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The Croats
Croats
of Bosnia and Herzegovina, often referred to as the Bosnian Croats, are the third most populous ethnic group in that country after Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Serbs, and are one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[1] Croats
Croats
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
have made significant contributions to the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Their mother tongue is Croatian, and they identify as Roman Catholic. From the 15th to the 19th century, Catholics in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
were often persecuted under the Ottoman Empire,[citation needed] causing many of them to flee the area. In the 20th century, political turmoil and poor economic conditions caused more to emigrate. Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the 1990s saw Croats
Croats
forced to different parts of Bosnia-Herzegovina, although having lived in numerous regions prior to the Bosnian War. According to the report by the Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
statistics office, on the census of 2013 there were 544,780 Croats
Croats
living in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Kingdom of Croatia 1.2 High and late middle age 1.3 Ottoman Empire 1.4 Austria-Hungary 1.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1.6 World War II 1.7 Socialist Yugoslavia 1.8 Bosnian War

2 Demographics

2.1 Municipalities 2.2 Cantons 2.3 Demographic history

2.3.1 Medieval Bosnia and Ottoman Empire 2.3.2 Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Kingdom of Yugoslavia 2.3.3 Communist Yugoslavia 2.3.4 Bosnian War

3 Education 4 Language 5 Politics

5.1 State level 5.2 Federal level 5.3 Political parties 5.4 Open issues

6 Culture

6.1 Art

6.1.1 Literature 6.1.2 Music

6.2 Religion 6.3 Sport

7 See also 8 References

History[edit] Main article: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina Kingdom of Croatia[edit]

Coronation of King Tomislav, painted by Oton Iveković

Croats
Croats
settled the areas of modern Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the 7th century.[3][4][5] There, they assimilated with native Illyrians
Illyrians
and Romans during the great migration of the Slavs.[4][6] The Croats
Croats
adopted Christianity
Christianity
and began to develop their own culture, art, and political institutions, culminating in their own kingdom, which consisted of two principalities: Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
in the north, and Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
in the south. Red Croatia, to the south, was land of a few minor states. One of the most important events of the Croats
Croats
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the early Middle Ages is the First Croatian Assembly held in 753 in Županjac (present-day Tomislavgrad).[7] The second major event was the coronation of Tomislav, the first King of Croatia, in ca. 925, in the fields of Županjac.[8] By this act, Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
and Dalmatian Croatia
Croatia
formed a united Croatian kingdom, which included Dalmatia and part of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Pannonia (eastern Slavonia and northeastern Bosnia), and Savia (western Slavonia).[4] High and late middle age[edit] In 1102 Croatia
Croatia
entered into a union with the Kingdom of Hungary. After this, Bosnia, which was earlier part of the Kingdom of Croatia,[9] started to disassociate with Croatia. At first, Bosnia become a separate principality under Ban Kulin
Ban Kulin
who managed to solidify Bosnian autonomy at the expense of more powerful neighbours, but only in the 14th century did Bosnia become a formidable state. In the 14th century, King Tvrtko I conquered part of western Serbia and later part of the Kingdom of Croatia,[10] which he accomplished by defeating various Croatian nobles and supporting Hungary.[11] Thus, the Kingdom of Bosnia emerged, but part of present territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
remained in the Kingdom of Hungary. Regarding religion, Bosnia was closer to Croatia
Croatia
than the Orthodox lands to the east, and the Diocese of Bosnia is mentioned as Catholic in the 11th century, and later fell under the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Split and in the 12th Century under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dubrovnik. Another connection of Bosnia with Croatia
Croatia
is that Bosnian rulers always used the political title "Ban Kulin" in similarity with their Croatian counterparts.[12] The specific religion in medieval Bosnia was Bogomilism
Bogomilism
and Bosnian Church, so some of the notable feudal lords in Medieval Bosnia were followers of this religion, such as Duke Hrvoje Hrvatinić.[13] Due to the scarcity of historical records, there are no definite figures dealing with the religious composition of medieval Bosnia. However, some Croat scholars suggest that a majority of Bosnia's medieval population were Catholics who, according to Zlopaša, accounted for 700,000 of 900,000 of the total Bosnian population.[dubious – discuss] Some 100,000 were Bogomils and other 100,000 were Orthodox Christians.[14] Ottoman Empire[edit]

The migration of the Catholic people from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
after the Ottoman takeover.

In the middle of the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
started to conquer Bosnia. In 1451 they took Vrhbosna
Vrhbosna
province and conquered Bosnia in 1463. Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was conquered in 1481, while northern Bosnia was still under Hungary and Croatia
Croatia
until 1527, when it was conquered by the Ottomans.[15] After the Turkish conquest, many Catholic Bosnians converted to Islam,[16] and their numbers in some areas shrank as many fled from fear of conversion and persecution. The Ottoman conquest changed the demographics of Bosnia and Herzegovina, reducing the number of Catholics, and eliminating the Bosnian Church, whose members apparently converted to Islam en masse.[14] The present-day boundaries of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
were made in 1699, when the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
was signed in order to establish peace between the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Ottoman Empire. Another significant event for Bosnian Croats
Croats
is the boundary established by an agreement between the Republic of Ragusa
Republic of Ragusa
and the Ottoman Empire, where Ragusans promised to give in part of their territory in Neum
Neum
to the Ottomans in order to protect themselves from the Republic of Venice.[17] The activity of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was limited, while the Ottomans preferred the Orthodox Church because Catholicism was the faith of Austria, the Ottoman enemies, while Orthodoxy was common in Bosnia, and thus it was more acceptable to the Ottomans. In the first 50 years of Ottoman rule, many Catholics fled from Bosnia.[18] A number of Catholics also converted to Orthodox Christianity.[19] Franciscans were only Catholic priests to be active in Bosnia. Before the Ottomans arrived in Bosnia, there was 35 Franciscan
Franciscan
monasteries in Bosnia and four in Herzegovina. Some monasteries were destroyed and some were converted to mosques.[citation needed] In the 1680s there were only 10 Franciscan
Franciscan
monasteries left in Bosnia. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Bosnia divided its administration into two dioceses, one was the Croatian Bosnia diocese, part which was not conquered by the Ottomans, and other was Bosna Srebrena
Bosna Srebrena
diocese.[20] Between 1516 and 1524, a planned persecution and forced Islamization of Catholics occurred in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[21] In that year, Franciscan
Franciscan
monasteries in Kraljeva Sutjeska, Visoko, Fojnica, Kreševo and Konjic, and later in Mostar. It is believed that during that time, some 100,000 Croats
Croats
converted to Islam. In 1528 the Ottomans conquered Jajce
Jajce
and Banja Luka, thus destroying the Croatian defence line on Vrbas river. After that conquest, Croatia
Croatia
reduced to around 37,000 km². During the 18th century, Turkish rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
started to weaken, and after the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
their rule rapidly decreased; the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
lost its demographic, civilization, and other reserves for military and territorial expansion, while the Austrian Empire, as the rest of the European countries, gained them. From 1815 to 1878 the Ottoman's authority in Bosnia and Herzegovina was decreasing. After the reorganization of the Ottoman army and abolition of the Jannisaries, Bosnian nobility revolted, led by Husein Gradaščević, who wanted to establish autonomy in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and to stop any further social reforms. During the 19th Century, various reforms were made in order to increase freedom of religion which sharpened relations between of Catholics and Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Soon, economic decay would happen and nationalist influence from Europe came to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the state administration was very disorganized and the national conscience was very strong among the Christian population, the Ottoman Empire lost control over Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 19 June 1875 Catholic Croats, led by Don Ivan Musić,[22] revolted because of high taxes in West Herzegovina. Their goal was to subordinate Bosnia to the rule of the Emperor of Austria, respectively King of Croatia. During the revolt, for the first time Bosnian Croats
Croats
used the flag of Croatia.[23] Soon after, the Orthodox population in East Herzegovina also revolted, which led to the Herzegovina
Herzegovina
Uprising. The Ottoman authorities were unable to defeat the rebels, so Serbia and Montenegro took advantage of this weakness and attacked the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1876, soon after the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
did the same. The Turks lost the war in 1878, and this resulted in over 150,000 refugees who went to Croatia.[24] After the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
was held in same year, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[25] Austria-Hungary[edit] Even after the fall of the Ottoman rule, the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was divided.[26] In the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia, Croatian politicians strived for the unification of the Kingdom of Dalmatia with Croatia. Another ambition of Croatian politicians was to incorporate the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
into the Kingdom of Croatia. The Habsburg Governor Béni Kállay
Béni Kállay
resorted to co-opt religious institutions. Soon, the Austrian Emperor gained support to name Orthodox metropolitans and Catholic bishops and to choose Muslim hierarchy.[27] The first Catholic archbishop was Josip Stadler.[28] Both apostolic vicarates, Bosnian and Herzegovinian, were abolished, and instead three dioceses were founded; Vrhbosna
Vrhbosna
diocese with a seat in Sarajevo, Banja Luka
Banja Luka
diocese with a seat in Banja Luka
Banja Luka
and Mostar-Duvno diocese with a seat in Mostar
Mostar
. At the time, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was facing a Habsburg attempt at modernization. Between 180,000 and 200,000 people inhabited Bosnia and Herzegovina, the majority were Croats, Serbs, Muslims and in smaller percentages Slovenes, Czechs
Czechs
and others.[27] During this period, the most significant event is Bosnian entry to European political life and the shaping of ethnic Croats
Croats
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
into a modern nation. At the end of the 19th century, Bosnian Croats
Croats
founded various reading, cultural and singing societies, and at the beginning of the 20th century, a new Bosnian Croat intelligentsia played a major role in the political life of Croats. The Croatian Support Society for Needs of Students of Middle Schools and High Schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
was founded in 1902, and in 1907 it was merged with Croatian Society for Education of Children in Craft and Trade, also founded in 1902, into Croatian Cultural Society Napredak (Progress). Napredak educated and gave scholarships to more than 20,000 students. Students of Napredak were not only Bosnian Croats, but also Croats from other regions.[29] Kallay tried to unify all Bosnians into a single nation of Bosniaks, but he failed to do so after Bosnians created their national political parties.[27] Before the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 1908, the Croat People's Union (HNZ) become a political party; its ideology was very similar to that of the Croatian-Serbian Coalition in Croatia. In 1909, Stadler opposed such a policy and founded a new political party, the Croat Catholic Association (HKU), an opponent of the secular HNZ. HKU emphasized clerical ideals and religious exclusivity.[30] However, Bosnian Croats
Croats
mostly supported the secular nationalist policy of the HNZ.[31] HNZ and Muslim Nation Organization formed a coalition which ruled the country from 1911 until the dissolution of the Bosnian parliament in 1914.[32] Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

People gathered waiting for Stjepan Radić
Stjepan Radić
to arrive in Mostar
Mostar
in 1925

After World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
became part of the internationally unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs which existed between October and December 1918. In December 1918, this state united with the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
as Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes,[33]which was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
in 1929.[34] This new state was characterized by Serbian nationalism, and was a form of "Greater Serbia". Serbs held control over armed forces and politics of the state.[35] With around 40% Serbs living in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbian leadership of the state wanted to implement a Serbian hegemony in this region. Bosnian Croats
Croats
constituted around a quarter of the total Bosnian population, but they did not have a single municipality president.[36] The regime of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was characterized by limited parliamentarism, drastic elective manipulations and later King Alexander's 6 January Dictatorship, state robbery present outside Serbia and political killings (Milan Šufflay, Ivo Pilar) and corruption. Yugoslavia was preoccupied with political struggles, which led to the collapse of the state after Dušan Simović
Dušan Simović
organized a coup in March 1941 and after which Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia. King Alexander was killed in 1934, which led to the end of dictatorship. In 1939, faced with killings, corruption scandals, violence and the failure of centralized policy, the Serbian leadership agreed a compromise with Croats. On 24 August 1939, the president of the Croatian Peasant Party, Vladko Maček
Vladko Maček
and Dragiša Cvetković
Dragiša Cvetković
made an agreement (Cvetković-Maček agreement) according to which Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
was created on territory of Sava and Littoral Banovina
Littoral Banovina
and on districts of Dubrovnik, Šid, Brčko, Ilok, Gradačac, Derventa, Travnik
Travnik
and Fojnica. Around 30% of the present-day territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
become part of Banovina of Croatia. Those parts had a Croatian majority. Creation of Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
was one of the solutions to the "Croatian issue".[37] World War II[edit] Further information: World War II in Yugoslavia
World War II in Yugoslavia
and Independent State of Croatia After the collapse of Yugoslavia amidst German and Italian invasion in April 1941, the Axis puppet state which encompassed the entire Bosnia and Herzegovina, Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
(NDH) under the radical Croat nationalist ustaša regime was established. Bosnian Croats
Croats
were divided, as some supported NDH, some actively opposed it by joining or supporting the Yugoslav Partisans, while others chose to wait, not attracted either by fascist ustaše or communist-led resistance. After ustaše campaign of ethnic cleansing and terror, targeting Serbs, Jews, and Roma, a brutal civil war ensued. Ustaše regime also persecuted any opponents or dissidents among Bosnian Croats, especially communists, pre-war members of the now-banned Croatian Peasant Party, and those connected with the partisan resistance. Ustaše executed many Bosnian Croats, for instance, resistance fighters and supporters Jakov Dugandžić, Mostar's Ljubo Brešan[38] and 19-year old Mostar
Mostar
gymnasium student Ante Zuanić,[39] as well as a prominent Mostar
Mostar
CPP member Blaž Slišković (in Jasenovac concentration camp).[40] Prominent Croat communist intellectual from Bosnia, Ognjen Prica, was shot by Ustaše in Kerestinec prison. Families of Bosnian Croats
Croats
who left to join the partisan resistance were usually interned or sent to concentration camps by ustase authorities.[41] Numerous Bosnian Croats
Croats
joined the partisan movement, fighting against the Axis forces and ustaše regime. Some of them included people's heroes such as Franjo Kluz, Ivan Marković Irac, Stipe Đerek, Karlo Batko, Ante Šarić "Rade Španac" and others. From the very beginning of the uprising against the Axis, many Bosnian Croats
Croats
became commanders of partisan units, even as the units were predominantly Serb ones (e.g., Josip Mažar-Šoša, Ivica Marušić-Ratko etc.).[42] At the end of 1977, 8.8% of Bosnian recipients of veteran's pensions were Croats,[43] while during the WWII Croats
Croats
composed around 23% of the country's population. The territory that partisans liberated and managed to keep under their control from November 1942 to January 1943 (dubbed the Republic of Bihać) included all of rural Western Herzegovina
Herzegovina
west of Neretva
Neretva
and Široki Brijeg, inluding Livno. Livno and its area, under partisan control from August to October 1942, was very important for Bosnian Croat resistance, as key CPP members Florijan Sučić and Ivan Pelivan joined the resistance and mobilized many other Croats.[44] Bosnian Croats' representatives, among which Mostar
Mostar
lawyer Cvitan Spužević, also actively participated in the provisional assembly of the country, ZAVNOBiH
ZAVNOBiH
(State Anti-fascist Council for the National Liberation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). ZAVNOBiH
ZAVNOBiH
proclaimed the statehood of Bosnia- Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and equality of Bosniaks, Croats
Croats
and Serbs in the country in its historic session in 1943. After the partisans liberated most of Yugoslavia and NDH collapsed in May 1945, some NDH soldiers and civilians retreated to the British-occupied zone in Austria near Bleiburg. Many of them were killed in reprisals by the Yugoslav partisans in an event remembered as the Bleiburg
Bleiburg
massacre.[45] In the closing stages of the war and the immediate aftermath, some Bosnian Croats
Croats
who previously supported the ustaše regime or were merely perceived as potential opponents of the new communist Yugoslavia were persecuted or executed (notably, Herzegovina
Herzegovina
friars). Total casualties and losses of Bosnian Croats
Croats
in the WWII and the aftermath are estimated at 64-79.000.[46] According to Vladimir Žerjavić, 17.000 Bosnian Croats
Croats
died in partisan ranks, 22.000 in NDH forces, while 25.000 lost their lives as civilians; of civilians, almost ¾ or 19.000 died as a result of Axis terror or in ustaše concentration camps.[47] Socialist Yugoslavia[edit] Main article: Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina After the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
became one of the 6 constitutive republics of Socialist Yugoslavia. Intensive state campaign of nationalization of property, followed by industrialization and urbanization variously affected Bosnian Croats. While some centers and areas prospered, other rural areas underwent depopulation and urban flight, as well as (most notably western Herzegovina) high rates of emigration to the Western world. Office holders usually rotated among the three ethnic communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the 1980s, many Bosnian Croat politicians were in high positions - for instance, Ante Marković, Branko Mikulić, and Mato Andrić. Bosnian War[edit]

HVO soldier fires a 122mm Howitzer D-30J

Citizens of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
voted for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in the referendum that was held between 29 February and 1 March 1992.[48] The referendum question was: "Are you in favor of a sovereign and independent Bosnia-Herzegovina, a state of equal citizens and nations of Muslims, Serbs, Croats
Croats
and others who live in it?"[49] Independence was strongly favoured by Bosniak and Bosnian Croat voters, but the referendum was largely boycotted by Bosnian Serbs. The total turn out of voters was 63.6% of which 99.7% voted for the independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[50] On 5 April 1992, Serb forces started the Siege of Sarajevo. On 12 May, Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
left Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and left most of the arms to the Army of Republika Srpska, headed by Ratko Mladić. The first unit to oppose Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was the Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS) founded by Croatian Party of Rights
Croatian Party of Rights
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on 18 December 1991.[51] The Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia established its own force, the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) on 8 April 1992. HVO consisted from 20-30% of Bosniaks who joined HVO because local Muslim militias were unable to arm themselves.[52] Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia was founded on 18 November 1991 as a community of municipalities where majority of population were Croats. In its founding acts, Herzeg-Bosnia had no separatist character. The Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
was declared by the Bosnian Croat leadership as a temporary region, which after war ended, would again become part of a united Bosnia and Herzegovina.[53]

Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
and Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
signing the Dayton Peace Accords on 14 December 1995

At the beginning of the Bosnian War, Bosnian Croats
Croats
were first to organize themselves, especially Croats
Croats
in western Herzegovina
Herzegovina
who were already armed. At the end of May 1992, Croats
Croats
launched a counter-offensive, liberating Mostar
Mostar
after a month of fighting.[54] Also, in central Bosnia and Posavina, Croatian forces stopped the Serbian advance, and in some places they repelled the enemy. On 16 June 1992, President of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman
and President of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
signed an alliance according to which, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
legalized the activity of Croatian Army
Croatian Army
and Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council
on its territory. Bosnian Croat political leadership and the leadership of Croatia
Croatia
urged Izetbegović to form a confederation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, but Izetbegović denied this since he tried to represent Serbian interests as well as those of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Croats. The Bosnian Croat leadership was irritated by Izetbegović's neutrality, so Mate Boban threatened to pull back the HVO from actions in Bosnia.[53] Since the UN implemented embargo to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on the import of arms, Bosniak and Croat forces had difficulties fighting Serbian units, which were supplied with arms from the Middle East, just before the outbreak of war. However, after Croat and Bosniak forces reorganized in late May 1992, the Serbian advance was halted and their forces mostly remained in their positions during the war.[55] The tensions between Croats
Croats
and Bosniaks
Bosniaks
started on 19 June 1992, but the real war began in October. The Croat-Bosniak War
Croat-Bosniak War
was at its peak during 1993. In March 1994, the Bosniak and Croat leadership signed the Washington agreement, according to which, the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (ARBiH)-controlled and HVO-controlled areas were united into the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the Washington agreement was signed, the Croatian Army, HVO and ARBiH liberated southwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in seven military operations. In December 1995, the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
ended with the signing of the Dayton agreement. However, the same agreement caused problem in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and was largely ineffective. According to the information published by the Research and Documentation Centre in Sarajevo, 7,762 Croats
Croats
were killed or missing. From the territory of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 230,000 Croats
Croats
were expelled, while from territory of Republika Srpska, 152,856 Croats
Croats
were expelled.[56] Demographics[edit]

5.4%

3.2%

91.4%

Demographic distribution of Croats
Croats
of BiH. 91% of country's Croats live in the Federation

2013 census

Geographical distribution of Croats
Croats
in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1991 census

Comprising 15.43% of the country's population, Croats
Croats
have been unequally spread across the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This has further been reflected and reinforced by the post-1995 political division of the country. Currently, according to the 2013 census, 91% of them live in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while just 5.4% and 3.2% live in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
and Brčko District, respectively. In RS, Croat share in the entity population is just 2% (29,645), while in Brčko it stands at 20.7% (17,252). On the other hand, in the Federation Croats
Croats
form 22.4% of the entity population. Four out of ten Federation's cantons have Croat majority. All Croat-majority municipalities are located in this entity as well. Municipalities[edit] However, Croats
Croats
are further variously spread in the Federation itself. Most of the municipalities with a clear Croat majority form two compact regions. One is in the southwest of the country, along the border with Croatia, from Kupres
Kupres
and Livno
Livno
in the northwest along West Herzegovina
Herzegovina
to Ravno in the southeast (Široki Brijeg, Ljubuški, Livno, Čitluk, Tomislavgrad, Čapljina, Posušje, Grude, Prozor-Rama, Stolac, Neum, Kupres, Ravno). Around 40% of country's and 45% of Federation's Croats
Croats
live here. The second is Posavina Canton
Posavina Canton
in the north (Orašje, Odžak, Domaljevac-Šamac). This canton's share in the Croat population is 6%. Other Croat-majority or -plurality municipalities are enclaves in Central Bosnia and around Zenica (Dobretići, Vitez, Busovača, Kiseljak, Usora, Kreševo, Žepče). In ethnically mixed Jajce
Jajce
and Novi Travnik
Travnik
in Central Bosnia, Croats
Croats
form around half of the population. In Mostar
Mostar
area, Croats
Croats
comprise the plurality of the population both in the municipality (48.4%) and the city itself (49%).[57] Mostar
Mostar
is the largest city in Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and the city with the largest Croat population in the country (51,216 in the area and 29,475 in the urban district). Croats
Croats
comprise an overwhelming majority in the western part of both the city and the entire municipality.[57] Croats
Croats
comprise 41% of the population in Uskoplje, a third in Vareš and Pelagićevo, and a quarter in Glamoč
Glamoč
and Donji Žabar. In Grahovo, Croats
Croats
make around 15% of the population. In addition to that, 762 Croats
Croats
form the plurality (40.4%) in an ethnically diverse small town Glamoč.[58] Cantons[edit] There are 4 Croat-majority cantons and in total 6 cantons in which Croats
Croats
form more than 10% of the population.

Canton Croats % Share in total Croat population

West Herzegovina 93,783 96.82% 17.21%

Livno
Livno
Canton 64,604 76.79% 11.86%

Posavina
Posavina
Canton 33,600 77.32% 6.17%

Central Bosnia Canton 97,629 38.33% 17.92%

Herzegovina- Neretva
Neretva
Canton 118,297 53.29% 21.71%

Zenica-Doboj Canton 43,819 12.02% 8.04%

Demographic history[edit]

A Croat from Central Bosnia (1901)

Ethnic totals and percentages

Year/Population Croats  % Total BiH Population

1921 444,308 23.50% 1,890,440

1931 547,949 23.58% 2,323,555

1948 614,123 23.93% 2,565,277

1953 654,229 22.97% 2,847,790

1961 711,666 21.71% 3,277,948

1971 772,491 20.62% 3,746,111

1981 758,140 18.39% 4,124.008

1991 760,852 17.38% 4,377,053

2013 544,780 15.43% 3,531,159

Official Population Census Results - note: some Croats
Croats
declared themselves as Yugoslavs in some censuses

Medieval Bosnia and Ottoman Empire[edit]

Ethnic composition of Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1910. Croats
Croats
in blue

Some estimates state that the population of medieval Bosnia, was between 850,000 - 900,000 inhabitants, of which 750,000 were Catholics (85,22%), 80,000 were Bogomils (9,09%) and 50,000 were Orthodox Christians (5,68%). During the Ottoman rule, the number of Catholics decreased drastically. When the Turks conquered Bosnia in 1463, according to their data, they took 100,000 Catholics into captivity and 30,000 Catholic boys to serve as janissaries. In 1558/59, in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, there were 360,000 Catholics (57%), 220,000 Muslims (34%) and 55,000 Orthodox Christians (9%). Many Catholics fled to Venetian or Habsburg-ruled lands. In 1624, there was around 450,000 Muslims (67%), 150,000 Catholics (22%) and 75,000 Orthodox Christians (11%).[59] In 1776, according to Klaić, there were around 50,000 Catholics in Bosnia. However, the Turkish censuses were biased, and they only numbered the houses and later exclusively included the male population.[60] Throughout this period, Catholic majority persisted in the southwest of the country (western Herzegovina), parts of central Bosnia, and Posavina, mostly in rural areas. Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Kingdom of Yugoslavia[edit]

Ethnic composition of Yugoslavia in 1940, detail. Croats
Croats
in blue

During Austro-Hungarian rule (1878-1918), the number and share of Croats
Croats
started to slowly increase. Croats
Croats
from Croatia
Croatia
moved to the country to work in the austro-hungarian administration or as teachers, doctors and officers. According to the Croatian author Vjekoslav Klaić, at the beginning of the period, in 1878, there were 646,678 Orthodox Christians (respectively Serbs, 48.4%), 480,596 Muslims (35.9%), 207,199 Catholics (respectively Croats, 15.5%) and 3,000 Jews (0.2%).[26] In 1895, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had 1,336,091 inhabitants, of which there was 571,250 Orthodox Christians (42.76%), 492,710 Muslims (36,88%), 265,788 Catholics (19.89%), 5,805 Jews (0.43%) and 53 others (0.04%).[citation needed] The slow process of nation-building on one hand and the austro-hungarian administration's downplaying ethnic differences and nationalism while trying to keep Croatian and Serbian influence on the country at bay on the other hand make it difficult to assess the actual ethnic allegiance at this period. The main characteristic of the ethnic policy of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941) was a Serbian attempt to implement Serbian hegemony and to serbianize rest of the population.[citation needed] According to the 1931 census, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
had 2,323,787 inhabitants of which Serbs made 44.25%, Muslims 30.90%, Croats
Croats
23.58% and others made 1.02% of the total population.[citation needed] Communist Yugoslavia[edit] The first Yugoslav census recorded a decreasing number of Croats; from the first census in 1948 to the last one from 1991, the percentage of Croatians decreased from 23% to 17.3%, even though the total number increased. According to the 1953 census, Croats
Croats
were in the majority in territories which became part of Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
in 1939. Their total number was 654,229, that is 23,00% of total Bosnian population. According to the 1961 census, Croats
Croats
made up 21.7% of total population, and their number was 711,660. After that, districts were divided into smaller municipalities. According to the 1971 census, Croats
Croats
were 20.6% of total population, and their number was 772,491. According to the 1981 census, Croats made up 18.60% of total population, and their number was 767,247. In comparison to the 1971 census, for the first time the percentage of Croats
Croats
was below 20%, and after 1981, their percentage continued to fall. From 1971 to 1991, the percentage of Croats
Croats
fell due to emigration into Croatia
Croatia
and Western Europe.[61][62] Nevertheless, the fall in population percentage is only absent in western Herzegovina municipalities where Croats
Croats
account for more than 98% of the population. According to the 1991 census, Croats
Croats
were 17.3% of the total population, and their number was 755,895. Bosnian War[edit]

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The total number of Croats
Croats
in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
continued to fall, especially after the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
broke out in 1992. Soon, an exodus of Bosnian Croats
Croats
occurred when a large number of Croats
Croats
were expelled from central Bosnia and Posavina. According to the 1996 census, made by UNHCR and officially unrecognized, there were 571,317 Croats
Croats
in the country (14.57%). In the territory of the Herzeg Bosnia, the percentage of Croats
Croats
slightly changed, although, their total number was reduced. Education[edit] Main article: Two schools under one roof

The Napredak Palace Board members in 1911

The first education institutions of Bosnian Croats
Croats
were monasteries, of which the most significant were those in Kreševo, Fojnica, Kraljeva Sutjeska
Kraljeva Sutjeska
and Tolisa, and later monasteries in Herzegovina, of which most significant are those in Humac and Široki Brijeg. The most significant people workingfor the elementary education of Bosnian Croats
Croats
in the 19th century were Ivan Franjo Jukić
Ivan Franjo Jukić
and Grgo Martić, who founded and organized elementary schools throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1887, many elementary schools were founded in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
along with the Order of Sisters of St. Francis, whose classes were led methodologically and professionally, so Bosnian Croat schools were, at the end of Ottoman era and beginning of Austrian-Hungarian occupation, the same as elementary schools in rest of Europe. The educational system of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
during communism was based on a mixture of nationalities and the suppression of Croat identity. With the foundation of Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, Bosnian Croat schools took the educational system from Croatia. At the same time, University Džemal Bijedić of Mostar
Mostar
was renamed to University of Mostar
Mostar
with official Croatian language. This university is the only one in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
to use Croatian as official language. After signing the Dayton accords, jurisdiction over education in Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
was given to RS Government, while in Federation, jurisdiction over education was given to the cantons. Municipalities with Croat majority or significant minority, schools with Croatian language
Croatian language
as official one also exist, while on territories were there is only a small number of Croats, Catholic centres perform education. Another education institutes are HKD Napredak, Scientific Research Institute of University of Mostar, Croatian Lexicographic Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Institute for Education in Mostar. Language[edit] Main article: Croatian language Croats
Croats
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
speak Croatian, a standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian language, spoken by the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Even though most of them speak in the Ijekavian, also the norm among Bosniaks
Bosniaks
and Bosnian Serbs, Ikavian
Ikavian
is also used and was widespread in larger parts of Bosnia. Politics[edit] See also: Politics of Bosnia and Herzegovina State level[edit]

Building of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 2004

Croats
Croats
of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as other two constitutive nations, have their representative in the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Presidency has three members, one Bosniak, one Croat and one Serb. Bosniak and Croat are elected in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while Serb is elected in the Republika Srpska.[63] Current Croat member of the Presidency is Dragan Čović
Dragan Čović
of the HDZBiH. The Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
has two chambers, House of Representatives and House of Peoples. House of Peoples has 15 members, five Bosniaks, five Croats
Croats
and five Serbs. Bosniak and Croat members of the House of Peoples are elected in the Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while five Serb members are elected in the National Assembly of Republika Srpska. The 42 members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by voters, two-thirds are from the Federation while one-third is from the Republika Srpska.[63] Federal level[edit]

Flag of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
between 1996 and 2007 showing a controversial Bosniak and a Croatian symbol

The Parliament of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
consists also out of two chambers, House of Representatives, that consists of 98 members, and House of Peoples that consists of 58 members.[64] Members of the House of Representatives are elected directly by the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina, while members of the House of Peoples are selected by the cantonal assemblies. There are 17 representatives in the House of Peoples of each constitutive nation, Bosniaks, Croats
Croats
and Serbs.[64] Other 7 representatives are those of national minorities. In electing the President and two Vice-Presidents of the Federation, at least one third of the delegates of the respective Bosniak, Croat or Serb caucuses in the House of Peoples may nominate the President and two Vice presidents of the Federation. The election for the President and two Vice Presidents of the Federation shall require the joint approval of the list of three nominees, by a majority vote in the House of Representatives, and then by a majority vote in the House of Peoples, including the majority of each constituent people’s caucus.[64] Current President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
is Marinko Čavara of the Croatian Democratic Union. The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
needs to be composed out of 16 ministers, 8 Bosniaks, 5 Croats
Croats
and 3 Serbs.[64] In January 2017, Croatian National Assembly
Croatian National Assembly
stated that "if Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
wants to become self-sustainable, then it is necessary to have an administrative-territorial reorganization, which would include a federal unit with a Croatian majority. It remains the permanent aspiration of the Croatian people of Bosnia and Herzegovina."[65] Political parties[edit] Currently, there are several Croatian political parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, many corresponding to parties within Croatia
Croatia
itself. The Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(HDZ), Croatian Democratic Union 1990 (HDZ 1990) are the most popular parties. HDZ was founded in 1990 and is major political parties among Bosnian Croats, being the most powerful during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(1992–1995) and existence of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
(1991-1994). HDZ is Christian democratic, conservative and pro-Europeanist political party.[66] HDZ 1990 is a split party of the Croatian Democratic Union, founded in 2006, however, their ideology is very similar to one of the HDZ. HDZ 1990 is also Christian democratic and pro-Europeanist.[67] Croatian Party of Rights
Croatian Party of Rights
was also very popular during the Bosnian War, even among Bosniaks
Bosniaks
since its military unit, Croatian Defence Forces, had a lot of both, Croat and Bosniak soldiers. HSP was founded also in 1990. HSP is a far-right, nationalist political party.[68] Open issues[edit] A conference was held in Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
on October 27 and 28th 2005, under the title Constitutional-law position of Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
- language, education, culture and media (Croatian: Ustavno-pravni položaj Hrvata u BiH - jezik, obrazovanje, kultura i mediji) was It was organized by the University of Mostar
Mostar
and the Croatian Society of Arts and Science. It produced the Declaration of the constitutional-law position of Croats
Croats
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (The words "constitutional-law position" refer to the position of Croats
Croats
as one of the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina). President Ivo Miro Jović
Ivo Miro Jović
sponsored the conference and it also received support from many other organizations. The Declaration produced several demands about the equal treatment of the Croatian population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most significant of these was the creation of three republics within the nation:

"Starting from the scientific cognitions and practical experiences, we think, that in consultation with the representatives of Serbian and Bosniak people and International Community, we should organize Bosnia and Herzegovina
Herzegovina
as the compound federal state, composed of three federal units and with three levels of government. Since only the republic, as a democratic form of the rule of nations, includes and guarantees the highest level of democracy, political, cultural and every other autonomy, we pledge for the establishment of three republics for three sovereign nations, which is in full accordance with the provisions of the United Nations Pact on the civil, social and cultural rights to the equality of all nations regardless of their numerousness."

The Declaration upheld the right to learn Croatian in school as well as the need for preservation of their people's culture. Another important issue was the need for a Croat television station within the country. Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina Art[edit] See also: Croatian art

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In the area near the Neretva
Neretva
river, a hellenized Illyrian tribe, the Darosi, spread cultural influences from Greece. Their capital Daorson on Oršćani near Stolac
Stolac
is today the most significant center of antic culture in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The complex of the terraced shrine near Gradac near Posušje, built in 183, was dedicated to a dead Roman Emperor, Marcus Aurelius. Late Roman art in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was characterized by the building of vilas, Christian mausoleums, basilicas and oratories like Vila "Mogorjelo" near Čapljina
Čapljina
(early 4th century). The influence of romanesque architecture arrived in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
across Croatia, but it was never completely accepted, only its elements were used. Such buildings are St. Luke's Tower in Jajce
Jajce
(15th century) or motives of stećak tombstones. Valuable manuscripts of Bosnian origin occur at this time. Hrvoje's Missal
Hrvoje's Missal
is the most significant art of the medieval Bosnian Croats, written in the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th century, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was under Ottoman rule, which destroyed the influence of the Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque, the impact of which was only present in Franciscan
Franciscan
monasteries in Visoko, Kreševo, Fojnica, and Kraljeva Sutjeska. The first Bosnian Croat painters were educated in European academies in Vienna, Munich, Prague, Krakow, Budapest
Budapest
and Paris. Their education was funded by HKD Napredak. The most famous Bosnian Croat painters are Gabrijel Jurkić, Karlo Mijić, Branko Radulović and Petar Šain. Statuary was reduced to the memorial portraits, of which the most famous is that of Robert Frangeš Mihanović and Sputani genije, a statue on the grave of Silvije Strahimir Kranjčević built by Rudolf Valdec. After World War II, the Association of Artists of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
was founded along with the Painting State School and Sarajevo Art Gallery. Architectural Regionalism is seen in the 1970s on buildings such as department store Razvitak in Mostar
Mostar
(1970) and in Jajce
Jajce
(1976). The best example of Functionalism is the multiple award-winning hotel Ruža in Mostar (1979). Literature[edit] See also: Croatian literature

Ivo Andrić, Nobel Prize winner in literature in 1961

Bosnian Croat literature consists of works written in the Croatian language by authors who originated from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and is considered part of Croatian literature. It consists of pre-Ottoman literature (first written monuments, texts of Bogomils, diplomatic and law documents, manuscripts on tombstones), Bosna Srebrena
Bosna Srebrena
literature (prayer books, catechisms, collections of sermons, biographies of saints, monastery yearbooks, first historical works, poems and memoirs, travel books, grammars of Latin and Croatian languages and lexicographic works), national awakening literature (the foundation of various associations, reading rooms, libraries in which writing courses were held), the literature of Bosnian Muslims (various Bosniak writers made a significant impact on Croatian literature
Croatian literature
and were influenced by other Croat authors) and modern Bosnian Croat literature. The best known contributors to the Bosnian Croat literature are Ivo Andrić, Ivan Aralica, Safvet-beg Bašagić, Enver Čolaković, Musa Ćazim Ćatić, Matija Divković, Mak Dizdar, Asaf Duraković, Fadil Hadžić, Mirko Kovač, Ivo Kozarčanin, Silvije Strahimir Kranjčević, Tomislav Ladan, Vitomir Lukić, Grgo Martić, Matija Mažuranić, Ahmed Muradbegović, and Antun Branko Šimić. Music[edit]

Gusle

Traditional music of Croats
Croats
of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
is related to ganga, klapa, gusle, tamburica and šargija. Those ways of singing and musical instruments are part of Bosnian Croat national identity. Ganga, klapa and gusle are mostly widespread on territory of western Herzegovine, even though those can be seen in eastern Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Bosnia. Tamburica
Tamburica
is popular in Posavina
Posavina
and central Bosnia. Šargija is widespread in northern Bosnia, from Posavina
Posavina
to Olovo
Olovo
and Vareš. With mixture of traditional and modern music, modern Bosnian music was represented by Indexi, Bijelo dugme, Ambasadori
Ambasadori
and others. The most known singers of modern Bosnian Croat music are Đorđe Novković, Željko Bebek
Željko Bebek
and Jura Stublić. Some new known singers include Mate Bulić, Ivan Mikulić, Nikša Bratoš, Ivana Marić, the Feminnem
Feminnem
girl band, and others. Some other well known Croatian singers originate from Bosnia and Herzegovina, including Ivo Fabijan, Boris Novković, Vesna Pisarović and others. There are two significant music festivals, Melodije Mostara (Melodies of Mostar) and Etnofest Neum
Neum
on which musicians from Croatia
Croatia
also participate. Alongside traditional music, some other musical genres also developed, like heavy metal, hip hop, house and techno. Religion[edit]

St. James Church in Međugorje.

See also: Roman Catholicism in Bosnia and Herzegovina Croats
Croats
form the core of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The metropolitan diocese is the Archdiocese of Vrhbosna. There are also dioceses centered in Banja Luka
Banja Luka
and Mostar, of which Mostar
Mostar
is the largest. Vinko Puljić
Vinko Puljić
is the current Cardinal and Archbishop of Vrhbosna. The Cathedral of Jesus' Heart
Cathedral of Jesus' Heart
in Sarajevo is the largest cathedral in Bosnia and Herzegovina,[69] and is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vrhbosna. The other three Roman Catholic cathedrals in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
are the Cathedral of Saint Bonaventure in Banja Luka, the Cathedral of Mary the Mother of the Church in Mostar, and the Cathedral of the Birth of Mary
Cathedral of the Birth of Mary
in Trebinje. There are numerous monasteries throughout the region. The oldest is the 14th century Monastery of the Holy Spirit located in Fojnica
Fojnica
in central Bosnia, which houses a large library filled with many historical documents dating back to medieval Bosnia. Two other well-known monasteries are the Guča Gora Monastery
Guča Gora Monastery
near Travnik
Travnik
and Kraljeva Sutjeska
Kraljeva Sutjeska
Monastery near Kakanj, both located in central Bosnia. The rest of the monasteries in the region are the Monastery of St. Anthony in Sarajevo, the Monastery of St. Mark in Derventa, Gorica Monastery in Livno, and the Assumption of Mary Monastery in Prozor-Rama. Oldest saved church in Bosnia is Old Church of St. Michael in Vareš. It has been built before the 16th century. The parish of Međugorje
Međugorje
is a significant Marian shrine
Marian shrine
which attracts approximately one million visitors annually. It became a popular site of religious pilgrimage due to reports of apparitions of the Virgin Mary to six local Catholics in 1981.[70] Over a thousand hotel and hostel beds are available for religious tourism. Sport[edit]

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Stadion Pecara
Stadion Pecara
in Široki Brijeg, home of the football club.

Croatian-run clubs in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
number among the country's most successful. They are well represented in terms of national championships in relation to the percentage of Croats
Croats
in the population. In football, NK Zrinjski Mostar, NK Široki Brijeg, NK Žepče, NK Posušje, and HNK Orašje
HNK Orašje
are some of the most successful. Collectively, they have won three national Cup and five national Championships since national competition began in 2000. Other Croatian-run clubs are NK Brotnjo, NK SAŠK Napredak, HNK Ljubuški, HNK Sloga Uskoplje. The clubs are often among the nation's most multi-ethnic. Prior to 2000, the Croats
Croats
ran their own football league. However, they have joined the UEFA-approved Football Association of Bosnia and Herzegovina's league system. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
has produced many successful internationals, both for the Croatian national team and the national team of Bosnia and Herzegovina. See also[edit]

Croats List of Croats Turkish Croatia Christian tattooing in Bosnia and Herzegovina

References[edit]

Citations

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Croats
in World War II and the immediate post-war period caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partizans (People's Liberation Army and the partizan detachment of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Yugoslav Communist authoritities. Numerical indicators." Review of Croatian history8.1 (2013): 77-121. ^ Geiger, p 117, Table 15. ^ Nohlen & Stöver 2010, p. 330. ^ Velikonja 2003, p. 237. ^ Nohlen & Stöver 2010, p. 334. ^ "HOS - Povijest" (in Croatian). HSP Čepin. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.  ^ Mulaj 2010, p. 53. ^ a b Malcolm 1995, p. 313. ^ Malcolm 1995, p. 311-312. ^ Malcolm 1995, p. 315. ^ Krešić, Zoran (15 March 2012). "Iz Federacije prognano 230.000, iz RS-a 152.856 Hrvata katolika". Večernji list
Večernji list
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Bosniaks
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Bosniaks
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v t e

Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Constitutive peoples

Bosniaks Croats Serbs

National minorities

Albanians Czechs Germans Hungarians Italians Jews Kosovars (part of Albanians in Bosnia) Macedonians Montenegrins Poles Roma Romanians Russians Ruthenians Slovaks Slovenians Turks Ukrainians

See also 1991 census 2013 census Demographics Demographic History

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Croats
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