The Info List - Bolshevism

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists[1][a] or Bolsheviki[3] (Russian: большевики, большевик (singular), IPA: [bəlʲʂɨˈvʲik]; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik
faction[b] at the Second Party Congress in 1903.[4] The RSDLP was a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898 in Minsk
in Belarus
to unite the various revolutionary organisations of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
into one party. In the Second Party Congress vote, the Bolsheviks
won on the majority of important issues, hence their name.[5] They ultimately became the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union.[c] The Bolsheviks, or Reds, came to power in Russia
during the October Revolution
October Revolution
phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). With the Reds defeating the Whites and others during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
of 1917–1922, the RSFSR became the chief constituent of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in December 1922. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and Alexander Bogdanov, were by 1905 a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism.


1 History of the split

1.1 Origins of the name 1.2 Composition of the party 1.3 Beginning of the 1905 Revolution (1903–1905) 1.4 The Mensheviks
("The minority") (1906–1907) 1.5 Split between Lenin and Bogdanov (1908–10) 1.6 Final attempt at party unity (1910) 1.7 Forming a separate party (1912)

2 Derogatory usage of "Bolshevik"

2.1 Non-Russian/Soviet groups having used the name "Bolshevik"

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

5.1 Sources

6 External links

History of the split[edit]

Part of a series on



Anti-imperialism Anti-revisionism Commanding heights of the economy Communist
society Communist
state Democratic centralism Economic planning Marxist–Leninist atheism One-party state People's democracy Popular front Proletarian internationalism Socialist patriotism Socialist state Theory of the productive forces Third Period Vanguardism


(Foco) Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Thought Hoxhaism Husakism Juche Kadarism Khrushchevism Maoism Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Prachanda Path Titoism Stalinism


Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Ernst Thälmann Earl Browder Enver Hoxha Gonchigiin Bumtsend Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Abimael Guzmán José Díaz Josip Broz Tito Enver Hoxha Palmiro Togliatti Che Guevara Kim Il-sung Mathieu Kérékou Agostinho Neto Samora Machel Thomas Sankara Fidel Castro Alfonso Cano


Wage Labour and Capital Materialism and Empirio-criticism Imperialism   What Is to Be Done? The State and Revolution

Dialectical and Historical Materialism

Guerrilla Warfare

Fundamentals of Marxism–Leninism


October Revolution Soviet Union Comintern Hungarian Soviet Republic Spanish Civil War World War II Warsaw Pact Greek Civil War Chinese Revolution Korean War Cuban Revolution De-Stalinization Non-Aligned Movement Sino-Soviet split Vietnam War Portuguese Colonial War Black Power movement Nicaraguan Revolution Nepalese Civil War Naxalite insurgency Internal conflict in Peru

Related topics

Bolshevism Marxism Leninism Trotskyism

portal Socialism portal

v t e

Boris Kustodiev's 1920 painting "Bolshevik"

In the 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, held in Brussels and London during August 1903, Lenin and Julius Martov disagreed over the membership rules. Lenin wanted members "who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means[6] and by personal participation in one of the party's organisations." Julius Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations." Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members, as opposed to "card carriers" who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all. This active base would develop the cadre, a core of "professional revolutionaries", consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy. A main source of the factions could be directly attributed to Lenin's steadfast opinion and unwillingness to "bear opinions which were contrary to his own".[7][attribution needed] It was obvious at early stages in Lenin's revolutionary practices that he would not be willing to concede on any party policy that conflicted with his own predetermined ideas. It was the loyalty that he had to his own self-envisioned utopia that caused the party split. He was seen even by fellow party members as being so narrow minded that he believed that there were only two types of people: "Friend and enemy—those who followed him, and all the rest."[8] Leon Trotsky, one of Lenin's fellow revolutionaries (though they had differing views as to how the revolution and party should be handled), compared Lenin in 1904 to the French revolutionary Robespierre.[8] Lenin's view of politics as verbal and ideological warfare and his inability to accept criticism even if it came from his own dedicated followers was the reason behind this accusation. The root of the split was a book titled What is to be Done?
What is to be Done?
that Lenin wrote while serving a sentence of exile. In Germany, the book was published in 1902; in Russia, strict censorship outlawed its publication and distribution.[9] One of the main points of Lenin's writing was that a revolution can only be achieved by the strong leadership of one person (or of a very select few people) over the masses. After the proposed revolution had successfully overthrown the government, this individual leader must release power, to allow socialism to fully encompass the nation. Lenin also wrote that revolutionary leaders must dedicate their entire lives to the cause in order for it to be successful. Lenin said that if professional revolutionaries did not maintain control over the workers then they would lose sight of the party's objective and adopt opposing beliefs, and even abandon the revolution entirely.[9] Lenin's view of a socialist intelligentsia showed that he was not a complete supporter of Marxist theory, which also created some party unrest. For example, Lenin agreed with the Marxist idea of eliminating social classes, but in his utopian society there would still be visible distinctions between those in politics and the common worker. Most party members considered unequal treatment of workers immoral, and were loyal to the idea of a completely classless society, so Lenin's variations caused the party internal dissonance. Although the party split of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
would not become official until 1903, the differences originally began to surface with the publication of What is to be Done?. Through the influence of the book, Lenin also undermined another group of reformers known as "Economists", who were pushing for economic reform while wanting to leave the government relatively unchanged, and who failed to recognize the importance of uniting the working population behind the party's cause.[10][non-primary source needed][page needed] Other than the debate between Lenin and Julius Martov; Lenin felt membership should require support of the Party program, financial contributions, and finally involvement in a Party organization whereas Martov didn't see the need for joining Party organizations, internal unrest also rose over the structure that was best suited for Soviet power.[10][page needed] As discussed in What is to be Done?, Lenin firmly believed that a rigid political structure was needed to effectively initiate a formal revolution. This idea was met with opposition from his once close followers including Julius Martov, Georgy Plekhanov, Leon Trotsky, and Pavel Axelrod.[11][page needed] Georgy Plekhanov
Georgy Plekhanov
and Lenin's major dispute arose addressing the topic of nationalizing land or leaving it for private use. Lenin wanted to nationalize to aid in collectivization. Plekhanov thought worker motivation would remain higher if individuals were able to maintain their own property. Those who opposed Lenin and wanted to continue on the Marxist path towards complete socialism and disagreed with his strict party membership guidelines became known as "softs" while Lenin supporters became known as "hards."[12] The base of active and experienced members would be the recruiting ground for this professional core. Sympathizers would be left outside and the party would be organised based on the concept of democratic centralism. Martov, until then a close friend of Lenin, agreed with him that the core of the party should consist of professional revolutionaries, but argued that party membership should be open to sympathizers, revolutionary workers and other fellow travelers. The two had disagreed on the issue as early as March–May 1903, but it was not until the Congress that their differences became irreconcilable and split the party.[13] At first the disagreement appeared to be minor and inspired by personal conflicts. For example, Lenin's insistence on dropping less active editorial board members from Iskra
or Martov's support for the Organizing Committee of the Congress which Lenin opposed, The differences quickly grew and the split became irreparable. Origins of the name[edit] The two factions were originally known as "hard" (Lenin's supporters) and "soft" (Martov's supporters). Soon, however, the terminology changed to "Bolsheviks" and "Mensheviks", from the Russian "bolshinstvo" (majority) and "menshinstvo" (minority).[14] On the other hand, Martov's supporters won the vote concerning the question of party membership. Neither Lenin nor Martov had a firm majority throughout the Congress as delegates left or switched sides. At the end, the Congress was evenly split between the two factions. From 1907 on, English language articles sometimes used the term "Maximalist" for "Bolshevik" and "Minimalist" for "Menshevik", which proved confusing since there was also a "Maximalist" faction within the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party
Socialist-Revolutionary Party
in 1904–06 (which after 1906 formed a separate Union of Socialists-Revolutionaries Maximalists) and then again after 1917.[15] Composition of the party[edit] The average party member was very young. In 1907, 22% of Bolsheviks were under 20, 37% were 20–24 and 16% were 25–29. By 1905, 62% of the members were industrial workers (3% of the population in 1897[16]).[17] 22% of Bolsheviks
were gentry (1.7% of the total population), 38% were uprooted peasants, compared with 19% and 26% for the Mensheviks. In 1907, 78.3% of the Bolsheviks
were Russian and 10% were Jewish (34% and 20% for the Mensheviks). Total membership was 8,400 in 1905, 13,000 in 1906 and 46,100 by 1907 (8,400, 18,000, 38,200 respectively for the Mensheviks). By 1910, both factions together had fewer than 10,000 members.[18] Beginning of the 1905 Revolution (1903–1905)[edit] The two factions were in a state of flux in 1903–04 with many members changing sides. The founder of Russian Marxism, Georgy Plekhanov, who was at first allied with Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and the Bolsheviks, parted ways with them by 1904. Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
at first supported the Mensheviks, but left them in September 1904 over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks. He remained a self-described "non-factional social democrat" until August 1917 when he joined Lenin and the Bolsheviks
as their positions assembled and he came to believe that Lenin was right on the issue of the party. All but one member of the Central Committee were arrested in Moscow
in early 1905. The remaining member, with the power of appointing a new one, was won over by the Bolsheviks.[19] The lines between the Bolsheviks
and the Mensheviks
hardened in April 1905 when the Bolsheviks
held a Bolsheviks-only meeting in London, which they called the Third Party Congress. The Mensheviks
organised a rival conference and the split was thus formalised. The Bolsheviks
played a relatively minor role in the 1905 Revolution, and were a minority in the Saint Petersburg Soviet of Workers' Deputies led by Trotsky. The less significant Moscow
Soviet, however, was dominated by the Bolsheviks. These soviets became the model for those formed in 1917. The Mensheviks
("The minority") (1906–1907)[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

As the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1905 progressed, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks and smaller non-Russian social democratic parties operating within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
attempted to reunify at the Fourth (Unification) Congress of the RSDLP held at Folkets hus, Norra Bantorget
Norra Bantorget
in Stockholm, April 1906. When the Mensheviks
struck an alliance with the Jewish Bund, the Bolsheviks
found themselves in a minority. However, all factions retained their respective factional structure and the Bolsheviks
formed the Bolshevik Centre, the de facto governing body of the Bolshevik faction within the RSDLP. At the Fifth Congress held in London in May 1907, the Bolsheviks
were in the majority, but the two factions continued functioning mostly independently of each other. Split between Lenin and Bogdanov (1908–10)[edit] Tensions had existed between Lenin and Bogdanov as early as 1904: Lenin had fallen out with Nikolai Valentinov, after the latter had introduced him to Ernst Mach's Empiriocriticism, a viewpoint that Bogdanov had been exploring and developing as Empiriomonism. Having worked as co-editor with Plekhanov on Zayra he had come to agree with the latter's rejection of Bogdanov's Empiriomonism.[20] With the defeat of the revolution in mid-1907 and the adoption of a new, highly restrictive election law, the Bolsheviks
began debating whether to boycott the new parliament known as the Third Duma. Lenin, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev
Lev Kamenev
and others argued for participating in the Duma while Alexander Bogdanov, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Mikhail Pokrovsky
Mikhail Pokrovsky
and others argued that the social democratic faction in the Duma should be recalled.[21] The latter became known as recallists ("otzovists" in Russian). A smaller group within the Bolshevik faction demanded that the RSDLP central committee should give its sometimes unruly Duma faction an ultimatum, demanding complete subordination to all party decisions. This group became known as "ultimatists" and was generally allied with the recallists. With most Bolshevik leaders either supporting Bogdanov or undecided by mid-1908 when the differences became irreconcilable, Lenin concentrated on undermining Bogdanov's reputation as a philosopher. In 1909, he published a scathing book of criticism entitled Materialism and Empirio-criticism (1909),[22] assaulting Bogdanov's position and accusing him of philosophical idealism.[23] In June 1909, Bogdanov proposed the formation of Party Schools as "Proletarian Universities" at a Bolshevik mini-conference in Paris
organised by the editorial board of the Bolshevik magazine Proletary in June 1909. However, this was not accepted and Lenin tried to expel him from the Bolshevik faction.[24] Bogdanov was then involved with setting up Vpered, which ran the Capri Party School from August to December 1909.[25] Final attempt at party unity (1910)[edit] With both Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks
weakened by splits within their ranks and by Tsarist repression, they were tempted to try to re-unite the party. In January 1910, Leninists, recallists and various Menshevik
factions held a meeting of the party's Central Committee in Paris. Kamenev and Zinoviev were dubious about the idea, but were willing to give it a try under pressure from "conciliator" Bolsheviks like Victor Nogin. One of the more underlying reasons that aided in preventing any reunification of the party was the Russian police. The police were able to infiltrate both parties' inner circles by sending in spies who then reported on the opposing party's intentions and hostilities.[26] This allowed the tensions to remain high between the Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks. In turn it prevented them from uniting under common ground which could have possibly sped up the entire revolution. Lenin was firmly opposed to any re-unification, but was outvoted within the Bolshevik leadership. The meeting reached a tentative agreement and one of its provisions made Trotsky's Vienna-based Pravda a party-financed 'central organ'. Kamenev, Trotsky's brother-in-law, was added to the editorial board from the Bolsheviks, but the unification attempts failed in August 1910 when Kamenev resigned from the board amid mutual recriminations. Forming a separate party (1912)[edit] The factions permanently broke off relations in January 1912 after the Bolsheviks
organised a Bolsheviks-only Prague Party Conference and formally expelled Mensheviks
and recallists from the party. As a result, they ceased to be a faction in the RSDLP and instead declared themselves an independent party, called Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (bolsheviks) – or RSDLP(b). Unofficially the Party has been referred to as the "Bolshevik Party". Throughout the century, the Party adopted a number of different names. In 1918, RSDLP(b) became (All-)Russian Communist
Party (bolsheviks) and remained so until 1925. From 1925–52 the name was All-Union Communist
Party (bolsheviks), and from 1952–1991 Communist
Party of the Soviet Union. As the party split became permanent and politically recognized in 1912 due to an all Bolshevik meeting of Congress further divisions became evident. One of the most notable differences was how each faction decided to fund its revolution. The Mensheviks
decided to fund their revolution through membership dues while Lenin often resorted to much more drastic measures since he required a higher budget.[27] One of the common methods the Bolsheviks
used was committing bank robberies, one of which in 1907 resulted in the party gaining over 250,000 rubles which is the equivalent of about $125,000.[27] Bolsheviks
were in constant need of money because Lenin practiced his beliefs exercised in his writings that revolutions must be led by individuals who devote their entire life to the cause. To compensate he awarded them with salaries for their sacrifice and dedication. This measure was taken to help ensure that the revolutionists stayed focused on their duties and motivated them to perform their jobs. Lenin also used the party money to print and copy pamphlets which were distributed in cities and at political rallies in attempts to expand their operations. This was an obvious difference between the Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks
party beliefs. Both factions also managed to gain funds simply by receiving donations from wealthy supporters. Further differences in party agendas became evident as the beginning of World War I loomed near. Stalin was especially eager for the start of the war, hoping that it would turn into a war between classes or essentially a Russian Civil War.[28] This desire for war was fueled by Lenin's vision that the workers and peasants would resist joining the war effort, and therefore be more compelled to join the socialist movement. Through the increase in support Russia
would then be forced to withdraw from the Allied Powers in order to resolve her internal conflict. Unfortunately for the Bolsheviks, Lenin's assumptions were incorrect and despite his and the party's attempts to push for a civil war through involvement in two conferences in 1915 and 1916 in Switzerland the party remained in the minority in calling for the ceasefire by the Russian Army in World War I.[28] Although the Bolshevik leadership decided to form a separate party, convincing pro-Bolshevik workers within Russia
to follow suit proved difficult. When the first meeting of the Fourth Duma was convened in late 1912, only one out of six Bolshevik deputies, Matvei Muranov, (another one, Roman Malinovsky, was later exposed as an Okhrana [Tsarist secret police] agent) voted to break away from the Menshevik faction within the Duma on 15 December 1912.[29] The Bolshevik leadership eventually prevailed and the Bolsheviks
formed their own Duma faction in September 1913. One final difference between the Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks
was simply how ferocious and tenacious the party was willing to be in order to achieve its goals. Lenin was open minded to retreating on political ideas if he saw the guarantee of long term gains benefiting the party. This practice was commonly seen trying to recruit peasants and uneducated workers by promising them how glorious life would be after the revolution. His approach was "land seizure for the peasants and national self-determination for the minorities – as nothing more than temporary concessions."[27] In 1918, at Lenin's suggestion, the party renamed itself the Russian Communist
Party (Bolsheviks). In 1925, this was changed to All-Union Communist
Party (Bolsheviks). In 1952, at the 19th Party Congress, according to Stalin's suggestion, the Bolshevik party was renamed the Communist
Party of the Soviet Union. Derogatory usage of "Bolshevik"[edit]

"Down with Bolshevism. Bolshevism brings war and destruction, hunger and death", anti-Bolshevik propaganda, Germany, 1919

"Bolo" was a derogatory expression for Bolsheviks
used by British service personnel in the North Russian Expeditionary Force
North Russian Expeditionary Force
which intervened against the Red Army
Red Army
during the Russian Civil War.[30] Adolf Hitler, Joseph Goebbels, and other Nazi leaders used it in reference to the worldwide political movement coordinated by the Comintern.[31] During the days of the Cold War
Cold War
in the United Kingdom, labour union leaders and other leftists were sometimes derisively described as "Bolshies". The usage is roughly equivalent to the term "Commie", "Red", or "pinko" in the United States
United States
during the same period. The term "Bolshie" later became a slang term for anyone who was rebellious, aggressive, or truculent.[32] Non-Russian/Soviet groups having used the name "Bolshevik"[edit]

Bangladesh: Maoist Bolshevik Reorganisation Movement of the Purba Banglar Sarbahara Party Burkina Faso: Burkinabé Bolshevik Party India: Bolshevik Party of India India/Sri Lanka: Bolshevik-Leninist Party of India, Ceylon and Burma India: Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik) Mexico: Bolshevik Communist
Party Senegal: Bolshevik Nuclei Sri Lanka: Bolshevik Samasamaja Party Turkey: Bolshevik Party (North Kurdistan – Turkey)

See also[edit]

Democratic centralism Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Leninism October Revolution Old Bolshevik Soviet Revolutionary Communists (Bolsheviks) Vladimir Lenin Marxism–Leninism Trotskyism


^ Both a synonym to "Bolshevik" and an adherent of Bolshevik policies.[2] ^ Derived from меньшинство men'shinstvo, "minority", which comes from меньше men'she, "less". The split occurred at the Second Party Congress in 1903. ^ After the split, the Bolshevik party was designated as RSDLP(b) (Russian: РСДРП(б)), where "b" stands for "Bolsheviks". Shortly after coming to power in November 1917 the party changed its name to the Russian Communist
Party (Bolsheviks) (РКП(б)) and was generally known as the Communist
Party after that point, however, it was not until 1952 that the party formally dropped the word "Bolshevik" from its name. See Congress of the CPSU
Congress of the CPSU
article for the timeline of name changes.


^ "Большевистский", Ushakov's Explanatory Dictionary of Russian Language . ^ "Bolshevist", Dictionary, Dictionary.reference.com  ^ "Bolsheviki Seize State Buildings, Defying Kerensky". The New York Times. 7 November 1917. Retrieved 22 December 2013.  ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (1998). The Soviet Experiment. London: Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-19-508105-3.  ^ Shub 1976, p. 81. ^ Service, Robert (2010). Lenin : a biography (paperback)format= requires url= (help). London: Pan. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-33051838-3.  ^ Shub 1976, p. 76. ^ a b Pipes 1995, p. 104. ^ a b Pipes 1995, p. 106. ^ a b Formation of the Russian social-democratic labor party. Appearance of the bolshevik & the menshevik groups within the party. New York: International Publishers. 1939.  ^ Tucker 1975. ^ Tucker 1975, p. xxxviii. ^ Getzler, Israel (2003) [1967], Martov: A Political Biography of a Russian Social Democrat, Cambridge University Press, p. 78, ISBN 0-521-52602-7 . ^ Wilson, Edmund (1977). To the Finland Station. London: Fontana. p. 402. ISBN 0-00-632420-7.  ^ Antonelli, Étienne (1920), Bolshevik Russia, Charles A. Carroll trans, AA Knopf, p. 59, the term 'Maximalist' rather widely used as a translation for 'Bolshevik' is historically false.  307 pp. ^ Ascher, Abraham, The Revolution of 1905, p. 4 . ^ Cliff, Tony, Lenin and the Revolutionary Party, p. 37 . ^ Pipes, Richard, The Russian Revolution, pp. 364–5 . ^ McDaniel, Tim, Autocracy, capitalism, and revolution in Russia, p. 246 . ^ Biggart, John (1989). Alexander Bogdanov, left-Bolshevism and the Proletkult 1904–1932. Norwich: University of East Angla. ASIN B001ON1IY4.  ^ Wolfe, Bertram D. (1966). Three Who Made a Revolution. London: Penguin. p. 410. ISBN 0-14-020783-X.  ^ Materialism & Empiriocriticism, Moscow: Zveno Publishers, May 1909 . ^ Woods, Alan (1999), "Part Three: The Period of Reaction", Bolshevism: The Road to Revolution, Wellred, ISBN 1-900007-05-3 . ^ Daniels, Robert V, ed. (1993), A Documentary History of Communism
in Russia, UPNE, p. 33, ISBN 0-87451-616-1 . ^ Marot, John Eric (July 1990). "Alexander Bogdanov, Vpered, and the Role of the Intellectual in the Workers' Movement". Russian Review. Blackwell. 49 (3 ( Special
Issue on Alexander Bogdanov)): 241–64. JSTOR 130152.  ^ Pipes 1995, p. 109. ^ a b c Pipes 1995, p. 108. ^ a b Pipes 1995, p. 111. ^ McKean, Robert B (1990), St. Petersburg Between the Revolutions: workers and revolutionaries, June 1907 – February 1917, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 140–1 . ^ " North Russian Expeditionary Force
North Russian Expeditionary Force
1919, Scrapbook Diary, Photographs, Mementoes", Naval History, retrieved 14 June 2012 . ^ Collins Mini Dictionary, 1998. ^ "bolshie". The free dictionary. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 


Pipes, Richard (1995), A concise History of the Russian Revolution, New York, ISBN 978-0-679-42277-8 . Shub, David (1976), Lenin : a biography (rev. ed.), Harmondsworth: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14020809-2 . Tucker, Robert (1975), The Lenin Anthology, New York: WW Norton & Co, ISBN 978-0-393-09236-3 .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bolsheviks.

Look up Bolshevik or Bolshevism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

has the text of the 1922 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Bolshevism.

Woods, Alan, Bolshevism, the Road to Revolution, Marxist . "Chronology of the Bolshevik Party World History Database", Dates of History . Brinton, Maurice, The Bolsheviks
and Workers Control, Libcom .

The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism at Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
by Bertrand Russell, November 1920 Bobrovskaya, Cecilia, Twenty Years in Underground Russia: Memoirs of a Rank-and- File
Bolshevik, Marxists, archived from the original on 2003-02-25 . Schulman, Jason (December 28, 2017), Bolshevism, Real and Imagined, Jacobin .

v t e

Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
/ Russian Civil War



February Revolution July Days Kornilov affair October Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprising Junker mutiny

Civil War

Russian Civil War Ukrainian War of Independence

Ukrainian–Soviet War Kiev Bolshevik Uprising Polish–Ukrainian War

Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Polish–Soviet War Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian Wars of Independence Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Georgia Armenian–Azerbaijani War Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Siberian Intervention


Provisional Committee of the State Duma Russian Provisional Government White movement Pro-independence movements Petrograd Soviet Council of the People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee Russian Constituent Assembly


Black Guards Red Guards Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia Tsentralna Rada

Ukrainian People's Republic


Kadets Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

Bolsheviks Mensheviks

Socialist Revolutionary Party

Left SRs

Union of October 17



Nicholas II of Russia

Provisional Government

Georgy Lvov Pavel Milyukov Alexander Guchkov

White movement

Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel Alexander Kolchak Anton Denikin Pyotr Krasnov Nikolai Yudenich


Vladimir Lenin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev Leon Trotsky Mikhail Frunze Joseph Stalin Semyon Budyonny

Right SRs

Alexander Kerensky Stepan Petrichenko Boris Savinkov


Revolutions of 1917–23 German Revolution of 1918–1919 Bavarian Soviet Republic Hungarian Soviet Republic Hungarian–Romanian War Workers' Councils in Poland Polish–Ukrainian War Polish–Soviet War Slovak Soviet Republic Finnish Civil War Finnish Socialist Worke