and Current State of Flows". Refuge. 12 (7): 3–4.  Sadkovich, James J. (January 2007). " Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
and the Muslim-Croat War of 1993". Review of Croatian History. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Institute of History. 2 (1): 204–245. ISSN 1845-4380.  Tomas, Mario; Nazor, Ante (October 2013). "Prikaz i analiza borbi na bosanskoposavskom bojištu 1992" [Analysis of the Military Conflict on the Bosnian- Posavina
Posavina
Battlefront in 1992]. Scrinia Slavonica. Zagreb, Croatia: Croatian Historical Institute – Department of History of Slavonia, Srijem and Baranja. 13 (1): 277–315. ISSN 1848-9109. 

Other sources[edit]

"Appeals Chamber Judgement in the Case The Prosecutor v. Tihomir Blaškić" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 29 July 2004.  "Prosecutor v. Ćurić Enes, Demirović Ibrahim, Kreso Samir, Čopelja Habib and Kaminić Mehmed". The Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 2015.  "Judgement Summary for Rasim Delić" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 15 September 2008.  "Summary of the Judgement for Enver Hadžihasanović and Amir Kubura" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 15 March 2006.  "Judgement in the Case The Prosecutor v. Sefer Halilović" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 16 Nov 2005.  "Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić" (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. 24 March 2016.  "Appeals Chamber Judgement in the Case The Prosecutor v. Dario Kordić and Mario Čerkez" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 17 December 2004.  "Appeals Chamber Judgement in the Case The Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstić" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 19 April 2004.  "Prosecutor v. Ratko Mladić" (PDF). The Hague: International Criminal tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. 22 November 2017.  "Summary of the Sentencing Judgement for Ivica Rajić" (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 8 May 2006. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bosnian War.

Future of Bosnia and Hercegovina Balkan Insight War in the Balkans, 1991–2002[dead link] – 4. The Land of Hate: Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1992–95, R. Craig Nation (2003) Summary of the ICTY
ICTY
verdicts related to the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Summary of the ICTY
ICTY
verdicts related to the conflict between Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Croatia List of people missing from the war at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 3 April 2009) UN report on prison camps during the war Open UN document on Serb
Serb
atrocities towards non-Serbs Roy, Pinaki. " Bosnian War
Bosnian War
Requiems: Snippets of the Balkan Commemorations". The Atlantic Critical Review Quarterly. 10(4), October–December 2011. pp. 95–115. ISBN 978-81-269-1675-7, ISSN 0972-6373. "Serbian War Crime Testimonies". Archived from the original on 1 December 2001. Retrieved 2006-06-16. [infringing link?] Through My Eyes Website Imperial War Museum – Online Exhibition (Including images, video and interviews with refugees from the war in Bosnia) Map of Europe showing the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(omniatlas.com) "Quest For War, and One Green Beret's Subsequent Evolution" contains insights on postwar activities by "Joint Commissioned Observers" Targeting History and Memory, SENSE – Transitional Justice Center  (dedicated to the study, research, and documentation of the destruction and damage of historic heritage during the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. The website contains judicial documents from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
(ICTY)).

Related films[edit]

Warriors on IMDb

v t e

Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Belligerents

Bosnian side

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps

Paramilitary

Patriotic League Green Berets Black Swans Mujahideen Croatian Defence Forces

Croat side

Croatian Defence Council

1OZ 2OZ 3OZ 4OZ

Paramilitary

Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb
Serb
side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Corps Sarajevo-Romanija Corps Drina
Drina
Corps

Paramilitary

Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb
Serb
Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps

Prelude

Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb
Serb
Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo

1992

Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča
Foča
massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik
Zvornik
massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing Sarajevo
Sarajevo
column incident Siege of Goražde Graz
Graz
agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla
Tuzla
column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad
Višegrad
massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica
Srebrenica
shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva
Neretva
'93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla
Tuzla
shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Timeline of the Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War)

Category Commons

v t e

Yugoslav Wars

Overview Participants People

Wars and conflicts

Slovenian War of Independence
Independence
(1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Kosovo War
Kosovo War
(1998–99) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
(2001)

Background:

Timeline of Yugoslav breakup Josip Broz Tito Brotherhood and unity League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatian Spring SANU Memorandum Contributions for the Slovenian National Program Anti-bureaucratic revolution JBTZ-trial Gazimestan speech RAM Plan Breakup of Yugoslavia Karađorđevo agreement Graz
Graz
agreement Joint Criminal Enterprise Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars

Consequences:

Brioni Agreement Dayton Agreement Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY)

List of ICTY
ICTY
indictees

Human rights in Croatia Human rights in Serbia

Articles on nationalism:

Ethnic cleansing Greater Albania Greater Croatia United Macedonia Greater Serbia United Slovenia Anti-Serbian sentiment Islamophobia Albanian nationalism Bosnianism Croatian nationalism Macedonian nationalism Montenegrin nationalism Serbian nationalism Serbian–Montenegrin unionism Slovenian nationalism Yugoslavism

Ex-Yugoslav republics:

  Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(SFRY)

 Croatia  Slovenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Macedonia   Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(FRY)

Unrecognized entities:

  Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
(RSK)

SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia SAO Krajina SAO Western Slavonia

  Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS)

SAO Bosanska Krajina SAO Herzegovina SAO North-Eastern Bosnia SAO Romanija

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Herzeg-Bosnia
(HRHB) Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (APZB)

United Nations
United Nations
protectorate:

United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Kosovo
(UNMIK)

Armies:

Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) Yugoslav Territorial Defence (TO) Slovenian Territorial Defence
Slovenian Territorial Defence
(TORS) Yugoslav Army
Yugoslav Army
(VJ) Croatian Army
Croatian Army
(HV) BiH Territorial Defence (TORBIH) Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(ARBiH) Army of Republika Srpska
Army of Republika Srpska
(VRS) Army of the Republic of Serb
Serb
Krajina (SVK) Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
(HVO)

Military formations and volunteers:

Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS) White Eagles Serb
Serb
Guard (SG) Serb
Serb
Volunteer Guard (SDG) Scorpions Yellow Wasps Greek Volunteer Guard Wolves of Vučjak

External factors:

NATO United Nations
United Nations
(UN)

United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR) United Nations
United Nations
Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO)

Politicians:

Ante Marković Borisav Jović Slobodan Milošević Momir Bulatović Milo Đukanović Vuk Drašković Milan Kučan Lojze Peterle Janez Janša Franjo Tuđman Stjepan Mesić Ante Paradžik
Ante Paradžik
† Dobroslav Paraga Alija Izetbegović Mate Boban Fikret Abdić Radovan Karadžić Biljana Plavšić Momčilo Krajišnik Mirko Jović Jovan Rašković
Jovan Rašković
† Milan Babić Goran Hadžić Milan Martić Vojislav Šešelj

Top military commanders:

Veljko Kadijević Života Panić Momčilo Perišić Janko Bobetko Martin Špegelj Gojko Šušak Mile Novaković Mile Mrkšić Ratko Mladić Rasim Delić Sefer Halilović Atif Dudaković Dragoljub Ojdanić Nebojša Pavković Vladimir Lazarević

Other notable commanders:

Blago Zadro
Blago Zadro
 † Blaž Kraljević
Blaž Kraljević
† Ante Gotovina Jovan Divjak Naser Orić Veselin Šljivančanin Milan Tepić
Milan Tepić
 † Đorđe Božović  † Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Veljko Milanković
Veljko Milanković
† Ljubiša Savić Dragan Vasiljković Željko Ražnatović Milorad Ulemek

Key foreign figures:

Lord Carrington Cyrus Vance Lord Owen Richard Holbrooke Robert Badinter

v t e

Croatian War of Independence

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Prelude

Log Revolution SAO Krajina

1991

Pakrac clash Plitvice Lakes incident 1991 siege of Kijevo Battle of Borovo Selo 1991 riot in Zadar 1991 protest in Split SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Operation Stinger Dalj massacre Operation Labrador SAO Western Slavonia Battle of Vukovar Battle of Osijek Battle of Gospić Battle of Kusonje Battle of the Barracks Siege of Varaždin Barracks Siege of Bjelovar Barracks Battle of Zadar Battle of Šibenik 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia Siege of Dubrovnik Bombing of Banski dvori Široka Kula massacre Lovas massacre Gospić massacre Baćin massacre Saborsko massacre Operation Otkos 10 Battle of Logorište Erdut massacre Battle of the Dalmatian channels Kostrići massacre Škabrnja massacre Vukovar massacre Vance plan Operation Whirlwind Paulin Dvor massacre Gornje Jame massacre Operation Orkan 91 Voćin massacre Joševica massacre Operation Devil's Beam Bruška massacre

1992

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Agreement 1992 European Community Monitor Mission helicopter downing Operation Baranja Operation Jackal Battle of the Miljevci Plateau Operation Tiger (1992) Operation Liberated Land Battle of Konavle Operation Vlaštica

1993–94

Operation Maslenica Daruvar Agreement Operation Backstop Operation Medak Pocket Z-4 Plan Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Operation Flash Zagreb rocket attack Operation Leap 2 Operation Summer '95 Operation Storm Operation Maestral 2 Varivode massacre

Timeline of the Croatian War of Independence

Internment camps

Begejci camp Bučje camp Knin
Knin
camp Lora prison camp Ovčara camp Sremska Mitrovica prison camp Stajićevo camp Velepromet camp

Other

Independence
Independence
of Croatia Persecution of Croats
Croats
in Serbia
Serbia
during the war in Croatia

Category Commons

v t e

Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars

Belligerents

Bosnian side

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps

Paramilitary

Patriotic League Green Berets Black Swans Mujahideen Croatian Defence Forces

Croat side

Croatian Defence Council

1OZ 2OZ 3OZ 4OZ

Paramilitary

Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb
Serb
side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Corps Sarajevo-Romanija Corps Drina
Drina
Corps

Paramilitary

Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb
Serb
Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps

Prelude

Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb
Serb
Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo
Sarajevo
wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo

1992

Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča
Foča
massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik
Zvornik
massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor
Prijedor
ethnic cleansing Sarajevo
Sarajevo
column incident Siege of Goražde Graz
Graz
agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla
Tuzla
column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad
Višegrad
massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre

1993

Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica
Srebrenica
shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva
Neretva
'93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings

1994

Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka
Banja Luka
incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94

1995

Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla
Tuzla
shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica
Srebrenica
massacre

Kravica

Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno

Aspects

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Timeline of the Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat– Bosniak
Bosniak
War)

Category Commons

Category Commons

v t e

Post– Cold War
Cold War
European conflicts

Eastern Europe

Transnistria War
Transnistria War
(1992) Russian constitutional crisis (1993) Moldova civil unrest (2009) Ukrainian revolution (2013-14) Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Russian military intervention in Ukraine
(2014–)

Annexation of Crimea (2014) War in Donbas (2014-)

Western Europe

Basque conflict
Basque conflict
(1959–2011) The Troubles
The Troubles
(1968–1998) Dissident Irish Republican Campaign (1998–present) France-ISIL conflict (2014–present)

Yugoslav Wars

Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–95)

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War
(1992–94)

Southeastern Europe (after Yugoslav Wars)

Albanian Rebellion (1997) Kosovo War
Kosovo War
(1998–99) Albania–Yugoslav border incident (April 1999) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) Insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
(2001) 2004 unrest in Kosovo Macedonian inter-ethnic violence (2012)

North Caucasus

East Prigorodny Conflict
East Prigorodny Conflict
(1992) Chechen–Russian conflict
Chechen–Russian conflict
(1785–2017)

First Chechen War
First Chechen War
(1994–96) War of Dagestan
War of Dagestan
(1999) Second Chechen War
Second Chechen War
(1999–2009)

War in Ingushetia
War in Ingushetia
(2007–2015) Insurgency in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
(2009–2017)

South Caucasus

South Ossetia War (1991–92) Georgian Civil War
Georgian Civil War
(1991–93) Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
Abkhaz–Georgian conflict
(1989–present)

Wars in Abkhazia

1992–93 1998

Pankisi Gorge crisis
Pankisi Gorge crisis
(2002–04) Russia–Georgia War (2008) Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
(1988–present)

Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
(1988–94) 2016 clashes

Abkhazian Revolution (2014)

Related topics

Colour revolutions War on Terror

Asian conflicts African conflicts Conflicts in the Americas

v t e

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
topics

History

Illyricum Bosnian Kingdom Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina Kingdom of Yugoslavia World War II Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian War Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geography

Cities Mountains Extreme points Rivers Lakes Climate Protected areas Fauna

Governance

Administrative divisions

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska

Constitution Parliament Politics Presidency

Chairman

Council of Ministers

Chairman

Elections Political parties Foreign relations Government Law enforcement Armed Forces

Economy

Currency Central Bank Communications Tourism Transport

Society

Bosnians
Bosnians
(Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs) Demographics Ethnic groups Religion Languages Education Human rights LGBT rights

LGBT history

Culture

Architecture National monuments Art Cinema Music Cuisine (Ćevapi) Bosnian language Literature Public holidays Radio Television Symbols National Flag Coat of arms Anthem Decorations and medals

v t e

Yugoslavia articles

History

Timeline Creation Kingdom

6 January Dictatorship

World War II

Invasion Partisans Chetniks Belgrade Offensive

SFR Yugoslavia

Tito–Stalin Split Balkan Pact

Yugoslavism

Yugoslavs

in Serbia

Yugoslav irredentism Yugoslav Committee

Breakup

Yugoslav Wars
Yugoslav Wars
(1991–1999) Croatian independence

War (1991–1995)

Slovenian independence ( Ten-Day War
Ten-Day War
(June–July 1991) Brijuni Agreement) Macedonian independence (1991) Bosnian independence (War (1992–1995) Dayton Agreement) Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro (1992–2006)

Politics

Administrative divisions

Kingdom

Constitution

1921 1931 1946 1953 1963 1974

Elections Federal Executive Council

Prime Minister

Foreign relations ( Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and NAM) Governments Heads of state Human rights

LGBT

Parliament

Titoism Đilasism Rankovićism

Political parties

League of Communists

Presidency Security

counterintelligence

Military

History Army (1918–1945 1945–1992 ranks (Marshal)) Navy (1918–1945 1945–1992) Air Force (1918–1945 1945–1992) Territorial Defense

Economy

Agriculture Computer systems (SFRY) Dinar (currency) Energy Industry Krone (currency) Mining National Bank

governors

Services Stock Exchange Telecommunications

Internet domain

Tourism Transport

Society

Demographics (SFRY) Education (SFRY) Healthcare Minorities Postal codes Public holidays Yugoslavs

list

Languages

Macedonian Serbo-Croatian

Bosnian Croatian Montenegrin Serbian

Slovene (Slovenian)

Culture

Academy Architecture Art Cinema

films

Drama Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia Folklore Music

composers

National costume Philosophy Religion Sport

football

Yugoslav Radio Television

Cuisine

Bosnian Croatian

wine

Macedonian

wine

Montenegrin

wine

Serbian

wine

Slovenian

wine

Literature

Bosnian Croatian Macedonian Montenegrin Serbian Slovene Poets

Symbols

Anthem (1918–1945 1945–1992) Coat of arms Flag of Yugoslavia

List

Motto Orders, decorations, and medals of SFR Yugoslavia

.