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Bodoland, officially the Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Area Districts (BTAD), is an autonomous territory consisting of areas located in the extreme north on the north bank of the Brahmaputra river, within the state of Assam
Assam
and north east region of India, by the foothills of Bhutan
Bhutan
and Arunachal Pradesh. The region is predominantly inhabited by the indigenous Bodo people. The official map of Bodoland
Bodoland
includes four districts of BTAD recognised by the Government of India. It is administered by the Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Council, which covers over eight thousand square kilometres. The territory came into existence under the BTC Accord in February 2003.[2][3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Demand for a homeland 4 Politics

4.1 The BTC Accord 4.2 Government

4.2.1 Executive Council

4.3 Administrative Divisions

5 Geography 6 Economy

6.1 Urbanization

7 Tourism

7.1 Manas National Park 7.2 Diplai Beel 7.3 Bogamati 7.4 Trekking of Baukungri Hill

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy

8.2.1 Electricity

9 Demographics

9.1 Population

10 Education

10.1 Literacy rate

11 Culture 12 Sports 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] It is said that the original home of Bodos was in the north of China in between the head-waters of the Huang Ho and the Yang-tzse Kiang rivers from which they moved out and dispersed in different directions. One of the groups moved into Tibet and settled there for centuries. Thus Tibet became their home before coming to India. As is known, the original name of Tibet was Ti-bod. It is conjectured by some of the scholars that the Mongoloids who lived in Ti-bod were identified as bod who later changed to Bodo. Before the impact of Sanskritisation they were known as Kachari by the Hindus
Hindus
in Assam
Assam
and as Meches in Bengal. The controversial spelling of the word is ‘Bodo’ where the letter ‘d’ is pronounced not as ‘d’ but as hard’ r.’ It was Brian Hodgson who first applied the generic name Bodo to this group of languages but their own name for their race is Boro. This generic name is also applied to the tribes and sub-tribes belonging to the Bodo group. The Bodo intellectual leaders of the national convention who took the decision to accept the generic name’ Bodo’ as the racial name were aware of it as it was already in use. At present it is found that the use of the names Bodo and Boro are going on in parallel. The decision of the 1952 national convention is thus honored.[4] History[edit] Historically the Bodoland
Bodoland
was not a part of India.[5] It was inhibited by the Boros or Bodos or the Kacharis before the intrusion of the Hindus. The British gained control of the region through the Treaty of Yandabo upon winning the First Anglo-Burmese War in 1826. The war was primarily for the control of Northeast India
India
between the British and Burmese empires. It was than known as the Kachari Dwars or Kachari plains or Kachari country by the British during the British Raj. The Bodo people
Bodo people
in the Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
have survived in the midst of Hindu
Hindu
and Shan invaders and settlers, while one of its cousins known as Koch, that ruled the Koch Kingdom have now gradually become a semi- Hindu
Hindu
caste, due to their inter-marriage with the Dravidians and gave birth to a mixed Mongoloid-Dravidian race,[6] who now talks the Indian Bengali or Assamese. Surviving remnants of the royal family of Koch empire proved aboriginal members of the Koch caste spoke Bodo language. The river names of the whole Brahmaputra Valley
Brahmaputra Valley
being Bodo names demonstrates the aborginality of the Bodo people
Bodo people
in the valley.[7] Notable demographic change during British imperialism includes arrival of Tea tribes
Tea tribes
from present day Orissa
Orissa
- Jharkhand
Jharkhand
region of India
India
who were brought as tea labourers by the British[3] and the Bengali people after the Partition of Independent India
India
and Bangladesh Liberation War.[8] Demand for a homeland[edit] Along with the other parts of Northeast India, regional aspiration in the region reached a turning point in the 1980s. The isolation of the region, its complex social character and its backwardness compared to other parts of the country have all resulted in the complicated set of demands ranging from demand for autonomy and opposition to 'outsiders' to movements for secession. The region is also the gateway to the North Eastern Region of India, where one of the main students organization, All Bodo Students Union (ABSU), allied with National Democratic Front of Bodoland
National Democratic Front of Bodoland
- Progressive (NDFB-P), National Democratic Front of Bodoland
National Democratic Front of Bodoland
- Ranjan Daimary faction, People's Joint Action Committee for Bodoland
Bodoland
Movement (PJACBM) which is an amalgamation of over three dozen Bodo organisations[9] and it's supporters are demanding from the Government of India
India
that a separate state (within the Indian Union) be created comprising the seven districts of Kokrajhar,Chirang,Baksa,Udalguri ,sonitpur,lakhimpur and dhemaji of Assam
Assam
which have a significant Bodo population.[10][11] On the other hand, it is also claimed as a sovereign state (Complete independence) by the separatist insurgent group NDFB.[12] The Bodoland
Bodoland
movement is similar to the story of Mizoram
Mizoram
and the Mizo National Front except that the later was granted full-fledged statehood with special powers and MNF agreeing to give up secessionist struggle, the former has not yet had such a happy ending and the region continues to be extremely sensitive.[13] It is currently an autonomous Administrative unit constituted under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India
India
covering an area of 8,795 km2 (Provisional). The administrative unit has been created with a mission to accomplish development in the area of economic, education, preservation of land right, linguistic aspiration, socio-culture and ethnic identity of Bodos and above all to speed up the infrastructure development of communities in the BTC area. The actual functioning of council was started on 7 December 2003 by constituting the 12 members of the Council provisionally. After the Council Election on 13 May 2005 and subsequent bye-election in November 2005, the 40-member Legislative Council has been formed to look after the development works in the Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Area Districts. The remaining six members are nominated by the Governor of Assam
Assam
from the unrepresented Communities. Thus there are altogether 46 members of the Council, representing all communities of BTC Area known as Member of Council Legislative Assembly (MCLA). Politics[edit] The BTC Accord[edit] The Bodoland Territorial Council
Bodoland Territorial Council
(BTC) is a territorial council that was established in Assam
Assam
state of India
India
according to the Memorandum of Settlement of 10 February 2003. BTC came into existence immediately after surrender of Bodo Liberation Tigers Force (BLTF) cadres. The BLTF laid down their weapons on 6 December 2003 under the leadership of Hagrama Mohilary and Hagrama was sworn in as the Chief Executive Member (CEM) on 7 December 2003. The BTC has 46 executive members each looking after a specific area of control. The area under the BTC jurisdiction is called the Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Area District (BTAD). BTC constitutes 35% of marginalised Tribal groups like Bodos, Rabhas, Garos etc. who are against the hegemony of Assam
Assam
government. Government[edit] Executive Council[edit]

Minister Ministry

1 Hagrama Mohilary Chief of the Council, PWD, P & RD, WPT & BC, IBA

2 Kampa Borogoyary Deputy Chief of the Council, Forest, Tourism, Education

3 Lwmsraw Daimary PHE, Museum & Archaeology, Excise

4 Bonjar Daimary Food Civil Supplies & Consumer Affairs, Cinema, Cultural Affairs

5 Rajib Brahma Irrigation, WPT & BC (Plan Fund)

6 Mritunjay Narzary Social Welfare, Information & Public Relations

7 Alindra Mushahary Land Revenue & Disaster Management, Printing & Stationery, Market & Fairs

8 Ganesh Kochary Health Services, Cottage Industry

9 Doneswar Goyary Urban Development and Town & Country Planning, Sports & Youth Welfare

10 Ansumwi Khungur Boro Agriculture, Weight & Measure

11 Deben Boro Handloom & Textile, Sericulture

12 Shyam Sundi Fishery, Animal Husbandry & Veterinary, Labour & Employment

13 Jagadish Sarkar Soil Conservation, Transport, Cooperation

14 Maheswar Basumatary Water Resources, Library Services

Administrative Divisions[edit] The BTAD has been divided into four districts for administrative purpose. It has been further subdivided into 10 Civil Subdivisions and 40 Development Blocks. The area and population under the four districts has been estimated as follows:

Sl No Name of the District Area in km2. Population (census 2011)

1 Kokrajhar 3,169.20 887,142

2 Chirang 1,069.96 482,162

3 Baksa 3,056.89 950,075

4 Udalguri 1,673.93 831,668

Total 8,969.98 3,151,047

[1] Geography[edit] The geographical boundary of BTAD lies between 260 7'12'' N to 260 47' 50'' N Latitude and 890 47' 40'' E to 920 18' 30'' E Longitude and is in the North Western part of Assam. Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar
town the Administrative Head Quarter lies roughly between 260 25' N Longitude and 990 16' 38'' E Latitude. Its strategic location is blessed with beautiful forests of flora and founa.[1] Economy[edit]

Agriculture in Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar
district

The economy is largely agricultural based and is lagging behind in urbanization and development. The region has no industries with most of its population depending on agriculture for livelihood. Most of the industries like oil, gas and major industries of the state are located in upper Assam. Urbanization[edit] The region is one of the most underdeveloped and backward regions of India
India
of which only 3 percent of the population live in urban areas. Tourism[edit] Tourism in the region is regulated by the department of Bodoland Tourism. Manas National Park is the major tourist attraction of the region. It also have many wildlife sanctuaries, reserve forests, site seeings, picnic spots and events.[14] Manas National Park[edit] Manas, the nature's abode is at the foothills of Bhutan
Bhutan
with its unique biodiversity and landscape. The blending of the dense jungle and grassland at the confluence of Indian, Ethiopian and Indo Chinese realms enhances it as one of the richest region of wild animals. The Park harbours 60 species of mammals of which 23 has been listed in the Schedule 1 under the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972. The Park also has a recorded count of 36 species of reptiles and 476 species of birds. The Park is home for Elephant, Rhino, Tiger, Gaur, Wild Buffalo, Deer, wild Hogs, and many other Reptiles, Birds and Insects including some highly endangered species like Pigmy Hog, Golden Langur & Bengal
Bengal
Florican. It is not only a significant National Park of India, but also an important migratory corridor for the elephant population of the entire Indo- Bhutan
Bhutan
region. Manas is also included in the much ambitious plan nomenclatured as Indian Rhino Vision -2020 (IRV-2020) since 2006, with support of Govt. of Assam
Assam
in collaboration with Wildlife Trust of India. (WTI), Bodoland
Bodoland
Territorial Council, WWF-India, International Rhino Foundation and US Fish and Wildlife Service. Diplai Beel[edit] It is about 30 mins. drive from Kokrajhar
Kokrajhar
town. The Beel is home to a large number of migratory and resident birds and different species of amphibians; like fish, dolphin etc. You can also enjoy Boat-rides in this beel. Bogamati[edit] Bogamati located at the foothills between the hills ranges of Indo- Bhutan
Bhutan
border is a hot tourist spot for picnickers and is a paradise for nature lover. The spot is a beautiful picturesque surrounded by greenery and hills along with the Bornadia river flowing downhill. Talks are on to develop water sports in this area. Trekking of Baukungri Hill[edit] Main article: Baukungri Hajw Gakhwnai Baukungri hill trekking is an exiting and adventerous event that is organised every year on first day of the year according to Bodo Calendar which falls in mid April. People from neighbouring states along with the host state arrives every year for a week. International tourists from neighbouring Countries and Westerns Countries are also among those who waits for this exiting event. Cultural and traditional fusion of various ethnic groups can be seen during this event. Tourists can have taste of this rich cultural event with wide range of mouth watering cuisines of the native people. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Bodoland Bodoland
Bodoland
is served by the transportation department of the Bodoland Territorial Council.[15] Energy[edit] Electricity[edit] State Power Sector Reform Programme under the provision of electricity act 2003 resulted in the unbundling of Assam
Assam
State Electricity Board into three new succeeding companies namely Assam
Assam
Power Generation Co. Ltd., Assam
Assam
Electricity Grid Corporation Ltd. and Assam
Assam
Power Distribution Company Ltd. The Assam
Assam
Power Generation Corporation Limited is mainly responsible for maximum energy generation to meet up the energy demand in the state of Assam,[16] while the latter is responsible to efficiently transport electrical power from electrical power bulk heads to the distribution company networks in the state of Assam.[17] The primary purpose of the Assam
Assam
Power Distribution Company Limited is to undertake distribution, trading and supply of electricity in the state of Assam
Assam
or outside of it.[18] Demographics[edit] Population[edit] Bodos are the majority community in the region followed by Bengali Muslims, who forms the largest minority group.[19] The population of BTC area as per 2001 Census report is 2,920,000 out which the ST population is around 52% or approximately 1,500,000 of which only 3% of the total population live in urban area. The average density of the population in BTC is 326 Sq.K.m. compared to 340 per Sq.K.m. of Assam. Amongst the Tribal population Bodos, Rabhas and less quantity of Garos are inhabiting in this area out which Bodos will be 90% or approximately 1,400,000.[20] The other communities like Ransbanhis, Sarania are inhabiting in large part of BTC. Besides Tea and Other Ex- Tea tribes
Tea tribes
including Santhal, Orao etc. are also available. Moreover, other general communities like Bengali, Assamese, Nepali and few numbers of Hindi speaking people are also found in the Council area.[21] Education[edit] Literacy rate[edit] Bodos have a literacy rate (7 years and above) of 61.3% while the Rabhas have 66.7%.[22] Culture[edit] Main article: Bodo culture

A green coloured Aronai with white Agor (design)

The Bodos have a distinct culture from the rest of the world, ranging from dance and music to festivals and attires. It also contributed significantly to the development of the Assamese culture. Sports[edit] Football
Football
is the most popular sport in the region. The region has many Football
Football
clubs of which Baarhoongkha AC, Udalguri
Udalguri
FC and Global FC is the most widely known as they participate in Assam
Assam
State Premier League, the premier football league of the state. Bodoland
Bodoland
Martyrs Gold Cup is organised every year in memory of Bodoland
Bodoland
martyrs, who sacrificed their lives for the cause of Bodoland
Bodoland
movement.[23] The region has also produced many national level athletes. Other sports followed in the region are Badminton, Basketball, Volleyball, Cricket, Taekwondo, Kabaddi, Chess, Archery, and other indigenous sports.[24] See also[edit]

Bodo people Bodo culture Bodo language Bodo Sahitya Sabha 2012 Assam
Assam
violence

References[edit]

^ a b c "About Bodoland". www.bodoland.in. 2 December 2018.  ^ BTC Accord ^ a b https://www.youthkiawaaz.com/2016/05/slavery-in-assam-tea-gardens-india/amp/ ^ Goswami, Madhurima. "The BODOS: Culture and Society".  ^ https://www.timesofassam.com/headlines/its-official-i-k-songbijit-is-no-more-ndfb-member/ ^ http://www.ticijournals.org/locating-kamatapur-movement-origin-change-and-continuity/ ^ Endle, Sidney (1911). The Kacháris.  ^ https://scroll.in/article/689548/the-killings-of-muslims-in-assam-amounts-to-ethnic-cleansing-claims-report ^ http://m.hindustantimes.com/india-news/bodo-groups-impose-12-hour-bandh-in-assam-over-statehood-demand/story-nGRNnkfVZaCV0IAqKBmPiI.html ^ https://www.telegraphindia.com/states/north-east/a-demand-for-bodoland-with-blood-183987 ^ http://www.sentinelassam.com/story/news/2/bodoland-movement-group-announces-series-of-agitation-prgrammes/2017-10-23/1/317768#.Wk3zRaDhXqA ^ https://www.time8.in/ndfbs-eyes-bodoland-sovereignty/ ^ http://mizoram.nic.in/about/history.htm ^ " Bodoland
Bodoland
Tourism". www.bodolandtourism.org. Retrieved 2017-03-26.  ^ https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1566924891.html ^ http://www.apgcl.org/comp_prf.html ^ http://www.aegcl.co.in/comprofile.html ^ http://www.apdcl.gov.in/irj/go/km/docs/internet/ASSAM/webpage/pages/Company_profile.html ^ https://m.economictimes.com/assam-violence-chief-reasons-behind-the-rivalry/bodos-say-most-muslim-settlers-are-illegal-migrants/amp_slideshow/15570061.cms ^ https://m.economictimes.com/assam-violence-chief-reasons-behind-the-rivalry/bodos-say-most-muslim-settlers-are-illegal-migrants/amp_slideshow/15570061.cms ^ " Bodoland Territorial Council
Bodoland Territorial Council
Kokrajhar". bodoland.gov.in. Retrieved 2017-03-28.  ^ "2011 Estimates as per Census report 2001" (PDF).  ^ https://www.assamtimes.org/node/20275 ^ " Assam
Assam
State Premier League". 

External links[edit]

Official Website

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Proposed states and territories of India

Proposed states

Awadh
Awadh
(Uttar Pradesh) Baghelkhand
Baghelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Bhojpur (Uttar Pradesh/Bihar) Bodoland
Bodoland
(Assam) Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Chola Nadu
Chola Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
(Andhra Pradesh) Delhi Dimaraji
Dimaraji
(Assam/Nagaland) Dogradesh (Jammu and Kashmir) Garoland (Meghalaya) Gird (Madhya Pradesh) Gondwana (Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh/Odisha) Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
(West Bengal) Harit Pradesh
Harit Pradesh
(Uttar Pradesh) Kalyana Karnataka
Kalyana Karnataka
(Karnataka) Kamtapur
Kamtapur
(West Bengal) Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir) Khandesh
Khandesh
(Maharashtra) Kodagu (Karnataka) Kongu Nadu
Kongu Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Konkan
Konkan
(Maharashtra/Goa/Karnataka) Kosal (Odisha) Kutch
Kutch
(Gujarat) Mahakoshal
Mahakoshal
(Madhya Pradesh) Malwa
Malwa
(Madhya Pradesh) Male Nadu
Male Nadu
(Karnataka) Marathwada
Marathwada
(Maharashtra) Maru Pradesh (Rajasthan) Mithila (Bihar) Nagalim
Nagalim
(Nagaland/Assam/Arunachal Pradesh) Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Panun Kashmir
Panun Kashmir
(Jammu and Kashmir) Puducherry Purvanchal
Purvanchal
(Uttar Pradesh) Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
(Andhra Pradesh) Saurashtra (Gujarat) Seemanchal (Bihar) Tipraland
Tipraland
(Tripura) Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
(Karnataka/Kerala) Vidarbha
Vidarbha
(Maharashtra) Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
(Madhya Pradesh) Uttarandhra
Uttarandhra
(Andhra Pradesh)

Proposed territories

Karaikal (Puducherry) Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
(Assam) Ladakh
Ladakh
(Jammu and Kashmir)

Current states and territories

Coordinates: 26°24′00″N 90°16′12″E / 26.40000°N 90.27000°E / 26.400

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