Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40;
United States of America
Coat of arms
God We Trust"[a]
.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal Other traditional
"E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto)"Out of many, one"
"Annuit cœptis" (Latin)"He has favored our undertakings"
"Novus ordo seclorum" (Latin)"New order of the ages"
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"
March: "The Stars and Stripes Forever"
Great Seal: The United States, including its territoriesCapital
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W /
New York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W /
Official languagesNone at federal level[b]National
languageEnglish[c]Ethnic groups (2018)By
1.3% Native American
0.2% Pacific Islander
No official count (%) Middle East and North African considered White
under current government policy) 
18.1% Hispanic or Latino
81.9% non-Hispanic or Latino
Demonym(s)AmericanGovernmentFederal presidential constitutional
Donald Trump (R)• Vice President
Mike Pence (R)• House Speaker
Nancy Pelosi (D)• Chief
Justice John Roberts
LegislatureCongress• Upper houseSenate• Lower houseHouse
of RepresentativesIndependence from Great
Britain• Declaration July 4, 1776• Confederation March
1, 1781• Treaty of Paris September 3, 1783• Constitution
June 21, 1788• Last polity admitted March 24, 1976
Area • Total area3,796,742 sq mi
(9,833,520 km2)[d] (3rd/4th)• Water (%)6.97• Total
land area3,531,905 sq mi
(9,147,590 km2)Population• 2018
estimate327,167,434[e] (3rd)• 2010 census308,745,538[e] (3rd)• Density87/sq mi
(33.6/km2) (146th)GDP (PPP)2019 estimate• Total$21.345
trillion (2nd)• Per
capita$64,767 (11th)GDP (nominal)2019 estimate• Total$21.345
trillion (1st)• Per
capita$64,767 (7th)Gini (2016) 41.5medium · 56thHDI (2017) 0.924very
high · 13thCurrency
United States dollar
United States dollar ($) (USD)Time
zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11• Summer (DST)UTC−4 to
Driving sideright[g]Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS
.edu (since 2001)
United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United
States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a
federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various
possessions.[h] At 3.8 million square miles
(9.8 million km2), the
United States is the world's third or
fourth largest country by total area[d] and is slightly
smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square
miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of more than
327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country.
The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New
York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are
North America between
Canada and Mexico. The State of
Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada
to the east and across the
Bering Strait from
Russia to the west. The
Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S.
territories are scattered about the
Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean
Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse
geography, climate, and wildlife of the
United States make it one of
the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from
Siberia to the North American mainland at
least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the
16th century. The
United States emerged from the thirteen British
colonies established along the East Coast. Following the French and
Indian War, numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies
led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the
subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783
United States becoming the first country to gain independence
from a European power. The current constitution was
adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the
Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental
civil liberties. The
United States embarked on a vigorous expansion
North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new
territories, displacing Native American tribes, and
gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by
During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the
abolition of slavery. By the end of the
United States had extended into the Pacific
Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the
Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The
Spanish–American War and
World War I
World War I confirmed the country's status
as a global military power. The
United States emerged from World War
II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear
weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent
member of the
United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights
legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights
Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination
based on race or color. During the Cold War, the
United States and the
Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969
Moon landing. The end of the
Cold War and the collapse of the
Soviet Union in 1991 left the
United States as the world's sole
A multicultural country, the
United States is the world's oldest
surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative
United States is a founding member of the United
Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of
American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The
United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest
economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting
for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The U.S.
economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of
services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing
sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United
States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter
of goods, by value. Although its population is
only 4.3% of the world total, the U.S. holds 31% of the
total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth
concentrated in a single country.
Despite income and wealth disparities, the
United States continues to
rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including
average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and worker
United States is the
foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global
military spending, and is a leading political, cultural,
and scientific force internationally.
2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations
2.3 European settlements
2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865)
2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era
2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization
2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
Cold War and civil rights era
2.9 Contemporary history
3 Geography, climate, and environment
4.4 Family structure
4.6.1 Higher education
5 Government and politics
5.1 Political divisions
5.2 Parties and elections
5.3 Foreign relations
5.4 Government finance
6 Law enforcement and crime
7.1 Science and technology
7.2 Income, poverty and wealth
8.3 Water supply and sanitation
9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art
9.6 Mass media
10 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for
United States citizens,
and American (word)
Americas are believed to be named for the Italian explorer
In 1507, the German cartographer
Martin Waldseemüller produced a
world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere
America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo
Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius). The first
documentary evidence of the phrase "
United States of America" is from
a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to
George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the
Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to
go "with full and ample powers from the
United States of America to
Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war
effort. The first known
publication of the phrase "
United States of America" was in an
anonymous essay in
The Virginia Gazette
The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg,
Virginia, on April 6, 1776.
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John
Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The
name of this Confederation shall be the '
United States of
America'". The final version of the Articles sent to the
states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile
of this Confederacy shall be 'The
United States of
America'". In June 1776,
Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase
"UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline
of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of
Independence. This draft of the document did not surface
until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before
or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms
are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the
"U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name
popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its
origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of
Columbia", many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere
bear his name, including the country of Colombia.
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a
collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States
are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution, ratified in 1865. The singular form—e.g.,
United States is"—became popular after the end of the American
Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is
retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more
significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of
states and a unit.
A citizen of the
United States is an "American". "United States",
"American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American
values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely
refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United
Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States
history, American business history, Economic history of the United
States, and Labor history of the United States
Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history
Further information: Native
Americans in the United States
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
display:flex;flex-direction:column .mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle margin:1px;float:left
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .theader
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption
text-align:left;background-color:transparent .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-left text-align:left .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-right text-align:right .mw-parser-output .tmulti
.text-align-center text-align:center @media all and (max-width:720px)
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbinner
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .trow justify-content:center
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .tsingle
.mw-parser-output .tmulti .thumbcaption text-align:center Monks
Mound, in Cahokia, a
UNESCO World Heritage SiteThe Cliff Palace, built
by the Ancestral Puebloans
It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North
America migrated from
Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and
arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence
suggests an even earlier arrival.
After crossing the land bridge, the first
Americans moved southward
along the Pacific coast and through an interior ice-free
corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice
Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and
is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous
cultures of the Americas. The
Clovis culture was believed
to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.
Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of
"pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years
ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of
migrations into North America.
Over time, indigenous cultures in
North America grew increasingly
complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian
Mississippian culture in
the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and
state-level societies. The Mississippian culture
flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the
Mexican border down through Florida. Its city state
Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian
archaeological site in the modern-day United States. In
Four Corners region,
Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the
culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which
produced greater dependence on farming. Three
Heritage Sites in the
United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa
Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos
Pueblo. The earthworks constructed by Native
Americans of the
Poverty Point culture in northeastern
also been designated a
UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern
Great Lakes region, the
Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was
established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth
The date of the first settlements of the
Hawaiian Islands is a topic
of continuing debate. Archaeological evidence seems to
indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.
Effects on and interaction with native populations
Further information: Population history of indigenous peoples of the
Americas and Native American disease and epidemics
With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the
contemporary United States, the Native
Americans were often conquered
and displaced. The native population of America declined
after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons, primarily diseases
such as smallpox and measles.
While estimating the original native population of
North America at
the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the
early part of the twentieth century by
James Mooney using historic
records to estimate the indigenous population north of
1600. In more recent years, Douglas H.
Ubelaker of the
Smithsonian Institution has updated these
figures. While Ubelaker estimated that there was a
population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of
473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too
Henry F. Dobyns believed that the
populations were much higher, suggestion 1,100,000 along the shores of
the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between
Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the
Mississippi Valley and tributaries and
697,000 people in the
The first interaction between Europeans and Native
Americans was made
by the Norsemen. A number of surviving Norse sagas provide information
The Maritimes and its indigenous people. The Norse attempted
to settle in
North America about 500 years before
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject
to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native
Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied
with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many
natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for
food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European
wares. Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to
cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others
felt it was important to "civilize" the Native
Americans and urged
them to adopt European agricultural techniques and
Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European
colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest continuously occupied
European-established settlement in the continental United States
The Mayflower Compact, 1620 by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris
With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of
the contemporary United States, the Native
Americans were often
conquered and displaced. The first Europeans to arrive in
the territory of the modern
United States were Spanish conquistadors
such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to
1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then
credit would go to
Christopher Columbus who landed in
Puerto Rico on
his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida
Mexico such as Saint Augustine and Santa Fe. The
French established their own as well along the
Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America
began with the
Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims'
Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian
groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first
elected legislative assembly, Virginia's
House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses created in
1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before
disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established
precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and
constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries
developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash
crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up
in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and
by the late colonial period,
Americans were producing one-seventh of
the world's iron supply. Cities eventually dotted the
coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English
colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups.
As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed
A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was
begun. The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in
North America than further south, because of less disease and better
food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of
slaves. Colonial society was largely divided
over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies
passed acts for and against the practice. But
by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing
indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern
With the British colonization of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that
would become the
United States of America were
established. All had local governments with elections open
to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of
Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for
republicanism. With extremely high birth rates, low death
rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly.
Relatively small Native American populations were
eclipsed. The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s
and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest in both
religion and religious liberty.
Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French
and Indian War), British forces seized
Canada from the French, but the
francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern
colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and
displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1
million in 1770, about one-third that of Britain. Despite continuing
new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s
only a small minority of
Americans had been born overseas.
The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of
self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically
seek to reassert royal authority.
Thirteen Colonies and neighboring polities in 1748
In 1774, the
Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered
and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in
present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land,
natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from
California. At the time, the Spanish were able to
monopolize the trade between
Asia and North America, granting limited
licenses to the Portuguese. When the
Russians began establishing a
growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge
the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the
During his third and final voyage,
Captain James Cook
Captain James Cook became the first
European to begin formal contact with Hawaii. After his initial
landfall in January 1778 at Waimea harbor, Kauai, Cook named the
archipelago the "Sandwich Islands" after the fourth Earl of
Sandwich—the acting First Lord of the Admiralty of the British Royal
Navy. Captain James Cook's last voyage included sailing
along the coast of
North America and
Alaska searching for a Northwest
Passage for approximately nine months. After having arrived in the
Hawaiian islands in 1778, Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast
to explore the west coast of
North America north of the Spanish
settlements in Alta California. He made landfall on the
at approximately 44°30′ north latitude, naming his landing point
Cape Foulweather. Bad weather forced his ships south to about 43°
north before they could begin their exploration of the coast
northward. In March 1778, Cook landed on Bligh Island and
named the inlet "King George's Sound". He recorded that the native
name was Nutka or Nootka, apparently misunderstanding his
conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot; his informant may have been
explaining that he was on an island (itchme nutka, a place you can "go
around"). There may also have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the
natives' autonym (a name for themselves). It may also have simply been
based on Cook's mispronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the
place. He returned to
Hawaii to resupply, initially
exploring the coasts of
Maui and the big island, trading with locals
and then making anchor at
Kealakekua Bay in January 1779. When his
ships and company left the islands, a ship's mast broke in bad
weather, forcing them to return in mid-February. Cook would be killed
days later. [j][k]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865)
Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States
Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial
evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war
of independence against a European power.
Americans had developed an
ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the
will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They
demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without
representation". The British insisted on administering the empire
through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.
Second Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of
Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all
men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable
rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great
Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the
thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no
further allegiance to the British crown. The fourth day of July is
celebrated annually as Independence Day. The Second
Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the
words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the
future to the 'United States' ". In 1777, the Articles of
Confederation established a weak government that operated until
U.S. territorial acquisitions–portions of each territory were
granted statehood since the 18th century.
Following the defeat at Yorktown in 1781, Britain signed
the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was recognized from
the Atlantic coast west to the
Mississippi River. Nationalists led the
Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States
Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal
government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of
creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who
had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president
elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding
federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of
legal protections, was adopted in 1791.
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave
trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton
crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave
population. The Second Great
Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical
Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform
movements, including abolitionism; in the South,
Baptists proselytized among slave
Map of the states and territories of the United States, c. 1834
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of
American Indian Wars. The
Louisiana Purchase of
French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's
area. The War of 1812, declared against Britain over
various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S.
nationalism. A series of military incursions into Florida
led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in
1819. The expansion was aided by steam power, when
steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, which
were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then,
even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's
From 1820 to 1850,
Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which
included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second
Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828
to 1854. The
Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian
removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian
reservations. The U.S. annexed the
Texas in 1845 during a
period of expansionist Manifest destiny. The 1846 Oregon
Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American
Northwest. Victory in the
Mexican–American War resulted
in the 1848
Mexican Cession of
California and much of the present-day
The national mammal, an
American bison in Yellowstone National Park,
California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred western migration, the
Genocide and the
creation of additional western states. After the American
Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for
settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native
Americans. Over a half-century, the loss of the American
bison (sometimes called "buffalo") was an existential blow to many
Plains Indians culture. In 1869, a new Peace Policy
nominally promised to protect Native-
Americans from abuses, avoid
further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless,
large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era
American Civil War
American Civil War and Reconstruction era
Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg by Thure de Thulstrup
Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of
Africans and African
Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.
Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and
free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free
states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of
Representatives. But with additional western territory and more
free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with
arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether
and how to expand or restrict slavery.
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from
the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen
slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate
States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the
"Union") maintained that secession was illegal. In order
to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the
secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would
become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting
in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many
civilians. The South fought for the freedom to own
slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country
as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863
and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose
of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery.
Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of
the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth
Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years
after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth
Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African
Americans who had been slaves, and the Fifteenth
Amendment ensuring in theory that
African Americans had the right to
vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in
federal power aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the
South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President
Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the
Union and the former Confederacy, an assassin's bullet on April 14,
1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the
federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the
South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted
Compromise of 1877
Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease
protecting the rights of
African Americans in the South in order for
Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control
of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910,
Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor
whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation,
especially in the South. They also occasionally
experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.
Ellis Island, in New York City, was a major gateway for European
Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty in New York City, dedicated in 1886, is a
symbol of the
United States as well as its ideals of freedom,
democracy, and justice.
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization
Economic history of the United States
Economic history of the United States and Technological
and industrial history of the United States
In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants
from Southern and Eastern
Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the
country's industrialization and transformed its culture.
National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental
railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and
development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric
light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban
United States fought Indian Wars west of the
from 1810 to at least 1890. Most of these conflicts ended
with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of
the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under
mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international
markets. Mainland expansion also included the purchase of
Russia in 1867. In 1893, pro-American
Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the
Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the
Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the
American Samoa was acquired by
United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil
United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands
from Denmark in 1917.
Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th
centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons
like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie
led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel
industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P.
Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the
widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for
Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry.
The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the
United States achieved great power status. These dramatic
changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist,
socialist, and anarchist movements. This period
eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw
significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's
suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater
antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
Empire State Building
Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when
completed in 1931, during the Great Depression.
United States remained neutral from the outbreak of
World War I
World War I in
1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power",
alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide
against the Central Powers. In 1919, President
Woodrow Wilson took a
leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated
strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the
Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of
Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional
amendment granting women's suffrage. The 1920s and 1930s
saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of
early television. The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties
ended with the
Wall Street Crash of 1929
Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great
Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D.
Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the
establishment of the Social Security system. The Great
Migration of millions of
African Americans out of the American South
World War I
World War I and extended through the 1960s;
Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming
communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.
At first effectively neutral during
World War II
World War II while Germany
conquered much of continental Europe, the
United States began
supplying material to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease
program. On December 7, 1941, the
Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan launched a surprise
attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the
United States to join the Allies
against the Axis powers. During the war, the United
States was referred as one of the "Four Policemen" of
Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain,
Soviet Union and China. Although the
nation lost around 400,000 military personnel, it emerged
relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and
The Trinity test of the
Manhattan Project was the first detonation
of a nuclear weapon
United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta
conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other
Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial
institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory
was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San
Francisco produced the
United Nations Charter, which became active
after the war. The
United States developed the first
nuclear weapons and used them on
Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending
World War II. Parades and celebrations
followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.
Cold War and civil rights era
History of the United States
History of the United States (1945–1964), History of
United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States
Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty,
Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. speaking to an anti-
Vietnam War rally at the
University of Minnesota, St. Paul on April 27, 1967
Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary
Mikhail Gorbachev, meeting in Geneva in 1985
World War II
World War II the
United States and the
Soviet Union jockeyed for
power during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an
ideological divide between capitalism and communism and,
according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime
Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the
military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its
NATO allies on one
side and the USSR and its
Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S.
developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist
influence. While the U.S. and
Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and
developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct
United States often opposed
Third World movements that it viewed
as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime
change against left-wing governments. American troops
fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the
Korean War of
1950–53. The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first
artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned
spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the
United States became
the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969. A
proxy war in Southeast
Asia eventually evolved into full American
participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid
growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an
Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over
the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to
large suburban housing developments. In 1959
Hawaii became the 50th and last
U.S. state added to the
country. The growing
Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement used
nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin
Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A
combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the
Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial
discrimination. Meanwhile, a
counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the
Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare
spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two
programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor,
respectively, and the means-tested
Food Stamp Program
Food Stamp Program and Aid to
Families with Dependent Children.
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his
election in 1980, President
Ronald Reagan responded to economic
stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse
of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more
aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the
After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade,
by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its
collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold
War. This brought
about unipolarity with the U.S. unchallenged as the
world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had
appeared in the post-
World War II
World War II period, gained wide popularity as a
term for the post-
Cold War new world order.
History of the United States
History of the United States (1991–2008) and History
United States (2008–present)
Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror,
2008 financial crisis, and Affordable Care Act
The World Trade Center in
Lower Manhattan during the September 11
terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group
Al-Qaeda in 2001One
World Trade Center, newly built in its place
After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis
in 1990, when Iraq under
Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex
Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability
would spread to other regions, President
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush launched
Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia,
and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by
coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the
United States against
Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait,
restoring the former monarchy.
Originating in U.S. defense networks, the
Internet spread to
international academic networks, and then to the public in the 1990s,
greatly affecting the global economy, society, and
Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan,
and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest
economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in
2001. Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people
producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the
agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the
U.S., Canada, and
Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three
partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.
On September 11, 2001,
Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade
New York City
New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C.,
killing nearly 3,000 people. In response, the United
States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan
and the 2003–11 Iraq War. In 2007, the
Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq
War, which successfully reduced violence and led to
greater stability in the region.
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,
widespread failures in corporate and regulatory
governance, and historically low interest rates set by
the Federal Reserve led to the mid-2000s housing bubble,
which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic
contraction in the nation's history since the Great
Depression. Barack Obama, the first
African-American and multiracial president,
was elected in 2008 amid the crisis, and subsequently
passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank
Wall Street Reform and
Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects
and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus
facilitated infrastructure improvements and a relative
decline in unemployment. Dodd-Frank improved financial
stability and consumer protection, although there has
been debate about its effects on the economy.
In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act,
which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system
in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance
exchanges. The law caused a significant reduction in the number and
percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered
during 2016, but remains controversial due to its impact
on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic
performance. Although the recession reached its trough in
June 2009, voters remained frustrated with the slow pace of the
economic recovery. The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's
policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide
in 2010 and control of the Senate in 2014.
American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in 2009 and
2010, and the war in the region was declared formally over in December
2011. The withdrawal caused an escalation of sectarian
insurgency, leading to the rise of the Islamic State of
Iraq and the Levant, the successor of al-Qaeda in the
region. In 2014, Obama announced a restoration of full
diplomatic relations with Cuba for the first time since
1961.[needs update] The next year, the United
States as a member of the
P5+1 countries signed the Joint
Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement aimed to slow the
development of Iran's nuclear program, though the U.S.
withdrew from the deal in May 2018. In the United States
presidential election of 2016, Republican
Donald Trump was elected as
the 45th president of the United States. Trump is both the oldest and
wealthiest person elected president in United States
Geography, climate, and environment
Main articles: Geography of the United States, Climate of the United
States, and Environment of the United States
A composite satellite image of the contiguous
United States and
Köppen climate classifications
The land area of the entire
United States is approximately 3,800,000
square miles (9,841,955 km2), with the contiguous
United States making up 2,959,064 square miles (7,663,940.6 km2)
of that. Alaska, separated from the contiguous
United States by
Canada, is the largest state at 663,268 square miles
(1,717,856.2 km2). Hawaii, occupying an archipelago in the
central Pacific, southwest of North America, is 10,931 square miles
(28,311 km2) in area. The populated territories of Puerto Rico,
American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and U.S. Virgin
Islands together cover 9,185 square miles
(23,789 km2). Measured by only land area, the United
States is third in size behind
Russia and China, just ahead of
United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest nation by
total area (land and water), ranking behind
Canada and just
above or below China. The ranking varies depending on how two
territories disputed by
India are counted, and how the total
size of the
United States is measured.[d] The Encyclopædia
Britannica, for instance, lists the size of the
United States as
3,677,649 square miles (9,525,067 km2), as they do not count the
country's coastal or territorial waters. The World
Factbook, which includes those waters, gives 3,796,742 square miles
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to
deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.
Appalachian Mountains divide the eastern seaboard from the Great
Lakes and the grasslands of the Midwest. The
Missouri River, the world's fourth longest river system,
runs mainly north–south through the heart of the country. The flat,
fertile prairie of the
Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted
by a highland region in the southeast.
Highest peak in the country, Denali
The Rocky Mountains, at the western edge of the Great Plains, extend
north to south across the country, reaching altitudes higher than
14,000 feet (4,300 m) in Colorado. Farther west are
Great Basin and deserts such as the Chihuahua and
Mojave. The Sierra
Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges run
close to the Pacific coast, both ranges reaching altitudes higher than
14,000 feet (4,300 m). The lowest and highest points in the
United States are in the state of California,
and only about 84 miles (135 km) apart. At an
elevation of 20,310 feet (6,190.5 m), Alaska's
McKinley) is the highest peak in the country and North
America. Active volcanoes are common throughout Alaska's
Alexander and Aleutian Islands, and
Hawaii consists of volcanic
islands. The supervolcano underlying
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park in the
Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature. The
United States has the most ecoregions out of any country in the
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety,
includes most climate types. To the east of the 100th meridian, the
climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid
subtropical in the south. The
Great Plains west of the
100th meridian are semi-arid. Much of the Western mountains have an
alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the
Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California, and oceanic in coastal
Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska. Most of
Alaska is subarctic
Hawaii and the southern tip of
Florida are tropical, as are
the populated territories in the Caribbean and the
Pacific. Extreme weather is not uncommon—the states
bordering the Gulf of
Mexico are prone to hurricanes, and most of the
world's tornadoes occur in the country, mainly in
Tornado Alley areas
in the Midwest and South.
Fauna of the United States
Fauna of the United States and Flora of the United
See also: Category:Biota of the United States
The bald eagle has been the national bird of the
United States since
The U.S. ecology is megadiverse: about 17,000 species of vascular
plants occur in the contiguous
United States and Alaska, and over
1,800 species of flowering plants are found in Hawaii, few of which
occur on the mainland. The
United States is home to 428
mammal species, 784 bird species, 311 reptile species, and 295
amphibian species. About 91,000 insect species have been
described. The bald eagle is both the national bird and
national animal of the United States, and is an enduring symbol of the
There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed
parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Altogether, the
government owns about 28% of the country's land area.
Most of this is protected, though some is leased for oil and gas
drilling, mining, logging, or cattle ranching; about .86% is used for
Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since 1970.
Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy,
dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting
wildlife, logging and deforestation, and
international responses to global warming.
Many federal and state agencies are involved. The most prominent is
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), created by presidential
order in 1970. The idea of wilderness has shaped the
management of public lands since 1964, with the Wilderness
Endangered Species Act
Endangered Species Act of 1973 is intended to
protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, which
are monitored by the
United States Fish and Wildlife
Main articles: Americans, Demography of the United States, and Race
and ethnicity in the United States
List of U.S. states by population
List of U.S. states by population and List of United States
cities by population
data.Note that the census numbers donot include Native
Americans until 1860.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be
327,167,434 as of July 1, 2018, and to be adding 1 person (net gain)
every 13 seconds, or about 6,646 people per day. The U.S.
population almost quadrupled during the 20th century, from 76.2
million in 1900 to 281.4 million in 2000. The third most
populous nation in the world, after
China and India, the United States
is the only major industrialized nation in which large population
increases are projected. In the 1800s the average woman
had 7.04 children; by the 1900s this number had decreased
to 3.56. Since the early 1970s the birth rate has been
below the replacement rate of 2.1 with 1.76 children per woman in
2017. Foreign-born immigration has caused the U.S.
population to continue its rapid increase with the foreign-born
population doubling from almost 20 million in 1990 to over 45 million
in 2015, representing one-third of the population
increase. In 2018, there were almost 90 million
immigrants and U.S.-born children of immigrants (second-generation
Americans) in the United States, accounting for 28% of the overall
U.S. population. The
United States has a very diverse
population; 37 ancestry groups have more than one million
Americans are the largest ethnic group
(more than 50 million) – followed by Irish
Americans (circa 37
Americans (circa 31 million) and English Americans
(circa 28 million).
White Americans (mostly European ancestry group with 73.1% of total
population) are the largest racial group; black
Americans are the
nation's largest racial minority (note that in the U.S. Census,
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a
"racial" group), and third-largest ancestry group. Asian
Americans are the country's second-largest racial minority; the three
Asian American ethnic groups are Chinese Americans, Filipino
Americans, and Indian Americans. According to a 2015
survey, the largest American community with European ancestry is
German Americans, which consists of more than 14% of the total
population. In 2010, the U.S. population included an
estimated 5.2 million people with some American Indian or Alaska
Native ancestry (2.9 million exclusively of such ancestry) and 1.2
million with some native Hawaiian or Pacific island ancestry (0.5
million exclusively). The census counted more than 19
million people of "Some Other Race" who were "unable to identify with
any" of its five official race categories in 2010, over 18.5 million
(97%) of whom are of Hispanic ethnicity.
Most common ancestry in each
U.S. state in
The population growth of
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans (the terms are
officially interchangeable) is a major demographic trend. The 50.5
Americans of Hispanic descent are identified as
sharing a distinct "ethnicity" by the Census Bureau; 64% of Hispanic
Americans are of Mexican descent. Between 2000 and 2010,
the country's Hispanic population increased 43% while the non-Hispanic
population rose just 4.9%. Much of this growth is from
immigration; in 2007, 12.6% of the U.S. population was foreign-born,
with 54% of that figure born in
The drop in the U.S. fertility rate from 2.08 per woman in 2007 to
1.76 in 2017 was mostly due to the declining birth rate of Hispanics,
teenagers, and young women, although the birth rate for older women
rose, below the replacement rate of 2.1. In 2018 the
median age of the
United States population was 38.1
Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside
non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 37.2% of the
population in 2012 and over 50% of children under age
one, and are projected to constitute the
majority by 2044.
United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, which is 5 births
below the world average. Its population growth rate is
positive at 0.7%, higher than that of many developed
nations. In fiscal year 2017, over one million immigrants
(most of whom entered through family reunification) were granted legal
Mexico has been the leading source of new
residents since the 1965 Immigration Act. China, India, and the
Philippines have been in the top four sending countries since the
1990s. As of 2012[update], approximately 11.4
million residents are illegal immigrants. As of
2015[update], 47% of all immigrants are Hispanic, 26% are
Asian, 18% are white and 8% are black. The percentage of immigrants
who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is
decreasing. The estimated number of illegal immigrants
dropped to 10.7 million in 2017, down from a peak of 12.2 million in
2007. In 2017, 33,000 refugees were resettled in the United States.
This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the
first time in decades.
A 2017 Gallup poll concluded that 4.5% of adult
LGBT with 5.1% of women identifying as LGBT, compared with 3.9% of
men. The highest percentage came from the District of
Columbia (10%), while the lowest state was
North Dakota at
About 82% of
Americans live in urban areas (including
suburbs); about half of those reside in cities with
populations over 50,000. The U.S. has numerous clusters
of cities known as megaregions, the largest being the Great Lakes
Megalopolis followed by the
Northeast Megalopolis and Southern
California. In 2008, 273 incorporated municipalities had populations
over 100,000, nine cities had more than one million residents, and
four global cities had over two million (New York, Los Angeles,
Chicago, and Houston). There are 52 metropolitan areas
with populations greater than one million. Of the 50
fastest-growing metro areas, 47 are in the West or South.
The metro areas of San Bernardino, Dallas, Houston, Atlanta, and
Phoenix all grew by more than a million people between 2000 and
Leading population centers (see complete list)
Core city (cities)
Metro area population
Metropolitan Statistical Area
New YorkLos AngelesChicagoDallas
New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA MSA
Los Angeles–Long Beach–Anaheim, CA MSA
Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSA
Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSA
Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSA
Washington, D.C.–VA–MD–WV MSA
Miami–Fort Lauderdale–West Palm Beach, FL MSA
Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSA
Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Roswell, GA MSA
Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSA
Phoenix–Mesa–Chandler, AZ MSA
San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSA
Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario, CA MSA
Detroit–Warren–Dearborn, MI MSA
Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSA
Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSA
San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSA
Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSA
Denver–Aurora–Lakewood, CO MSA
St. Louis, MO-IL MSA
Based on 2018 MSA population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau
Main article: Languages of the United States
See also: Language Spoken at Home in the
United States of America,
List of endangered languages in the United States, and Language
education in the United States
English (American English) is the de facto national language. Although
there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such
as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2010,
about 230 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older,
spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population
at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught
second language. Some
making English the country's official language, as it is in 32
Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii, by state
Alaska recognizes twenty Native languages as well as
English. While neither has an official language, New
Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as
Louisiana does for English and French. Other states, such
as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain
government documents including court forms.
Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native
languages, along with English: Samoan is officially
recognized by American Samoa. Chamorro is an official
language of Guam. Both Carolinian and Chamorro have official
recognition in the Northern Mariana Islands.
Spanish is an official language of
Puerto Rico and is more widely
spoken than English there.
The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in
terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university
undergraduate education, are: Spanish (around 7.2 million students),
French (1.5 million), and German (500,000). Other commonly taught
languages (with 100,000 to 250,000 learners) include Latin, Japanese,
ASL, Italian, and Chinese. 18% of all
Americans claim to speak at least one language in addition to
Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in the U.S.
Number whospeak Englishvery well
Number whospeak Englishless thanvery well
Spanish(including Spanish Creole but excluding Puerto Rico)
Chinese(all varieties, including Mandarin and Cantonese)
French(including Patois and Cajun)
Main article: Religion in the United States
Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)
% of U.S. population
Nothing in particular
Don't know or refused answer
The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution guarantees the free
exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting
In a 2013 survey, 56% of
Americans said that religion played a "very
important role in their lives", a far higher figure than that of any
other wealthy nation. In a 2009 Gallup poll, 42% of
Americans said that they attended church weekly or almost weekly; the
figures ranged from a low of 23% in
Vermont to a high of 63% in
As with other Western countries, the U.S. is becoming less religious.
Irreligion is growing rapidly among
Americans under 30.
Polls show that overall American confidence in organized religion has
been declining since the mid to late 1980s, and that
younger Americans, in particular, are becoming increasingly
irreligious. According to a 2012 study, the
Protestant share of the U.S. population had dropped to 48%, thus
ending its status as religious category of the majority for the first
Americans with no religion have 1.7
children compared to 2.2 among Christians. The unaffiliated are less
likely to get married with 37% marrying compared to 52% of
According to a 2014 survey, 70.6% of adults in the United States
identified themselves as Christians; Protestants
accounted for 46.5%, while Roman Catholics, at 20.8%, formed the
largest single denomination. In 2014, 5.9% of the U.S.
adult population claimed a non-Christian religion. These
include Judaism (1.9%), Hinduism (1.2%), Buddhism (0.9%), and Islam
(0.9%). The survey also reported that 22.8% of Americans
described themselves as agnostic, atheist or simply having no
religion—up from 8.2% in
1990. There are also Unitarian
Universalist, Scientologist, Baha'i, Sikh, Jain, Shinto, Confucian,
Satanist, Taoist, Druid, Native American, Wiccan, humanist and deist
Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the
United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans. Baptists
collectively form the largest branch of
15.4%, and the
Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention is the largest
individual Protestant denomination at 5.3% of the U.S.
population. Apart from Baptists, other Protestant
categories include nondenominational Protestants, Methodists,
Pentecostals, unspecified Protestants, Lutherans, Presbyterians,
Congregationalists, other Reformed, Episcopalians/Anglicans, Quakers,
Adventists, Holiness, Christian fundamentalists, Anabaptists,
Pietists, and multiple others. Two-thirds of American
Protestants consider themselves to be born again. Roman
Catholicism in the
United States has its origin primarily in the
Spanish and French colonization of the Americas, as well as in the
English colony of Maryland. It later grew because of
Irish, Italian, Polish, German and Hispanic immigration. Rhode Island
has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total
Utah is the only state where
Mormonism is the
religion of the majority of the population. The Mormon
Corridor also extends to parts of Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada
Eastern Orthodoxy is claimed by 5% of people
in Alaska, a former Russian colony, and maintains a
presence on the U.S. mainland due to recent immigration from Eastern
Europe. Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across
the country, including the Oneness Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Restorationists, Churches of Christ, Christian Scientists, Unitarians
and many others.
Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United
States in which socially conservative evangelical
Protestantism is a
significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across
the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average. By
contrast, religion plays the least important role in
New England and
in the Western United States.
Main article: Family structure in the United States
As of 2007[update], 58% of
Americans age 18 and over were
married, 6% were widowed, 10% were divorced, and 25% had never been
married. Women now work mostly outside the home and
receive a majority of bachelor's degrees.
The U.S. teenage pregnancy rate is 26.5 per 1,000 women. The rate has
declined by 57% since 1991. In 2013, the highest teenage
birth rate was in Alabama, and the lowest in
Wyoming. Abortion is legal throughout the
U.S., owing to Roe v. Wade, a 1973 landmark decision by the Supreme
Court of the United States. While the abortion rate is falling, the
abortion ratio of 241 per 1,000 live births and abortion rate of 15
per 1,000 women aged 15–44 remain higher than those of most Western
nations. In 2013, the average age at first birth was 26
and 40.6% of births were to unmarried women.
The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2016 was 1.82 births per 1000
Adoption in the United States
Adoption in the United States is common and
relatively easy from a legal point of view (compared to other Western
countries). In 2001, with over 127,000 adoptions, the
U.S. accounted for nearly half of the total number of adoptions
worldwide. Same-sex marriage is legal nationwide, owing
to the Supreme Court's 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, and it
is legal for same-sex couples to adopt.
Polygamy is illegal throughout
See also: Health care in the United States, Health care reform in the
United States, and
Health insurance in the United States
View of the
Texas Medical Center
Texas Medical Center from Fannin Street. The center is
the largest medical complex in the world.
United States had a life expectancy of 78.6 years at birth in
2017, which was the third year of declines in life expectancy
following decades of continuous increase. The recent decline is
largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.
Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest
among blacks. According to CDC and Census
Bureau data, deaths from suicide, alcohol and drug overdoses hit
record highs in 2017.
Increasing obesity in the
United States and health improvements
elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life
expectancy from 11th in the world in 1987, to 42nd in
2007. Obesity rates have more than doubled in the last 30
years, are the highest in the industrialized world, and are among the
highest anywhere. Approximately one-third of
the adult population is obese and an additional third is
overweight. Obesity-related type 2 diabetes is considered
epidemic by health care professionals.
In 2010, coronary artery disease, lung cancer, stroke, chronic
obstructive pulmonary diseases, and traffic accidents caused the most
years of life lost in the U.S. Low back pain, depression,
musculoskeletal disorders, neck pain, and anxiety caused the most
years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor
diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar,
physical inactivity, and alcohol use. Alzheimer's disease, drug abuse,
kidney disease, cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of
life lost over their age-adjusted 1990 per-capita rates.
U.S. teenage pregnancy and abortion rates are substantially higher
than in other Western nations, especially among blacks and
The U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely
developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most
important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of
physicians, while the
European Union and Switzerland together
contributed to five. Since 1966, more
received the Nobel Prize in Medicine than the rest of the world
combined. From 1989 to 2002, four times more money was invested in
private biotechnology companies in America than in
Europe. The U.S. health-care system far outspends any
other nation, measured in both per capita spending and percentage of
Health-care coverage in the
United States is a combination of public
and private efforts and is not universal. In 2017, 12.2% of the
population did not carry health insurance. The subject of
uninsured and underinsured
Americans is a major political
issue. In 2006,
Massachusetts became the
first state to mandate universal health insurance.
Federal legislation passed in early 2010 would ostensibly create a
near-universal health insurance system around the country by
2014,[needs update] though the bill and its ultimate effect
are issues of controversy.
Main article: Education in the United States
The University of Virginia, founded by
Thomas Jefferson in 1819, is
one of the many public universities in the United States. Universal
government-funded education exists in the United States, while there
are also many privately funded institutions.
American public education is operated by state and local governments,
regulated by the
United States Department of Education
United States Department of Education through
restrictions on federal grants. In most states, children are required
to attend school from the age of six or seven (generally, kindergarten
or first grade) until they turn 18 (generally bringing them through
twelfth grade, the end of high school); some states allow students to
leave school at 16 or 17.
About 12% of children are enrolled in parochial or nonsectarian
private schools. Just over 2% of children are
homeschooled. The U.S. spends more on education per
student than any nation in the world, spending more than $11,000 per
elementary student in 2010 and more than $12,000 per high school
student. Some 80% of U.S. college students attend public
Americans 25 and older, 84.6% graduated from high school, 52.6%
attended some college, 27.2% earned a bachelor's degree, and 9.6%
earned graduate degrees. The basic literacy rate is
approximately 99%. The United Nations
United States an Education Index of 0.97, tying it for
12th in the world.
Main article: Higher education in the United States
United States has many competitive private and public institutions
of higher education. The majority of the world's top universities
listed by different ranking organizations are in the
U.S. There are also local
community colleges with generally more open admission policies,
shorter academic programs, and lower tuition.
In 2018, U21, a network of research-intensive universities, ranked the
United States first in the world for breadth and quality of higher
education, and 15th when GDP was a factor.
As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.S. trails some
other OECD nations but spends more per student than the OECD average,
and more than all nations in combined public and private
spending. As of 2018[update],
student loan debt exceeded 1.5 trillion dollars, more than Americans
owe on credit cards.
Government and politics
Main articles: Federal government of the United States, State
governments of the United States, Local government in the United
States, and Elections in the United States
United States Capitol,where Congress meets:the Senate, left; the
House, rightThe White House, home and workplace of the U.S.
PresidentSupreme Court Building, where the nation's highest court sits
United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a
representative democracy, "in which majority rule is tempered by
minority rights protected by law". The government is
regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the U.S.
Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal
document. For 2018, the U.S. ranked 25th on the Democracy
Index and 22nd on the Corruption Perceptions
In the American federalist system, citizens are usually subject to
three levels of government: federal, state, and local. The local
government's duties are commonly split between county and municipal
governments. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials
are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no
proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at
The federal government comprises three branches:
Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and the
House of Representatives, makes federal law, declares war, approves
treaties, has the power of the purse, and has the power
of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the
Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military,
can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to
Congressional override), and appoints the members of the Cabinet
(subject to Senate approval) and other officers, who administer and
enforce federal laws and policies.
Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are
appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and
overturn those they find unconstitutional.
The House of Representatives has 435 voting members, each representing
a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are
apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the
2010 census, seven states had the minimum of one representative, while
California, the most populous state, had 53. The District
of Columbia and the five major U.S. territories each have one member
of Congress — these members are not allowed to vote.
The Senate has 100 members with each state having two senators,
elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up
for election every other year. The
District of Columbia
District of Columbia and the five
major U.S. territories do not have senators. The
president serves a four-year term and may be elected to the office no
more than twice. The president is not elected by direct vote, but by
an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes
are apportioned to the states and the District of
Columbia. The Supreme Court, led by the chief justice of
the United States, has nine members, who serve for life.
The state governments are structured in a roughly similar fashion;
Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. The
governor (chief executive) of each state is directly elected. Some
state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of
the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and
responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with
the individual states. Article One protects the right to the "great
writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27
times; the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill
of Rights, and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of
Americans' individual rights. All laws and governmental procedures are
subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in
violation of the Constitution is voided. The principle of judicial
review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established
by the Supreme Court in
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury v. Madison (1803) in a
decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
Main articles: Political divisions of the United States, U.S. state,
Territories of the United States, List of states and territories of
the United States, and Indian reservation
Territorial evolution of the United States
Territorial evolution of the United States and
United States territorial acquisitions
Map of U.S. Economic Exclusion Zone, highlighting
states, territories and possessions
United States is a federal republic of 50 states, a federal
district, five territories and several uninhabited island
possessions. The states and
territories are the principal administrative districts in the country.
These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent
District of Columbia
District of Columbia is a federal district that contains
the capital of the United States, Washington, D.C. The
states and the
District of Columbia
District of Columbia choose the president of the United
States. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of
their representatives and senators in Congress; the District of
Columbia has three (because of the 23rd Amendment).
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States such as
Puerto Rico do not have
presidential electors, and so people in those territories cannot vote
for the president.
Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following
each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws
single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment. The
total number of voting representatives is 435. There are also 6
non-voting representatives who represent the
District of Columbia
District of Columbia and
the five major U.S. territories.
United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American
Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states'
sovereignty. American Indians are U.S. citizens and tribal lands are
subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress and the federal
courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also
like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their
own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of
Columbia, and all major U.S. territories except American
State flags and statehood dates(listed alphabetically)
Alabama: Dec. 14, 1819
Alaska: Jan. 3, 1959
Arizona: Feb. 14, 1912
Arkansas: Jun. 15, 1836
California: Sep. 9, 1850
Colorado: Aug. 1, 1876
Connecticut: Jan. 9, 1788
Delaware: Dec. 7, 1787
Florida: Mar. 3, 1845
Georgia: Jan. 2, 1788
Hawaii: Aug. 21, 1959
Idaho: Jul. 3, 1890
Illinois: Dec. 3, 1818
Indiana: Dec. 11, 1816
Iowa: Dec. 28, 1846
Kansas: Jan. 29, 1861
Kentucky: Jun. 1, 1792
Louisiana: Apr. 30, 1812
Maine: Mar. 15, 1820
Maryland: Apr. 28, 1788
Massachusetts: Feb. 6, 1788
Michigan: Jan. 26, 1837
Minnesota: May 11, 1858
Mississippi: Dec. 10, 1817
Missouri: Aug. 10, 1821
Montana: Nov. 8, 1889
Nebraska: Mar. 1, 1867
Nevada: Oct. 31, 1864
New Hampshire: Jun. 21, 1788
New Jersey: Dec. 18, 1787
New Mexico: Jan. 6, 1912
New York: Jul. 26, 1788
North Carolina: Nov. 21, 1789
North Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889
Ohio: Mar. 1, 1803
Oklahoma: Nov. 16, 1907
Oregon: Feb. 14, 1859
Pennsylvania: Dec. 12, 1787
Rhode Island: May 29, 1790
South Carolina: May 23, 1788
South Dakota: Nov. 2, 1889
Tennessee: Jun. 1, 1796
Texas: Dec. 29, 1845
Utah: Jan. 4, 1896
Vermont: Mar. 4, 1791
Virginia: Jun. 25, 1788
Washington: Nov. 11, 1889
West Virginia: Jun. 20, 1863
Wisconsin: May 29, 1848
Wyoming: Jul. 10, 1890
Dec. 7, 1787: Delaware
Dec. 12, 1787: Pennsylvania
Dec. 18, 1787: New Jersey
Jan. 2, 1788: Georgia
Jan. 9, 1788: Connecticut
Feb. 6, 1788: Massachusetts
Apr. 28, 1788: Maryland
May 23, 1788: South Carolina
Jun. 21, 1788: New Hampshire
Jun. 25, 1788: Virginia
Jul. 26, 1788: New York
Nov. 21, 1789: North Carolina
May 29, 1790: Rhode Island
Mar. 4, 1791: Vermont
Jun. 1, 1792: Kentucky
Jun. 1, 1796: Tennessee
Mar. 1, 1803: Ohio
Apr. 30, 1812: Louisiana
Dec. 11, 1816: Indiana
Dec. 10, 1817: Mississippi
Dec. 3, 1818: Illinois
Dec. 14, 1819: Alabama
Mar. 15, 1820: Maine
Aug. 10, 1821: Missouri
Jun. 15, 1836: Arkansas
Jan. 26, 1837: Michigan
Mar. 3, 1845: Florida
Dec. 29, 1845: Texas
Dec. 28, 1846: Iowa
May 29, 1848: Wisconsin
Sep. 9, 1850: California
May 11, 1858: Minnesota
Feb. 14, 1859: Oregon
Jan. 29, 1861: Kansas
Jun. 20, 1863: West Virginia
Oct. 31, 1864: Nevada
Mar. 1, 1867: Nebraska
Aug. 1, 1876: Colorado
Nov. 2, 1889: North Dakota
Nov. 2, 1889: South Dakota
Nov. 8, 1889: Montana
Nov. 11, 1889: Washington
Jul. 3, 1890: Idaho
Jul. 10, 1890: Wyoming
Jan. 4, 1896: Utah
Nov. 16, 1907: Oklahoma
Jan. 6, 1912 : New Mexico
Feb. 14, 1912 : Arizona
Jan. 3, 1959: Alaska
Aug. 21, 1959: Hawaii
Statehood date is the date of ratifying the Constitution (for the
first 13) or being admitted to the Union (for subsequent states)
Territory and district flags and dates(listed alphabetically)
American Samoa: Apr. 17, 1900
District of Columbia: Jul. 16, 1790
Guam: Apr. 11, 1899
Northern Mariana Islands: Nov. 3, 1986
Puerto Rico: Apr. 11, 1899
US Virgin Islands: Mar. 31, 1917
Jul. 16, 1790: District of Columbia
Apr. 11, 1899: Guam
Apr. 11, 1899: Puerto Rico
Apr. 17, 1900: American Samoa
Mar. 31, 1917: US Virgin Islands
Nov. 3, 1986: Northern Mariana Islands
Territory date is the date the territory was acquired by the United
States, except for the District of Columbia, which was founded
Parties and elections
Politics of the United States
Politics of the United States and Political ideologies
in the United States
Congressional leadership meeting with President Obama in
Donald Trump45th Presidentsince January 20, 2017Mike Pence48th Vice
Presidentsince January 20, 2017
United States has operated under a two-party system for most of
its history. For elective offices at most levels,
state-administered primary elections choose the major party nominees
for subsequent general elections. Since the general election of 1856,
the major parties have been the Democratic Party, founded in 1824, and
the Republican Party, founded in 1854. Since the Civil War, only one
third-party presidential candidate—former president Theodore
Roosevelt, running as a Progressive in 1912—has won as much as 20%
of the popular vote. The president and vice president are elected
through the Electoral College system.
In American political culture, the center-right Republican Party is
considered "conservative" and the center-left Democratic Party is
considered "liberal". The states of the
Northeast and West Coast and some of the
Great Lakes states, known as
"blue states", are relatively liberal. The "red states" of the South
and parts of the
Great Plains and
Rocky Mountains are relatively
Republican Donald Trump, the winner of the 2016 presidential election,
is serving as the 45th president of the United States.
Leadership in the Senate includes Republican vice president Mike
Pence, Republican president pro tempore Chuck Grassley, Majority
Leader Mitch McConnell, and Minority Leader Chuck
Schumer. Leadership in the House includes Speaker of the
House Nancy Pelosi, Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, and Minority Leader
In the 116th
United States Congress, the House of Representatives is
controlled by the Democratic Party and the Senate is controlled by the
Republican Party, giving the U.S. a split Congress. The Senate
consists of 53 Republicans, and 45 Democrats with 2 Independents who
caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of 235 Democrats and 199
Republicans. In state governorships, there are 27
Republicans and 23 Democrats. Among the D.C. mayor and
the 5 territorial governors, there are 2 Republicans, 1 Democrat, 1
New Progressive, and 2 Independents.
Foreign relations of the United States
Foreign relations of the United States and Foreign
policy of the United States
United Nations Headquarters was built in
Midtown Manhattan in
United States has an established structure of foreign relations.
It is a permanent member of the
United Nations Security Council
United Nations Security Council and
New York City
New York City is home to the
United Nations Headquarters. It is a
member of the G7, G20, and Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development. Almost all countries have embassies in
Washington, D.C., and many have consulates around the country.
Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions.
However, Iran, North Korea, Bhutan, and the
do not have formal diplomatic relations with the United States
(although the U.S. still maintains unofficial relations with Taiwan
and supplies it with military equipment).
United States has a "
Special Relationship" with the United
Kingdom and strong ties with Canada,
Australia, New Zealand, the
Philippines, Japan, South
Korea, Israel, and several European Union
countries, including France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. It works
closely with fellow
NATO members on military and security issues and
with its neighbors through the
Organization of American States
Organization of American States and
free trade agreements such as the trilateral North American Free Trade
Canada and Mexico. In 2008, the
United States spent a
net $25.4 billion on official development assistance, the most in the
world. As a share of America's large gross national income (GNI),
however, the U.S. contribution of 0.18% ranked last among 22 donor
states. By contrast, private overseas giving by
Colombia is traditionally considered
United States as its most loyal ally in South America.
Policymakers in both countries consider Plan
Colombia to be a foreign
policy success for the United
The U.S. exercises full international defense authority and
responsibility for three sovereign nations through Compact of Free
Association with Micronesia, the
Marshall Islands and Palau. These are
Pacific island nations, once part of the U.S.-administered Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands after World War II, which gained
independence in subsequent years.
On October 25, 2017, Vice President
Mike Pence announced at a In
Defense of Christians annual dinner meeting in Washington that the
United States would stop funding
United Nations relief efforts, cases
tackling the persecution of Christians in the Middle East, but
insisted that the U.S. would instead help and aid Christians directly
United States Agency for International
Development. Pence said that he will be visiting the
Middle East in December and will meet with Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to discuss
Taxation in the United States
Taxation in the United States and
United States federal
U.S. federal debt held by the public as a percentage of GDP, from
1790 to 2013.
United States debt from 1940 to 2015.
Taxes in the
United States are levied at the federal, state, and local
government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property,
sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation
United States is based on citizenship, not
residency. Both non-resident citizens and Green Card
holders living abroad are taxed on their income irrespective of where
they live or where their income is earned. It is the only country in
the world, other than Eritrea, to do so.
In 2010 taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments
amounted to 24.8% of GDP. During FY2012, the federal
government collected approximately $2.45 trillion in tax revenue, up
$147 billion or 6% versus FY2011 revenues of $2.30 trillion. Primary
receipt categories included individual income taxes ($1,132B or 47%),
Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($845B or 35%), and corporate
taxes ($242B or 10%). Based on CBO
estimates, under 2013 tax law the top 1% will be paying
the highest average tax rates since 1979, while other income groups
will remain at historic lows.
U.S. taxation has historically been generally progressive, especially
the federal income taxes, though by most measures it became noticeably
less progressive after 1980. It has
sometimes been described as among the most progressive in the
developed world, but this characterization is
The highest 10% of income earners pay a majority of federal
taxes, and about half of all taxes. Payroll
taxes for Social Security are a flat regressive tax, with no tax
charged on income above $118,500 (for 2015 and 2016) and no tax at all
paid on unearned income from things such as stocks and capital
gains. The historic reasoning for the
regressive nature of the payroll tax is that entitlement programs have
not been viewed as welfare transfers.
However, according to the
Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office the net effect
of Social Security is that the benefit to tax ratio ranges from
roughly 70% for the top earnings quintile to about 170% for the lowest
earning quintile, making the system progressive.
The top 10% paid 51.8% of total federal taxes in 2009, and the top 1%,
with 13.4% of pre-tax national income, paid 22.3% of federal
taxes. In 2013 the Tax Policy Center projected total
federal effective tax rates of 35.5% for the top 1%, 27.2% for the top
quintile, 13.8% for the middle quintile, and −2.7% for the bottom
quintile. The incidence of corporate income
tax has been a matter of considerable ongoing controversy for
decades. State and local taxes vary widely,
but are generally less progressive than federal taxes as they rely
heavily on broadly borne regressive sales and property taxes that
yield less volatile revenue streams, though their consideration does
not eliminate the progressive nature of overall
During FY 2012, the federal government spent $3.54 trillion on a
budget or cash basis, down $60 billion or 1.7% vs. FY 2011 spending of
$3.60 trillion. Major categories of FY 2012 spending included:
Medicaid ($802B or 23% of spending), Social Security
($768B or 22%), Defense Department ($670B or 19%), non-defense
discretionary ($615B or 17%), other mandatory ($461B or 13%) and
interest ($223B or 6%).
The total national debt of the
United States in the
United States was
$18.527 trillion (106% of the GDP) in 2014.[n]
United States has the largest external debt in the world and the
14th largest government debt as a % of GDP in the world.
United States Armed Forces
The carrier strike groups of the Kitty Hawk, Ronald Reagan, and
Abraham Lincoln with aircraft from the Marine Corps, Navy, and Air
The president is the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces
and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. The
United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense administers
the armed forces, including the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air
Force. The Coast Guard is run by the Department of Homeland Security
in peacetime and by the Department of the Navy during times of war. In
2008, the armed forces had 1.4 million personnel on active duty. The
Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2.3
million. The Department of Defense also employed about 700,000
civilians, not including contractors.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in
wartime through the Selective Service System. American
forces can be rapidly deployed by the Air Force's large fleet of
transport aircraft, the Navy's 11 active aircraft carriers, and Marine
expeditionary units at sea with the Navy's Atlantic and Pacific
fleets. The military operates 865 bases and facilities
abroad, and maintains deployments greater than 100 active
duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
The military budget of the
United States in 2011 was more than $700
billion, 41% of global military spending and equal to the next 14
largest national military expenditures combined. At 4.7% of GDP, the
rate was the second-highest among the top 15 military spenders, after
Saudi Arabia. U.S. defense spending as a percentage of
GDP ranked 23rd globally in 2012 according to the CIA.
Defense spending plays a major role in science and technology
investment, with roughly half of U.S. federal research and development
funded by the Department of Defense. Defense's share of
the overall U.S. economy has generally declined in recent decades,
Cold War peaks of 14.2% of GDP in 1953 and 69.5% of federal
outlays in 1954 to 4.7% of GDP and 18.8% of federal outlays in
US global military presence.
The proposed base Department of Defense budget for 2012, $553 billion,
was a 4.2% increase over 2011; an additional $118 billion was proposed
for the military campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan. The
last American troops serving in Iraq departed in December
2011; 4,484 service members were killed during the Iraq
War. Approximately 90,000 U.S. troops were serving in
Afghanistan in April 2012; by November 8, 2013 2,285 had
been killed during the War in Afghanistan.
Law enforcement and crime
Law enforcement in the United States
Law enforcement in the United States and Crime in the
See also: Law of the United States, Second Amendment to the United
Human rights in the United States
Human rights in the United States § Justice
system, Incarceration in the United States, and
Capital punishment in
the United States
Law enforcement in the U.S. is maintained primarily by local police
departments. The New York Police Department (NYPD) is the largest in
Law enforcement in the United States
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility
of local police departments and sheriff's offices, with state police
providing broader services. The New York Police Department (NYPD) is
the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Marshals Service have
specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national
security and enforcing U.S. federal courts' rulings and federal
laws. At the federal level and in almost every state, a
legal system operates on a common law. State courts conduct most
criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as
well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts. Plea
bargaining is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the
country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury
In 2015, there were 15,696 murders which was 1,532 more than in 2014,
a 10.8% increase, the largest since 1971. The murder rate
in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people. In 2016 the murder
rate increased by 8.6%, with 17,413 murders that year.
The national clearance rate for homicides in 2015 was 64.1%, compared
to 90% in 1965. In 2012 there were 4.7 murders per
100,000 persons in the United States, a 54% decline from the modern
peak of 10.2 in 1980. In 2001–2, the
United States had
above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of
gun violence compared to other developed nations. A
cross-sectional analysis of the
World Health Organization
World Health Organization Mortality
Database from 2010 showed that
United States "homicide rates were 7.0
times higher than in other high-income countries, driven by a gun
homicide rate that was 25.2 times higher." Gun ownership
rights continue to be the subject of contentious political debate. In
2016, the US murder rate of 5.4 per 100,000 was similar to the
estimated global average of 5.15 per 100,000.
In 2017, there were 17,264 murders and the murder rate was 5.3 per
100,000. Regarding weapons, 73% of murders were committed by firearm,
10% by knife and 17% by other means. The violent crime
rose sharply in the 1960s until the early 1990s and declined in the
late 1990s and 2000s. In 2014, the murder rate fell to
the lowest level (4.5) since 1957 (4.0). The violent
crime rate increased by 5.9% between 2014 and 2017 and the murder rate
by 20.5%. Of those arrested for serious violent crimes in 2017, 58.5%
were white, 37.5% were black, 2.1% were American Indian or Alaska
Native and 1.5% Asian. Ethnically, 23.5% were Hispanic and 76.5% were
non-Hispanic. Gun violence peaked in 1993 with 17,125 gun
murders before declining to 9,527 in 1999 and steadily rising since to
12,772. Non-gun murders reached a peak in 1980 of 8,340 and declined
in most years until the early 2010s with 4,668 in 2017.
The rate of robberies declined 62% between 1990 and 2017.
From 1980 through 2008 males represented 77% of homicide victims and
90% of offenders. Blacks committed 52.5% of all homicides during that
span, at a rate almost eight times that of whites ("whites" includes
most Hispanics), and were victimized at a rate six times that of
whites. Most homicides were intraracial, with 93% of black victims
killed by blacks and 84% of white victims killed by
whites. In 2012,
Louisiana had the highest rate of murder
and non-negligent manslaughter in the U.S., and
New Hampshire the
lowest. The FBI's
Uniform Crime Reports
Uniform Crime Reports estimates that
there were 3,246 violent and property crimes per 100,000 residents in
2012, for a total of over 9 million total crimes.
Capital punishment is sanctioned in the
United States for certain
federal and military crimes, and also at the state level in 30
states. No executions took place from 1967
to 1977, owing in part to a U.S. Supreme Court ruling striking down
arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In 1976 the Court ruled
that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may
constitutionally be imposed. Since the decision there have been more
than 1,300 executions, a majority of these taking place in three
states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma. Meanwhile, several
states have either abolished or struck down death-penalty laws. In
2015, the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the
world, following China, Iran,
Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.
Total incarceration in the
United States by year
United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and
largest prison population in the world. At the start of
2008, more than 2.3 million people were incarcerated, more than one in
every 100 adults. In December 2012, the combined U.S.
adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders. About
1 in every 35 adult residents in the
United States was under some form
of correctional supervision in December 2012, the lowest rate observed
since 1997. The prison population has quadrupled since
1980, and state and local spending on prisons and jails
has grown three times as much as that spent on public education during
the same period. However, the imprisonment rate for all
prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities
is 478 per 100,000 in 2013 and the rate for
pre-trial/remand prisoners is 153 per 100,000 residents in
2012. The country's high rate of incarceration is largely
due to changes in sentencing guidelines and drug
policies. According to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the
majority of inmates held in federal prisons are convicted of drug
offenses. The privatization of prisons and prison
services which began in the 1980s has been a subject of
debate. In 2018,
Oklahoma had the highest
incarceration rate (1,079 per 100,000 people), and
lowest (324 per 100,000 people). Among the
U.S. territories, the highest incarceration rate was in the U.S.
Virgin Islands (542 per 100,000 people) and the lowest was in Puerto
Rico (313 per 100,000 people).
Federation for American Immigration Reform estimated in 2018 that
564 U.S. jurisdictions, including states and municipalities, had
adopted sanctuary policies.
Main article: Economy of the United States
See also: Economic history of the United States
$20.66 trillion (Q3 2018)
Real GDP growth
3.5% (Q3 2018)
2.2% (November 2018)
60.6% (November 2018)
3.7% (November 2018)
Labor force participation rate
62.9% (November 2018)
Total public debt
$21.85 trillion (November 2018)
Household net worth
$109.0 trillion (Q3 2018)
United States has a capitalist mixed economy[citation
needed] which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high
productivity. According to the International Monetary
Fund, the U.S. GDP of $16.8 trillion constitutes 24% of the gross
world product at market exchange rates and over 19% of the gross world
product at purchasing power parity (PPP).
The nominal GDP of the U.S. is estimated to be $17.528 trillion as of
2014[update]. From 1983 to 2008, U.S. real
compounded annual GDP growth was 3.3%, compared to a 2.3% weighted
average for the rest of the G7. The country ranks ninth
in the world in nominal GDP per capita according to the United Nations
(first in the Americas) and sixth in GDP per capita at
PPP. The U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve
United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest
exporter, though exports per capita are relatively low. In 2010, the
total U.S. trade deficit was $635 billion. Canada, China,
Mexico, Japan, and
Germany are its top trading partners.
In 2010, oil was the largest import commodity, while transportation
equipment was the country's largest export.
Japan is the
largest foreign holder of U.S. public debt. The largest
holder of the U.S. debt are American entities, including federal
government accounts and the Federal Reserve, who hold the majority of
New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, by a significant margin
the world's largest stock exchange per market capitalization of its
listed companies, at US$23.1 trillion
as of April 2018.
In 2009, the private sector was estimated to constitute 86.4% of the
economy, with federal government activity accounting for 4.3% and
state and local government activity (including federal transfers) the
remaining 9.3%. The number of employees at all levels of
government outnumber those in manufacturing by 1.7 to 1.
While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development
and its service sector constitutes 67.8% of GDP, the United States
remains an industrial power. The leading business field
by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net
income it is manufacturing. In the franchising business
McDonald's and Subway are the two most recognized brands in the
Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the
Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field.
United States is the largest producer of oil in the world, as well
as its second-largest importer. It is the world's number
one producer of nuclear energy, as well as liquid natural gas, sulfur,
phosphates, and salt. The
National Mining Association
National Mining Association provides data
pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium, copper, lead,
magnesium, zinc, titanium and others.
Agriculture accounts for just under 1% of GDP, yet the
United States is the world's top producer of corn and
soybeans. The National Agricultural Statistics Service
maintains agricultural statistics for products that include peanuts,
oats, rye, wheat, rice, cotton, corn, barley, hay, sunflowers, and
oilseeds. In addition, the
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA) provides livestock statistics regarding beef, poultry, pork,
and dairy products. The country is the primary developer and grower of
genetically modified food, representing half of the world's biotech
crops. In the contiguous 48 states, 35% of the land is
used as pasture, 28% is covered by forest, and 21% is agricultural
cropland, with all other uses accounting for less than
Consumer spending comprises 68% of the U.S. economy in
2015. In August 2010, the American labor force consisted
of 154.1 million people. With 21.2 million people, government is the
leading field of employment. The largest private employment sector is
health care and social assistance, with 16.4 million people. About 12%
of workers are unionized, compared to 30% in Western
World Bank ranks the
United States first in
the ease of hiring and firing workers. The United States
is ranked among the top three in the
Global Competitiveness Report as
well. It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income
through government action than European nations tend to.
United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee
its workers paid vacation and is one of just a few
countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right,
with the others being Papua New Guinea,
Liberia. While federal law does not require sick leave,
it is a common benefit for government workers and full-time employees
at corporations. 74% of full-time American workers get
paid sick leave, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, although
only 24% of part-time workers get the same benefits. In
United States had the third-highest workforce productivity
per person in the world, behind
Luxembourg and Norway. It was fourth
in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the
The 2008–2012 global recession significantly affected the United
States, with output still below potential according to the
Congressional Budget Office. It brought high unemployment
(which has been decreasing but remains above pre-recession levels),
along with low consumer confidence, the continuing decline in home
values and increase in foreclosures and personal bankruptcies, an
escalating federal debt crisis, inflation, and rising petroleum and
Science and technology
Science and technology in the United States
Science and technology in the United States and Science
policy of the United States
James Irwin walking on the
Moon next to Apollo 15's
landing module and lunar rover in 1971
United States has been a leader in technological innovation since
the late 19th century and scientific research since the mid-20th
century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by
the U.S. War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half
of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of
a machine tool industry, enabled the U.S. to have large-scale
manufacturing of sewing machines, bicycles, and other items in the
late 19th century and became known as the American system of
manufacturing. Factory electrification in the early 20th century and
introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques
created the system called mass production.
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U.S. patent for
the telephone. Thomas Edison's research laboratory, one of the first
of its kind, developed the phonograph, the first long-lasting light
bulb, and the first viable movie camera. The latter led
to emergence of the worldwide entertainment industry. In the early
20th century, the automobile companies of
Ransom E. Olds
Ransom E. Olds and Henry
Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers, in 1903, made
the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered
The rise of fascism and
Nazism in the 1920s and 1930s led many
European scientists, including Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, and John
von Neumann, to immigrate to the United States. During
World War II, the
Manhattan Project developed nuclear weapons,
ushering in the Atomic Age, while the
Space Race produced rapid
advances in rocketry, materials science, and
The invention of the transistor in the 1950s, a key active component
in practically all modern electronics, led to many technological
developments and a significant expansion of the U.S. technology
industry. This, in turn, led to
the establishment of many new technology companies and regions around
the country such as
Silicon Valley in California. Advancements by
American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices
Intel along with both computer software and hardware
companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and
Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The
ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department
requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which
evolved into the Internet.
These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology
for individual use. As of 2013[update], 83.8% of
American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had
Internet service. 91% of
Americans also own a
mobile phone as of May 2013[update]. The
United States ranks highly with regard to freedom of use of the
In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and
development funding comes from the private sector. The
United States leads the world in scientific research papers and impact
Income, poverty and wealth
Further information: Income in the United States, Poverty in the
United States, Affluence in the United States,
United States counties
by per capita income, and Income inequality in the United States
Accounting for 4.4% of the global population,
possess 41.6% of the world's total wealth, and Americans
make up roughly half of the world's population of
Global Food Security Index ranked the
U.S. number one for food affordability and overall food security in
Americans on average have over twice as much
living space per dwelling and per person as
European Union residents,
and more than every EU nation. For 2017 the United
Nations Development Programme ranked the
United States 13th among 189
countries in its
Human Development Index
Human Development Index and 25th among 151 countries
in its inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI).
A tract housing development in San Jose, California
After years of stagnant growth, in 2016, according to the Census,
median household income reached a record high after two consecutive
years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record
highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all
overall income. There has been a widening gap between
productivity and median incomes since the 1970s. However,
the gap between total compensation and productivity is not as wide
because of increased employee benefits such as health
insurance. The rise in the share of total annual income
received by the top 1 percent, which has more than doubled from 9
percent in 1976 to 20 percent in 2011, has significantly affected
income inequality, leaving the
United States with one of
the widest income distributions among OECD nations.
According to a 2018 study by the OECD, the
United States has much
higher income inequality and a larger percentage of low-income workers
than almost any other developed nation. This is largely because
at-risk workers get almost no government support and are further set
back by a very weak collective bargaining system. The top
1 percent of income-earners accounted for 52 percent of the income
gains from 2009 to 2015, where income is defined as market income
excluding government transfers. The extent and relevance
of income inequality is a matter of
United States' families median net worth
Source: Fed Survey of Consumer Finances
in 2013 dollars
Bottom 20% of incomes
2nd lowest 20% of incomes
Middle 20% of incomes
Wealth, like income and taxes, is highly concentrated; the richest 10%
of the adult population possess 72% of the country's household wealth,
while the bottom half claim only 2%. According to a
September 2017 report by the Federal Reserve, the top 1% controlled
38.6% of the country's wealth in 2016. Between June 2007
and November 2008 the global recession led to falling asset prices
around the world. Assets owned by
Americans lost about a quarter of
their value. Since peaking in the second quarter of 2007,
household wealth was down $14 trillion, but has since increased
$14 trillion over 2006 levels. At the
end of 2014, household debt amounted to
$11.8 trillion, down from $13.8 trillion at the
end of 2008.
There were about 578,424 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in
the U.S. in January 2014, with almost two-thirds staying in an
emergency shelter or transitional housing program. In
2011 16.7 million children lived in food-insecure households, about
35% more than 2007 levels, though only 1.1% of U.S. children, or
845,000, saw reduced food intake or disrupted eating patterns at some
point during the year, and most cases were not chronic.
According to a 2014 report by the Census Bureau, one in five young
adults lives in poverty, up from one in seven in 1980. As
of September 2017[update], 40 million people, roughly
12.7% of the U.S. population, were living in poverty, with 18.5
million of those living in deep poverty (a family income below
one-half of the poverty threshold). In 2016, 13.3 million children
were living in poverty, which made up 32.6% of the impoverished
In 2017, the region with the lowest poverty rate was New Hampshire
(7.3%), and the region with the highest poverty rate was American
Samoa (65%). Among the states,
the highest poverty rate was in
According to the UN, around five million people in the U.S. live in
"third world" conditions.
Main article: Transportation in the United States
The Interstate Highway System, which extends 46,876 miles
Personal transportation is dominated by automobiles, which operate on
a network of 4 million miles (6.4 million kilometers) of
public roads, including one of the world's longest
highway systems at 57,000 mi (91,700 km). The
world's second-largest automobile market, the United
States has the highest rate of per-capita vehicle ownership in the
world, with 765 vehicles per 1,000
About 40% of personal vehicles are vans, SUVs, or light
trucks. The average American adult (accounting for all
drivers and non-drivers) spends 55 minutes driving every day,
traveling 29 miles (47 km). In 2017, there were
255,009,283 motor vehicles—including cars, vans, buses, freight, and
other trucks, but excluding motorcycles and other two-wheelers—or
910 vehicles per 1,000 people.
Amtrak (passenger) rail speeds in the United
Mass transit accounts for 9% of total U.S. work
trips. Transport of goods by rail is
extensive, though relatively low numbers of passengers (approximately
31 million annually) use intercity rail to travel, partly because of
the low population density throughout much of the U.S.
interior. However, ridership on Amtrak, the
national intercity passenger rail system, grew by almost 37% between
2000 and 2010. Also, light rail development has increased
in recent years. Bicycle usage for work commutes is
The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been
largely deregulated since 1978, while
most major airports are publicly owned. The three largest
airlines in the world by passengers carried are U.S.-based; American
Airlines is number one after its 2013 acquisition by US
Airways. Of the world's 50 busiest passenger airports, 16
are in the United States, including the busiest, Hartsfield–Jackson
Atlanta International Airport, the fourth-busiest Los Angeles
International Airport, and the sixth-busiest O'Hare International
Airport in Chicago. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks
of 2001, the
Transportation Security Administration
Transportation Security Administration was created to
police airports and commercial airliners.
Further information: Energy policy of the United States
United States energy market is about 29,000 terawatt hours per
year. Energy consumption per capita is 7.8 tons
(7076 kg) of oil equivalent per year, the 10th-highest rate in
the world. In 2005, 40% of this energy came from petroleum, 23% from
coal, and 22% from natural gas. The remainder was supplied by nuclear
power and renewable energy sources. The
United States is
the world's largest consumer of petroleum. The United
States has 27% of global coal reserves. It is the world's
largest producer of natural gas and crude oil.
For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many
other developed countries, in part because of public perception
Three Mile Island accident
Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In 2007, several
applications for new nuclear plants were filed.
Since 2007, the total greenhouse gas emissions by the United States
are the second highest by country, exceeded only by
United States has historically
been the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases and greenhouse
gas emissions per capita remain high.
Water supply and sanitation
Main article: Drinking water supply and sanitation in the United
Issues that affect water supply in the
United States include droughts
in the West, water scarcity, pollution, a backlog of investment,
concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a
rapidly retiring workforce. Increased variability and intensity of
rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both
more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious
consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer
Main article: Culture of the United States
United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of
ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Aside
from the Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Native Alaskan
populations, nearly all
Americans or their ancestors settled or
immigrated within the past five centuries. Mainstream
American culture is a
Western culture largely derived from the
traditions of European immigrants with influences from many other
sources, such as traditions brought by slaves from
Africa. More recent immigration from Asia
Latin America has added to a cultural mix that has been
described as both a homogenizing melting pot, and a heterogeneous
salad bowl in which immigrants and their descendants retain
distinctive cultural characteristics.
Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists
and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived
passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through
Americans have traditionally been characterized by a
strong work ethic, competitiveness, and individualism, as
well as a unifying belief in an "American creed" emphasizing liberty,
equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference
for limited government.
Americans are extremely
charitable by global standards. According to a 2006 British study,
Americans gave 1.67% of GDP to charity, more than any other nation
studied, more than twice the second place British figure of 0.73%, and
around twelve times the French figure of
The American Dream, or the perception that
Americans enjoy high social
mobility, plays a key role in attracting immigrants.
Whether this perception is realistic has been a topic of
While mainstream culture holds that the
United States is a classless
society, scholars identify significant differences
between the country's social classes, affecting socialization,
language, and values. Americans' self-images, social
viewpoints, and cultural expectations are associated with their
occupations to an unusually close degree. While Americans
tend greatly to value socioeconomic achievement, being ordinary or
average is generally seen as a positive attribute.
Main article: Cuisine of the United States
Apple pie is a food commonly associated with American cuisine.
American cuisine is similar to that in other Western
Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters
of grain products made of wheat flour and many dishes use
indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet
potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native
Americans and early European settlers. These homegrown
foods are part of a shared national menu on one of America's most
popular holidays, Thanksgiving, when some
Americans make traditional
foods to celebrate the occasion.
Roasted turkey is a traditional menu item of an American
Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza,
hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various
immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos,
and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely
Americans drink three times as much coffee as
tea. Marketing by U.S. industries is largely responsible
for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast
American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British
culinary roots with some variations. Although American lands could
grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not
eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. Over
time American foods changed to a point that food critic, John L. Hess
stated in 1972: "Our founding fathers were as far superior to our
present political leaders in the quality of their food as they were in
the quality of their prose and intelligence".
The American fast food industry, the world's largest,
pioneered the drive-through format in the 1940s. Fast
food consumption has sparked health concerns. During the 1980s and
1990s, Americans' caloric intake rose 24%; frequent
dining at fast food outlets is associated with what public health
officials call the American "obesity epidemic". Highly
sweetened soft drinks are widely popular, and sugared beverages
account for nine percent of American caloric intake.
Literature, philosophy, and visual art
Main articles: American literature, American philosophy, Architecture
of the United States, and Visual art of the United States
Mark Twain, American author and humorist.
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took
most of its cues from Europe. Writers such as Nathaniel Hawthorne,
Edgar Allan Poe, and
Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau established a distinctive
American literary voice by the middle of the 19th century. Mark Twain
Walt Whitman were major figures in the century's second half;
Emily Dickinson, virtually unknown during her lifetime, is now
recognized as an essential American poet. A work seen as
capturing fundamental aspects of the national experience and
character—such as Herman Melville's
Moby-Dick (1851), Twain's The
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great
Gatsby (1925) and Harper Lee's
To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird (1960)—may be
dubbed the "Great American Novel".
Twelve U.S. citizens have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, most
Bob Dylan in 2016. William Faulkner,
Ernest Hemingway and
John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of
the 20th century. Popular literary genres such as the
Western and hardboiled crime fiction developed in the United States.
Beat Generation writers opened up new literary approaches, as have
postmodernist authors such as John Barth, Thomas Pynchon, and Don
The transcendentalists, led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson,
established the first major American philosophical movement. After the
Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce and then
William James and John
Dewey were leaders in the development of pragmatism. In the 20th
century, the work of W. V. O. Quine and Richard Rorty, and later Noam
Chomsky, brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American
John Rawls and
Robert Nozick led a revival of
political philosophy, and
Martha Nussbaum is its most important figure
Cornel West and
Judith Butler have led a continental tradition
in American philosophical academia.
Chicago school economists like
Milton Friedman, James M. Buchanan, and
Thomas Sowell have affected
various fields in social and political
In the visual arts, the
Hudson River School
Hudson River School was a mid-19th-century
movement in the tradition of European naturalism. The realist
Thomas Eakins are now widely celebrated. The 1913 Armory
Show in New York City, an exhibition of European modernist art,
shocked the public and transformed the U.S. art scene.
Georgia O'Keeffe, Marsden Hartley, and others experimented with new,
individualistic styles. Major artistic movements such as the abstract
Jackson Pollock and
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning and the pop art
Andy Warhol and
Roy Lichtenstein developed largely in the United
States. The tide of modernism and then postmodernism has brought fame
to American architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Philip Johnson, and
Americans have long been important in the
modern artistic medium of photography, with major photographers
including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, and Ansel
Times Square in New York City, the hub of the Broadway theater
One of the first major promoters of American theater was impresario P.
T. Barnum, who began operating a lower
Manhattan entertainment complex
in 1841. The team of Harrigan and Hart produced a series of popular
musical comedies in New York starting in the late 1870s. In the 20th
century, the modern musical form emerged on Broadway; the songs of
musical theater composers such as Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and
Stephen Sondheim have become pop standards. Playwright Eugene O'Neill
won the Nobel literature prize in 1936; other acclaimed U.S.
dramatists include multiple Pulitzer Prize winners
Edward Albee, and August Wilson.
Isadora Duncan and
Martha Graham helped create modern
George Balanchine and
Jerome Robbins were leaders in
20th-century ballet.
Music of the United States
Music of the United States and American classical music
Although little known at the time, Charles Ives's work of the 1910s
established him as the first major U.S. composer in the classical
tradition, while experimentalists such as
Henry Cowell and John Cage
created a distinctive American approach to classical composition.
Aaron Copland and
George Gershwin developed a new synthesis of popular
and classical music.
The rhythmic and lyrical styles of
African-American music have deeply
influenced American music at large, distinguishing it from European
and African traditions. Elements from folk idioms such as the blues
and what is now known as old-time music were adopted and transformed
into popular genres with global audiences.
Jazz was developed by
innovators such as
Louis Armstrong and
Duke Ellington early in the
Country music developed in the 1920s, and rhythm and
blues in the 1940s.
Elvis Presley and
Chuck Berry were among the mid-1950s pioneers of
rock and roll. Rock bands such as Metallica, the Eagles, and Aerosmith
are among the highest grossing in worldwide
sales. In the 1960s, Bob Dylan
emerged from the folk revival to become one of America's most
celebrated songwriters and
James Brown led the development of funk.
More recent American creations include hip hop and house music.
American pop stars such as Elvis Presley, Michael Jackson, and Madonna
have become global celebrities, as have contemporary
musical artists such as Taylor Swift, Britney Spears, Katy Perry,
Beyoncé, Jay-Z, Eminem, Kanye West, and Ariana Grande.
Main article: Cinema of the United States
Hollywood Sign in Los Angeles, California
Hollywood, a northern district of Los Angeles, California, is one of
the leaders in motion picture production. The world's
first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in New York City
in 1894, using Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope. The next year
saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, also in New
York, and the
United States was in the forefront of sound film's
development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century,
the U.S. film industry has largely been based in and around Hollywood,
although in the 21st century an increasing number of films are not
made there, and film companies have been subject to the forces of
Director D. W. Griffith, the top American filmmaker during the silent
film period, was central to the development of film grammar, and
Walt Disney was a leader in both animated film
and movie merchandising. Directors such as John Ford
redefined the image of the American Old West and history, and, like
others such as John Huston, broadened the possibilities of cinema with
location shooting, with great influence on subsequent directors. The
industry enjoyed its golden years, in what is commonly referred to as
the "Golden Age of Hollywood", from the early sound period until the
early 1960s, with screen actors such as
John Wayne and
Marilyn Monroe becoming iconic figures. In
the 1970s, film directors such as Martin Scorsese, Francis Ford
Robert Altman were a vital component in what became known
as "New Hollywood" or the "
grittier films influenced by French and Italian realist pictures of
the post-war period. Since, directors such as Steven
George Lucas and
James Cameron have gained renown for their
blockbuster films, often characterized by high production costs, and
in return, high earnings at the box office, with Cameron's Avatar
(2009) earning more than $2 billion.
Notable films topping the American Film Institute's AFI 100 list
include Orson Welles's
Citizen Kane (1941), which is frequently cited
as the greatest film of all time, Casablanca
The Godfather (1972), Gone with the Wind (1939), Lawrence of
Arabia (1962), The Wizard of Oz (1939),
The Graduate (1967), On the
Schindler's List (1993), Singin' in the Rain
It's a Wonderful Life
It's a Wonderful Life (1946) and Sunset Boulevard
(1950). The Academy Awards, popularly known as the
Oscars, have been held annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts
and Sciences since 1929, and the Golden Globe Awards have
been held annually since January 1944.
Main article: Sports in the United States
The most popular American sports are American football, baseball,
basketball and ice hockey
American football is by several measures the most popular spectator
National Football League
National Football League (NFL) has the highest
average attendance of any sports league in the world, and the Super
Bowl is watched by millions globally.
Baseball has been regarded as
the U.S. national sport since the late 19th century, with Major League
Baseball (MLB) being the top league.
Basketball and ice hockey are the
country's next two leading professional team sports, with the top
leagues being the National
Basketball Association (NBA) and the
National Hockey League
National Hockey League (NHL). These four major sports, when played
professionally, each occupy a season at different but overlapping,
times of the year.
College football and basketball attract large
audiences. In soccer, the country hosted the 1994 FIFA
World Cup, the men's national soccer team qualified for ten World Cups
and the women's team has won the
FIFA Women's World Cup
FIFA Women's World Cup four times;
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer is the sport's highest league in the United States
(featuring 21 American and 3 Canadian teams). The market for
professional sports in the
United States is roughly $69 billion,
roughly 50% larger than that of all of Europe, the Middle East, and
Olympic Games have taken place in the
United States (2028 Summer
Olympics will mark the ninth time). As of 2017[update], the
United States has won 2,522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, more
than any other country, and 305 in the Winter Olympic Games, the
second most behind Norway.
While most major U.S. sports such as baseball and American football
have evolved out of European practices, basketball, volleyball,
skateboarding, and snowboarding are American inventions, some of which
have become popular worldwide.
Lacrosse and surfing arose from Native
American and Native Hawaiian activities that predate Western
contact. The most watched individual sports are golf and
auto racing, particularly NASCAR. Rugby
union is considered the fastest growing sport in the U.S., with
registered players, numbered at 115,000+ and a further 1.2 million
Main article: Media of the United States
The corporate headquarters of the
American Broadcasting Company
American Broadcasting Company in
New York City
The four major broadcasters in the U.S. are the National Broadcasting
Company (NBC), Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), American
Broadcasting Company (ABC), and
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company (FOX). The
four major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities.
Cable television offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of
Americans listen to radio programming, also
largely commercial, on average just over two-and-a-half hours a
In 1998, the number of U.S. commercial radio stations had grown to
4,793 AM stations and 5,662 FM stations. In addition, there are 1,460
public radio stations. Most of these stations are run by universities
and public authorities for educational purposes and are financed by
public or private funds, subscriptions, and corporate underwriting.
Much public-radio broadcasting is supplied by
NPR (formerly National
NPR was incorporated in February 1970 under the Public
Broadcasting Act of 1967; its television counterpart, PBS, was also
created by the same legislation (
PBS are operated separately
from each other). As of September 30, 2014[update],
there are 15,433 licensed full-power radio stations in the U.S.
according to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission
Well-known newspapers include The
Wall Street Journal, The New York
Times, and USA Today. Although the cost of publishing has
increased over the years, the price of newspapers has generally
remained low, forcing newspapers to rely more on advertising revenue
and on articles provided by a major wire service, such as the
Associated Press or Reuters, for their national and world coverage.
With very few exceptions, all the newspapers in the U.S. are privately
owned, either by large chains such as Gannett or McClatchy, which own
dozens or even hundreds of newspapers; by small chains that own a
handful of papers; or in a situation that is increasingly rare, by
individuals or families. Major cities often have "alternative
weeklies" to complement the mainstream daily papers, for example, New
The Village Voice
The Village Voice or Los Angeles' LA Weekly, to name two
of the best-known. Major cities may also support a local business
journal, trade papers relating to local industries, and papers for
local ethnic and social groups. Early versions of the American
newspaper comic strip and the
American comic book
American comic book began appearing in
the 19th century. In 1938, Superman, the comic book superhero of DC
Comics, developed into an American icon. Aside from web
portals and search engines, the most popular websites are Facebook,
YouTube,, Yahoo!, eBay, Amazon, and Twitter.
More than 800 publications are produced in Spanish, the second most
commonly used language in the
United States behind
United States portal
Book: United States
Index of United States-related articles
U.S. state topics
Outline of the United States
^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
^ English is the official language of 32 states; English and Hawaiian
are both official languages in Hawaii, and English and 20 Indigenous
languages are official in Alaska. Algonquian, Cherokee, and Sioux are
among many other official languages in Native-controlled lands
throughout the country. French is a de facto, but unofficial, language
Maine and Louisiana, while New
Mexico law grants Spanish a special
^ In five territories, English as well as one or more indigenous
languages are official: Spanish in Puerto Rico, Samoan in American
Samoa, Chamorro in both
Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.
Carolinian is also an official language in the Northern Mariana
^ a b c The
Encyclopædia Britannica lists
China as the world's
third-largest country (after
Russia and Canada) with a total area of
9,572,900 sq km, and the
United States as
fourth-largest at 9,526,468 sq km. The figure for the United
States is less than in the
CIA World Factbook
CIA World Factbook because it excludes
coastal and territorial waters.The CIA World Factbook
United States as the third-largest country (after
Canada) with total area of 9,833,517 sq km, and China
as fourth-largest at 9,596,960 sq km. This figure for
United States is greater than in the Encyclopædia Britannica
because it includes coastal and territorial waters.
^ a b Excludes
Puerto Rico and the other unincorporated islands.
Time in the United States
Time in the United States for details about laws governing time
zones in the United States.
^ Except the U.S. Virgin Islands.
^ The five major territories are American Samoa, Guam, the Northern
Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the
United States Virgin Islands.
There are eleven smaller island areas without permanent populations:
Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman
Reef, Midway Atoll, and Palmyra Atoll. U.S. sovereignty over Bajo
Nuevo Bank, Navassa Island, Serranilla Bank, and
Wake Island is
^ Spain sent several expeditions to
Alaska to assert its long-held
claim over the Pacific Northwest, which dated back to the 16th
century. During the decade 1785–1795 British merchants, encouraged
Sir Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks and supported by their government, made a
sustained attempt to develop this trade despite Spain's claims and
navigation rights. The endeavors of these merchants did not last long
in the face of Spain's opposition. The challenge was also opposed by a
Japanese holding obdurately to national seclusion.
^ His previous arrival coincided with the Makahiki, a
festival celebrating the Hawaiian deity Lono. After
HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery had left the islands, the
season for battle and war had begun under the worship and rituals for
Kūkaʻilimoku, the Hawaiian deity of war.
^ On the evening of February 13, while anchored in Kealakekua Bay
after their return, one of only two long boats was
stolen. The Hawaiians had begun to openly challenge the
foreigners. In retaliation, Cook tried to take the aliʻi nui of the
island of Hawaii,
Kalaniʻōpuʻu as ransom for the
boats. The following morning of February 14,
1779 Cook and his men went directly to Kalaniʻōpuʻu's
enclosure where the monarch was still sleeping. One of
ruler's wives, Kānekapōlei, pleaded with them to stop.
Cook's men and the Marines were confronted on the beach by thousands
of Native Hawaiians. Cook tried to move the elderly man
but he refused. As the townspeople began to surrounding them, Cook and
his men raised their guns. Two chiefs and the monarch's wife shielded
Kalaniʻōpuʻu as Cook tried to force him to his feet.
The crowd became hostile and
Kanaʻina (one of the monarch's
attendants) approached Cook, who reacted by striking him with the
broad side of his sword.
Kanaʻina instantly grabbed Cook and lifted
him off his feet.
Kanaʻina released Cook, who fell to
the ground as another attendant, Nuaa, fatally stabbed
Fertility is also a factor; in 2010 the average Hispanic woman gave
birth to 2.35 children in her lifetime, compared to 1.97 for
non-Hispanic black women and 1.79 for non-Hispanic white women (both
below the replacement rate of 2.1). Between 2006 and 2017
the population growth rate for Hispanics dropped from 3.7% to 2.0%,
for Asians from 3.5% to 2.9%, for blacks from 1.0% to 0.9% and for
non-Hispanic whites from 0.1% to 0.0%. Hispanics accounted for 51% of
the population increase between 2016 and 2017.
Minorities (as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside
non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites) constituted 36.3% of the
population in 2010 (this is nearly 40% in 2015), and over
50% of children under age one, and are projected to
constitute the majority by 2042. This contradicts the
report by the National Vital Statistics Reports, based on the U.S.
census data, which concludes that 54% (2,162,406 out of 3,999,386 in
2010) of births were non-Hispanic white. The Hispanic
birth rate plummeted 25% between 2006 and 2013 while the rate for
non-Hispanics decreased just 5%.
^ Source: 2015 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Most
respondents who speak a language other than English at home also
report speaking English "well" or "very well". For the language groups
listed above, the strongest English-language proficiency is among
speakers of German (96% report that they speak English "well" or "very
well"), followed by speakers of French (93.5%), Tagalog (92.8%),
Spanish (74.1%), Korean (71.5%), Chinese (70.4%), and Vietnamese
^ In January 2015, U.S. federal government debt held by the public was
approximately $13 trillion, or about 72% of U.S. GDP.
Intra-governmental holdings stood at $5 trillion, giving a combined
total debt of $18.080 trillion. By 2012,
total federal debt had surpassed 100% of U.S. GDP. The
U.S. has a credit rating of AA+ from Standard & Poor's, AAA from
Fitch, and AAA from Moody's.
^ The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, found
that the United States' arms industry was the world's biggest exporter
of major weapons from 2005 to 2009, and remained the
largest exporter of major weapons during a period between 2010 and
2014, followed by Russia,
China (PRC), and Germany.
^ Droughts are likely to particularly affect the 66 percent of
Americans whose communities depend on surface water. As
for drinking water quality, there are concerns about disinfection
by-products, lead, perchlorates and pharmaceutical substances, but
generally drinking water quality in the U.S. is good.
^ McKenna 2007, p. 280.
^ Kidder & Oppenheim 2007, p. 91.
^ "uscode.house.gov". Public Law 105-225. uscode.house.gov. August 12,
1999. pp. 112 Stat. 1263. Retrieved September 10, 2017. Section
304. "The composition by John Philip Sousa entitled "The Stars and
Stripes Forever" is the national march.".mw-parser-output
cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q
quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited
a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a
.1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription
span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px
dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a
.1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code
.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output
.cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95%
.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left
padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output
^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
^ García 2011, p. 167.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: United States". Census.gov
QuickFacts. U.S. Department of Commerce. July 1, 2018. Retrieved
February 12, 2019.
^ Newport, Frank. "2017 Update on
Americans and Religion". Gallup.
Retrieved February 25, 2019.
^ Areas of the 50 states and the
District of Columbia
District of Columbia but not Puerto
Rico nor (other) island territories per "State Area Measurements and
Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved
November 17, 2017. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER
database through August, 2010.
^ a b "Population increases to July 1, 2018". Census.gov.
^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July
1, 2016". Census.gov. Retrieved July 25, 2017. The 2016 estimate is as
of July 1, 2016. The 2010 census is as of April 1, 2010.
^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019 – Report for
Selected Countries and Subjects".
International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Retrieved June 30, 2019.
^ "GINI index (
World Bank estimate): 2016". World Bank. Retrieved
March 9, 2019.
^ "2018 Human Development Report".
United Nations Development
Programme. 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
^ See Date and time notation in the United States.
^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on
Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General
Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S.
Constitution, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
^ "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 31,
^ "United States". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
^ "China". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved June 10, 2016.
^ UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre. "Megadiverse
Countries definition". Biodiversity A−Z. UN WCMC. Retrieved
September 11, 2017. 17 countries which have been identified as the
most biodiversity-rich countries of the world, with a particular focus
on endemic biodiversity.
^ a b Erlandson, Rick & Vellanoweth 2008, p. 19.
^ Greene, Jack P., Pole, J.R., eds. (2008). A Companion to the
American Revolution. pp. 352–361.Bender, Thomas (2006). A Nation
Among Nations: America's Place in World History. New York: Hill &
Wang. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8090-7235-4."Overview of the Early
National Period". Digital History. University of Houston. 2014.
Retrieved February 25, 2015.
^ a b Carlisle, Rodney P.; Golson, J. Geoffrey (2007). Manifest
Destiny and the Expansion of America. Turning Points in History
Series. ABC-CLIO. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-85109-833-0.
^ "The Civil War and emancipation 1861–1865".
Africans in America.
Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation. 1999. Archived from the original
on October 12, 1999.
^ Britannica Educational Publishing (2009). Wallenfeldt, Jeffrey H.
American Civil War
American Civil War and Reconstruction: People, Politics,
and Power. America at War. Rosen Publishing Group. p. 264.
^ White, Donald W. (1996). "1: The Frontiers". The American Century.
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05721-8. Retrieved March
^ "Work in the Late 19th Century". Library of Congress. Retrieved
January 16, 2015.
^ Tony Judt; Denis Lacorne (2005). With Us Or Against Us: Studies in
Global Anti-Americanism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 61.
ISBN 978-1-4039-8085-4.Richard J. Samuels (2005). Encyclopedia of
United States National Security. Sage Publications. p. 666.
ISBN 978-1-4522-6535-3.Paul R. Pillar (2001).
Terrorism and U.S.
Foreign Policy. Brookings Institution Press. p. 57.
ISBN 978-0-8157-0004-3.Gabe T. Wang (2006).
China and the Taiwan
Issue: Impending War at Taiwan Strait. University Press of America.
p. 179. ISBN 978-0-7618-3434-2.Understanding the "Victory
Disease," From the Little Bighorn to Mogadishu and Beyond. Diane
Publishing. 2004. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4289-1052-2.Akis
Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy: A
Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 313.
^ "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015".
^ "Manufacturing, value added (current US$)".
World Bank Open Data.
World Bank. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency.
^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Central Intelligence Agency.
^ a b "Population Clock". U.S. and World Population Clock. U.S.
Department of Commerce. July 4, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
United States population on July 4, 2017 was: 325,365,189
^ "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. October 2018. Retrieved
February 11, 2019.
^ "U.S. Workers World's Most Productive".
CBS News. February 11, 2009.
Retrieved April 23, 2013.
^ "Average annual wages". stats.oecd.org. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
^ "Trends in world military expenditure, 2013". Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute. April 2014. Archived from the
original on January 4, 2015. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
^ Cohen, 2004: History and the HyperpowerBBC, April 2008: Country
United States of America"Geographical trends of research
output". Research Trends. Retrieved March 16, 2014."The top 20
countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March
16, 2014."Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March
^ Martone 2016, p. 504.
^ Sider 2007, p. 226.
^ DeLear, Byron (July 4, 2013) Who coined '
United States of America'?
Mystery might have intriguing answer. "Historians have long tried to
pinpoint exactly when the name '
United States of America' was first
used and by whom... ...This latest find comes in a letter that Stephen
Moylan, Esq., wrote to Col. Joseph Reed from the Continental Army
Headquarters in Cambridge, Mass., during the Siege of Boston. The two
men lived with Washington in Cambridge, with Reed serving as
Washington's favorite military secretary and Moylan fulfilling the
role during Reed's absence." Christian Science Monitor (Boston, MA).
^ Touba, Mariam (November 5, 2014) Who Coined the Phrase 'United
States of America'? You May Never Guess "Here, on January 2, 1776,
seven months before the Declaration of Independence and a week before
the publication of Paine's Common Sense, Stephen Moylan, an acting
secretary to General George Washington, spells it out, 'I should like
vastly to go with full and ample powers from the
United States of
America to Spain' to seek foreign assistance for the cause." New-York
Historical Society Museum & Library
^ Fay, John (July 15, 2016) The forgotten Irishman who named the
United States of America' "According to the NY Historical Society,
Stephen Moylan was the man responsible for the earliest documented use
of the phrase "
United States of America." But who was Stephen Moylan?"
^ ""To the inhabitants of Virginia," by A PLANTER. Dixon and Hunter's.
April 6, 1776, Williamsburg, Virginia. Letter is also included in
Peter Force's American Archives". 5 (1287). Archived from the original
on December 19, 2014.
^ a b c Safire 2003, p. 199.
^ Mostert 2005, p. 18.
^ Brokenshire 1993, p. 49.
^ Greg 1892, p. 276.
^ G. H. Emerson, The Universalist Quarterly and General Review, Vol.
28 (Jan. 1891), p. 49, quoted in Zimmer, Benjamin (November 24, 2005).
"Life in These, Uh, This United States". University of Pennsylvania.
Retrieved January 5, 2013.
^ Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia guide to standard American
English. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28.
^ Savage 2011, p. 55.
^ Haviland, Walrath & Prins 2013, p. 219.
^ Fladmark 2017, pp. 55–69.
^ Meltzer 2009, p. 129.
^ Waters & Stafford 2007, pp. 1122–1126.
^ Flannery 2015, pp. 173–185.
^ Gelo 2018.
^ Lockard 2010, p. 315.
^ Inghilleri 2016, p. 117.
^ Martinez, Sage & Ono 2016, p. 4.
^ Fagan 2016, p. 390.
^ Martinez & Bordeaux 2016, p. 602.
^ Weiss & Jacobson 2000, p. 180.
^ Dean R. Snow (1994). The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers, Ltd.
ISBN 978-1-55786-938-8. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
^ Pearce, Charles E.M.; Pearce, F. M. (2010). Oceanic Migration:
Paths, Sequence, Timing and Range of Prehistoric Migration in the
Pacific and Indian Oceans. Springer Science & Business Media.
p. 167. ISBN 978-90-481-3826-5.
^ Whittaker, Elvi W. (1986). The Mainland Haole: The White Experience
in Hawaii. Columbia University Press. p. 3.
^ Paul Joseph (October 11, 2016). The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social
Science Perspectives. SAGE Publications. p. 590.
^ "The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology Archived
February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine". Arthur C. Aufderheide,
Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). Cambridge
University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6
^ Bianchine, Russo, 1992 pp. 225–232
^ a b c Perdue & Green 2005, p. 40.
^ a b Haines, Haines & Steckel 2000, p. 12.
^ Thornton 1998, p. 34.
^ Volo & Volo 2007, p. 11.
^ Cowper 2011, p. 67.
^ Wilson & Thompson 1997, p. 14.
^ Ripper, 2008 p. 6
^ Ripper, 2008 p. 5
^ Calloway, 1998, p. 55
^ a b "St. Augustine Florida, The Nation's Oldest City".
^ Joseph 2016, p. 590.
^ Remini 2007, pp. 2–3
^ Johnson 1997, pp. 26–30
^ Walton, 2009, chapter 3
^ Lemon, 1987
^ Jackson, L. P. (1924). "Elizabethan Seamen and the African Slave
Trade". The Journal of Negro History. 9 (1): 1–17.
doi:10.2307/2713432. JSTOR 2713432.
^ Tadman, 2000, p. 1534
^ Schneider, 2007, p. 484
^ Lien, 1913, p. 522
^ Davis, 1996, p. 7
^ Quirk, 2011, p. 195
^ Bilhartz, Terry D.; Elliott, Alan C. (2007). Currents in American
History: A Brief History of the United States. M.E. Sharpe.
^ Wood, Gordon S. (1998). The Creation of the American Republic,
1776–1787. UNC Press Books. p. 263.
^ Walton, 2009, pp. 38–39
^ Foner, Eric (1998). The Story of American Freedom (1st ed.). W.W.
Norton. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-393-04665-6.
^ Walton, 2009, p. 35
^ Otis, James (1763). The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and
^ Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka Connection:
Europe and the
Northwest Coast 1790–1795. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-88894-279-1.
^ Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka Connection:
Europe and the
Northwest Coast 1790–1795. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.
pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-88894-279-1.
^ Robert J. King, "'The long wish'd for object' — Opening the trade
to Japan, 1785–1795", The Northern Mariner / le marin du nord, vol.
XX, no. 1, January 2010, pp. 1–35.
^ Collingridge, Vanessa (2003). Captain Cook: The Life, Death and
Legacy of History's Greatest Explorer. Ebury Press. p. 380.
^ Hayes, Derek (1999). Historical Atlas of the Pacific Northwest: Maps
of exploration and Discovery. Sasquatch Books. pp. 42–43.
^ Alexander von Humboldt, Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain,
translated by John Black, Vol. 2, London, Longman, 1822, translator's
note, p. 322.
^ Jeff Campbell (2010). Hawaii. Lonely Planet. p. 38.
^ Ruth M. Tabrah (1984). Hawaii: A History. W.W. Norton.
pp. 19–22. ISBN 978-0-393-24369-7.
^ Marshall Sahlins (1996). How "Natives" Think: About Captain Cook,
For Example. University of
Chicago Press. p. 3–.
^ Melissa Meyer (2014). Thicker Than Water: The Origins of Blood as
Symbol and Ritual: The Origins of Blood as Symbol and Ritual.
Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-135-34200-5.
^ Jerry D. Moore (2012). Visions of Culture: An Introduction to
Anthropological Theories and Theorists. Rowman Altamira. p. 336.
James Cook (1971). The Explorations of
Captain James Cook
Captain James Cook in the
Pacific, as Told by Selections of His Own Journals, 1768–1779.
Courier Corporation. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-486-22766-5.
Book Notes: A Monthly Literary Magazine and Review of New Books.
Siegel-Cooper. 1901. p. 54.
^ Daniel O'Sullivan (March 30, 2008). In Search of Captain Cook:
Exploring the Man Through His Own Words. I.B. Tauris. p. 224.
^ John H. Chambers (2006). Hawaii. Interlink Books. p. 55.
^ Stephen R. Bown (2008). Madness, Betrayal and the Lash: The Epic
Voyage of Captain George Vancouver. Douglas & McIntyre.
p. 30. ISBN 978-1-55365-339-4.
^ Richard Tregaskis (November 1973). The warrior king: Hawaii's
Kamehameha the Great. Macmillan. p. 115.
^ Glyndwr Williams (2008). The Death of Captain Cook: A Hero Made and
Unmade. Harvard University Press. p. 37.
^ John Meares (1791). Hawaiian Historical Society. Reprints (1787,
1788 and 1789). p. 76.
^ Humphrey, Carol Sue (2003). The Revolutionary Era: Primary Documents
on Events from 1776 To 1800. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 8–10.
^ a b Fabian Young, Alfred; Nash, Gary B.; Raphael, Ray (2011).
Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making
of the Nation. Random House Digital. pp. 4–7.
^ Samuel 1920, p. 323-324.
^ Greene and Pole, A Companion to the
American Revolution p 357.
Jonathan R. Dull, A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution
(1987) p. 161. Lawrence S. Kaplan, "The Treaty of Paris, 1783: A
Historiographical Challenge", International History Review, Sept 1983,
Vol. 5 Issue 3, pp. 431–442
^ Boyer, 2007, pp. 192–193
^ Cogliano, Francis D. (2008). Thomas Jefferson: Reputation and
University of Virginia
University of Virginia Press. p. 219.
^ Walton, 2009, p. 43
^ Gordon, 2004, pp. 27,29
^ Clark, Mary Ann (May 2012). Then We'll Sing a New Song: African
Influences on America's Religious Landscape. Rowman & Littlefield.
p. 47. ISBN 978-1-4422-0881-0.
^ Heinemann, Ronald L., et al., Old Dominion, New Commonwealth: a
Virginia 1607–2007, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4, p.
^ Billington, Ray Allen; Ridge, Martin (2001). Westward Expansion: A
History of the American Frontier. UNM Press. p. 22.
Louisiana Purchase" (PDF). National Park Services. Retrieved March
^ Wait, Eugene M. (1999). America and the War of 1812. Nova
Publishers. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-56072-644-9.
^ Klose, Nelson; Jones, Robert F. (1994).
United States History to
1877. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150.
^ Winchester, pp. 198, 216, 251, 253
^ Morrison, Michael A. (April 28, 1997). Slavery and the American
West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War.
North Carolina Press. pp. 13–21.
^ Kemp, Roger L. (2010). Documents of American Democracy: A Collection
of Essential Works. McFarland. p. 180.
ISBN 978-0-7864-4210-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ McIlwraith, Thomas F.; Muller, Edward K. (2001). North America: The
Historical Geography of a Changing Continent. Rowman &
Littlefield. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7425-0019-8. Retrieved
October 25, 2015.
^ Madley, Benjamin (2016). An American Genocide: The
United States and
California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873. Yale University Press.
^ Johansen, Bruce E.; Pritzker, Barry M. (July 23, 2007). "California
Indians, Genocide of". Encyclopedia of American Indian History [4
volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 226–231 – via Google Books.
^ Lindsay, Brendan C. (2012). Murder State: California's Native
American Genocide, 1846–1873. U of
^ Wolf, Jessica. "Revealing the history of genocide against
California's Native Americans". UCLA Newsroom. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
^ Rawls, James J. (1999). A Golden State: Mining and Economic
Development in Gold Rush California. University of
p. 20. ISBN 978-0-520-21771-3.
^ Black, Jeremy (2011). Fighting for America: The Struggle for Mastery
in North America, 1519–1871.
Indiana University Press. p. 275.
^ Wishart, David J. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Great Plains.
Nebraska Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-8032-4787-1.
^ Stuart Murray (2004). Atlas of American Military History. Infobase
Publishing. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4381-3025-5. Retrieved October
25, 2015.Harold T. Lewis (2001). Christian Social Witness. Rowman
& Littlefield. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56101-188-9.
^ a b Patrick Karl O'Brien (2002). Atlas of World History. Oxford
University Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-19-521921-0. Retrieved
October 25, 2015.
^ Vinovskis, Maris (1990). Toward A Social History of the American
Civil War: Exploratory Essays. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge
University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-39559-5.
^ "1860 Census" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 10, 2007.
Page 7 lists a total slave population of 3,953,760.
^ De Rosa, Marshall L. (1997). The
Politics of Dissolution: The Quest
for a National Identity and the American Civil War. Edison, NJ:
Transaction. p. 266. ISBN 1-56000-349-9.
^ Shearer Davis Bowman (1993). Masters and Lords: Mid-19th-Century
U.S. Planters and Prussian Junkers. Oxford UP. p. 221.
^ Jason E. Pierce (2016). Making the White Man's West: Whiteness and
the Creation of the American West. University Press of Colorado.
p. 256. ISBN 978-1-60732-396-9.
^ Marie Price; Lisa Benton-Short (2008). Migrants to the Metropolis:
The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Syracuse University Press.
p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8156-3186-6.
^ "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved October 20,
^ John Powell (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration.
Infobase Publishing. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7.
Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Winchester, pp. 351, 385
^ Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles
and Skirmishes, 1850-1890. Mountain Press Publishing.
^ "Toward a Market Economy". CliffsNotes. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Retrieved December 23, 2014.
^ "Purchase of Alaska, 1867". Office of the Historian. U.S. Department
of State. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
^ "The Spanish–American War, 1898". Office of the Historian. U.S.
Department of State. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ Ryden, George Herbert. The Foreign Policy of the
United States in
Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975.
^ "Virgin Islands History". Vinow.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
^ Kirkland, Edward. Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor, and Public
Policy (1961 ed.). pp. 400–405.
^ Zinn, 2005, pp. 321–357
^ Paige Meltzer, "The Pulse and Conscience of America" The General
Federation and Women's Citizenship, 1945–1960," Frontiers: A
Journal of Women Studies (2009), Vol. 30 Issue 3, pp. 52–76.
^ James Timberlake, Prohibition and the Progressive Movement,
1900–1920 (Harvard UP, 1963)
^ George B. Tindall, "Business Progressivism: Southern
Politics in the
Twenties," South Atlantic Quarterly 62 (Winter 1963):
^ McDuffie, Jerome; Piggrem, Gary Wayne; Woodworth, Steven E. (2005).
U.S. History Super Review. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education
Association. p. 418. ISBN 0-7386-0070-9.
^ Voris, Jacqueline Van (1996). Carrie Chapman Catt: A Public Life.
Women and Peace Series. New York City: Feminist Press at CUNY.
p. vii. ISBN 978-1-55861-139-9. Carrie Chapmann Catt led an
army of voteless women in 1919 to pressure Congress to pass the
constitutional amendment giving them the right to vote and convinced
state legislatures to ratify it in 1920. ... Catt was one of the
best-known women in the
United States in the first half of the
twentieth century and was on all lists of famous American women.
^ Winchester pp. 410–411
^ Axinn, June; Stern, Mark J. (2007). Social Welfare: A History of the
American Response to Need (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
^ Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black
Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
p. 6. ISBN 978-0-394-56004-5.
^ James Noble Gregory (1991). American Exodus: The
Dust Bowl Migration
and Okie Culture in California. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-507136-8. Retrieved October 25, 2015."Mass Exodus
From the Plains". American Experience. WGBH Educational Foundation.
2013. Retrieved October 5, 2014.Fanslow, Robin A. (April 6, 1997).
"The Migrant Experience". American Folklore Center. Library of
Congress. Retrieved October 5, 2014.Walter J. Stein (1973). California
Dust Bowl Migration. Greenwood Press.
ISBN 978-0-8371-6267-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Yamasaki, Mitch. "Pearl Harbor and America's Entry into World War
II: A Documentary History" (PDF).
World War II
World War II Internment in Hawaii.
Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2014. Retrieved
January 14, 2015.
^ Kelly, Brian. "The
Four Policemen and. Postwar Planning,
1943–1945: The Collision of Realist and. Idealist Perspectives".
Retrieved June 21, 2014.
^ Hoopes & Brinkley 1997, p. 100.
^ Gaddis 1972, p. 25.
^ Leland, Anne; Oboroceanu, Mari–Jana (February 26, 2010). "American
War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics" (PDF).
Congressional Research Service. Retrieved February 18, 2011. p. 2.
^ Kennedy, Paul (1989). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New
York: Vintage. p. 358. ISBN 0-679-72019-7
United States and the Founding of the United Nations, August
1941 – October 1945". U.S. Dept. of State, Bureau of Public
Affairs, Office of the Historian. October 2005. Retrieved June 11,
^ "Why did
Japan surrender in World War II? The
Japan Times". The
Japan Times. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
^ Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 4-7700-2887-3.
^ "The National WWII Museum New Orleans: Learn: For Students: WWII
at a Glance: Remembering V-J Day". www.nationalww2museum.org.
Retrieved February 8, 2017.
^ Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2012). East Plays West: Sport and the
Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
^ Blakeley, 2009, p. 92
^ a b Collins, Michael (1988). Liftoff: The Story of America's
Adventure in Space. New York: Grove Press.
^ Winchester, pp. 305–308
^ Blas, Elisheva. "The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of
Interstate and Defense Highways" (PDF).
societyforhistoryeducation.org. Society for History Education.
Retrieved January 19, 2015.
^ Richard Lightner (2004). Hawaiian History: An Annotated
Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 141.
^ Dallek, Robert (2004). Lyndon B. Johnson: Portrait of a President.
Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-19-515920-2.
^ "Our Documents – Civil Rights Act (1964)". United States
Department of Justice. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
^ "Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill, Liberty Island, New
York". October 3, 1965. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016.
Retrieved January 1, 2012.
^ "Social Security". ssa.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Soss, 2010, p. 277
^ Fraser, 1989
^ Ferguson, 1986, pp. 43–53
^ Williams, pp. 325–331
^ Niskanen, William A. (1988). Reaganomics: an insider's account of
the policies and the people. Oxford University Press. p. 363.
ISBN 978-0-19-505394-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ "Women in the Labor Force: A Databook" (PDF). U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics. 2013. p. 11. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
^ Howell, Buddy Wayne (2006). The Rhetoric of Presidential Summit
Ronald Reagan and the U.S.-Soviet Summits, 1985–1988.
Texas A&M University. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-549-41658-6.
Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Kissinger, Henry (2011). Diplomacy. Simon & Schuster.
pp. 781–784. ISBN 978-1-4391-2631-8. Retrieved October 25,
2015.Mann, James (2009). The Rebellion of Ronald Reagan: A History of
the End of the Cold War. Penguin. p. 432.
^ Hayes, 2009
^ USHistory.org, 2013
^ Charles Krauthammer, "The Unipolar Moment," Foreign Affairs, 70/1,
(Winter 1990/1), 23–33.
^ "Persian Gulf War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia
Britannica, Inc. 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
^ Winchester, pp. 420–423
^ Dale, Reginald (February 18, 2000). "Did Clinton Do It, or Was He
Lucky?". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2013.Mankiw, N.
Gregory (2008). Macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. p. 559.
ISBN 978-0-324-58999-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
United States Trade
Representative". www.ustr.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2015.Thakur;
Manab Thakur Gene E Burton B N Srivastava (1997). International
Management: Concepts and Cases. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
pp. 334–335. ISBN 978-0-07-463395-3. Retrieved October 25,
2015.Akis Kalaitzidis; Gregory W. Streich (2011). U.S. Foreign Policy:
A Documentary and Reference Guide. ABC-CLIO. p. 201.
^ Flashback 9/11: As It Happened. Fox News. September 9, 2011.
Retrieved March 6, 2013."America remembers Sept. 11 attacks 11 years
CBS News. Associated Press. September 11, 2012. Retrieved
March 6, 2013."Day of Terror Video Archive". CNN. 2005. Retrieved
March 6, 2013.
^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (December 9, 2008). "The 'War on Terror' Is
Critical to President George W. Bush's Legacy". U.S. News & World
Report. Retrieved March 6, 2013.Atkins, Stephen E. (2011). The 9/11
Encyclopedia: Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 872.
ISBN 978-1-59884-921-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Wong, Edward (February 15, 2008). "Overview: The Iraq War". The New
York Times. Retrieved March 7, 2013.Johnson, James Turner (2005). The
War to Oust Saddam Hussein: Just War and the New Face of Conflict.
Rowman & Littlefield. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7425-4956-2.
Retrieved October 25, 2015.Durando, Jessica; Green, Shannon Rae
(December 21, 2011). "Timeline: Key moments in the Iraq War". USA
Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
George W. Bush
George W. Bush (January 10, 2007). "Fact Sheet: The New Way Forward
in Iraq". Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
After talking to some Afghan leaders, it was said that the Iran's
would be revolting if more troops were to be sent to Iran.
^ Feaver, Peter (August 13, 2015). "Hillary Clinton and the
Inconvenient Facts About the Rise of the Islamic State". Foreign
Policy. [T]he Obama team itself, including Clinton, have repeatedly
confirmed that they understand that the surge was successful. Clinton
even conceded to former Defense Secretary Robert Gates: 'The surge
^ "Iraqi surge exceeded expectations, Obama says".
Associated Press. September 4, 2008. Obama said the surge of U.S.
troops has 'succeeded beyond our wildest dreams.'
^ Wallison, Peter (2015). Hidden in Plain Sight: What Really Caused
the World's Worst Financial Crisis and Why It Could Happen Again.
Encounter Books. ISBN 978-978-59407-7-0.
Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission (2011). Financial Crisis Inquiry
Report (PDF). ISBN 978-1-60796-348-6.
^ Taylor, John B. (January 2009). "The Financial Crisis and the Policy
Responses: An Empirical Analysis of What Went Wrong" (PDF). Hoover
Institution Economics Paper Series. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
^ Hilsenrath, Jon; Ng, Serena; Paletta, Damian (September 18, 2008).
"Worst Crisis Since '30s, With No End Yet in Sight". The Wall Street
Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
Barack Obama elected as America's first black president".
Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved October 7,
^ "Barack Obama: Face Of New Multiracial Movement?". NPR. November 12,
2008. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
^ Washington, Jesse; Rugaber, Chris (September 9, 2011).
African-American Economic Gains Reversed By Great Recession".
Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June
16, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013.
^ "What the Stimulus Accomplished". The New York Times. The New York
Times Company. February 22, 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
^ "Economic Stimulus". IGM Polls.
Initiative on Global Markets at the
University of Chicago. February 15, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
^ "The Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Financial Stability and
Economic Growth" (PDF). Brookings. October 24, 2014. Retrieved August
31, 2017; Martin Neil Baily; Aaron Klein; Justin Schardin (January
2017). "The Impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on Financial Stability and
Economic Growth". The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social
Sciences. 3 (1): 20. doi:10.7758/RSF.2017.3.1.02.
^ "Did Dodd-Frank really hurt the US economy?". Financial Times.
February 13, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
^ "Federal Subsidies for Health Insurance Coverage for People Under
Age 65: 2016 to 2026". Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved January
^ Bradner, Eric (January 13, 2017). "Ryan: GOP will repeal, replace
Obamacare at same time". CNN. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
^ Jacobson, Gary C. (March 2011). "The Republican Resurgence in 2010".
Political Science Quarterly. 126 (1): 27–52.
^ Shanker, Thom; Schmidt, Michael S.; Worth, Robert F. (December 15,
2011). "In Baghdad, Panetta Leads Uneasy Closure to Conflict". The New
^ "The JRTN Movement and Iraq's Next Insurgency | Combating
Terrorism Center at West Point".
United States Military Academy.
Retrieved January 26, 2017.
^ "Al-Qaeda's Resurgence in Iraq: A Threat to U.S. Interests". U.S.
Department of State. January 26, 2017. Retrieved November 26, 2010.
^ Peter Baker (January 26, 2017). "U.S. to Restore Full Relations With
Cuba, Erasing a Last Trace of
Cold War Hostility". The New York Times.
^ Gordon, Michael R.; Sanger, David E. (July 15, 2015). "Deal Reached
Iran Nuclear Program; Limits on Fuel Would Lessen With Time". The
New York Times.
The New York Times
The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 26,
Iran nuclear deal, CNN.
Donald Trump is officially the richest US president in history".
^ "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates –
Geography – U.S. Census Bureau". State Area Measurements and
Internal Point Coordinates. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved
September 11, 2017.
^ "2010 Census Area" (PDF). census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau.
p. 41. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
^ "Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved
January 15, 2015.
^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 8,
2018. (given in square miles, excluding)
^ a b c "United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence
Agency. January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
^ "Geographic Regions of Georgia". Georgia Info. Digital Library of
Georgia. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ a b Lew, Alan. "PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE US". GSP 220 – Geography
of the United States. North
Arizona University. Archived from the
original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ Harms, Nicole. "Facts About the Rocky Mountain Range". Travel Tips.
USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ "Great Basin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 24,
^ "Mount Whitney, California". Peakbagger. Retrieved December 24,
^ "Find Distance and Azimuths Between 2 Sets of Coordinates (Badwater
36-15-01-N, 116-49-33-W and Mount Whitney 36-34-43-N, 118-17-31-W)".
Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ Poppick, Laura. "US Tallest Mountain's Surprising Location
Explained". LiveScience. Retrieved May 2, 2015.
^ O'Hanlon, Larry (March 14, 2005). "America's Explosive Park".
Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on March 14, 2005.
Retrieved April 5, 2016.
^ "Ecoregions by country – T". panda.org. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
^ Boyden, Jennifer. "Climate Regions of the United States". Travel
Tips. USA Today. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF).
Retrieved August 19, 2015.
^ Perkins, Sid (May 11, 2002). "
Tornado Alley, USA". Science News.
Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved September 20,
^ Len McDougall (2004). The Encyclopedia of Tracks and Scats: A
Comprehensive Guide to the Trackable Animals of the
United States and
Canada. Lyons Press. p. 325. ISBN 978-1-59228-070-4.
^ Morin, Nancy. "Vascular Plants of the United States" (PDF). Plants.
National Biological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July
24, 2013. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
^ Osborn, Liz. "Number of Native Species in United States". Current
Results Nexus. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
^ "Numbers of Insects (Species and Individuals)". Smithsonian
Institution. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
^ Lawrence, E.A. (1990). "Symbol of a Nation: The Bald Eagle in
American Culture". The Journal of American Culture. 13 (1): 63–69.
National Park Service
National Park Service Announces Addition of Two New Units" (Press
release). National Park Service. February 28, 2006. Archived from the
original on October 1, 2006. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
^ Lipton, Eric; Krauss, Clifford (August 23, 2012). "Giving Reins to
the States Over Drilling". New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
^ Gorte, Ross W.; Vincent, Carol Hardy.; Hanson, Laura A.; Marc R.,
Rosenblum. "Federal Land Ownership: Overview and Data" (PDF). fas.org.
Congressional Research Service. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
^ "Chapter 6: Federal Programs to Promote Resource Use, Extraction,
and Development". doi.gov. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived
from the original on March 18, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
^ The National Atlas of the
United States of America (January 14,
Forest Resources of the United States". Nationalatlas.gov.
Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
^ "Land Use Changes Involving Forestry in the United States: 1952 to
1997, With Projections to 2050" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved January 13,
^ Daynes & Sussman, 2010, pp. 3, 72, 74–76, 78
^ Hays, Samuel P. (2000). A History of Environmental
^ Collin, Robert W. (2006). The Environmental Protection Agency:
Cleaning Up America's Act. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1.
ISBN 978-0-313-33341-5. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Turner, James Morton (2012). The Promise of Wilderness
^ Endangered species Fish and Wildlife Service. General Accounting
Office, Diane Publishing. 2003. p. 1.
ISBN 978-1-4289-3997-4. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ "CT1970p2-13: Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF).
census.gov. 2004. p. 1168. Retrieved August 20, 2015.
^ "Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to
1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other
Urban Places In The United States". census.gov. Archived from the
original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
^ "Statistical Abstract of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Census
Bureau. 2005. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ "Executive Summary: A Population Perspective of the United States".
Population Resource Center. May 2000. Archived from the original on
June 4, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2007.
^ Jay Weinstein; Vijayan K. Pillai (2016), Demography: The Science of
Population (Second ed.), p. 208
^ Alesha E. Doan (2007). Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars
and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan.
^ Belluz, Julia (May 22, 2018). "The historically low birthrate,
explained in 3 charts". Vox. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
^ a b "Modern Immigration Wave Brings 59 Million to U.S. – Pew
Research Center". Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project.
September 28, 2015.
^ "Changing Patterns in U.S. Immigration and Population".
^ "Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in
the United States". Migration Policy Institute. March 14, 2019.
^ a b c "Ancestry 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. June 2004. Archived
from the original (PDF) on December 4, 2004. Retrieved December 2,
^ "Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009"
(PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on
December 25, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
^ Oleaga, Michael. "Immigration Numbers Update: 13 Million Mexicans
Immigrated to US in 2013, But Chinese Migrants Outnumber Other Latin
Latin Post. Archived from the original on September 5,
2014. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
^ "Selected Social Characteristics in the
United States –
American Community Survey
American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census
^ a b c Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R.
(March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S.
Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011.
Retrieved March 29, 2011.
^ "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Specific Origin". 2007
American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26,
^ "2010 Census Data". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
^ "Tables 41 and 42—Native and Foreign-Born Populations" (PDF).
Statistical Abstract of the
United States 2009. U.S. Census Bureau.
Retrieved October 11, 2009.
^ a b "National Vital Statistics Reports: Volume 61, Number 1. Births:
Final Data for 2012" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. August 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
^ Krogstad, Jens Manuel (August 3, 2017). "U.S. Hispanic population
growth has leveled off". Pew Research Center. Retrieved December 27,
^ U.S. Census Bureau: "
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Final State 2010
Census Population Totals for Legislative Redistricting" see custom
table, 2nd worksheet
^ a b Exner, Rich (July 3, 2012). "
Americans under age one now mostly
minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.
Cleveland, OH. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
^ "An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury" (PDF) (Press
release). August 14, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
^ "What the plummeting Hispanic birthrate means for the U.S. economy".
^ Stone, Lyman (May 16, 2018). "Baby Bust:
Fertility is Declining the
Most Among Minority Women". Institute for Family Studies. Retrieved
December 27, 2018.
^ "The World Factbook: United States". Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved November 10, 2018.
^ "ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates 2015 American Community
Survey 1-Year Estimates, (V2015)". census.gov. Retrieved October 15,
^ a b "It's official: Minority babies are the majority among the
nation's infants, but only just". Pew Research Center. June 23, 2016.
^ "Field Listing: Birth Rate". Central Intelligence Agency. The World
Factbook. 2014. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007.
Retrieved January 21, 2015.
Population growth (annual %)".
United Nations Population
Division. The World Bank. 2014. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
^ "U.S. Lawful Permanent Residents: 2017". Office of Immigration
Statistics Annual Flow Report.
^ "Immigrants in the United States, 2010: A Profile of America's
Foreign-Born Population". Center for Immigrant Studies. Retrieved
January 13, 2015.
^ Baker, Bryan; Rytina, Nancy (March 2013). "Estimates of the
Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States:
January 2012" (PDF). Office of Immigration Statistics. Department of
Homeland Security. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
^ "18 striking findings from 2018". Gallup. Retrieved December 27,
^ "In U.S., Estimate of
LGBT Population Rises to 4.5%". Gallup.com.
Retrieved September 14, 2018.
LGBT Percentage Highest in D.C., Lowest in North Dakota". Gallup.
Retrieved June 14, 2014.
United States – Urban/Rural and Inside/Outside Metropolitan
Area". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 17,
^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for
Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population:
April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (PDF). 2008 Population Estimates. U.S.
Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2009. Archived from the
original (PDF) on December 7, 2009.
^ a b "Table 5. Estimates of Population Change for Metropolitan
Statistical Areas and Rankings: July 1, 2007 to July 1, 2008" (PDF).
2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. March 19, 2009.
Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2009.
^ "Raleigh and Austin are Fastest-Growing Metro Areas" (Press
release). U.S. Census Bureau. March 19, 2009. Archived from the
original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2017.
^ "Appendix A. Census 2000 Geographic Terms and Concepts – Figure
A–3. Census Regions, Census Divisions, and Their Constituent States"
(PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. p. 27. Archived from the
original (PDF) on June 14, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2017.
^ "Language Spoken at Home by the U.S. Population, 2010", American
Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, in World Almanac and
Facts 2012, p. 615.
^ Welles, Elizabeth B. (Winter–Spring 2004). "Foreign Language
United States Institutions of Higher Learning, Fall
2002" (PDF). ADFL Bulletin. 35 (2–3): 7. doi:10.1632/adfl.35.2.7.
Archived from the original (PDF) on June 18, 2009. Retrieved February
^ Feder, Jody (January 25, 2007). "English as the Official Language of
the United States: Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the
110th Congress" (PDF). Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service).
Retrieved June 19, 2007.
^ "The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4".
Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. November 7, 1978. Archived from
the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
^ Chapel, Bill (April 21, 2014). "
Alaska OKs Bill Making Native
Languages Official". NPR.org.
^ Dicker, Susan J. (2003). Languages in America: A Pluralist View.
Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. pp. 216, 220–225.
California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6)". Legislative
Counsel, State of California. Archived from the original on July 22,
2010. Retrieved December 17, 2007. "
California Judicial Council
Forms". Judicial Council, State of California. Retrieved December 17,
^ "Samoan". UCLA Language Materials Project. UCLA. Retrieved October
4, 2014.Frederick T.L. Leong; Mark M. Leach (2010). Suicide Among
Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Routledge. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-135-91680-0.Robert D. Craig
(2002). Historical Dictionary of Polynesia. Scarecrow Press.
p. 33. ISBN 978-0-8108-4237-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Nessa Wolfson; Joan Manes (1985). Language of Inequality. Walter de
Gruyter. p. 176. ISBN 978-3-11-009946-1. Retrieved October
25, 2015.Lawrence J. Cunningham; Janice J. Beaty (2001). A History of
Guam. Bess Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-1-57306-047-9.Eur (2002).
The Far East and Australasia 2003. Psychology Press. p. 1137.
ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Yaron Matras; Peter Bakker (2003). The Mixed Language Debate:
Theoretical and Empirical Advances. Walter de Gruyter. p. 301.
ISBN 978-3-11-017776-3. in the Northern Marianas, Chamarro,
Carolinian ( = the minority language of a group of Carolinian
immigrants), and English received the status of co-official languages
in 1985(Rodriguez-Ponga 1995:24–28).
^ "Translation in Puerto Rico".
Puerto Rico Channel. Retrieved
December 29, 2013.
^ "Foreign Language Enrollments in K–12 Public Schools" (PDF).
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).
February 2011. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
^ Goldberg, David; Looney, Dennis; Lusin, Natalia (February 2015).
"Enrollments in Languages Other Than English in United States
Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2013" (PDF). Modern Language
Association. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
^ David Skorton & Glenn Altschuler. "America's Foreign Language
^ "United States". Modern Language Association. Retrieved September 2,
^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results".
^ a b c d "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research
Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
^ "Religion". Gallup. June 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
^ a b "Mississippians Go to Church the Most; Vermonters, Least".
Gallup. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
^ Merica, Dan (June 12, 2012). "Pew Survey: Doubt of
Quickly among Millennials". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
^ Hooda, Samreen (July 12, 2012). "American Confidence in Organized
Religion at All Time Low". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
^ "Religion Among the Millennials". The Pew Forum on Religion &
Public Life. Retrieved August 29, 2012.
^ ""Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious
Affiliation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 26,
2014. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
^ "US Protestants no longer a majority – study". BBC News.
^ "Mormons more likely to marry, have more children than other U.S.
religious groups". Pew Research Center. May 22, 2015.
^ "Church Statistics and Religious Affiliations". Pew Research.
Retrieved September 23, 2014.
^ a b ""Nones" on the Rise". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life.
2012. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
^ Barry A. Kosmin; Egon Mayer; Ariela Keysar (December 19, 2001).
"American Religious Identification Survey 2001" (PDF). CUNY Graduate
Center. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
^ "United States". Retrieved May 2, 2013.
^ Media, Minorities, and Meaning: A Critical Introduction — p.
88, Debra L. Merskin – 2010
^ a b c d "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research
Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
^ Richard Middleton, Colonial America, A History, 1565–1776, third
edition (London: Blackwell, 2002) pp. 95–103.
^ "U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations – U.S. Religious
Landscape Study – Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life".
Religions.pewforum.org. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.
^ Walsh, Margaret (2005). The American West. Visions and Revisions.
Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-521-59671-8.
^ "Adults in Alaska". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life
Project. May 11, 2015.
^ "Table 55—Marital Status of the Population by Sex, Race, and
Hispanic Origin: 1990 to 2007" (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the
United States 2009. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
^ "Women's Advances in Education". Columbia University, Institute for
Social and Economic Research and Policy. 2006. Archived from the
original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
^ a b "Births: Final Data for 2013, tables 2, 3" (PDF). U.S.
Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
^ "Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing". U.S. Department of
Health & Human Services. Retrieved July 23, 2015.
^ Strauss, Lilo T.; et al. (November 24, 2006). "Abortion
Surveillance—United States, 2003". MMWR. Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health. Retrieved June 17,
^ "FASTSTATS – Births and Natality". Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. November 21, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
^ "National Vital Statistics Volume 67, Number 1, January 31, 2018"
(PDF). Center for Disease Control – CDC. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
^ Jardine, Cassandra (October 31, 2007). "Why adoption is so easy in
America". The Daily Telegraph. London.
^ "Child Adoption: Trends and policies" (PDF). United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009. Retrieved October 25,
^ Hagerty, Barbara Bradley (May 27, 2008). "Some Muslims in U.S.
Quietly Engage in Polygamy". National Public Radio: All Things
Considered. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
^ "Mortality in the United States, 2017". www.cdc.gov. November 29,
2018. Retrieved December 27, 2018.
^ Bernstein, Lenny (November 29, 2018). "U.S. life expectancy declines
again, a dismal trend not seen since World War I". Washington Post.
Retrieved December 27, 2018.
^ Kight, Stef W. (March 6, 2019). "Deaths by suicide, drugs and
alcohol reached an all-time high last year". Axios. Retrieved March 6,
^ MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2007). "US Tumbles Down the World
Ratings List for Life Expectancy". The Guardian. London. Retrieved
August 15, 2007.
Mexico Obesity Rate Surpasses The United States', Making It Fattest
Country in the Americas". Huffington Post.
^ Schlosser, Eric (2002). Fast Food Nation. New York: Perennial.
p. 240. ISBN 978-0-06-093845-1.
^ "Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Adults: United States,
2003–2004". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National
Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved June 5, 2007.
^ "Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity".
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. American Heart
Association. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
^ Murray, Christopher J.L. (July 10, 2013). "The State of US Health,
1990–2010: Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors" (PDF).
Journal of the American Medical Association. 310 (6): 591–608.
doi:10.1001/jama.2013.13805. PMC 5436627. PMID 23842577.
Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25, 2013.
^ "About Teen Pregnancy". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved
January 24, 2015.
^ Whitman, Glen; Raad, Raymond. "Bending the
Productivity Curve: Why
America Leads the World in Medical Innovation". The Cato Institute.
Retrieved October 9, 2012.
^ Cowen, Tyler (October 5, 2006). "Poor U.S. Scores in Health Care
Don't Measure Nobels and Innovation". The New York Times. Retrieved
October 9, 2012.
^ "The U.S. Healthcare System: The Best in the World or Just the Most
Expensive?" (PDF). University of Maine. 2001. Archived from the
original (PDF) on March 9, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
^ "U.S. Uninsured Rate Steady at 12.2% in Fourth Quarter of 2017".
^ Abelson, Reed (June 10, 2008). "Ranks of Underinsured Are Rising,
Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
^ Blewett, Lynn A.; et al. (December 2006). "How Much Health
Insurance Is Enough? Revisiting the Concept of Underinsurance".
Medical Care Research and Review. 63 (6): 663–700.
doi:10.1177/1077558706293634. ISSN 1077-5587. PMID 17099121.
^ Fahrenthold, David A. (April 5, 2006). "Mass. Bill Requires Health
Coverage". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
^ "Health Care Law 54% Favor Repeal of Health Care Law". Rasmussen
Reports. Retrieved October 13, 2012.
^ "Debate on ObamaCare to intensify in the wake of landmark Supreme
Court ruling". Fox News. June 29, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
^ "Ages for Compulsory School Attendance …". U.S. Dept. of
Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved June
^ "Statistics About Non-Public Education in the United States". U.S.
Dept. of Education, Office of Non-Public Education. Retrieved June 5,
^ a b AP (June 25, 2013). "U.S. education spending tops global list,
study shows". CBS. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
^ Rosenstone, Steven J. (December 17, 2009). "Public Education for the
Common Good". University of Minnesota. Archived from the original on
August 1, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2009.
^ "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2003" (PDF). U.S.
Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
^ For more detail on U.S. literacy, see A First Look at the Literacy
of America's Adults in the 21st century, U.S. Department of Education
^ "Human Development Indicators" (PDF).
United Nations Development
Programme, Human Development Reports. 2005. Archived from the original
(PDF) on June 20, 2007. Retrieved January 14, 2008.
^ "QS World University Rankings". Topuniversities. Archived from the
original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
^ "Top 200 – The Times Higher Education World University
Rankings 2010–2011". Times Higher Education. Retrieved July 10,
^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2014". Shanghai Ranking
Consultancy. Archived from the original on January 19, 2015. Retrieved
May 29, 2015.
^ "U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems 2019 Universitas
21". Universitas 21. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
^ "Education at a Glance 2013" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved October 5, 2013.
^ "Student Loan Debt Exceeds One Trillion Dollars". NPR. April 4,
2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
^ Krupnick, Matt (October 4, 2018). "Student loan crisis threatens a
generation's American dream". The Guardian. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
^ Scheb, John M.; Scheb, John M. II (2002). An Introduction to the
American Legal System. Florence, KY: Delmar, p. 6.
^ Killian, Johnny H. "Constitution of the United States". The Office
of the Secretary of the Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
^ Germanos, Andrea (January 11, 2019). "
United States Doesn't Even
Make Top 20 on Global Democracy Index". Common Dreams. Retrieved
February 24, 2019.
^ Simon, Zoltan (January 29, 2019). "U.S. Government Seen as Most
Corrupt in Seven Years". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
^ Mikhail Filippov; Peter C. Ordeshook; Olga Shvetsova (2004).
Designing Federalism: A Theory of Self-Sustainable Federal
Institutions. Cambridge University Press. p. 242.
ISBN 978-0-521-01648-3.Barbara Bardes; Mack Shelley; Steffen
Schmidt (2013). American Government and
Politics Today: Essentials
2013–2014 Edition. Cengage Learning. pp. 265–266.
^ "The Legislative Branch".
United States Diplomatic Mission to
Germany. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
^ "The Process for impeachment". ThinkQuest. Retrieved August 20,
^ "The Executive Branch". The White House. Retrieved February 11,
^ Kermit L. Hall; Kevin T. McGuire (2005). Institutions of American
Democracy: The Judicial Branch. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-0-19-988374-5.U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
(2013). Learn about the United States: Quick Civics Lessons for the
Naturalization Test. Government Printing Office. p. 4.
ISBN 978-0-16-091708-0.Bryon Giddens-White (2005). The Supreme
Court and the Judicial Branch. Heinemann Library.
ISBN 978-1-4034-6608-2.Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial
Branch of Federal Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO.
ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015."Federal
United States Courts. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
^ Bloch, Matt; Ericson, Matthew; Quealy, Kevin (May 30, 2013). "Census
2010: Gains and Losses in Congress". The New York Times.
^ a b c "Watch John Oliver Cast His Ballot for Voting Rights for U.S.
Territories". Time. March 9, 2015. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
^ "What is the Electoral College". National Archives. Retrieved August
^ Cossack, Roger (July 13, 2000). "Beyond politics: Why Supreme Court
justices are appointed for life". CNN. Archived from the original on
July 12, 2012.
Nebraska (state, United States) : Agriculture". Britannica
Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
^ Feldstein, Fabozzi, 2011, p. 9
^ Schultz, 2009, pp. 164, 453, 503
^ Schultz, 2009, p. 38
^ Map of the U.S. EEZ omits U.S. claimed
Serranilla Bank and Bajo
Nuevo Bank which are disputed.
^ "Common Core Document of the
United States of America". U.S.
Department of State. December 30, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
The New York Times
The New York Times 2007, p. 670.
^ Onuf 2010, p. xvii.
^ See 8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(36) and 8
U.S.C. § 1101(a)(38) U.S. Federal Code, Immigration and
Nationality Act. 8 U.S.C. § 1101a
^ "Electoral College Fast Facts U.S. House of Representatives:
History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 21,
^ U.S. House of Representatives. History, Art & Archives,
Determining Apportionment and Reapportioning. viewed August 21, 2015.
^ "Frequently Asked Questions". U.S. Department of the Interior Indian
Affairs. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
^ Keating, Joshua (June 5, 2015). "How Come American Samoans Still
Don't Have U.S. Citizenship at Birth?" – via Slate.
American Samoa and the Citizenship Clause: A Study in Insular Cases
Revisionism". harvardlawreview.org. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
^ Debt And Deficit Negotiations. The
White House (Photograph). 2011.
Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved February 20,
^ Etheridge, Eric; Deleith, Asger (August 19, 2009). "A
Republic or a
Democracy?". New York Times blogs. Retrieved November 7, 2010. The US
system seems essentially a two-party system. ...
^ Avaliktos, Neal (2004). The Election Process Revisited. Nova
Publishers. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-59454-054-7.
^ David Mosler; Robert Catley (1998). America and
Australia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 83.
ISBN 978-0-275-96252-4. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
^ Grigsby, Ellen (2008). Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to
Political Science. Cengage Learning. pp. 106–107.
^ Flegenheimer, Matt; Barbaro, Michael (November 9, 2016). "Donald
Trump Is Elected President in Stunning Repudiation of the
Establishment". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
^ "U.S. Senate: Leadership & Officers". www.senate.gov. Retrieved
January 10, 2019.
^ "Leadership House.gov". www.house.gov. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
^ "Congressional Profile". Office of the Clerk of the United States
House of Representatives.
^ "Governor Election Results 2018". The New York Times. Retrieved
January 10, 2019.
^ "U.S. Governors". National Governors Association. Retrieved January
^ "Bowser is elected D.C. mayor, defeating independents Catania and
Schwartz". Washington Post. November 5, 2015. Retrieved January 14,
^ Ambrose Akenuwa (2015). Is the
United States Still the Land of the
Free and Home to the Brave?. Lulu.com. p. 79.
^ "What is the G8?". University of Toronto. Retrieved February 11,
^ Kan, Shirley A. (August 29, 2014). "Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales
Since 1990" (PDF).
Federation of American Scientist. Retrieved October
19, 2014."Taiwan's Force Modernization: The American Side". Defense
Industry Daily. September 11, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
^ Dumbrell, John; Schäfer, Axel (2009). America's 'Special
Relationships': Foreign and Domestic Aspects of the
Alliance. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-203-87270-3. Retrieved October
^ Ek, Carl & Ian F. Fergusson (September 3, 2010). "Canada–U.S.
Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28,
^ Vaughn, Bruce (August 8, 2008). Australia: Background and U.S.
Relations. Congressional Research Service. OCLC 70208969.
^ Vaughn, Bruce (May 27, 2011). "New Zealand: Background and Bilateral
Relations with the United States" (PDF). Congressional Research
Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ Lum, Thomas (January 3, 2011). "The
Republic of the
U.S. Interests" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved
August 3, 2011.
^ Chanlett-Avery, Emma; et al. (June 8, 2011). "Japan-U.S. Relations:
Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved
August 28, 2011.
^ Mark E. Manyin; Emma Chanlett-Avery; Mary Beth Nikitin (July 8,
2011). "U.S.–South Korea Relations: Issues for Congress" (PDF).
Congressional Research Service. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
^ Zanotti, Jim (July 31, 2014). "Israel: Background and U.S.
Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved September
^ Shah, Anup (April 13, 2009). "U.S. and Foreign Aid Assistance".
GlobalIssues.org. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
^ "América Latina en la era Trump".
^ "Obama reveals plans to boost aid to
Colombia to $450 million".
politico.com. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
^ "Remarks by President Obama and President Santos of
Colombia at Plan
Colombia Reception". archives.gov. February 4, 2016. Retrieved April
^ Charles L. Zelden (2007). The Judicial Branch of Federal Government:
People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 217.
ISBN 978-1-85109-702-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.Loren Yager;
Emil Friberg; Leslie Holen (2003). Foreign Relations: Migration from
Micronesian Nations Has Had Significant Impact on Guam, Hawaii, and
the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Diane Publishing.
p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7567-3394-0.
^ "Trump to bypass U.N. and send aid directly to persecuted Christians
in Middle East". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
^ "Mike Pence: US to stop funding 'ineffective' UN efforts to help
Christians persecuted in Middle East". The Washington Examiner.
Retrieved October 26, 2017.
^ "Pence says US to stop funding 'ineffective' UN relief efforts". The
Hill. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
^ Budget Office, Congressional. "The Long-Term Budget Outlook 2013"
(PDF). cbo.gov. Congress of the
United States Congressional Budget
Office. p. 10. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
^ Konish, Lorie (June 30, 2018). "More
Americans are considering
cutting their ties with the US — here's why". CNBC. Retrieved August
^ Power, Julie (March 3, 2018). "Tax fears: US-Aussie dual citizens
provide IRS with details of $184 billion". The Sydney Morning Herald.
Retrieved August 23, 2018.
^ Porter, Eduardo (August 14, 2012). "America's Aversion to Taxes".
The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012. In 1965, taxes
collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to 24.7
percent of the nation's output. In 2010, they amounted to 24.8
percent. Excluding Chile and Mexico, the
United States raises less tax
revenue, as a share of the economy, than every other industrial
^ a b "CBO Historical Tables-February 2013". Congressional Budget
Office. February 5, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
^ "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2010".
Congressional Budget Office
Congressional Budget Office (CBO). December 4, 2013. Retrieved January
^ Lowrey, Annie (January 4, 2013). "Tax Code May Be the Most
Progressive Since 1979,". The New York Times. Retrieved January 6,
^ Slemrod, Joel. Tax Progressivity and Income Inequality.
^ a b Piketty, Thomas; Saez, Emmanuel (2007). "How Progressive is the
U.S. Federal Tax System? A Historical and International Perspective".
Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21 (1): 3–24.
^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income
inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD Journal:
Economic Studies: 27. Retrieved September 24, 2015. Various studies
have compared the progressivity of tax systems of European countries
with that of the
United States (see for instance Prasad and Deng,
2009; Piketty and Saez, 2007; Joumard, 2001). Though they use
different definitions, methods and databases, they reach the same
conclusion: the US tax system is more progressive than those of the
continental European countries.
^ Taxation in the US:
Prasad, M.; Deng, Y. (April 2, 2009). "Taxation and the worlds of
welfare". Socio-Economic Review. 7 (3): 431–457.
doi:10.1093/ser/mwp005. hdl:10419/95615. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't have a
"47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
"How Much Do People Pay in Federal Taxes?". Peter G. Peterson
Foundation. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
"T13-0174 – Average Effective Federal Tax Rates by Filing Status; by
Expanded Cash Income Percentile, 2014". The Tax Policy Center.
Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 2,
^ Huang, Chye-Ching; Frentz, Nathaniel. "What Do OECD Data Really Show
About U.S. Taxes and Reducing Inequality?". Center on Budget and
Policy Priorities. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
^ a b c Matthews, Dylan (September 19, 2012). "Other countries don't
have a "47%"". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
^ Jane Wells (December 11, 2013). "The rich do not pay the most taxes,
they pay ALL the taxes". CNBC. Retrieved January 14, 2015.Steve
Hargreaves (March 12, 2013). "The rich pay majority of U.S. income
taxes". CNN. Retrieved January 14, 2015."Top 10 Percent of Earners
Paid 68 Percent of Federal Income Taxes". 2014 Federal Budget in
Pictures. The Heritage Foundation. 2015. Archived from the original on
January 6, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2017.Stephen Dinan (July 10,
2012). "CBO: The wealthy pay 70 percent of taxes". Washington Times.
Retrieved January 14, 2015."The Tax Man Cometh! But For Whom?". NPR.
April 15, 2012. Retrieved January 14, 2015.
^ Wamhoff, Steve (April 7, 2014). "Who Pays Taxes in America in 2014?"
(PDF). Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy. Retrieved January
^ Agadoni, Laura. "Characteristics of a Regressive Tax". Houston
Chronicle Small Business blog.
^ "TPC Tax Topics | Payroll Taxes". Taxpolicycenter.org.
Retrieved January 13, 2014.
^ "The Design of the Original Social Security Act". Social Security
Online. U.S. Social Security Administration. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
^ Blahous, Charles (February 24, 2012). "The Dark Side of the Payroll
Tax Cut". Defining Ideas. Hoover Institution. Archived from the
original on October 16, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
^ "Is Social SecurityProgressove? CBO" (PDF).
^ "The Distribution of Household Income and Federal Taxes, 2008 and
2009" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. July 2012. Retrieved April
^ Ohlemacher, Stephen (March 3, 2013). "Tax bills for rich families
approach 30-year high". The
Seattle Times. Associated Press. Archived
from the original on October 29, 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
^ "Who will pay what in 2013 taxes?". The
Seattle Times. Associated
Press. March 3, 2013. Archived from the original on October 29, 2014.
Retrieved April 3, 2013.
Tax incidence of corporate tax in the United States:
Harris, Benjamin H. (November 2009). "Corporate Tax Incidence and Its
Implications for Progressivity" (PDF). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved
October 9, 2013.
Gentry, William M. (December 2007). "A Review of the Evidence on the
Incidence of the Corporate Income Tax" (PDF). OTA Paper 101. Office of
Tax Analysis, U.S. Department of the Treasury. Archived from the
original (PDF) on November 1, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
Fullerton, Don; Metcalf, Gilbert E. (2002). "Tax Incidence". In A.J.
Auerbach and M. Feldstein (ed.). Handbook of Public Economics.
Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V. pp. 1788–1839. Retrieved
October 9, 2013.
Musgrave, R.A.; Carroll, J.J.; Cook, L.D.; Frane, L. (March 1951).
"Distribution of Tax Payments by Income Groups: A Case Study for 1948"
(PDF). National Tax Journal. 4 (1): 1–53. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
^ Malm, Elizabeth (February 20, 2013). "Comments on Who Pays? A
Distributional Analysis of the Tax Systems in All 50 States". Tax
Foundation. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
United States General government gross debt". Imf.org.
September 14, 2006. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
^ "Debt to the Penny (Daily History Search Application)".
TreasuryDirect. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
^ Burgess Everett (January 6, 2015). "The next debt ceiling fight".
Politico. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
^ Thornton, Daniel L. (November – December 2012). "The U.S.
Deficit/Debt Problem: A Longer–Run Perspective" (PDF). Federal
Reserve Bank of
St. Louis Review. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
^ Lopez, Luciana (January 28, 2013). "Fitch backs away from downgrade
of U.S. credit rating". Reuters. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
^ "The Air Force in Facts and Figures (Armed Forces Manpower Trends,
End Strength in Thousands)" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. May 2009.
Archived from the original (PDF) on January 13, 2013. Retrieved
October 9, 2009.
^ "What does Selective Service provide for America?". Selective
Service System. Archived from the original on September 15, 2012.
Retrieved February 11, 2012.
^ "Base Structure Report, Fiscal Year 2008 Baseline" (PDF). Department
of Defense. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 28, 2010.
Retrieved October 9, 2009.
^ "Active Duty Military Personnel Strengths by Regional Area and by
Country (309A)" (PDF). Department of Defense. March 31, 2010. Archived
from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
^ "The 15 Countries with the Highest Military Expenditure in 2011".
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2011. Archived from
the original (PDF) on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
^ "Compare". CIA World Factbook. RealClearWorld. Archived from the
original on December 20, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
^ "Federal R&D Budget Dashboard". American Association for the
Advancement of Science. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
^ "Fiscal Year 2013 Historical Tables" (PDF). Budget of the U.S.
White House OMB. Archived from the original (PDF) on April
17, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
^ "Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request Overview" (PDF). Department of
Defense. February 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 25,
^ Basu, Moni (December 18, 2011). "Deadly
Iraq War Ends with Exit of
Last U.S. Troops". CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom". Iraq Coalition Casualty Count. February
5, 2012. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved
February 5, 2012.
^ Cherian, John (April 7, 2012). "Turning Point". Frontline. The Hindu
Group. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012. Retrieved
December 2, 2012. There are currently 90,000 U.S. troops deployed in
^ "Department of Defence Defence Casualty Analysis System". Department
of Defense. November 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
^ "U.S. Federal Law Enforcement Agencies, Who Governs & What They
Do". Chiff.com. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
^ "Plea Bargains". Findlaw. Retrieved January 6, 2015."Interview with
Judge Michael McSpadden". PBS. December 16, 2003.
^ Beckett, Lois; Aufrichtig, Aliza; Davis, Kenan (September 26, 2016).
"Murders up 10.8% in biggest percentage increase since 1971, FBI data
shows". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 22,
^ "Murders Rose At Their Fastest Pace In A Quarter-Century Last Year".
FiveThirtyEight. September 26, 2016.
^ Beckett, Lois; Chalabi, Mona (September 25, 2017). "US murder rate
rose in 2016 – but experts question claims of long-term trend". The
Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2017.
^ Kaste, Martin (March 30, 2015). "Open Cases: Why One-Third Of
Murders In America Go Unresolved". NPR. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
^ "Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics". U.S. Department of Justice
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on July 3,
2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013."Crime in the United States, 2011".
FBI '(Uniform Crime Statistics—Murder)'. Retrieved January 23,
2013."UNODC Homicide Statistics".
United Nations Office on Drugs and
Crime (UNODC). Retrieved January 23, 2013."Murder". Crime in the
United States, 2009. Federal Bureau of Investigation. September 2010.
Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved December
3, 2012. There were 5.0 murders per 100,000 inhabitants in
2009 ... compared with the 2000 rate, a 10.4 percent decrease was
United Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations of
Criminal Justice Systems (2001–2002)" (PDF).
United Nations Office
on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). March 31, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
^ Grinshteyn, Erin; Hemenway, David (March 2016). "Violent Death
Rates: The US Compared with Other High-income OECD Countries, 2010".
The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (3): 226–273.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.10.025. PMID 26551975. Retrieved June
^ Rawlinson, Kevin (December 7, 2017). "Global homicide rate rises for
first time in more than a decade". The Guardian. Retrieved December
^ a b c "
United States Crime Rates 1960–2017".
www.disastercenter.com. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
^ "Homicide Rate (per 100,000), 1950–2014". InfoPlease. Retrieved
December 26, 2018.
^ "Table 43 : Arrests by Race and Ethnicity, 2017". FBI.
Retrieved December 26, 2018.
^ "Supplemental Homicide Report 1976-2017". Murder Accountability
Project. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
^ Alexia Cooper; Erica L. Smith (November 2011). "Homicide Trends in
the United States, 1980–2008" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice.
pp. 3, 12. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
^ Fuchs, Erin (October 1, 2013). "Why
Louisiana Is The Murder Capital
of America". Business Insider.
^ Agren, David (October 19, 2014). "
Mexico crime belies government
claims of progress".
Florida Today – USA Today. Melbourne, FL.
pp. 4B. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
^ Connor, Tracy; Chuck, Elizabeth (May 28, 2015). "Nebraska's Death
Penalty Repealed With Veto Override".
NBC News. Retrieved June 11,
^ Simpson, Ian (May 2, 2013). "
Maryland becomes latest
U.S. state to
abolish death penalty". Reuters. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
^ "Searchable Execution Database". Death Penalty Information Center.
Retrieved October 10, 2012.
^ "Death Sentences and Executions 2015". Amnesty International USA.
2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
^ Schmidt, Steffen W.; Shelley, Mack C.; Bardes, Barbara A. (2008).
American Government &
Politics Today. Cengage Learning.
p. 591. ISBN 978-0-495-50228-9. Retrieved October 25,
2015.Walmsley, Roy (2005). "World Prison Population List" (PDF).
King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies.
Archived from the original (PDF) on June 28, 2007. For the latest
data, see "Prison Brief for
United States of America". King's College
London, International Centre for Prison Studies. June 21, 2006.
Archived from the original on August 4, 2007."The Growth of
Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and
Consequences". National Research Council. 2014. Retrieved May 10,
2014.. "Nation Behind Bars: A Human Rights Solution" (PDF). Human
Rights Watch. May 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.Haymes et al, 2014, p.
^ Barkan, Steven E.; Bryjak, George J. (2011). Fundamentals of
Criminal Justice: A Sociological View. Jones & Bartlett.
p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4496-5439-9. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Glaze, Lauren E.; Herberman, Erinn J. (December 2013). "Correctional
Populations in the United States, 2012" (PDF).
^ Iadicola, Peter; Shupe, Anson (2012). Violence, Inequality, and
Human Freedom. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 456.
^ Brown, Emma; Douglas-Gabriel, Danielle (July 7, 2016). "Since 1980,
spending on prisons has grown three times as much as spending on
public education". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
^ "Prisoners in 2013" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
United States of America – International Centre for Prison
Studies". International Centre for Prison Studies.
^ Clear, Todd R.; Cole, George F.; Reisig, Michael Dean (2008).
American Corrections. Cengage Learning. p. 485.
ISBN 978-0-495-55323-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ "Federal Bureau of Prisons: Statistics". Federal Bureau of Prisons.
Retrieved March 4, 2015.
^ Moore, Adrian T. "Private Prisons: Quality Corrections at a Lower
Cost" (PDF). Reason.org. Reason Foundation. Retrieved April 29,
2015.Benefield, Nathan (October 24, 2007). "Private Prisons Increase
Capacity, Save Money, Improve Service". Commonwealth Foundation.org.
Commonwealth Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2015.William G.
Archambeault; Donald R. Deis, Jr. (1997–1998). "Cost Effectiveness
Comparisons of Private Versus Public Prisons in Louisiana: A
Comprehensive Analysis of Allen, Avoyelles, and Winn Correctional
Centers" (PDF). Journal of the
Oklahoma Criminal Justice Research
Consortium. 4. Retrieved April 29, 2015.Volokh, Alexander (May 1,
2002). "A Tale of Two Systems: Cost, Quality, and Accountability in
Private Prisons". Harvard Law Review. 115: 1868. Retrieved April 29,
^ Donna, Selman; Leighton, Paul (2010). Punishment for Sale: Private
Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge. New York City:
Rowman & Littlefield. p. xi.
ISBN 978-1-4422-0173-6.Harcourt, Bernard (2012). The Illusion of
Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order. Harvard
University Press. pp. 235 & 236.
ISBN 978-0-674-06616-8.John L. Campbell (2010). "Neoliberalism's
penal and debtor states". Theoretical Criminology. 14 (1): 59–73.
doi:10.1177/1362480609352783.Davidson, Joe (August 12, 2016). "Private
federal prisons — less safe, less secure". Washington Post.
Retrieved August 13, 2016.Gottschalk, Marie (2014). Caught: The Prison
State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton University
Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-691-16405-2.Kerwin, Peter (June 10,
2015). "Study finds private prisons keep inmates longer, without
reducing future crime". University of Wisconsin–Madison News.
Retrieved June 11, 2015.
Oklahoma now 'world's prison capital'". KAKE. June 7, 2018.
Retrieved December 16, 2018.
^ Wagner, Peter; Sawyer, Wendy (June 2018). "States of Incarceration:
The Global Context 2018". Prison Policy Initiative. Retrieved December
^ "Virgin Islands (US) – World Prison Brief". www.prisonstudies.org.
Puerto Rico (US) – World Prison Brief". www.prisonstudies.org.
^ "Cities, States Resist — and Assist — Immigration Crackdown in
New Ways". pew.org. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
^ "Report: Nearly Half of
Americans Live in Jurisdictions With
Sanctuary Policies". Fox News Insider. May 11, 2018. Retrieved July
^ a b c "GDP Estimates". Bureau of Economic Analysis. Bureau of
Economic Analysis. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
^ "Consumer Price Index – November 2018" (PDF). Bureau of Labor
Statistics. November 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau
of Labor Statistics. December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
^ "The Employment Situation – November 2018". Bureau of Labor
Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics. December 7, 2018. Retrieved
December 19, 2018.
^ "Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey". Bureau
of Labor Statistics.
United States Department of Labor. December 19,
2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
^ "Monthly Statement of the Public Debt of the United States" (PDF).
Treasury Direct. November 30, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
Federal Reserve Statistical Release" (PDF). Federal Reserve.
Federal Reserve. December 6, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
^ Wright, Gavin; Czelusta, Jesse (2007). "Resource-Based Growth Past
and Present", in Natural Resources: Neither Curse Nor Destiny, ed.
Daniel Lederman and William Maloney. World Bank. p. 185.
^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database: United States". International
Monetary Fund. October 2014. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
European Union GDP". International Monetary Fund. International
Monetary Fund. April 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
^ a b Hagopian, Kip; Ohanian, Lee (August 1, 2012). "The Mismeasure of
Inequality". Policy Review. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
United Nations Statistics Division – National Accounts".
unstats.un.org. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
^ "Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves" (PDF).
International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original (PDF) on
October 7, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
^ a b "Trade Statistics". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 6,
^ "Top Ten Countries with which the U.S. Trades". U.S. Census Bureau.
August 2009. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
^ "Major Foreign Holders of Treasury Securities". treasury.gov.
Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 25,
^ Jackson, Brooks (November 19, 2013). "Who Holds Our Debt?".
^ Trivett, Vincent. "The TRUTH About Who Really Owns All Of America's
Debt". Business Insider.
^ "This surprising chart shows which countries own the most U.S.
debt". Washington Post.
^ "National debt: Whom does the US owe?". February 4, 2011 –
via Christian Science Monitor.
^ "World's Top 5 arms exporters". United Press International.
Retrieved March 18, 2015.
China becomes the world's third largest arms exporter". BBC News.
March 15, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.Shankar, Sneha (March 17,
2015). "US Remains World's Largest Exporter of Arms While
Ahead To Become Largest Importer: Study". International Business
Times. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
^ "The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny".
Retrieved March 26, 2017.
^ "Is the
New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange the Largest Stock Market in the
World?". Retrieved March 26, 2017.
^ "Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by
market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars)".
Statista. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
^ "GDP by Industry". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
^ "Table B-1. Employees on nonfarm payrolls by industry sector and
selected industry detail [In thousands]". bls.gov.
^ a b "USA Economy in Brief". U.S. Dept. of State, International
Information Programs. Archived from the original on March 12, 2008.
^ "Table 724—Number of Tax Returns, Receipts, and Net Income by Type
of Business and Industry: 2005". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the
original (XLS) on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
^ "Sony, LG, Wal-Mart among Most Extendible Brands". Cheskin. June 6,
2005. Archived from the original on March 25, 2006. Retrieved June 19,
^ "Table 964—Gross Domestic Product in Current and Real (2000)
Dollars by Industry: 2006". U.S. Census Bureau. May 2008. Archived
from the original on February 9, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2009.
^ "U.S. surges past Saudis to become world's top oil supplier -PIRA".
Coal Statistics". National Mining Association. Archived from the
original on December 16, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
^ "Minerals Production". National Mining Association. Retrieved
January 13, 2014.
^ "Corn". U.S. Grains Council. Archived from the original on January
12, 2008. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
^ "Soybean Demand Continues to Drive Production". Worldwatch
Institute. November 6, 2007. Retrieved March 13, 2008.
^ "ISAAA Brief 39-2008: Executive Summary—Global Status of
Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2008" (PDF). International Service
for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications. p. 15.
Retrieved July 16, 2010.
^ Merrill, Dave. "Here's How America Uses Its Land". Bloomberg.
^ "Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE)/Gross Domestic Product
(GDP)" FRED Graph,
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
^ Fuller, Thomas (June 15, 2005). "In the East, many EU work rules
don't apply". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original
on June 16, 2005.
^ "Doing Business in the United States". World Bank. 2006. Retrieved
June 28, 2007.
^ Isabelle Joumard; Mauro Pisu; Debbie Bloch (2012). "Tackling income
inequality The role of taxes and transfers" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved May
^ Ray, Rebecca; Sanes, Milla; Schmitt, John (May 2013). "No-Vacation
Nation Revisited" (PDF). Center for Economic and Policy Research.
Retrieved September 8, 2013.
^ Bernard, Tara Siegel (February 22, 2013). "In Paid Family Leave,
U.S. Trails Most of the Globe". The New York Times. Retrieved August
^ a b Vasel, Kathryn. "Who doesn't get paid sick leave?". CNN.
^ "Total Economy Database, Summary Statistics, 1995–2010". Total
Economy Database. The Conference Board. September 2010. Retrieved
September 20, 2009.
^ "Chart Book: The Legacy of the Great Recession". Center on Budget
and Policy Priorities. March 12, 2013. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
^ Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass
Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in
the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University
Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269
^ "Thomas Edison's Most Famous Inventions". Thomas A Edison Innovation
Foundation. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
^ Benedetti, François (December 17, 2003). "100 Years Ago, the Dream
of Icarus Became Reality". Fédération Aéronautique Internationale
(FAI). Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved
August 15, 2007.
^ Fraser, Gordon (2012). The Quantum Exodus: Jewish Fugitives, the
Atomic Bomb, and the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press.
^ 10 Little Americans. ISBN 978-0-615-14052-0. Retrieved
September 15, 2014 – via Google Books.
^ "NASA's Apollo technology has changed the history". Sharon Gaudin.
Retrieved September 15, 2014.
^ Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "Celebrating July 2: 10 Days That
Changed History". The New York Times.
^ Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance, McLaughlin, Weimers, Winslow
^ Robert W. Price (2004). Roadmap to Entrepreneurial Success. AMACOM
Div American Mgmt Assn. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-8144-7190-6.
^ Sawyer, Robert Keith (2012). Explaining Creativity: The Science of
Human Innovation. Oxford University Press. p. 256.
^ Bennett, W. Lance; Segerberg, Alexandra (September 2011). "Digital
Media and the
Personalization of Collective Action". Information,
Communication & Society. 14 (6): 770–799.
Internet Use Main" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau.
Retrieved July 22, 2015.
^ "Cell phone ownership hits 91% of adults". Pew Research Center. May
19, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2015.
^ "Freedom on the Net 2014". Freedom House.
^ "Research and Development (R&D) Expenditures by Source and
Objective: 1970 to 2004". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the
original on February 10, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2007.
^ MacLeod, Donald (March 21, 2006). "Britain Second in World Research
Rankings". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 14, 2006.
^ Allen, Gregory (February 6, 2019). "Understanding China's AI
Strategy". Center for a New American Security.
^ Sherman, Erik. "America is the richest, and most unequal, country".
Fortune. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
^ McCarthy, Niall. "The Countries With The Most Millionaires".
Statista. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
^ "Global Food Security Index". London:
The Economist Intelligence
Unit. March 5, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
^ Rector, Robert; Sheffield, Rachel (September 13, 2011).
"Understanding Poverty in the United States: Surprising Facts About
America's Poor". Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
Human Development Index
Human Development Index (HDI) Human Development Reports". UNHDP.
Retrieved December 27, 2018.
^ Long, Heather (September 12, 2017). "U.S. middle-class incomes
reached highest-ever level in 2016, Census Bureau says". Retrieved
September 18, 2017 – via www.WashingtonPost.com.
^ Mishel, Lawrence (April 26, 2012). "The wedges between productivity
and median compensation growth". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved
October 18, 2013.
^ Anderson, Richard G. (2007). "How Well Do Wages Follow Productivity
St. Louis Federal Reserve. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Alvaredo, Facundo; Atkinson, Anthony B.; Piketty, Thomas; Saez,
Emmanuel (2013). "The Top 1 Percent in International and Historical
Perspective". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 27 (Summer 2013):
^ Smeeding, T.M. (2005). "Public Policy: Economic Inequality and
United States in Comparative Perspective". Social Science
Quarterly. 86: 955–983.
doi:10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00331.x.Tcherneva, Pavlina R. (April
2015). "When a rising tide sinks most boats: trends in US income
inequality" (PDF). levyinstitute.org. Levy Economics Institute of Bard
College. Retrieved April 10, 2015.Saez, E. (October 2007). "Table A1:
Top Fractiles Income Shares (Excluding Capital Gains) in the U.S.,
1913–2005". UC Berkeley. Retrieved July 24, 2008."Field
Listing—Distribution of Family Income—Gini Index". The World
Factbook. CIA. June 14, 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2007."Focus on Top
Incomes and Taxation in OECD Countries: Was the crisis a game
changer?" (PDF). OECD. May 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
^ Van Dam, Andrew (July 4, 2018). "Is it great to be a worker in the
U.S.? Not compared with the rest of the developed world". The
Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
^ Saez, Emmanuel (June 30, 2016). "Striking it Richer: The Evolution
of Top Incomes in the United States" (PDF). University of California,
Berkeley. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
^ Gilens & Page 2014.
Larry Bartels (2009). Economic Inequality and Political
Representation (PDF). The Unsustainable American State.
pp. 167–196. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.172.7597.
ISBN 978-0-19-539213-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on March
4, 2016.Thomas J. Hayes (2012). "Responsiveness in an Era of
Inequality: The Case of the U.S. Senate". Political Research
Quarterly. 66 (3): 585–599. doi:10.1177/1065912912459567.
SSRN 1900856.Dunsmuir, Lindsay (October 11, 2017). "IMF calls for
fiscal policies that tackle rising inequality". Reuters. Retrieved
August 2, 2018. While overall global inequality has fallen in recent
decades because of the economic rise of countries such as
India, inequality within countries has risen sharply, especially in
large countries like the
United States and China. The Fund warned that
excessive inequality could lower economic growth as well as polarize
^ Winship, Scott (Spring 2013). "Overstating the Costs of Inequality"
(PDF). National Affairs (15). Archived from the original (PDF) on
October 24, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2015."Income Inequality in
America: Fact and Fiction" (PDF).
Manhattan Institute. May 2014.
Retrieved April 29, 2015.Brunner, Eric; Ross, Stephen L; Washington,
Ebonya (May 2013). "Does Less Income Mean Less Representation?" (PDF).
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 5 (2): 53–76.
CiteSeerX 10.1.1.360.9508. doi:10.1257/pol.5.2.53. Retrieved July
12, 2015.Feldstein, Martin (May 14, 2014). "Piketty's Numbers Don't
Add Up: Ignoring dramatic changes in tax rules since 1980 creates the
false impression that income inequality is rising". Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
^ Weston, Liz (May 10, 2016). "
Americans Are Pissed – This Chart
Might Explain Why". nerdwallet.com.
^ Piketty, Thomas (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Belknap
Press. p. 257. ISBN 0-674-43000-X
^ Egan, Matt (September 27, 2017). "Record inequality: The top 1%
controls 38.6% of America's wealth". CNN Money. Retrieved October 12,
^ Altman, Roger C. "The Great Crash, 2008". Foreign Affairs. Archived
from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved February 27, 2009.
^ Luhby, Tami (June 11, 2009). "Americans' wealth drops $1.3
trillion". CNN Money.
^ "Households and Nonprofit Organizations; Net Worth, Level".
stlouisfed.org. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ "Household Debt and Credit Report".
Federal Reserve Bank of New
York. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
^ "U.S. household wealth falls $11.2 trillion in 2008". Reuters.
Retrieved October 4, 2014.
^ "The 2014 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) to Congress"
(PDF). The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2014.
Retrieved August 6, 2015.
^ "Household Food Security in the
United States in 2011" (PDF). USDA.
September 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2012.
Retrieved April 8, 2013.
^ "New Census Bureau Statistics Show How Young Adults Today Compare
With Previous Generations in Neighborhoods Nationwide" (Press
release). U.S. Census Bureau. December 4, 2014.
^ Alston, Philp (December 15, 2017). "Statement on Visit to the USA,
by Professor Philip Alston,
Special Rapporteur on
extreme poverty and human rights". OHCHR. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
^ "Places: New Hampshire". Forbes. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: New Hampshire". www.census.gov.
Retrieved January 5, 2018.
^ Sagapolutele, Fili (February 3, 2017). "
American Samoa Governor Says
Small Economies 'Cannot Afford Any Reduction In Medicaid' Pacific
Islands Report". www.pireport.org. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
^ Stebbins, Samuel; Sauter, Michael B.; Comen, Evan; C. Frohlich,
Thomas (February 1, 2017). "America's Happiest (and Most Miserable)
States". 247wallst.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
^ ""Contempt for the poor in US drives cruel policies," says UN
expert". OHCHR. June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
^ "Interstate FAQ (Question #3)". Federal Highway Administration.
2006. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
^ "Public Road and Street Mileage in the
United States by Type of
United States Department of Transportation. Retrieved
January 13, 2015.
China Expressway System to Exceed US Interstates". New Geography.
Grand Forks, ND. January 22, 2011. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
China overtakes US in car sales". The Guardian. London. January 8,
2010. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
^ "Motor vehicles statistics – countries compared worldwide".
NationMaster. Retrieved July 10, 2011.
^ "Household, Individual, and Vehicle Characteristics". 2001 National
Household Travel Survey. U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of
Transportation Statistics. Archived from the original on May 13, 2005.
Retrieved August 15, 2007.
^ "Daily Passenger Travel". 2001 National Household Travel Survey.
U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics.
Archived from the original on May 13, 2005. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
^ "Vehicle Statistics: Cars Per Capita". Capitol Tires.
^ Todorovich, Petra; Hagler, Yoav (January 2011). High Speed Rail in
America (PDF) (Report). America 2050. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
^ Renne, John L.; Wells, Jan S. (2003). "Emerging European-Style
Planning in the United States: Transit-Oriented Development" (PDF).
Rutgers University. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on
September 12, 2014. Retrieved June 11, 2007.
^ Benfield, Kaid (May 18, 2009). "NatGeo surveys countries' transit
use: guess who comes in last". Natural Resources Defense Council.
Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 6,
^ "Intercity Passenger Rail: National Policy and Strategies Needed to
Maximize Public Benefits from Federal Expenditures". U.S. Government
Accountability Office. November 13, 2006. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
The Economist Explains: Why
Americans Don't Ride Trains". The
Economist. August 29, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
Amtrak Ridership Records". Amtrak. June 8, 2011. Archived from the
original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
^ McGill, Tracy (January 1, 2011). "3 Reasons Light Rail Is an
Efficient Transportation Option for U.S. Cities". MetaEfficient.
Retrieved June 14, 2013.
^ McKenzie, Brian (May 2014). "Modes Less Traveled—Bicycling and
Walking to Work in the United States: 2008–2012" (PDF). U.S. Census
Burea. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 13, 2014.
^ "Privatization". downsizinggovernment.org. Cato Institute. Retrieved
December 27, 2014.
^ "Scheduled Passengers Carried". International Air Transport
Association (IATA). 2011. Archived from the original on January 2,
2015. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
^ "Preliminary World Airport Traffic and Rankings 2013 – High Growth
Dubai Moves Up to 7th Busiest Airport". Airports Council
International. March 31, 2014. Archived from the original on April 1,
2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
^ IEA Key World Energy Statistics Statistics 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010,
2009 Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, 2006 Archived
October 12, 2009, at the
Wayback Machine IEA October, crude oil p. 11,
coal p. 13 gas p. 15
^ "Diagram 1: Energy Flow, 2007" (PDF). EIA Annual Energy Review. U.S.
Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration. 2007. Retrieved
June 25, 2008.
Country Comparison: Refined Petroleum Products −
Consumption". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
Retrieved May 18, 2014.
^ "BP Statistical Review of World Energy". British Petroleum. June
2007. Archived from the original (XLS) on July 24, 2013. Retrieved
February 22, 2010.
^ Ames, Paul (May 30, 2013). "Could fracking make the Persian Gulf
irrelevant?". Salon. Retrieved May 30, 2012. Since November, the
United States has replaced
Saudi Arabia as the world's biggest
producer of crude oil. It had already overtaken
Russia as the leading
producer of natural gas.
^ "Atomic Renaissance". The Economist. London. September 6, 2007.
Retrieved September 6, 2007.
China now no. 1 in CO2 emissions; USA in second position - the
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP)". July 1, 2007.
Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
^ "U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions fell slightly in 2017 - Today in
Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov.
Retrieved May 11, 2019.
^ Roser, Max; Ritchie, Hannah (May 11, 2017). "CO₂ and other
Greenhouse Gas Emissions". Our World in Data.
^ American Metropolitan Water Association (December 2007).
"Implications of Climate Change for Urban Water Utilities – Main
Report" (PDF). Retrieved February 26, 2009.
^ National Academies' Water Information Center. "Drinking Water
Basics". Archived from the original on September 17, 2008. Retrieved
February 26, 2009.
^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2003). "Water on Tap: What You
Need to Know" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 23,
2009. Retrieved February 23, 2009., p. 11
^ McLendon, Russell. "How polluted is U.S. drinking water?". Mother
Nature Network. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
^ a b c Adams, J.Q.; Strother-Adams, Pearlie (2001). Dealing with
diversity : the anthology. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt Pub.
^ Thompson, William E.; Hickey, Joseph V. (2004). Society in
focus : an introduction to sociology (5th ed.). Boston:
Pearson/Allyn and Bacon. ISBN 978-0-205-41365-2.
^ Fiorina, Morris P.; Peterson, Paul E. (2010). The New American
democracy (7th ed.). London: Longman. p. 97.
^ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American culture (2nd
Indiana University Press. pp. 18–38.
ISBN 978-0-253-21749-3.Johnson, Fern L. (2000). Speaking
culturally : language diversity in the United States. Sage
Publications. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-8039-5912-5.
^ Richard Koch (July 10, 2013). "Is Individualism Good or Bad?".
^ Huntington, Samuel P. (2004). "Chapters 2–4". Who are We?: The
Challenges to America's National Identity. Simon & Schuster.
ISBN 978-0-684-87053-3. Retrieved October 25, 2015.: also see
American's Creed, written by
William Tyler Page and adopted by
Congress in 1918.
^ AP (June 25, 2007). "
Americans give record $295B to charity". USA
Today. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
^ "International comparisons of charitable giving" (PDF). Charities
Aid Foundation. November 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
^ babtunde, Saka. "10 Days That Changed History - NAIJA NEWS TODAY
& LATEST BREAKING NEWS ™". www.newsliveng.com. Retrieved May 24,
^ Clifton, Jon (March 21, 2013). "More Than 100 Million Worldwide
Dream of a Life in the U.S. More than 25% in Liberia, Sierra Leone,
Republic want to move to the U.S". Gallup. Retrieved January
^ "A Family Affair: Intergenerational Social Mobility across OECD
Countries" (PDF). Economic Policy Reforms: Going for Growth. OECD.
2010. Retrieved September 20, 2010. Blanden, Jo; Gregg, Paul; Machin,
Stephen (April 2005). "Intergenerational Mobility in
Europe and North
America" (PDF). Centre for Economic Performance. Archived from the
original (PDF) on June 23, 2006.
^ Gould, Elise (October 10, 2012). "U.S. lags behind peer countries in
mobility". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
^ "Understanding Mobility in America". Center for American Progress.
April 26, 2006.
^ Schneider, Donald (July 29, 2013). "A Guide to Understanding
International Comparisons of Economic Mobility". The Heritage
Foundation. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
^ Winship, Scott (Spring 2013). "Overstating the Costs of Inequality"
(PDF). National Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on October
24, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
^ Gutfeld, Amon (2002). American Exceptionalism: The Effects of Plenty
on the American Experience. Brighton and Portland: Sussex Academic
Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-903900-08-6.
^ Zweig, Michael (2004). What's Class Got To Do With It, American
Society in the Twenty-First Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8899-3. "Effects of Social Class and
Interactive Setting on Maternal Speech". Education Resource
Information Center. Retrieved January 27, 2007.
^ Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in
America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26111-4.
^ O'Keefe, Kevin (2005). The Average American. New York:
PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-270-1.
Wheat Info". Wheatworld.org. Archived from the original on October
11, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
^ "Traditional Indigenous Recipes". American Indian Health and Diet
Project. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
^ Sidney Wilfred Mintz (1996). Tasting Food, Tasting Freedom:
Excursions Into Eating, Culture, and the Past. Beacon Press.
pp. 134–. ISBN 978-0-8070-4629-6. Retrieved October 25,
^ Angus K. Gillespie; Jay Mechling (1995). American Wildlife in Symbol
and Story. Univ. of
Tennessee Press. pp. 31–.
^ a b Klapthor, James N. (August 23, 2003). "What, When, and Where
Americans Eat in 2003". Newswise/Institute of Food Technologists.
Retrieved June 19, 2007.
^ H, D. "The coffee insurgency". The Economist. Retrieved January 15,
^ Smith, 2004, pp. 131–132
^ Levenstein, 2003, pp. 154–155
^ Harvey A. Levenstein (1988). Revolution at the Table: The
Transformation of the American Diet. University of
p. 3. ISBN 978-0-520-23439-0. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Jennifer Jensen Wallach (2013). How America Eats: A Social History
of U.S. Food and Culture. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xi.
ISBN 978-1-4422-0874-2. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
^ Breadsley, Eleanor. "Why
McDonald's in France Doesn't Feel Like Fast
Food". NPR. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
^ "When Was the First Drive-Thru Restaurant Created?". Wisegeek.org.
Retrieved January 15, 2015.
^ Chapman, Roger; Ciment, James (2010). Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia
of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
pp. 413–14. ISBN 978-0-7656-1761-3.
^ Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H. (September 15, 2005). "Fast
Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity".
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 25 (12):
PMID 16166564. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
"Let's Eat Out:
Americans Weigh Taste, Convenience, and Nutrition"
(PDF). U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on
December 7, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
^ Harold, Bloom (1999). Emily Dickinson. Broomall, PA: Chelsea House
Publishers. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7910-5106-1.
^ Buell, Lawrence (Spring–Summer 2008). "The Unkillable Dream of the
Great American Novel:
Moby-Dick as Test Case". American Literary
History. 20 (1–2): 132–155. doi:10.1093/alh/ajn005.
^ Edward, Quinn (2006). A dictionary of literary and thematic terms
(2nd ed.). Facts On File. p. 361.
ISBN 978-0-8160-6243-0.David, Seed (2009). A companion to
United States fiction. Chichester, West Sussex:
Wiley-Blackwell. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4051-4691-3.Jeffrey,
Meyers (1999). Hemingway : A biography. New York: Da Capo Press.
p. 139. ISBN 978-0-306-80890-6.
^ Lesher, Linda Parent (2000). The Best Novels of the Nineties: A
Reader's Guide. McFarland. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-4766-0389-6.
^ Summers, Lawrence H. (November 19, 2006). "The Great Liberator". The
New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
^ McFadden, Robert D. (January 9, 2013). "James M. Buchanan, Economic
Scholar and Nobel Laureate, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Retrieved
May 17, 2013.
^ Brown, Milton W. (1963). The Story of the
Armory Show (2nd ed.). New
York: Abbeville Press. ISBN 978-0-89659-795-2.
^ Janson, Horst Woldemar; Janson, Anthony F. (2003). History of Art:
The Western Tradition. Prentice Hall Professional. p. 955.
^ Davenport, Alma (1991). The History of Photography: An Overview. UNM
Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-8263-2076-6.
^ Ken Bloom (2004). Broadway: Its History, People, and Places :
an Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 322–.
^ Moran, Eugene V. (2002). A People's History of English and American
Literature. Nova Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-59033-303-7.
^ a b Biddle, Julian (2001). What Was Hot!: Five Decades of Pop
Culture in America. New York: Citadel. p. ix.
^ Hartman, Graham (January 5, 2012). "Metallica's 'Black album' is
Top-Selling Disc of last 20 years". Loudwire. Retrieved October 12,
^ Vorel, Jim (September 27, 2012). "Eagles tribute band landing at
Kirkland". Herald & Review. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
Aerosmith will rock Salinas with July concert". February 2, 2015.
Retrieved October 12, 2015.
^ * "Taylor Swift: Teen idol to 'biggest pop artist in the world'".
The Tennessean. September 24, 2015.
Lynch, Gerald. "
Britney Spears is the most searched for celebrity of
the decade". Tech Digest. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
"Katy Perry: now the world's richest (famous) woman". the Guardian.
Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Rosen, Jody. "Beyoncé: The Woman on Top of the World". The New York
"BBC – Imagine – Jay-Z: He Came, He Saw, He Conquered". bbc.co.uk.
Retrieved October 25, 2015.*"Introducing the King of Hip-Hop". Rolling
Stone. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
Ben Westhoff. "The enigma of
Kanye West – and how the world's
biggest pop star ended up being its most reviled, too". the Guardian.
^ "Nigeria surpasses
Hollywood as world's second-largest film
producer" (Press release). United Nations. May 5, 2009. Retrieved
February 17, 2013.
^ Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. April 29, 1944. p. 68.
^ "John Landis Rails Against Studios: 'They're Not in the Movie
Business Anymore'". The
Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 24,
^ Krasniewicz, Louise; Disney, Walt (2010). Walt Disney: A Biography.
ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-35830-2.
^ Matthews, Charles (June 3, 2011). "
Age' of the 1960s-'70s". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 6,
^ Banner, Lois (August 5, 2012). "Marilyn Monroe, the eternal shape
Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
^ Rick, Jewell (August 8, 2008). "John Wayne, an American Icon".
University of Southern California. Archived from the original on
August 22, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
^ Greven, David (2013). Psycho-Sexual: Male Desire in Hitchcock, De
Palma, Scorsese, and Friedkin. University of
Texas Press. p. 23.
^ Morrison, James (1998). Passport to Hollywood:
European Directors. SUNY Press. p. 11.
^ Turow, Joseph (2011). Media Today: An Introduction to Mass
Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 434.
^ Village Voice: 100 Best Films of the 20th century (2001) Archived
March 31, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Filmsite.
^ "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002". British Film Institute. 2002.
Archived from the original on November 5, 2002.
^ "AFI's 100 Years". American Film Institute. Retrieved January 24,
^ Drowne, Kathleen Morgan; Huber, Patrick (2004). The 1920's.
Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-313-32013-2.
^ Kroon, Richard W. (2014). A/V A to Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of
Media, Entertainment and Other Audiovisual Terms. McFarland.
p. 338. ISBN 978-0-7864-5740-3.
^ "Top 10 Most Popular Sports in America 2017". SportsInd. October 28,
2016. Retrieved June 8, 2017.
^ Krane, David K. (October 30, 2002). "Professional Football Widens
Baseball as Nation's Favorite Sport". Harris
Interactive. Archived from the original on July 9, 2010. Retrieved
September 14, 2007. MacCambridge, Michael (2004). America's Game: The
Epic Story of How Pro Football Captured a Nation. New York: Random
House. ISBN 0-375-50454-0.
^ "Passion for College Football Remains Robust". National Football
Foundation. March 19, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
^ "Global sports market to hit $141 billion in 2012". Reuters. June
18, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
^ Chase, Chris (February 7, 2014). "The 10 most fascinating facts
about the all-time Winter Olympics medal standings". USA Today.
Retrieved February 28, 2014. Loumena, Dan (February 6, 2014). "With
Sochi Olympics approaching, a history of Winter Olympic medals". Los
Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
^ Liss, Howard.
Funk & Wagnalls, 1970) pg 13.
^ "As American as Mom, Apple Pie and Football? Football continues to
trump baseball as America's Favorite Sport" (PDF). Harris Interactive.
January 16, 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2014.
Retrieved July 2, 2014.
^ Cowen, Tyler; Grier, Kevin (February 9, 2012). "What Would the End
of Football Look Like?". Grantland/ESPN. Retrieved February 12, 2012.
^ Hodgetts, Rob (March 4, 2016). "Will U.S. learn to love rugby?".
^ "Streaming TV Services: What They Cost, What You Get". NYTimes.com.
Associated Press. October 12, 2015. Archived from the original on
October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
^ "TV Fans Spill into Web Sites". eMarketer. June 7, 2007. Retrieved
June 10, 2007.
^ Waits, Jennifer (October 17, 2014). "Number of U.S.
on the Rise, Especially LPFM, according to New FCC Count". Radio
Survivor. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
^ Brenda Shaffer (2006). The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign
Policy. MIT Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-262-19529-4.
^ Daniels, Les (1998). Superman: The Complete History (1st ed.). Titan
Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-85286-988-5.
^ "Top Sites in United States". Alexa. 2014. Retrieved October 20,
^ "Spanish Newspapers in United States". W3newspapers. Retrieved
August 5, 2014.
^ "Spanish Language Newspapers in the USA : Hispanic
Newspapers : Periódiscos en Español en los EE.UU".
Onlinenewspapers.com. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
.mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em
.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100%
Acharya, Viral V.; Cooley, Thomas F.; Richardson, Matthew P.; Walter,
Ingo (2010). Regulating Wall Street: The Dodd-Frank Act and the New
Architecture of Global Finance. Wiley. p. 592.
Baptist, Edward E. (2014). The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and
the Making of American Capitalism. Basic Books.
Barth, James; Jahera, John (2010). "US Enacts Sweeping Financial
Reform Legislation". Journal of Financial Economic Policy. 2 (3):
Berkin, Carol; Miller, Christopher L.; Cherny, Robert W.; Gormly,
James L. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States,
Volume I: To 1877. Cengage Learning. p. 75.
Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. (1992). "The Role of Epidemic
Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America". Allergy and Asthma
Proceedings. 13 (5): 225–232. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040.
Blakeley, Ruth (2009). State
Terrorism and Neoliberalism: The North in
the South. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-68617-4.
Boyer, Paul S.; Clark Jr., Clifford E.; Kett, Joseph F.; Salisbury,
Neal; Sitkoff, Harvard; Woloch, Nancy (2007). The Enduring Vision: A
History of the American People. Cengage Learning. p. 588.
Brokenshire, Brad (1993). Washington State Place Names. Caxton Press.
Calloway, Colin G. (1998). New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and
the Remaking of Early America. JHU Press. p. 229.
Cobarrubias, Juan (1983). Progress in Language Planning: International
Perspectives. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-90-279-3358-4.
Cowper, Marcus (2011). National Geographic History Book: An
Interactive Journey. National Geographic Society.
Davis, Kenneth C. (1996). Don't know much about the Civil War. New
York: William Marrow and Co. p. 518. ISBN 978-0-688-11814-3.
Daynes, Byron W.; Sussman, Glen (2010).
Politics and the
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt to George W. Bush.
University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-60344-254-1.
OCLC 670419432. Presidential environmental policies, 1933–2009
Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Vellanoweth, Rene L (2008). A Canyon
Through Time: Archaeology, History, and Ecology of the Tecolote Canyon
Area, Santa Barbara County. California: University of
Fagan, Brian M. (2016). Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology
and Prehistory. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-35027-9.
Feldstein, Sylvan G.; Fabozzi, Frank J. (2011). The Handbook of
Municipal Bonds. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1376.
Ferguson, Thomas; Rogers, Joel (1986). "The Myth of America's Turn to
the Right". The Atlantic. 257 (5): 43–53. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
Fladmark, K.R. (2017). "Routes: Alternate Migration Corridors for
Early Man in North America". American Antiquity. 44 (1): 55–69.
doi:10.2307/279189. ISSN 0002-7316. JSTOR 279189.
Flannery, Tim (2015). The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of
North America and Its Peoples. Open Road + Grove/Atlantic.
Fraser, Steve; Gerstle, Gary (1989). The Rise and Fall of the New Deal
Order: 1930–1980. American History: Political science. Princeton
University Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-691-00607-9.
Gaddis, John Lewis (1972). The
United States and the Origins of the
Cold War, 1941–1947. Columbia University Press.
Gelo, Daniel J. (2018). Indians of the Great Plains. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 978-1-351-71812-7.
Greg, Percy (1892).
History of the United States
History of the United States from the Foundation
Virginia to the Reconstruction of the Union. West, Johnston &
García, Ofelia (2011). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A
Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons.
Gold, Susan Dudley (2006).
United States V. Amistad: Slave Ship
Mutiny. Marshall Cavendish. p. 144. ISBN 978-0-7614-2143-6.
Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of
American Economic Power. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-009362-4.
Graebner, Norman A.; Burns, Richard Dean; Siracusa, Joseph M. (2008).
Reagan, Bush, Gorbachev: Revisiting the End of the Cold War. Praeger
Security International Series. Greenwood Publishing Group.
p. 180. ISBN 978-0-313-35241-6.
Haines, Michael Robert; Haines, Michael R.; Steckel, Richard H.
(2000). A Population History of North America. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 978-0-521-49666-7.
Haymes, Stephen; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Miller, Reuben, eds. (2014).
The Routledge Handbook of Poverty in the United States. Routledge.
Haviland, William A.; Walrath, Dana; Prins, Harald E.L. (2013).
Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge. Cengage Learning.
Hoopes, Townsend; Brinkley, Douglas (1997). FDR and the Creation of
the U.N. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08553-2.
Ingersoll, Thomas N. (2016). The Loyalist Problem in Revolutionary New
England. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-12861-3.
Inghilleri, Moira (2016). Translation and Migration. Taylor &
Francis. ISBN 978-1-315-39980-5.
Jacobs, Lawrence R. (2010). Health Care Reform and American Politics:
What Everyone Needs to Know: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-978142-3.
Johnson, Paul (1997). A History of the American People. HarperCollins.
Kurian, George T., ed. (2001). Encyclopedia of American studies. New
York: Grolier Educational. ISBN 978-0-7172-9222-6.
Joseph, Paul (2016). The Sage Encyclopedia of War: Social Science
Perspectives. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-1-4833-5988-5.
Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert (2005). Encyclopedia of Native
American Wars and Warfare. Facts on
File library of American History.
Infobase Publishing. p. 398. ISBN 978-0-8160-3337-9.
Kidder, David S.; Oppenheim, Noah D. (2007). The Intellectual
Devotional: American History: Revive Your Mind, Complete Your
Education, and Converse Confidently about Our Nation's Past. Rodale.
Kruse, Kevin M. (2015). One Nation Under God: How Corporate America
Invented Christian America. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-04949-3.
Leckie, Robert (1990). None died in vain: The
Saga of the American
Civil War. New York: Harper-Collins. p. 682.
Lockard, Craig (2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions, Volume B:
From 600 to 1750. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-111-79083-7.
Martinez, Donna; Bordeaux, Jennifer L. Williams (2016). 50 Events That
Shaped American Indian History: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic
[2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-3577-3.
Martinez, Donna; Sage, Grace; Ono, Azusa (2016). Urban American
Indians: Reclaiming Native Space: Reclaiming Native Space. ABC-CLIO.
Martone, Eric (2016). Italian Americans: The History and Culture of a
People. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-61069-995-2.
Leffler, Melvyn P. (2010). "The emergence of an American grand
strategy, 1945–1952". In Westad, Odd Arne (ed.). The Cambridge
History of the Cold War. 1: Origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. pp. 67–89. ISBN 978-0-521-83719-4.
Lemon, James T. (1987). "Colonial America in the 18th Century" (PDF).
In Mitchell, Robert D.; Groves, Paul A. (eds.). North America: the
historical geography of a changing continent. Rowman &
Littlefield. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2013.
Lien, Arnold Johnson (1913). Studies in History, Economics, and Public
Law. 54. New York: Columbia University. p. 604.
Weierman, Karen Woods (2005). One Nation, One Blood: Interracial
Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, And Law, 1820–1870.
Massachusetts Press. p. 214.
Levenstein, Harvey (2003). Revolution at the Table: The Transformation
of the American Diet. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of
California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23439-0.
Mann, Kaarin (2007). "Interracial Marriage in Early America:
Motivation and the Colonial Project" (PDF).
Michigan Journal of
History (Fall). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2013.
McKenna, George (2007). The Puritan Origins of American Patriotism.
Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10099-0.
Meltzer, David J. (2009). First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice
Age America. University of
The New York Times
The New York Times (2007).
The New York Times
The New York Times Guide to Essential
Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind (2nd ed.). St.
Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-37659-8.
Mostert, Mary (2005). The Threat of Anarchy Leads to the Constitution
of the United States. CTR Publishing, Inc.
Onuf, Peter S. (2010). The Origins of the Federal Republic:
Jurisdictional Controversies in the United States, 1775–1787.
Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0038-6.
Perdue, Theda; Green, Michael D (2005). The Columbia Guide to American
Indians of the Southeast. Columbia University Press.
Price, David A. (2003). Love and Hate in Jamestown: John Smith,
Pocahontas, and the Start of a New Nation. Random House.
Quirk, Joel (2011). The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to
Human Trafficking. University of
Pennsylvania Press. p. 344.
Ranlet, Philip (1999). Vaughan, Alden T. (ed.). New England
Encounters: Indians and Euroamericans Ca. 1600–1850. North Eastern
Rausch, David A. (1994). Native American Voices. Grand Rapids: Baker
Books. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-8010-7773-9.
Remini, Robert V. (2007). The House: The History of the House of
Representatives. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-134111-3.
Richter, Daniel K.; Merrell, James H., eds. (2003). Beyond the
covenant chain : the Iroquois and their neighbors in Indian North
America, 1600–1800. University Park:
Pennsylvania State University
Press. ISBN 978-0-271-02299-4. OCLC 51306167.
Ripper, Jason (2008). American Stories: To 1877. M.E. Sharpe.
p. 299. ISBN 978-0-7656-2903-6.
Russell, John Henderson (1913). The Free Negro in Virginia,
1619–1865. Johns Hopkins University. p. 196.
Safire, William (2003). No Uncertain Terms: More Writing from the
Popular "On Language" Column in
The New York Times
The New York Times Magazine. Simon and
Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-4955-3.
Samuel, Bunford (1920). Secession and Constitutional Liberty: In which
is Shown the Right of a Nation to Secede from a Compact of Federation
and that Such Right is Necessary to Constitutional Liberty and a
Surety of Union. Neale publishing Company.
Savage, Candace (2011). Prairie: A Natural History. Greystone Books.
Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J. (2007). Slavery in America.
Infobase Publishing. p. 554. ISBN 978-1-4381-0813-1.
Schultz, David Andrew (2009). Encyclopedia of the United States
Constitution. Infobase Publishing. p. 904.
Sider, Sandra (2007). Handbook to Life in Renaissance Europe. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533084-7.
Simonson, Peter (2010). Refiguring Mass Communication: A History.
Urbana: University of
Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07705-0. He
held high the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the
nation's unofficial motto, e pluribus unum, even as he was recoiling
from the party system in which he had long participated.
Smith, Andrew F. (2004). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in
America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 131–132.
Soss, Joe (2010). Hacker, Jacob S.; Mettler, Suzanne (eds.). Remaking
America: Democracy and Public Policy in an Age of Inequality. Russell
Sage Foundation. ISBN 978-1-61044-694-5.
Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New
World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0.
Tadman, Michael (2000). "The Demographic Cost of Sugar: Debates on
Slave Societies and Natural Increase in the Americas". American
Historical Review. 105 (5): 1534–1575. doi:10.2307/2652029.
Taylor, Alan (2002). Eric Foner (ed.). American Colonies: The
Settling of North America. New York: Penguin Books.
Thornton, Russell (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A
Population History Since 1492. Civilization of the American Indian.
186. University of
Oklahoma Press. p. 49.
Thornton, Russell (1998). Studying Native America: Problems and
Prospects. Univ of
Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-16064-7.
Vaughan, Alden T. (1999).
New England Encounters: Indians and
Euroamericans Ca. 1600–1850. North Eastern University Press.
Volo, James M.; Volo, Dorothy Denneen (2007). Family Life in Native
America. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-33795-6.
Walton, Gary M.; Rockoff, Hugh (2009). History of the American
Economy. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-324-78662-0.
Waters, M.R.; Stafford, T W. (2007). "Redefining the Age of Clovis:
Implications for the Peopling of the Americas". Science. 315 (5815):
1122–1126. Bibcode:2007Sci...315.1122W. doi:10.1126/science.1137166.
ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17322060.
Weiss, Edith Brown; Jacobson, Harold Karan (2000). Engaging Countries:
Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0-262-73132-4.
Williams, Daniel K. (2012). "Questioning Conservatism's Ascendancy: A
Reexamination of the Rightward Shift in Modern American Politics;
Reviews in American History " (PDF). Reviews in American History. 40
(2): 325–331. doi:10.1353/rah.2012.0043. Archived from the original
(PDF) on March 17, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
Wilson, Wendy S.; Thompson, Lloyd M. (1997). Native Americans: An
Interdisciplinary Unit on Converging Cultures. Walch Publishing.
Winchester, Simon (2013). The men who United the States. Harper
Collins. pp. 198, 216, 251, 253. ISBN 978-0-06-207960-2.
Zinn, Howard (2005). A People's History of the United States. Harper
Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN 978-0-06-083865-2.
United States of America". BBC News. London. April
22, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
Cohen, Eliot A. (July – August 2004). "History and the Hyperpower".
Foreign Affairs. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 14, 2006.
"Slavery and the Slave Trade in Rhode Island".
"History of "In
God We Trust"". U.S. Department of the Treasury. March
8, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
"Early History, Native Americans, and Early Settlers in Mercer
County". Mercer County Historical Society. 2005. Archived from the
original on March 10, 2005. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
Hayes, Nick (November 6, 2009). "Looking back 20 years: Who deserves
credit for ending the Cold War?". MinnPost. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
"59e. The End of the Cold War". USHistory.org. Independence Hall
Association. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
Levy, Peter B. (1996). Encyclopedia of the Reagan-Bush Years.
ABC-CLIO. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-313-29018-3.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: United States". QuickFacts.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
Wallander, Celeste A. (2003). "Western Policy and the Demise of the
Soviet Union". Journal of
Cold War Studies. 5 (4): 137–177.
Gilens, Martin & Page, Benjamin I. (2014). "Testing Theories of
American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens"
(PDF). Perspectives on Politics. 12 (3): 564–581.
United Statesat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Resources from Wikiversity
"United States". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
United States, from the BBC News
Key Development Forecasts for the
United States from International
Official U.S. Government Web
Portal Gateway to government sites
House Official site of the
United States House of Representatives
Senate Official site of the
United States Senate
White House Official site of the president of the United States
Supreme Court Official site of the Supreme Court of the United States
Historical Documents Collected by the National Center for Public
U.S. National Mottos: History and
Constitutionality Analysis by the
Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance
USA Collected links to historical data
National Atlas of the
United States Official maps from the U.S.
Department of the Interior
Wikimedia Atlas of the United States
Measure of America A variety of mapped information relating to health,
education, income, and demographics for the U.S.
Photos of the USA
vteUnited States articlesHistoryBy event
Declaration of Independence
Drafting and ratification of Constitution
Bill of Rights
War of 1812
Civil rights movement
1865–1896 / 1896–1954 / 1954–1968
World War I
World War II
Nazism in the United States
Cold War (1991–2008)
War on Terror
War in Afghanistan
Recent events (2008–present)
Outline of U.S. history
Technological and industrial
Contiguous United States
minor outlying islands
National Park Service
Water supply and sanitation
World Heritage Sites
President of the United States
House of Representatives
President pro tempore
Courts of appeals
Bill of Rights
Code of Federal Regulations
separation of powers
United States Code
United States Reports
Central Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
Federal Bureau of Investigation
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Reconnaissance Office
National Security Agency
Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Public Health Service Corps
political status of Puerto Rico
District of Columbia
District of Columbia statehood movement
Hawaiian sovereignty movement
Red states and blue states
Science and technology
Federal Reserve System
Social welfare programs
Black American Sign Language
Plains Sign Talk
Statue of Liberty
Sexuality / Adolescent Sexuality
Professional and working class conflict
Standard of living
Ages of consent
Criticism of government
Separation of church and state
vte Political divisions of the United StatesStates
Federal districtWashington, D.C.Insular areas
Northern Mariana Islands
U.S. Virgin Islands
List of Indian reservations
BNF: cb118636082 (data)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2331 5230
WorldCat Identities (via