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Bogdan Musiał
Bogdan Musiał
(born 1960) is a Polish-German historian with Polish background and dual citizenship. Born in Poland, Musiał arrived to Germany as a political refugee in 1985 where he became a naturalized citizen, and returned to Poland
Poland
in 2010. He specializes in the history of World War II.[1][2]

Contents

1 Career 2 Criticism 3 Bibliography 4 References

Career[edit] Bogdan Musiał
Bogdan Musiał
was born in 1960 in Wielopole, Dąbrowa County, Poland. He worked in Silesian mines and worked with the Polish Solidarność movement. On account of the latter involvement, he was persecuted by state security and in 1985 sought and received political asylum in the Federal Republic of Germany; in 1992 he was naturalized. He worked as a mechanic, and from 1990 to 1998 studied history, political science and sociology at the Leibniz University of Hannover
Leibniz University of Hannover
and the University of Manchester. In 1998 he graduated with a thesis on the treatment of Jews in occupied Poland. From 1991 to 1998, Musiał received a scholarship from Friedrich Ebert Foundation. During that time he was one of the main critics of the Wehrmachtsausstellung
Wehrmachtsausstellung
exhibition compiled by the Hamburg Institute for Social Research, which eventually had to be seriously revised before reopening to conform with his findings.[3] Since 1998 he served as scientific researcher at the German Historical Institute in Warsaw where he has studied previously inaccessible sources about crimes of the Soviet NKVD
NKVD
during the Soviet retreat in 1941 which escalated violence.[1] In 2007, writing in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Musiał said that Zygmunt Bauman
Zygmunt Bauman
was a former agent for the Polish secret service between 1945 and 1953 and that he had participated in political cleansing of opponents. Bauman responded by saying that he would not dignify Musiał with an answer as "I don't want to give weight or importance to something which is [composed of] half-truths and 100% lies. What is true in his article is not new, because everybody knew I was a communist".[4][5][6] Prior research by Piotr Gontarczyk showed that Bauman was a political officer, and a secret informant of communist authorities who was awarded for fighting Polish independence movement.[7] In 2008 he published the book Kampfplatz Deutschland. Since 2010 he lives in Poland
Poland
and works at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw.[citation needed] In 2008, Musiał published a controversial article in Rzeczpospolita, alleging that Polish historian Włodzimierz Borodziej's, who had advocated for new research into the Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland
Poland
during and after World War II, father had been an officer in Służba Bezpieczeństwa and arranged for his son position in the German-Polish Textbook Commission, which per Musiał tarnish Borodziej's credibility as a historian.[8][9][10] Musial is critical of work by the Holocaust writer Jan Gross, stating that rather than being a historic research it a commercial work, largely distorting history, according to Musial there are far more credible serious scholarly works, and Gross should be ignored as it only serves to give him publicity.[11] Musiał criticized the Polish Foreign Ministry for recommending the book Inferno of Choices: Poles and the Holocaust, as a advancing a ""pedagogy of shame", that may have an irreparable effect on the Polish image abroad.[12][13][14] He has also criticized the Aftermath film based on the events in the Jedwabne pogrom and its director Władysław Pasikowski, saying that countries outside of Poland
Poland
would not put up with similar disdain.[15][16] Musial supports demanding war reparations from Germany for destruction and loss of life Poland
Poland
endured from Nazi Germany which he views as unpaid (Germany claims the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany waived such claims).[17] Concerning the international outcry over the 2018 Amendment to Poland's Act on the Institute of National Remembrance, Musiał says that memory of the Holocaust serves Israel as a central motif of national identity—as a foundation myth, a substitute religion that has supplanted Judaism in an increasingly secularized world, and as an element that integrates the Jewish diaspora, particularly in the United States. Musiał states that it is hard to deny that Jews suffered in an exceptional and special way that makes their experience unique, especially in view of what he describes as the "horrific scale" of the Nazi genocide. According to Musiał, the complicity of Poles in the Holocaust has become part of this religion, and therefore Israelis are outraged over the Polish Amendment on a basis of emotion rather than of historical facts. Musiał, as a historian, disagrees with attempts to show Poles as co-responsible for the Holocaust.[18][19][20] Criticism[edit]

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Musiał's research of Soviet partisans
Soviet partisans
in Sowjetische Partisanen 1941-1944, was reviewed by Karel C. Berkhoff who noted that the book did not appear to contain printing errors, was easy to read, and will likely remain a comprehensive description of partisan warfare in Belarus due to its large source base. However, Berkhoff also describes that the book has two key weaknesses. The first is not making the protagonists, never pictured, come alive as individuals with the book remaining too close to the sources, despite Musiał's great skill. The second element criticized by Berkhoff is ascribing independent partisans groups to "Soviet", questioning the use of "movement" to describe the partisans, the rejection of anti-Semitism with regard to the Polish Home Army units in Belarus which attack Jews, not exploring the degree of loyalty to Stalin's state, the propaganda issued by the groups, and lack of a comparison between the partisans described and other partisans in Belarus, Ukraine, or western Europe.[21] According to Joanna Michlic, Musiał belongs to an ethno-nationalist school of thought in Poland
Poland
that also includes Marek Jan Chodakiewicz and Tomasz Strzembosz.[22][23] According to Michlic this groups treats the notion of Żydokomuna
Żydokomuna
(Judeo-Communism) not as an antisemitic canard but rather an image rooted in historical reality, in which Jews were pro-Soviet and anti-Polish, basing their claims on primary wartime sources of various origins.[24] Per Anders Rudling, reviewing “Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschießen”: Die Brutalisieung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941. (“Counter-revolutionary Elements are to be Shot”: The Brutalization of the German-Soviet War in the Summer of 1941), wrote that book was not very well received by German Holocaust historians, receiving sharp criticism. Rudling notes that Musiał predicted in his introduction that "German liberal intellectuals are not going to like his book for political reasons. In his eyes, the sensitiveness surrounding the subject of the Holocaust and the National Socialist past has often worked as a block to a scholarly approach to the subject". Musiał places responsibility for the outbreak of World War II both on Germany and on the Soviet Union, with Poland
Poland
and Poles being the primary victims. Rudling criticizes Musiał for not describing how and why Poland
Poland
ended up possession of Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia
Western Belorussia
(east of the Curzon Line) as a result of the use of force in the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
in violation of the principles of national self-determination set up by Wilson. Musiał fails to comment on possible reasons some members of the minorities in the east may have had to take revenge of their former Polish masters following the Soviet invasion of Poland
Poland
in 1939. According to Rudling Musiał makes use of " controversial statistics, aimed at pointing out that Poles were singled out and subjected to uniquely harsh terror under Stalin, often at the hands of Jews. However, the statistics Musial relies on to back his claim seem somewhat exaggerated". Rudling concludes by saying that "By focusing on these tragic events, the book has stirred up a debate. It is a debate with unpleasant undertones of nationalism and ethnic hatred, and perhaps not at the level at which we may want to see academic debates conducted, but it is still a debate". Noting that the book in no way measures up to Jan T. Gross's Revolution from abroad, which stands unrivaled as the most complete study of the tragic events in 1939-41 in Western Ukraine
Western Ukraine
and Western Belarus. However, despite its limitations, Musiał's book does add knowledge to the subject area.[25] Wolfram Wette
Wolfram Wette
wrote that the book is full of contradictions and confuses perpetrators and victims. According to Wette the parts of the books describing the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland
Poland
contain interesting information, however Musiał's assertion that "Between 1939 and 1941 ... Soviet terror in eastern Poland
Poland
was comparable to Nazi terror in German-occupied Poland, if not worse." anticipates his findings that are affected by a "specifically Polish anti-Sovietism" attitude.[26] Alexander B. Rossino from Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
in Washington, states that Musial research is detailed and has resulted in a more nuanced understanding of Jewish involvement with Soviet occupation forces. Rossino underlines that while Musiał has been criticized for claiming that Jews in eastern Poland
Poland
were over represented in Soviet institutions, examination of witness reports discovered many cases Jewish militia members directly participated in mass arrests and deportation actions. Rossino writes that other scholars of the final solution in the occupied Soviet Union have corroborated Musiał's findings. He names among them Yitzhak Arad who wrote that Jews played a relatively large role in the Communist Party that was behind actions in occupied Poland.Other scholars include Dov Levin who wrote "the labeling of the Soviet administration as a 'Jewish regime' became widespread when Jewish militiamen helped NKVD
NKVD
agents send local Poles into exile.Rossino names also Jan Gross who according to him wrote in 1983 that "Jewish collaboration" with the Soviet authorities was behind the sudden upsurge of anti-Semitism among the non-Jewish population in eastern Poland.[27] Bibliography[edit]

"Aktion Reinhardt". Der Völkermord an den Juden im Generalgouvernement 1941-1944 (The Origins of “Operation Reinhard”: The Decision-Making Process for the Mass Murder of the Jews in the General Government) Osnabrück 2004 Sowjetische Partisanen in Weißrußland. Innenansichten aus dem Gebiet Baranovici 1941-1944. Eine Dokumentation (Soviets partisans in Belarus). Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2004, ISBN 3-486-64588-9.[28] “The Origins of ‘Operation Reinhard’: The Decision-Making Process for the Mass Murder of the Jews in the Generalgouvernment.” Yad Vashem Studies 28 (2000): 113-153. Deutsche Zivilverwaltung und Judenverfolgung im Generalgouvernement. Eine Fallstudie zum Distrikt Lublin 1939-1944. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-447-04208-7. Kampfplatz Deutschland, Stalins Kriegspläne gegen den Westen (Battle-ground Germany, Stalin's plans of war against the West). Propyläen, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-549-07335-3. Sowjetische Partisanen 1941–1944: Mythos und Wirklichkeit (Soviet partisans. Myth and Reality), Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, 2009; 592 pages. ISBN 978-3-506-76687-8.[29] "Stalins Beutezug. Die Plünderung Deutschlands und der Aufstieg der Sowjetunion zur Weltmacht" (Stalin's plundering raid. The plundering of Germany and the rise of the Soviet Union to a Superpower),Propyläen, Berlin 2010. ISBN 978-3-549-07370-4.

References[edit]

^ a b Bogdan Musial, Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschießen. Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941, Propyläen Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-549-07126-4. ^ Bogdan Musial (ed), Sowjetische Partisanen in Weißrußland by Marek Jan Chodakiewicz. Archived 2012-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. The Sarmatian Review, April 2006 Issue. ^ "Crimes of the German Wehrmacht: Dimensions of a War of Annihilation 1941-1944" (PDF). Press releases, January to November 2000. Hamburg Institute for Social Research: 9–13. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 24, 2015. Retrieved 29 February 2016.  ^ Professor with a past, Guardian, Aida Edemariam, 2007 ^ The Sociology of Zygmunt Bauman: Challenges and Critique, Michael Hviid Jacobsen, page 6, 2008 ^ Zygmunt Bauman: Why Good People Do Bad Things, Shaun Best, page 12, 2013 ^ Piotr Gontarczyk, Towarzysz Semjon. Nieznany życiorys Zygmunta Baumana, „Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej”, nr 6 (65), czerwiec 2006, dok. 2. ^ Post-Communist Poland
Poland
– Contested Pasts and Future Identities, Ewa Ochman, page 172 ^ Innocent Stalin and bad Poles, Rzeczpospolita, May 2008, Bogdan Musiał ^ How did the Institute of National Remembrance arrange for prof. Borodziej, Wyborcza, September 2008 ^ http://www.se.pl/wiadomosci/opinie/prof-bogdan-musia-gross-porzuci-nauke-dla-komercji_175936.html ^ The truth in black and white, Frankfurter Allgemeine, 10 Aug 2012 ^ The Ministry of Foreign Affairs promotes a book about Polish anti-Semitism, RP, 7 Aug 2012 ^ Professor Bogdan Musiał: Harmful image of an anti-Semite Pole in the book "Inferno of Choices, wpolityce, 2012 ^ The legacy of anti-Semites, Spiegel, 16 Jan 2013 ^ Our interview: "Aftermath" reproduces historical falsity, Niezależna.pl, 14 Nov 2012 ^ Striving for Historical Justice, 16 Jan 2018, Harvard Political Review ^ The Dark Return of Polish Anti-Semitism, Commentary magazine, Ben Cohen, 16 Feb 2018 ^ The Holocaust
The Holocaust
as a "substitute religion". Bogdan Musiał
Bogdan Musiał
in "Sieci": It is not about historical facts, but about faith. So it's hard to be surprised by Israel's reaction, wpolityce, 2018 ^ "Holocaust a substitute religion for Judaism." Professor Bogdan Musiał about the hysteria of the Israelis, Pch24, 9 Feb 2018 ^ Reviewed by Karel Berkhoff (October 2010). "Bogdan Musial. Sowjetische Partisanen 1941-1944: Mythos und Wirklichkeit. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, 2009. 592 S. ISBN 978-3-506-76687-8". Published on H-Soz-u-Kult.  ^ Bringing the Dark Past to Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe, edited by John-Paul Himka, Joanna Beata Michlic, page 433 ^ Shared History, Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet-occupied Poland, edited by Elazar Barkan, Elizabeth A. Cole, Kai Struve, page 87 ^ Shared History, Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet-occupied Poland, edited by Elazar Barkan, Elizabeth A. Cole, Kai Struve, page 69 ^ Rudling, Per Anders. "Bogdan Musial and the Question of Jewish Responsibility for the Pogroms in Lviv in the Summer of 1941." East European Jewish Affairs 35.1 (2005): 69-89. ^ Bogdan Musial: Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschießen. Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941 (review), Wolfram Wette ^ Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa, Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003) ^ Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (January 23, 2005). "Review of Bogdan Musial, Sowjetische Partisanen in Weißrußland: Innenansichten aus dem Gebiet Baranoviči, 1941-1944". "The myth exposed." Scholarly book review. Washington, DC: The Institute of World Politics. Retrieved 29 February 2016.  ^ Karel Berkhoff (October 2010). "Review of Musial, Bogdan, Sowjetische Partisanen 1941-1944: Mythos und Wirklichkeit". Scholarly review published by H-Net Reviews. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 

Paweł Paliwoda (February 2, 2001), Bogdan Musiał
Bogdan Musiał
interviewed by Paweł Paliwoda. Życie, Internet Archive.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 269745840 LCCN: no00098857 ISNI: 0000 0003 8345 7921 GND: 121957934 SUDOC: 058598987 BNF: cb1464

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