Borobudur, or Barabudur (Indonesian: Candi Borobudur, Javanese:
ꦕꦤ꧀ꦣꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦣꦸꦂ, romanized: Candhi
Barabudhur) is a 9th-century
Buddhist temple in Magelang
Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java,
Indonesia. It is the world's largest Buddhist
temple. The temple consists of nine
stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central
dome. It is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504
The central dome is surrounded by 72
Buddha statues, each seated
inside a perforated stupa.
Built in the 9th century during the reign of the
the temple design follows Javanese Buddhist architecture, which blends
the Indonesian indigenous cult of ancestor worship and the Buddhist
concept of attaining Nirvana. The temple demonstrates the
influences of Gupta art that reflects India's influence on the region,
yet there are enough indigenous scenes and elements incorporated to
Borobudur uniquely Indonesian. The monument
is a shrine to the
Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage.
The pilgrim journey begins at the base of the monument and follows a
path around the monument, ascending to the top through three levels
symbolic of Buddhist cosmology: Kāmadhātu (the world of desire),
Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of
formlessness). The monument guides pilgrims through an extensive
system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels
on the walls and the balustrades.
Borobudur has one of the largest and
most complete ensembles of Buddhist reliefs in the world.
Evidence suggests that
Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century
and subsequently abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu
Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam.
Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas
Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of
its location by native Indonesians.
Borobudur has since
been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration
project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian
government and UNESCO, followed by the monument's listing as a UNESCO
World Heritage Site.
Borobudur is the largest
Buddhist temple in the world, and ranks with
Angkor Wat in
Cambodia as one of the great
archeological sites of Southeast Asia.
Borobudur remains popular for
pilgrimage, with Buddhists in
Vesak Day at the
Borobudur is Indonesia's single most visited tourist
2.1 The three temples
2.2 Ancient lake hypothesis
3.5 Contemporary events
3.5.1 Religious ceremony
3.5.5 Security threats
3.5.6 Visitor overload problem
4.2 Building structure
5.1 The law of karma (Karmavibhangga)
5.2 The story of Prince Siddhartha and the birth of Buddha
5.3 The stories of Buddha's previous life (Jataka) and other legendary
5.4 Sudhana's search for the ultimate truth (Gandavyuha)
8.1 Gallery of reliefs
8.2 Gallery of Borobudur
9 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was
mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
In Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi; thus locals
refer to "
Borobudur Temple" as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also
loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates and baths. The
origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear,
although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no
longer known. The name
Borobudur was first written in
Raffles's book on Javan history. Raffles wrote about a
monument called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting
the same name. The only old Javanese manuscript that hints
the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is
Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of
Majapahit court, in 1365.
Most candi are named after a nearby village. If it followed Javanese
language conventions and was named after the nearby village of Bore,
the monument should have been named "BudurBoro". Raffles thought that
Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda
("ancient")—i.e., "ancient Boro". He also suggested that the name
might derive from boro, meaning "great" or "honourable" and Budur for
Buddha. However, another archaeologist suggests the second
component of the name (Budur) comes from Javanese term bhudhara
Another possible etymology by Dutch archaeologist A.J. Bernet Kempers
Borobudur is a corrupted simplified local Javanese
pronunciation of Biara Beduhur written in
Uhr. The term Buddha-Uhr could mean "the city of Buddhas", while
another possible term Beduhur is probably an
Old Javanese term, still
survived today in Balinese vocabulary, which means "a high place",
constructed from the stem word dhuhur or luhur (high). This suggests
Borobudur means vihara of
Buddha located on a high place or on a
The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist
building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in two
inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency. The
Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a sacred building named
Jinalaya (the realm of those who have conquered worldly desire and
reached enlightenment), inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani, daughter of
Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in
the sima, the (tax-free) lands awarded by Çrī Kahulunnan
(Pramodhawardhani) to ensure the funding and maintenance of a
Kamūlān called Bhūmisambhāra. Kamūlān is from the
word mula, which means "the place of origin", a sacred building to
honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis
suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra, which in
"the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of
Boddhisattvahood", was the original name of Borobudur.
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes;
Mount Merbabu and Merapi
The three temples
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of
86 kilometres (53 mi) west of Surakarta,
Borobudur is located in
an elevated area between two twin volcanoes, Sundoro-Sumbing and
Merbabu-Merapi, and two rivers, the Progo and the Elo. According to
local myth, the area known as
Kedu Plain is a Javanese "sacred" place
and has been dubbed "the garden of Java" due to its high agricultural
fertility. During the restoration in the early 20th
century, it was discovered that three Buddhist temples in the region,
Pawon and Mendut, are positioned along a straight
line. A ritual relationship between the three temples must
have existed, although the exact ritual process is
Ancient lake hypothesis
See also: Lake Borobudur
Speculation about a surrounding lake's existence was the subject of
intense discussion among archaeologists in the 20th century. In 1931,
a Dutch artist and scholar of Hindu and Buddhist architecture, W.O.J.
Nieuwenkamp, developed a hypothesis that the
Kedu Plain was once a
Borobudur initially represented a lotus flower floating on
the lake. It has been claimed that
Borobudur was built on
a bedrock hill, 265 m (869 ft) above sea level and 15 m
(49 ft) above the floor of a dried-out paleolake.
Dumarçay together with Professor Thanikaimoni took soil samples in
1974 and again in 1977 from trial trenches that had been dug into the
hill, as well as from the plain immediately to the south. These
samples were later analysed by Thanikaimoni, who examined their pollen
and spore content to identify the type of vegetation that had grown in
the area around the time of Borobudur's construction. They were unable
to discover any pollen or spore samples that were characteristic of
any vegetation known to grow in an aquatic environment such as a lake,
pond or marsh. The area surrounding
Borobudur appears to have been
surrounded by agricultural land and palm trees at the time of the
monument's construction, as is still the case today. Caesar Voûte and
the geomorphologist Dr J.J. Nossin in 1985–86 field studies
Borobudur lake hypothesis and confirmed the absence of
a lake around
Borobudur at the time of its construction and active use
as a sanctuary. These findings A New Perspective on Some Old Questions
Borobudur were published in the 2005
titled "The Restoration of Borobudur".
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene
Borobudur during its heyday
There are no known records of construction or the intended purpose of
Borobudur. The duration of construction has been estimated
by comparison of carved reliefs on the temple's hidden foot and the
inscriptions commonly used in royal charters during the 8th and 9th
Borobudur was likely founded around 800 AD.
This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the peak
Sailendra dynasty rule over Mataram kingdom in central
Java, when their power encompassed not only the Srivijayan
Empire but also southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of Philippines,
North Malaya (Kedah, also known in Indian texts as the ancient Hindu
state of Kadaram), and Khmer in
Cambodia. The construction has
been estimated to have taken 75 years with completion during the reign
Samaratungga in 825.
There is uncertainty about Hindu and Buddhist rulers in
that time. The Sailendras were known as ardent followers of Buddhism,
though stone inscriptions found at Sojomerto also suggest they may
have been Hindus. It was during this time that many Hindu
and Buddhist monuments were built on the plains and mountains around
the Kedu Plain. The Buddhist monuments, including Borobudur, were
erected around the same period as the Hindu
compound. In 732 AD, the Shivaite King Sanjaya commissioned a
Shivalinga sanctuary to be built on the Wukir hill, only 10 km
(6.2 mi) east of Borobudur.
Construction of Buddhist temples, including Borobudur, at that time
was possible because Sanjaya's immediate successor, Rakai Panangkaran,
granted his permission to the Buddhist followers to build such
temples. In fact, to show his respect, Panangkaran gave
the village of
Kalasan to the Buddhist community, as is written in the
Kalasan Charter dated 778 AD. This has led some
archaeologists to believe that there was never serious conflict
concerning religion in
Java as it was possible for a Hindu king to
patronize the establishment of a Buddhist monument; or for a Buddhist
king to act likewise. However, it is likely that there
were two rival royal dynasties in
Java at the time—the Buddhist
Sailendra and the
Saivite Sanjaya—in which the latter triumphed over
their rival in the 856 battle on the Ratubaka plateau.
Similar confusion also exists regarding the Lara Jonggrang temple at
Prambanan complex, which was believed to have been erected by the
Rakai Pikatan as the Sanjaya dynasty's reply to
Borobudur, but others suggest that there was a climate of
peaceful coexistence where
Sailendra involvement exists in Lara
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was
Borobudur lay hidden for centuries under layers of volcanic ash and
jungle growth. The facts behind its abandonment remain a mystery. It
is not known when active use of the monument and Buddhist pilgrimage
to it ceased. Sometime between 928 and 1006, King
Mpu Sindok moved the
capital of the
Medang Kingdom to the region of East
Java after a
series of volcanic eruptions; it is not certain whether this
influenced the abandonment, but several sources mention this as the
most likely period of abandonment. The monument
is mentioned vaguely as late as c. 1365, in Mpu Prapanca's
Nagarakretagama, written during the
Majapahit era and mentioning "the
vihara in Budur". Soekmono (1976) also mentions the
popular belief that the temples were disbanded when the population
converted to Islam in the 15th century.
The monument was not forgotten completely, though folk stories
gradually shifted from its past glory into more superstitious beliefs
associated with bad luck and misery. Two old Javanese chronicles
(babad) from the 18th century mention cases of bad luck associated
with the monument. According to the
Babad Tanah Jawi
Babad Tanah Jawi (or the History
of Java), the monument was a fatal factor for Mas Dana, a rebel who
revolted against Pakubuwono I, the king of Mataram in 1709.
It was mentioned that the "Redi Borobudur" hill was besieged and the
insurgents were defeated and sentenced to death by the king. In the
Babad Mataram (or the History of the Mataram Kingdom), the monument
was associated with the misfortune of Prince Monconagoro, the crown
prince of the
Yogyakarta Sultanate in 1757. In spite of a
taboo against visiting the monument, "he took what is written as the
knight who was captured in a cage (a statue in one of the perforated
stupas)". Upon returning to his palace, he fell ill and died one day
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been
installed above the main stupa.
Following its capture,
Java was under British administration from 1811
to 1816. The appointed governor was Lieutenant
Stamford Raffles, who took great interest in the history of Java. He
collected Javanese antiques and made notes through contacts with local
inhabitants during his tour throughout the island. On an inspection
Semarang in 1814, he was informed about a big monument deep in
a jungle near the village of Bumisegoro. He was not able
to see the site himself, but sent Hermann Cornelius [nl],
a Dutch engineer who, among other antiquity explorations had uncovered
Sewu complex in 1806–07, to investigate.
In two months, Cornelius and his 200 men cut down trees, burned down
vegetation and dug away the earth to reveal the monument. Due to the
danger of collapse, he could not unearth all galleries. He reported
his findings to Raffles, including various drawings. Although Raffles
mentioned the discovery and hard work by Cornelius and his men in only
a few sentences, he has been credited with the monument's rediscovery,
as the one who had brought it to the world's attention.
Christiaan Lodewijk Hartmann, the Resident of the Kedu region,
continued Cornelius's work, and in 1835, the whole complex was finally
unearthed. His interest in
Borobudur was more personal than official.
Hartmann did not write any reports of his activities, in particular,
the alleged story that he discovered the large statue of
Buddha in the
main stupa. In 1842, Hartmann investigated the main dome,
although what he discovered is unknown and the main stupa remains
Borobudur in 1872.
Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies government then commissioned Frans Carel Wilsen,
a Dutch engineering official, who studied the monument and drew
hundreds of relief sketches. Jan Frederik Gerrit Brumund was also
appointed to make a detailed study of the monument, which was
completed in 1859. The government intended to publish an article based
on Brumund's study supplemented by Wilsen's drawings, but Brumund
refused to cooperate. The government then commissioned another
scholar, Conradus Leemans, who compiled a monograph based on Brumund's
and Wilsen's sources. In 1873, the first monograph of the detailed
Borobudur was published, followed by its French translation a
year later. The first photograph of the monument was taken
in 1872 by the Dutch-Flemish engraver Isidore van
Appreciation of the site developed slowly, and it served for some time
largely as a source of souvenirs and income for "souvenir hunters" and
thieves. In 1882, the chief inspector of cultural artifacts
Borobudur be entirely disassembled with the
relocation of reliefs into museums due to the unstable condition of
the monument. As a result, the government appointed Willem
Pieter Groeneveldt, curator of the archaeological collection of the
Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, to undertake a
thorough investigation of the site and to assess the actual condition
of the complex; his report found that these fears were unjustified and
recommended it be left intact.
Borobudur was considered as the source of souvenirs, and parts of its
sculptures were looted, some even with colonial-government consent. In
King Chulalongkorn of
Java and requested and was
allowed to take home eight cartloads of sculptures taken from
Borobudur. These include thirty pieces taken from a number of relief
panels, five buddha images, two lions, one gargoyle, several kala
motifs from the stairs and gateways, and a guardian statue
(dvarapala). Several of these artifacts, most notably the lions,
dvarapala, kala, makara and giant waterspouts are now on display in
Java Art room in The National Museum in Bangkok.
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the
reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now
Buddha from the main stupa of
Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along
with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Borobudur attracted attention in 1885, when the Dutch engineer Jan
Willem IJzerman [id; nl], Chairman of the Archaeological
Society in Yogyakarta, made a discovery about the hidden
foot. Photographs that reveal reliefs on the hidden foot
were made in 1890–1891. The discovery led the Dutch East
Indies government to take steps to safeguard the monument. In 1900,
the government set up a commission consisting of three officials to
assess the monument: Jan Lourens Andries Brandes, an art historian,
Theodoor van Erp [nl], a Dutch army engineer officer, and
Benjamin Willem van de Kamer, a construction engineer from the
Department of Public Works.
In 1902, the commission submitted a threefold plan of proposal to the
government. First, the immediate dangers should be avoided by
resetting the corners, removing stones that endangered the adjacent
parts, strengthening the first balustrades and restoring several
niches, archways, stupas and the main dome. Second, after fencing off
the courtyards, proper maintenance should be provided and drainage
should be improved by restoring floors and spouts. Third, all loose
stones should be removed, the monument cleared up to the first
balustrades, disfigured stones removed and the main dome restored. The
total cost was estimated at that time around 48,800 Dutch guilders.
The restoration then was carried out between 1907 and 1911, using the
principles of anastylosis and led by Theodor van Erp. The
first seven months of restoration were occupied with excavating the
grounds around the monument to find missing
Buddha heads and panel
stones. Van Erp dismantled and rebuilt the upper three circular
platforms and stupas. Along the way, Van Erp discovered more things he
could do to improve the monument; he submitted another proposal, which
was approved with the additional cost of 34,600 guilders. At first
Borobudur had been restored to its old glory. Van Erp went
further by carefully reconstructing the chattra (three-tiered parasol)
pinnacle on top of the main stupa. However, he later dismantled the
chattra, citing that there were not enough original stones used in
reconstructing the pinnacle, which means that the original design of
Borobudur's pinnacle is actually unknown. The dismantled chattra now
is stored in Karmawibhangga Museum, a few hundred meters north from
Due to the limited budget, the restoration had been primarily focused
on cleaning the sculptures, and Van Erp did not solve the drainage
problem. Within fifteen years, the gallery walls were sagging, and the
reliefs showed signs of new cracks and deterioration. Van
Erp used concrete from which alkali salts and calcium hydroxide
leached and were transported into the rest of the construction. This
caused some problems, so that a further thorough renovation was
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage
system during the 1973 restoration
Small restorations had been performed since then, but not sufficient
for complete protection. During
World War II
World War II and Indonesian National
Revolution in 1945 to 1949,
Borobudur restoration efforts were halted.
The monument suffered further from the weather and drainage problems,
which caused the earth core inside the temple to expand, pushing the
stone structure and tilting the walls. By 1950s some parts of
Borobudur were facing imminent danger of collapsing. In 1965,
Indonesia asked the
UNESCO for advice on ways to counteract the
problem of weathering at
Borobudur and other monuments. In 1968
Professor Soekmono, then head of the Archeological Service of
Indonesia, launched his "Save Borobudur" campaign, in an effort to
organize a massive restoration project.
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
In the late 1960s, the
Indonesian government had requested from the
international community a major renovation to protect the monument. In
1973, a master plan to restore
Borobudur was created.
Through an Agreement concerning the Voluntary Contributions to be
Given for the Execution of the Project to Preserve
29 January 1973), 5 countries agreed to contribute to the restoration:
Australia (AUD $200,000),
Belgium (BEF fr.250,000),
France (USD $77,500) and
Germany (DEM DM
Indonesian government and
undertook the complete overhaul of the monument in a big restoration
project between 1975 and 1982. In 1975, the actual work
began. Over one million stones were dismantled and removed during the
restoration, and set aside like pieces of a massive jig-saw puzzle to
be individually identified, catalogued, cleaned and treated for
Borobudur became a testing ground for new conservation
techniques, including new procedures to battle the microorganisms
attacking the stone. The foundation was stabilized, and
all 1,460 panels were cleaned. The restoration involved the
dismantling of the five square platforms and the improvement of
drainage by embedding water channels into the monument. Both
impermeable and filter layers were added. This colossal project
involved around 600 people to restore the monument and cost a total of
After the renovation was finished,
Borobudur as a World
Heritage Site in 1991. It is listed under Cultural criteria
(i) "to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius", (ii) "to
exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time
or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in
architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or
landscape design", and (vi) "to be directly or tangibly associated
with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with
artistic and literary works of outstanding universal
In December 2017, the idea to reinstall chattra on top of Borobudur
main stupa's yasthi has been revisited. However, expert said a
thorough study is needed on restoring the umbrella-shaped pinnacle. By
early 2018, the chattra restoration has not yet commenced.
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Following the major 1973 renovation funded by UNESCO,
Borobudur is once again used as a place of worship and pilgrimage.
Once a year, during the full moon in May or June, Buddhists in
Vesak (Indonesian: Waisak) day commemorating the
birth, death, and the time when Siddhārtha Gautama attained the
highest wisdom to become the
Vesak is an official
national holiday in Indonesia, and the ceremony is
centered at the three Buddhist temples by walking from
Mendut to Pawon
and ending at Borobudur.
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
The monument is the single most visited tourist attraction in
Indonesia. In 1974, 260,000 tourists, of whom 36,000 were foreigners,
visited the monument. The figure climbed to 2.5 million
visitors annually (80% were domestic tourists) in the mid-1990s,
before the country's economic crisis. Tourism development,
however, has been criticized for not including the local community,
giving rise to occasional conflicts. In 2003, residents
and small businesses around
Borobudur organized several meetings and
poetry protests, objecting to a provincial government plan to build a
three-storey mall complex, dubbed the "
International tourism awards were given to
park, such as PATA Grand Pacific Award 2004, PATA Gold Award Winner
2011, and PATA Gold Award Winner 2012. In June 2012,
recorded in the
Guinness Book of World Records
Guinness Book of World Records as the world's largest
Buddhist archaeological site.
Tourists in Borobudur
UNESCO identified three specific areas of concern under the present
state of conservation: (i) vandalism by visitors; (ii) soil erosion in
the south-eastern part of the site; and (iii) analysis and restoration
of missing elements. The soft soil, the numerous
earthquakes and heavy rains lead to the destabilization of the
structure. Earthquakes are by far the most important contributing
factors, since not only do stones fall down and arches crumble, but
the earth itself can move in waves, further destroying the
structure. The increasing popularity of the stupa brings
in many visitors, most of whom are from Indonesia. Despite warning
signs on all levels not to touch anything, the regular transmission of
warnings over loudspeakers and the presence of guards, vandalism on
reliefs and statues is a common occurrence and problem, leading to
further deterioration. As of 2009, there is no system in place to
limit the number of visitors allowed per day or to introduce mandatory
guided tours only.
In August 2014, the Conservation Authority of
Borobudur reported some
severe abrasion of the stone stairs caused by the scraping of
visitors' footwear. The conservation authority planned to install
wooden stairs to cover and protect the original stone stairs, just
like those installed in Angkor Wat.
Borobudur relative to
Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur was heavily affected by the eruption of
Mount Merapi in
October and November 2010.
Volcanic ash from Merapi fell on the temple
complex, which is approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi)
west-southwest of the crater. A layer of ash up to 2.5 centimetres
(1 in) thick fell on the temple statues during the
eruption of 3–5 November, also killing nearby vegetation, with
experts fearing that the acidic ash might damage the historic site.
The temple complex was closed from 5 to 9 November to clean up the
UNESCO donated US$3 million as a part of the costs towards the
Borobudur after Mount Merapi's 2010
eruption. More than 55,000 stone blocks comprising the
temple's structure were dismantled to restore the drainage system,
which had been clogged by slurry after the rain. The restoration was
finished in November.
In January 2012, two German stone-conservation experts spent ten days
at the site analyzing the temples and making recommendations to ensure
their long-term preservation. In June,
Germany agreed to
contribute $130,000 to
UNESCO for the second phase of rehabilitation,
in which six experts in stone conservation, microbiology, structural
engineering and chemical engineering would spend a week in Borobudur
in June, then return for another visit in September or October. These
missions would launch the preservation activities recommended in the
January report and would include capacity building activities to
enhance the preservation capabilities of governmental staff and young
On 14 February 2014, major tourist attractions in
Central Java, including Borobudur,
Prambanan and Ratu Boko, were
closed to visitors, after being severely affected by the volcanic ash
from the eruption of
Kelud volcano in East Java, located around 200
kilometers east from Yogyakarta. Workers covered the iconic stupas and
Borobudur temple to protect the structure from volcanic
Kelud volcano erupted on 13 February 2014 with an explosion
heard as far away as Yogyakarta.
On 21 January 1985, nine stupas were badly damaged by nine
bombs. In 1991, a blind Muslim preacher,
Husein Ali Al Habsyie, was sentenced to life imprisonment for
masterminding a series of bombings in the mid-1980s, including the
temple attack. Two other members of the Islamic extremist
group that carried out the bombings were each sentenced to 20 years in
1986, and another man received a 13-year prison term.
On 27 May 2006, an earthquake of 6.2 magnitude struck the south coast
of Central Java. The event caused severe damage around the region and
casualties to the nearby city of Yogyakarta, but
In August 2014, Indonesian police and security forces tightened the
security in and around
Borobudur temple compound, as a precaution to a
threat posted on social media by a self-proclaimed Indonesian branch
of ISIS, citing that the terrorists planned to destroy
other statues in Indonesia. The security improvements
included the repair and increased deployment of
CCTV monitors and the
implementation of a night patrol in and around the temple compound.
The jihadist group follows a strict interpretation of Islam that
condemns any anthropomorphic representations such as sculptures as
Visitor overload problem
The high volume of visitors ascending the Borobudur's narrow stairs,
has caused a severe wear out on the stone of the stairs, eroding the
stones surface and made them thinner and smoother. Overall, Borobudur
has 2,033 surfaces of stone stairs, spread over four cardinal
directions; including the west side, the east, south and north. There
are around 1,028 surfaces of them, or about 49.15 percent, that are
severely worn out.
To avoid further wear of stairs' stones, since November 2014, two main
Borobudur stairs – the eastern (ascending route) and
northern (descending route) sides – are covered with wooden
structures. The similar technique has been applied in
Angkor Wat in
Cambodia and Egyptian Pyramids. In March 2015, Borobudur
Conservation Center proposed further to seal the stairs with rubber
cover. Proposals have also been made that visitors be
issued special sandals.
The archaeological excavation into
Borobudur during reconstruction
suggests that adherents of Hinduism or a pre-Indic faith had already
begun to erect a large structure on Borobudur's hill before the site
was appropriated by Buddhists. The foundations are unlike any Hindu or
Buddhist shrine structures, and therefore, the initial structure is
considered more indigenous Javanese than Hindu or
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Borobudur is built as a single large stupa and, when viewed from
above, takes the form of a giant tantric Buddhist mandala,
simultaneously representing the
Buddhist cosmology and the nature of
mind. The original foundation is a square, approximately
118 metres (387 ft) on each side. It has nine platforms, of which
the lower six are square and the upper three are circular.
The upper platform features seventy-two small stupas surrounding one
large central stupa. Each stupa is bell-shaped and pierced by numerous
decorative openings. Statues of the
Buddha sit inside the pierced
The design of
Borobudur took the form of a step pyramid. Previously,
the prehistoric Austronesian megalithic culture in
constructed several earth mounds and stone step pyramid structures
called punden berundak as discovered in Pangguyangan site near
Cisolok and in Cipari near Kuningan. The
construction of stone pyramids is based on native beliefs that
mountains and high places are the abode of ancestral spirits or
hyangs.  The punden berundak step pyramid is the basic
design in Borobudur, believed to be the continuation of
older megalithic tradition incorporated with
Mahayana Buddhist ideas
Borobudur architectural model
The monument's three divisions symbolize the three "realms" of
Buddhist cosmology, namely Kamadhatu (the world of desires), Rupadhatu
(the world of forms), and finally Arupadhatu (the formless world).
Ordinary sentient beings live out their lives on the lowest level, the
realm of desire. Those who have burnt out all desire for continued
existence leave the world of desire and live in the world on the level
of form alone: they see forms but are not drawn to them. Finally, full
Buddhas go beyond even form and experience reality at its purest, most
fundamental level, the formless ocean of nirvana. The
liberation from the cycle of
Saṃsāra where the enlightened soul had
no longer attached to worldly form corresponds to the concept of
Śūnyatā, the complete voidness or the nonexistence of the self.
Kāmadhātu is represented by the base, Rupadhatu by the five square
platforms (the body), and Arupadhatu by the three circular platforms
and the large topmost stupa. The architectural features between the
three stages have metaphorical differences. For instance, square and
detailed decorations in the Rupadhatu disappear into plain circular
platforms in the Arupadhatu to represent how the world of
forms—where men are still attached with forms and names—changes
into the world of the formless.
Congregational worship in
Borobudur is performed in a walking
pilgrimage. Pilgrims are guided by the system of staircases and
corridors ascending to the top platform. Each platform represents one
stage of enlightenment. The path that guides pilgrims was designed to
symbolize Buddhist cosmology.
In 1885, a hidden structure under the base was accidentally
discovered. The "hidden footing" contains reliefs, 160 of
which are narratives describing the real Kāmadhātu. The remaining
reliefs are panels with short inscriptions that apparently provide
instructions for the sculptors, illustrating the scenes to be
carved. The real base is hidden by an encasement base, the
purpose of which remains a mystery. It was first thought that the real
base had to be covered to prevent a disastrous subsidence of the
monument into the hill. There is another theory that the
encasement base was added because the original hidden footing was
incorrectly designed, according to Vastu Shastra, the Indian ancient
book about architecture and town planning. Regardless of
why it was commissioned, the encasement base was built with detailed
and meticulous design and with aesthetic and religious consideration.
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head,
Approximately 55,000 cubic metres (72,000 cu yd) of andesite
stones were taken from neighbouring stone quarries to build the
monument. The stone was cut to size, transported to the
site and laid without mortar. Knobs, indentations and dovetails were
used to form joints between stones. The roof of stupas, niches and
arched gateways were constructed in corbelling method. Reliefs were
created in situ after the building had been completed.
The monument is equipped with a good drainage system to cater to the
area's high stormwater run-off. To prevent flooding, 100 spouts are
installed at each corner, each with a unique carved gargoyle in the
shape of a giant or makara.
Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
Borobudur differs markedly from the general design of other structures
built for this purpose. Instead of being built on a flat surface,
Borobudur is built on a natural hill. However, construction technique
is similar to other temples in Java. Without the inner spaces seen in
other temples, and with a general design similar to the shape of
Borobudur was first thought more likely to have served as a
stupa, instead of a temple. A stupa is intended as a
shrine for the Buddha. Sometimes stupas were built only as devotional
symbols of Buddhism. A temple, on the other hand, is used as a house
of worship. The meticulous complexity of the monument's design
Borobudur is in fact a temple.
Little is known about Gunadharma, the architect of the
complex. His name is recounted from Javanese folk tales
rather than from written inscriptions.
The basic unit of measurement used during construction was the tala,
defined as the length of a human face from the forehead's hairline to
the tip of the chin or the distance from the tip of the thumb to the
tip of the middle finger when both fingers are stretched at their
maximum distance. The unit is thus relative from one
individual to the next, but the monument has exact measurements. A
survey conducted in 1977 revealed frequent findings of a ratio of
4:6:9 around the monument. The architect had used the formula to lay
out the precise dimensions of the fractal and self-similar geometry in
Borobudur's design. This ratio is also found
in the designs of
Pawon and Mendut, nearby Buddhist temples.
Archeologists have conjectured that the 4:6:9 ratio and the tala have
calendrical, astronomical and cosmological significance, as is the
case with the temple of
Angkor Wat in Cambodia.
The main structure can be divided into three components: base, body,
and top. The base is 123 m × 123 m
(404 ft × 404 ft) in size with 4 metres (13 ft)
walls. The body is composed of five square platforms, each
of diminishing height. The first terrace is set back 7 metres
(23 ft) from the edge of the base. Each subsequent terrace is set
back 2 metres (6.6 ft), leaving a narrow corridor at each stage.
The top consists of three circular platforms, with each stage
supporting a row of perforated stupas, arranged in concentric circles.
There is one main dome at the center, the top of which is the highest
point of the monument, 35 metres (115 ft) above ground level.
Stairways at the center of each of the four sides give access to the
top, with a number of arched gates overlooked by 32 lion statues. The
gates are adorned with Kala's head carved on top of each and Makaras
projecting from each side. This Kala-Makara motif is commonly found on
the gates of Javanese temples. The main entrance is on the eastern
side, the location of the first narrative reliefs. Stairways on the
slopes of the hill also link the monument to the low-lying plain.
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on
Borobudur is constructed in such a way that it reveals various levels
of terraces, showing intricate architecture that goes from being
heavily ornamented with bas-reliefs to being plain in Arupadhatu
circular terraces. The first four terrace walls are
showcases for bas-relief sculptures. These are exquisite, considered
to be the most elegant and graceful in the ancient Buddhist
The bas-reliefs in
Borobudur depicted many scenes of daily life in
8th-century ancient Java, from the courtly palace life, hermit in the
forest, to those of commoners in the village. It also depicted temple,
marketplace, various flora and fauna, and also native vernacular
architecture. People depicted here are the images of king, queen,
princes, noblemen, courtier, soldier, servant, commoners, priest and
hermit. The reliefs also depicted mythical spiritual beings in
Buddhist beliefs such as asuras, gods, bodhisattvas, kinnaras,
gandharvas and apsaras. The images depicted on bas-relief often served
as reference for historians to research for certain subjects, such as
the study of architecture, weaponry, economy, fashion, and also mode
of transportation of 8th-century Maritime Southeast Asia. One of the
famous renderings of an 8th-century Southeast Asian double outrigger
Borobudur Ship. Today, the actual-size replica of
Borobudur Ship that had sailed from
Indonesia to Africa in 2004 is
displayed in the Samudra Raksa Museum, located a few hundred meters
north of Borobudur.
Borobudur reliefs also pay close attention to Indian aesthetic
discipline, such as pose and gesture that contain certain meanings and
aesthetic value. The reliefs of noblemen, and noble women, kings, or
divine beings such as apsaras, taras and boddhisattvas are usually
portrayed in tribhanga pose, the three-bend pose on neck, hips, and
knee, with one leg resting and one upholding the body weight. This
position is considered as the most graceful pose, such as the figure
Surasundari holding a lotus.
Borobudur excavation, archeologists discovered colour pigments
of blue, red, green, black, as well as bits of gold foil, and
concluded that the monument that we see today – a dark gray mass of
volcanic stone, lacking in colour – was probably once coated with
varjalepa white plaster and then painted with bright colors, serving
perhaps as a beacon of Buddhist teaching. The same
vajralepa plaster can also be found in Sari,
It is likely that the bas-reliefs of
Borobudur was originally quite
colourful, before centuries of torrential tropical rainfalls
peeled-off the colour pigments.
Narrative panels distribution
No. of panels
Borobudur contains approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs (1,460
narrative and 1,212 decorative panels), which cover the façades and
balustrades. The total relief surface is 2,500 square metres
(27,000 sq ft), and they are distributed at the hidden foot
(Kāmadhātu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu).
The narrative panels, which tell the story of
Manohara, are grouped into 11 series that encircle the
monument with a total length of 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). The
hidden foot contains the first series with 160 narrative panels, and
the remaining 10 series are distributed throughout walls and
balustrades in four galleries starting from the eastern entrance
stairway to the left. Narrative panels on the wall read from right to
left, while those on the balustrade read from left to right. This
conforms with pradaksina, the ritual of circumambulation performed by
pilgrims who move in a clockwise direction while keeping the sanctuary
to their right.
The hidden foot depicts the workings of karmic law. The walls of the
first gallery have two superimposed series of reliefs; each consists
of 120 panels. The upper part depicts the biography of the Buddha,
while the lower part of the wall and also the balustrades in the first
and the second galleries tell the story of the Buddha's former
lives. The remaining panels are devoted to Sudhana's
further wandering about his search, terminated by his attainment of
the Perfect Wisdom.
The law of karma (Karmavibhangga)
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right
depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the
left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in
hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning
The 160 hidden panels do not form a continuous story, but each panel
provides one complete illustration of cause and effect.
There are depictions of blameworthy activities, from gossip to murder,
with their corresponding punishments. There are also praiseworthy
activities, that include charity and pilgrimage to sanctuaries, and
their subsequent rewards. The pains of hell and the pleasure of heaven
are also illustrated. There are scenes of daily life, complete with
the full panorama of samsara (the endless cycle of birth and death).
The encasement base of the
Borobudur temple was disassembled to reveal
the hidden foot, and the reliefs were photographed by Casijan Chepas
in 1890. It is these photographs that are displayed in Borobudur
Museum (Karmawibhangga Museum), located just several hundred meters
north of the temple. During the restoration, the foot encasement was
reinstalled, covering the Karmawibhangga reliefs. Today, only the
southeast corner of the hidden foot is revealed and visible for
The story of Prince Siddhartha and the birth of Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to
Lumbini to give birth
to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Main article: The birth of
The story starts with the descent of the
Lord Buddha from the Tushita
heaven and ends with his first sermon in the Deer Park near
Benares. The relief shows the birth of the
Prince Siddhartha, son of King
Queen Maya of
Kapilavastu (in Nepal).
The story is preceded by 27 panels showing various preparations, in
the heavens and on the earth, to welcome the final incarnation of the
Bodhisattva. Before descending from
Tushita heaven, the
Bodhisattva entrusted his crown to his successor, the future Buddha
Maitreya. He descended on earth in the shape of white elephants with
six tusks, penetrated to Queen Maya's right womb.
Queen Maya had a
dream of this event, which was interpreted that his son would become
either a sovereign or a Buddha.
Queen Maya felt that it was the time to give birth, she went to
Lumbini park outside the Kapilavastu city. She stood under a
plaksa tree, holding one branch with her right hand, and she gave
birth to a son, Prince Siddhartha. The story on the panels continues
until the prince becomes the Buddha.
The stories of Buddha's previous life (Jataka) and other legendary
Jatakas are stories about the
Buddha before he was born as Prince
Siddhartha. They are the stories that tell about the
previous lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal form. The
Buddha may appear in them as a king, an outcast, a god, an
elephant—but, in whatever form, he exhibits some virtue that the
tale thereby inculcates. Avadanas are similar to jatakas,
but the main figure is not the
Bodhisattva himself. The saintly deeds
in avadanas are attributed to other legendary persons. Jatakas and
avadanas are treated in one and the same series in the reliefs of
The first twenty lower panels in the first gallery on the wall depict
the Sudhanakumaravadana, or the saintly deeds of Sudhana. The first
135 upper panels in the same gallery on the balustrades are devoted to
the 34 legends of the Jatakamala. The remaining 237 panels
depict stories from other sources, as do the lower series and panels
in the second gallery. Some jatakas are depicted twice, for example
the story of King Sibhi (Rama's forefather).
Sudhana's search for the ultimate truth (Gandavyuha)
Gandavyuha is the story told in the final chapter of the Avatamsaka
Sutra about Sudhana's tireless wandering in search of the Highest
Perfect Wisdom. It covers two galleries (third and fourth) and also
half of the second gallery, comprising in total of 460
panels. The principal figure of the story, the youth
Sudhana, son of an extremely rich merchant, appears on the 16th panel.
The preceding 15 panels form a prologue to the story of the miracles
during Buddha's samadhi in the Garden of Jeta at Sravasti.
During his search,
Sudhana visited no fewer than thirty teachers, but
none of them had satisfied him completely. He was then instructed by
Manjusri to meet the monk Megasri, where he was given the first
doctrine. As his journey continues,
Sudhana meets (in the following
order) Supratisthita, the physician Megha (Spirit of Knowledge), the
banker Muktaka, the monk Saradhvaja, the upasika Asa (Spirit of
Supreme Enlightenment), Bhismottaranirghosa, the
Princess Maitrayani, the monk Sudarsana, a boy called Indriyesvara,
the upasika Prabhuta, the banker Ratnachuda, King Anala, the god Siva
Mahadeva, Queen Maya,
Maitreya and then back to Manjusri.
Each meeting has given
Sudhana a specific doctrine, knowledge and
wisdom. These meetings are shown in the third gallery.
After the last meeting with Manjusri,
Sudhana went to the residence of
Bodhisattva Samantabhadra, depicted in the fourth gallery. The entire
series of the fourth gallery is devoted to the teaching of
Samantabhadra. The narrative panels finally end with Sudhana's
achievement of the Supreme Knowledge and the Ultimate
Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Apart from the story of the
Buddhist cosmology carved in stone,
Borobudur has many statues of various Buddhas. The cross-legged
statues are seated in a lotus position and distributed on the five
square platforms (the Rupadhatu level), as well as on the top platform
(the Arupadhatu level).
Buddha statues are in niches at the Rupadhatu level, arranged in
rows on the outer sides of the balustrades, the number of statues
decreasing as platforms progressively diminish to the upper level. The
first balustrades have 104 niches, the second 104, the third 88, the
fourth 72 and the fifth 64. In total, there are 432
Buddha statues at
the Rupadhatu level. At the Arupadhatu level (or the three
Buddha statues are placed inside perforated
stupas. The first circular platform has 32 stupas, the second 24 and
the third 16, which adds up to 72 stupas. Of the original
Buddha statues, over 300 are damaged (mostly headless), and 43 are
missing. Since the monument's discovery, heads have been acquired as
collector's items, mostly by Western museums. Some of
Buddha heads are now displayed in numbers of museums, such as
Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam, Musée Guimet in Paris, and The British
Museum in London.
Head from a
Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of
heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
At first glance, all the
Buddha statues appear similar, but there is a
subtle difference between them in the mudras, or the position of the
hands. There are five groups of mudra: North, East, South, West and
Zenith, which represent the five cardinal compass points according to
Mahayana. The first four balustrades have the first four mudras:
North, East, South and West, of which the
Buddha statues that face one
compass direction have the corresponding mudra.
Buddha statues at the
fifth balustrades and inside the 72 stupas on the top platform have
the same mudra: Zenith. Each mudra represents one of the Five Dhyani
Buddhas; each has its own symbolism.
Following the order of Pradakshina (clockwise circumumbulation)
starting from the East, the mudras of the
Borobudur buddha statues
Location of the Statue
Calling the Earth to witness
Rupadhatu niches on the first four eastern balustrades
Benevolence, alms giving
Rupadhatu niches on the first four southern balustrades
Concentration and meditation
Rupadhatu niches on the first four western balustrades
Rupadhatu niches on the first four northern balustrades
Reasoning and virtue
Rupadhatu niches in all directions on the fifth (uppermost) balustrade
Turning the Wheel of dharma (law)
Arupadhatu in 72 perforated stupas on three rounded platforms
Nehru to visit
Borobudur in June 1950.
The aesthetic and technical mastery of Borobudur, and also its sheer
size, has evoked the sense of grandeur and pride for Indonesians. Just
Angkor Wat for Cambodian,
Borobudur has become a powerful symbol
Indonesia — to testify for its past greatness.
Sukarno made a
point of showing the site to foreign dignitaries. The
— realized its important symbolic and economic meanings —
diligently embarked on a massive project to restore the monument with
the help from UNESCO. Many museums in
Indonesia contain a scale model
replica of Borobudur. The monument has become almost an icon, grouped
with the wayang puppet play and gamelan music into a vague classical
Javanese past from which Indonesians are to draw
Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Several archaeological relics taken from
Borobudur or its replica have
been displayed in some museums in
Indonesia and abroad. Other than
Karmawibhangga Museum within
Borobudur temple ground, some museums
boast to host relics of Borobudur, such as Indonesian National Museum
Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam,
British Museum in London, and
Thai National Museum in Bangkok.
Louvre museum in Paris, Malaysian
National Museum in Kuala Lumpur, and
Museum of World Religions in
Taipei also displayed the replica of Borobudur. The
monument has drawn global attention to the classical Buddhist
civilization of ancient Java.
The rediscovery and reconstruction of
Borobudur has been hailed by
Indonesian Buddhist as the sign of the Buddhist revival in Indonesia.
In 1934, Narada Thera, a missionary monk from Sri Lanka, visited
Indonesia for the first time as part of his journey to spread the
Dharma in Southeast Asia. This opportunity was used by a few local
Buddhists to revive
Buddhism in Indonesia. A bodhi tree planting
ceremony was held in Southeastern side of
Borobudur on 10 March 1934
under the blessing of Narada Thera, and some Upasakas were ordained as
monks. Once a year, thousands of Buddhist from Indonesia
and neighboring countries flock to
Borobudur to commemorate national
The emblem of
Central Java province and
Magelang Regency bears the
image of Borobudur. It has become the symbol of Central Java, and also
Indonesia on a wider scale.
Borobudur has become the name of several
establishments, such as
Borobudur Hotel in
Central Jakarta, and several Indonesian restaurants abroad. Borobudur
has been featured in
Rupiah banknote, stamps, numbers of books,
publications, documentaries and Indonesian tourism promotion
materials. The monument has become one of the main tourism attraction
in Indonesia, vital for generating local economy in the region
surrounding the temple. The tourism sector of the city of Yogyakarta
for example, flourishes partly because of its proximity to Borobudur
Gallery of reliefs
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of
Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Gallery of Borobudur
World Heritage inscription of
The procedures signage for visiting
The inscription of
Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former
Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of
Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum.
People still can't locate their original positions.
Buddha statue inside a stupa
Ancient monuments of Java
Architecture of Indonesia
Candi of Indonesia
Trail of Civilizations
^ "Largest Buddhist temple". Guinness World Records. Guinness World
Records. Retrieved 27 January 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation
font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'"
.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited
a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription
span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px
dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a
.1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code
.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left
padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output
^ Purnomo Siswoprasetjo (4 July 2012). "Guinness names Borobudur
Buddha temple". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the
original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
^ a b c d e f "
UNESCO World Heritage
Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
^ a b c Soekmono (1976), page 35–36.
^ "Borobudur : A Wonder of
Archived from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
^ Le Huu Phuoc (April 2010). Buddhist Architecture. Grafikol.
Retrieved 5 April 2012.
^ a b c d Soekmono (1976), page 4.
^ Hary Gunarto, Preserving Borobudur's Narrative Walls of UNESCO
Heritage, Ritsumeikan RCAPS Occasional Paper,  October 2007
^ Mark Elliott; et al. (November 2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely
Planet Publications Pty Ltd. p. 211–215.
^ a b c Mark P. Hampton (2005). "Heritage, Local Communities and
Economic Development". Annals of Tourism Research. 32 (3): 735–759.
^ a b E. Sedyawati (1997). "Potential and Challenges of Tourism:
Managing the National Cultural Heritage of Indonesia". In W. Nuryanti
(ed.). Tourism and Heritage Management. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada
University Press. pp. 25–35.
^ a b c d Soekmono (1976), page 13.
^ a b
Thomas Stamford Raffles
Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817). The History of
Java (1978 ed.).
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580347-7.
^ a b J. L. Moens (1951). "Barabudur,
Pawon en hun
onderlinge samenhang (Barabudur,
Pawon and their mutual
relationship)" (PDF). Tijdschrift voor de Indische Taai-, Land- en
Volkenkunde. Het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen:
326–386. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2007. trans.
by Mark Long
^ a b J.G. de Casparis, "The Dual Nature of Barabudur", in Gómez and
Woodward (1981), page 70 and 83.
^ "Borobudur" (in Indonesian). Indonesian Embassy in Den Haag. 21
December 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
^ Drs. R. Soekmono (1988) . Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan
Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius.
^ Walubi. "Borobudur: Candi Berbukit Kebajikan". Archived from the
original on 3 July 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 1.
^ N. J. Krom (1927). Borobudur, Archaeological Description. The Hague:
Nijhoff. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 17
^ a b Murwanto, H.; Gunnell, Y; Suharsono, S.; Sutikno, S. &
Lavigne, F (2004). "
Borobudur monument (Java, Indonesia) stood by a
natural lake: chronostratigraphic evidence and historical
implications". The Holocene. 14 (3): 459–463.
^ a b Soekmono (1976), page 9.
^ Miksic (1990)
^ Laguna Copperplate Inscription
^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. The Indianized States
of Southeast Asia. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii
Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.
^ a b Dumarçay (1991).
^ Paul Michel Munoz (2007). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian
Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Didier Millet.
p. 143. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
^ W. J. van der Meulen (1977). "In Search of "Ho-Ling"". Indonesia.
23: 87–112. doi:10.2307/3350886.
^ a b W. J. van der Meulen (1979). "King Sañjaya and His Successors".
Indonesia. 28 (28): 17–54. doi:10.2307/3350894. JSTOR 3350894.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 10.
^ a b D.G.E. Hall (1956). "Problems of Indonesian Historiography".
Pacific Affairs. 38 (3/4): 353–359. doi:10.2307/2754037.
^ Roy E. Jordaan (1993). Imagine
Buddha in Prambanan: Reconsidering
the Buddhist Background of the Loro Jonggrang
Temple Complex. Leiden:
Vakgroep Talen en Culturen van Zuidoost-Azië en Ocenanië,
Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden. ISBN 90-73084-08-3.
^ "Wacana Nusantara - Candi Borobudur". Archived from the original on
5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
^ a b Soekmono (1976), page 5.
^ a b Soekmono (1976), page 6.
^ a b Soekmono (1976), page 42.
^ W.P. Groeneveldt at parlement.com
^ John Miksic; Marcello Tranchini; Anita Tranchini (1996). Borobudur:
Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Tuttle publishing. p. 29. Retrieved
2 April 2012.
^ a b c "
Borobudur Pernah Salah Design?" (in Indonesian). Kompas. 7
April 2000. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved
23 August 2008.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 43.
^ a b c "
UNESCO experts mission to
Sites" (Press release). UNESCO. 31 August 2004.
^ a b "Saving Borobudur". PBS. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
^ a b Caesar Voute; Voute, Caesar (1973). "The Restoration and
Conservation Project of
Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. Planning:
Research: Design". Studies in Conservation. 18 (3): 113–130.
doi:10.2307/1505654. JSTOR 1505654.
^ "Agreement concerning the voluntary contributions to be given for
the execution of the project to preserve Borobudur" (PDF).
^ "Cultural heritage and partnership; 1999" (PDF) (Press release).
UNESCO. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
^ Post, The Jakarta. "UI archaeology professor weighs in on
Borobudur's 'chattra' restoration". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 4 May
^ Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Indonesia. Lonely Planet. p. 856.
^ "The Meaning of Procession". Waisak. Walubi (Buddhist Council of
Indonesia). Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved
28 December 2008.
^ Jamie James (27 January 2003). "Battle of Borobudur". Time.
Retrieved 23 August 2008.
Borobudur dicatatkan di Guinness World Records" (in
Indonesian). AntaraNews.com. 5 July 2012. Archived from the original
on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
^ a b c "Section II: Periodic Report on the State of Conservation"
(PDF). State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the
UNESCO World Heritage. Retrieved 23 February
^ "Batu Tangga Candi
Borobudur akan Dilapisi Kayu" (in Indonesian).
National Geographic Indonesia. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August
^ "Covered in volcanic ash,
Borobudur closed temporarily". from,
Java (by ANTARA News). 6 November 2010. Archived from the
original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
Temple Forced to Close While Workers Remove Merapi Ash".
Jakarta Globe. 7 November 2010. Archived from the original on 11
November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
^ "Inilah Foto-foto Kerusakan Candi" (in Indonesian). Tribun News. 7
November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
^ "Borobudur's post-Merapi eruption rehabilitating may take three
years: Official". 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 16
Borobudur clean-up to finish in November". The Jakarta Post. 28
June 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
^ "Stone Conservation Workshop, Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia,
11-12 January 2012 funded by the Federal Republic of
Germany - |
UNESCO Office in Jakarta". Portal.unesco.org. 16 January 2012.
Retrieved 8 September 2017.
Germany Supports Safeguarding of Borobudur". The Jakarta Globe.
Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
^ "Borobudur, Other Sites, Closed After Mount
JakartaGlobe. 14 February 2014. Archived from the original on 14
February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
^ "1,100-Year-Old Buddhist
Temple Wrecked By Bombs in Indonesia". The
Miami Herald. 22 January 1985. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
^ "Teror Bom di
Indonesia (Beberapa di Luar Negeri) dari Waktu ke
Waktu" (in Indonesian). Tempo Interaktif.com. 17 April 2004. Archived
from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
Harold Crouch (2002). "The Key Determinants of Indonesia's Political
Future" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 7.
ISSN 0219-3213. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March
^ Sebastien Berger (30 May 2006). "An ancient wonder reduced to
rubble". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 23 August 2008.
^ Ika Fitriana (22 August 2014). "Terkait Ancaman ISIS di Media
Sosial, Pengamanan Candi
Borobudur Diperketat" (in Indonesian).
National Geographic Indonesia. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
^ a b Ika Fitriana (19 November 2014). "Tangga Candi
Dilapisi Kayu". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 October 2015.
^ I Made Asdhiana, ed. (6 March 2015). "Tangga Candi Borobudur
Dilapisi Karet". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 October
^ Sugiyanto (13 October 2015). "Cegah Keausan Batu, Pengunjung
Borobudur Diharuskan Pakai Sandal Khusus".
^ John N. Miksic; Marcello Tranchini. Borobudur: Golden Tales of the
Buddhas, Periplus Travel Guides Series. Tuttle Publishing, 1990.
p. 46. ISBN 0-945971-90-7. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
^ A. Wayman (1981). "Reflections on the Theory of Barabudur as a
Mandala". Barabudur History and Significance of a Buddhist Monument.
Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press.
^ Vaisutis, Justine (2007). Indonesia. Victoria: Lonely Planet
Publications. p. 168. ISBN 1-74104-435-9.CS1 maint: Uses
authors parameter (link)
^ "Pangguyangan". Dinas Pariwisata dan Budaya Provinsi Jawa Barat (in
^ I.G.N. Anom; Sri Sugiyanti; Hadniwati Hasibuan (1996). Maulana
Ibrahim; Samidi (eds.). Hasil Pemugaran dan Temuan Benda Cagar Budaya
PJP I (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. p. 87.
^ Timbul Haryono (2011). Sendratari mahakarya
Indonesian). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia. p. 14.
^ R. Soekmono (2002). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan
Indonesia 2 (in
Indonesian). Kanisius. p. 87. ISBN 9789794132906.
^ "Kebudayaan Megalithikum Prof. Dr. Sutjipto Wirgosuparto".
E-dukasi.net. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 28
^ Tartakov, Gary Michael. "Lecture 17: Sherman Lee's History of Far
Eastern Art (
Indonesia and Cambodja)". Lecture notes for Asian Art and
Architecture: Art & Design 382/582. Iowa State University.
Retrieved 17 August 2008.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 17.
^ Peter Ferschin & Andreas Gramelhofer (2004). "Architecture as
Information Space". 8th Int. Conf. on Information Visualization. IEEE.
pp. 181–186. doi:10.1109/IV.2004.1320142.
^ a b Soekmono (1976), page 18.
^ a b c Soekmono (1976), page 16.
^ a b c Caesar Voûte & Mark Long. Borobudur:
Pyramid of the
Cosmic Buddha. D.K. Printworld Ltd. Archived from the original on 8
June 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
^ a b Atmadi (1988).
^ H. Situngkir (2010). "
Borobudur Was Built Algorithmically". BFI
Working Paper Series WP-9-2010. Bandung Fe Institute.
^ "Borobudur". Buddhist Travel. 2008. Archived from the original on 5
January 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
^ Tom Cockrem (2008). "
Temple of enlightenment". The Buddhist
Channel.tv. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
^ "The Cinnamon Route".
Borobudur Park. Archived from the original on
25 September 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
Borobudur Ship Expedition,
Indonesia to Africa 2003–2004".
Borobudur Ship Expedition. 2004. Archived from the original on 17
February 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
^ "Surasundari". Art and Archaeology.com. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
^ a b "The Greatest Sacred Buildings". Museum of World Religions,
Taipei. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 4 May
^ a b c d Soekmono (1976), page 20.
^ Jaini, P.S. (1966). "The Story of
Sudhana and Manohara: An Analysis
of the Texts and the
Borobudur Reliefs". Bulletin of the School of
Oriental and African Studies. 29 (3): 533–558.
doi:10.1017/S0041977X00073407. ISSN 0041-977X. JSTOR 611473.
^ a b c Soekmono (1976), page 21.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 26.
^ "Jataka". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 29.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 32.
^ Soekmono (1976), page 35.
^ Hiram W. Woodward Jr. (1979). "Acquisition". Critical Inquiry. 6
(2): 291–303. doi:10.1086/448048.
Buddha head". BBC. Retrieved 2 August 2014. A History of
The World, The British Museum
^ Roderick S. Bucknell & Martin Stuart-Fox (1995). The Twilight
Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. UK:
Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-0234-2.
^ Wood, Michael (2011). "Chapter 2: Archaeology, National Histories,
and National Borders in Southeast Asia". In Clad, James; McDonald,
Sean M.; Vaughan, Bruce (eds.). The Borderlands of Southeast Asia. NDU
Press. p. 38.
Buddhism in Indonesia". Buddhanet. Archived from the original on 14
February 2002. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
Vesak Festival: A Truly Sacred Experience". Wonderful Indonesia.
Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%
Peter Cirtek (2016). Borobudur: Appearance of a Universe. Hamburg:
Monsun Verlag. ISBN 978-3-940429-06-3.
Parmono Atmadi (1988). Some Architectural Design Principles of Temples
in Java: A study through the buildings projection on the reliefs of
Borobudur temple. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.
Jacques Dumarçay (1991). Borobudur. trans. and ed. by Michael
Smithies (2nd ed.). Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Luis O. Gómez & Hiram W. Woodward, Jr. (1981). Barabudur: History
and Significance of a Buddhist Monument. Berkeley: Univ. of
California. ISBN 0-89581-151-0.
John Miksic (1990). Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Boston:
Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0-87773-906-4.
Soekmono (1976). "Chandi Borobudur: A Monument of Mankind" (PDF).
Paris: The Unesco Press. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
R. Soekmono, J.G. de Casparis, J. Dumarçay, P. Amranand and P.
Schoppert (1990). Borobudur: A Prayer in Stone. Singapore: Archipelago
Press. ISBN 2-87868-004-9.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
Luis O. Gomez & Hiram W. Woodward (1981). Barabudur, history and
significance of a Buddhist monument. presented at the Int. Conf. on
Borobudur, Univ. of Michigan, 16–17 May 1974. Berkeley: Asian
Humanities Press. ISBN 0-89581-151-0.
August J.B. Kempers (1976). Ageless Borobudur: Buddhist mystery in
stone, decay and restoration,
Mendut and Pawon, folklife in ancient
Java. Wassenaar: Servire. ISBN 90-6077-553-8.
John Miksic (1999). The Mysteries of Borobudur. Hongkong: Periplus.
Morton III, W. Brown (January 1983). "
Indonesia Rescues Ancient
Borobudur". National Geographic. 163 (1): 126–142.
ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454.
Adrian Snodgrass (1985). The symbolism of the stupa. Southeast Asia
Program. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University. ISBN 0-87727-700-1.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Borobudur.
Official site of Borobudur, Prambanan, and
Ratu Boko Park
Borobudur Temple Compounds
Borobudur Temple Compounds short documentary by
UNESCO and NHK
Wonderful Indonesia's Guide on Borobudur
Borobudur documentary about Borobudur's bas-reliefs
stories of Jatakas,
Gandavyuha in YouTube
Australian National University's research project on Borobudur
Analysis of Borobudur's hidden base
Borobudur on Global Heritage Network
Temple Ruins: Details of Sculpted Figures" is a
photograph with commentary by Frank G. Carpenter.
vteTourist attractions in IndonesiaSumatra
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque
Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Gunongan Historical Park
Kerinci Seblat National Park
Lumbini Natural Park
Mentawai Islands Regency
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
Alas Purwo National Park
Baluran National Park
Dieng Volcanic Complex
Gembira Loka Zoo
Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park
House of Sampoerna
Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument
Jawa Timur Park
Karimunjawa National Park
Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat
Meru Betiri National Park
Mount Halimun Salak National Park
Sidoarjo mud flow
Sukorambi Botanical Garden
Tirto Samodra Beach
Ujung Kulon National Park
Beras Basah Island
Betung Kerihun National Park
Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park
Baning Nature Tourist Park
Danau Sentarum National Park
Kutai National Park
Sabangau National Park
The Equator monument
Bantimurung – Bulusaraung National Park
Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park
Bunaken National Park
Gandang Dewata National Park
Kepulauan Togean National Park
Lore Lindu National Park
Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park
Taka Bone Rate National Park
Trans Studio Makassar
Wakatobi National Park
Lesser Sunda Islands
Bali Bird Park
Bali Safari and Marine Park
Garuda Wisnu Kencana
Gunung Rinjani National Park
Komodo National Park
Lake Segara Anak
Ujung Water Palace
Maluku and Papua
Lorentz National Park
Raja Ampat Islands
Teluk Cenderawasih National Park
Wasur National Park
vteTopics in Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
Iconography in Laos and Thailand
Mahapajapati Gotamī (aunt, adoptive mother)
Places where the
Buddha in world religions
Three marks of existence
Two truths doctrine
Ten spiritual realms
Hungry Ghost realm
Three planes of existence
Early Buddhist schools
Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Vipassanā (Vipassana movement)
Seven Factors of Enlightenment
Four Right Exertions
Four stages of enlightenment
Upāsaka and Upāsikā
The ten principal disciples
B. R. Ambedkar
Emperor Wen of Sui
Early Buddhist Texts
Chinese Buddhist canon
Tibetan Buddhist canon
Buddhism in India
Buddhism in India
Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution
Buddhism and the Roman world
Buddhism in the West
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Banishment of Buddhist monks from Nepal
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
Women in Buddhism
The unanswered questions
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist temples
Thai temple art and architecture
Tibetan Buddhist architecture
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Om mani padme hum
Maya Devi Temple
Temple of the Tooth
East Asian religions
vteWorld Heritage Sites in IndonesiaWorld Heritage Sites
Komodo National Park
Lorentz National Park
Ombilin Coal Mining Heritage of Sawahlunto
Sangiran Early Man Site
Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
Ujung Kulon National Park
Subak Irrigation System
Banten Ancient City
Transborder Rainforest Heritage of Borneo
Bunaken National Park
Great Mosque of Demak
Gunongan Historical Park
Muara Takus Compound Site
Ngada traditional house and megalithic complex
Prehistoric Cave Sites in Maros-Pangkep
Pulau Penyengat Palace Complex
Raja Ampat Islands
Sukuh Hindu Temple
Taka Bonerate National Park
Toraja Traditional Settlement
Trowulan - Former Capital City of
Wakatobi National Park
Waruga Burial Complex
Yogyakarta Palace Complex
vteBuddhist temples in Indonesia
Candi of Indonesia
Taman Alam Lumbini
BNF: cb11943142m (data)
WorldCat Identities (via