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Birmingham
Birmingham
(/ˈbɜːrmɪŋəm/ ( listen),[3] locally /ˈbɜːmɪŋ(ɡ)əm/ or /ˈbɜːmɪnəm/) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England, standing on the River Rea. It is the largest and most populous British city outside London, with an estimated population of 1,101,360 as of 2014[update].[4][5][6][7] A medium-sized market town in the medieval period, Birmingham
Birmingham
grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment
Midlands Enlightenment
and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society.[8] By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world".[9] Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly skilled trades, encouraged exceptional levels of creativity and innovation and provided a diverse and resilient economic base for industrial prosperity that was to last into the final quarter of the 20th century. Perhaps the most important invention in British history, the industrial steam engine, was invented in Birmingham.[10] Its resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of broad-based political radicalism, that under leaders from Thomas Attwood
Thomas Attwood
to Joseph Chamberlain was to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a pivotal role in the development of British democracy.[11] From the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, Birmingham
Birmingham
was bombed heavily by the German Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
in what is known as the Birmingham
Birmingham
Blitz. The damage done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive demolition and redevelopment in subsequent decades. Today Birmingham's economy is dominated by the service sector.[12] The city is a major international commercial centre, ranked as a gamma+ world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network;[13] and an important transport, retail, events and conference hub. Its metropolitan economy is the second largest in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with a GDP
GDP
of $121.1bn (2014),[2] and its six universities make it the largest centre of higher education in the country outside London.[14] Birmingham's major cultural institutions – including the City of Birmingham
Birmingham
Symphony Orchestra, the Birmingham
Birmingham
Royal Ballet, the Birmingham
Birmingham
Repertory Theatre, the Library of Birmingham
Library of Birmingham
and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts – enjoy international reputations,[15] and the city has vibrant and influential grassroots art, music, literary and culinary scenes.[16] Birmingham
Birmingham
is the fourth-most visited city in the UK by foreign visitors.[17] Birmingham's sporting heritage can be felt worldwide, with the concept of the Football League
Football League
and tennis both originating from the city. Its most successful football club Aston
Aston
Villa has won seven league titles and one European Cup with the other professional club being Birmingham City. Birmingham
Birmingham
will host the 2022 Commonwealth Games.[18] People from Birmingham
Birmingham
are called Brummies, a term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum". This originates from the old pronunciation of the city's name, Brummagem.[19][20] There is a distinctive Brummie accent and dialect.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Pre-history and medieval 1.2 Early modern 1.3 Industrial Revolution 1.4 Regency and Victorian 1.5 20th century and contemporary

2 Government 3 Geography

3.1 Geology 3.2 Climate 3.3 Environment

4 Demography 5 Religion 6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Theatre and performing arts 7.3 Literature 7.4 Art and design 7.5 Museums and galleries 7.6 Nightlife and festivals 7.7 Entertainment and leisure 7.8 Dialect

8 Architecture 9 Transport 10 Education

10.1 Further and higher education 10.2 Primary and secondary education

11 Public services

11.1 Library
Library
services 11.2 Emergency services 11.3 Healthcare 11.4 Water supply 11.5 Energy from waste

12 Sport

12.1 Commonwealth Games

13 Food and drink 14 Media 15 Notable people 16 Twin cities 17 References

17.1 Notes 17.2 Bibliography

18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Birmingham, Economic history of Birmingham, Science
Science
and invention in Birmingham, and Timeline of Birmingham history Pre-history and medieval[edit] Birmingham's early history is that of a remote and marginal area. The main centres of population, power and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands
English Midlands
lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trent, the Severn and the Avon. The area of modern Birmingham
Birmingham
lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden.[21] There is evidence of early human activity in the Birmingham
Birmingham
area dating back 10,000 years,[22] with stone age artefacts suggesting seasonal settlements, overnight hunting parties and woodland activities such as tree felling.[23] The many burnt mounds that can still be seen around the city indicate that modern humans first intensively settled and cultivated the area during the bronze age, when a substantial but short-lived influx of population occurred between 1700 BC and 1000 BC, possibly caused by conflict or immigration in the surrounding area.[24] During the 1st-century Roman conquest of Britain, the forested country of the Birmingham
Birmingham
Plateau formed a barrier to the advancing Roman legions,[25] who built the large Metchley Fort
Metchley Fort
in the area of modern-day Edgbaston
Edgbaston
in AD 48,[26] and made it the focus of a network of Roman roads.[27]

The charters of 1166 and 1189 that established Birmingham
Birmingham
as a market town and seigneurial borough

Birmingham
Birmingham
as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era. The city's name comes from the Old English
Old English
Beormingahām, meaning the home or settlement of the Beormingas – indicating that Birmingham
Birmingham
was established in the 6th or early 7th century as the primary settlement of an Anglian tribal grouping and regio of that name.[28] Despite this early importance, by the time of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 the manor of Birmingham
Birmingham
was one of the poorest and least populated in Warwickshire, valued at only 20 shillings,[29] with the area of the modern city divided between the counties of Warwickshire, Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Worcestershire.[30] The development of Birmingham
Birmingham
into a significant urban and commercial centre began in 1166, when the Lord of the Manor
Lord of the Manor
Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castle, and followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring.[31] This established Birmingham
Birmingham
as the primary commercial centre for the Birmingham Plateau at a time when the area's economy was expanding rapidly, with population growth nationally leading to the clearance, cultivation and settlement of previously marginal land.[32] Within a century of the charter Birmingham
Birmingham
had grown into a prosperous urban centre of merchants and craftsmen.[33] By 1327 it was the third-largest town in Warwickshire,[34] a position it would retain for the next 200 years.[35] Early modern[edit] The principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham
Birmingham
– including the Guild of the Holy Cross
Guild of the Holy Cross
and the lordship of the de Birmingham
Birmingham
family – collapsed between 1536 and 1547,[36] leaving the town with an unusually high degree of social and economic freedom and initiating a period of transition and growth.[37] By 1700 Birmingham's population had increased fifteenfold and the town was the fifth-largest in England
England
and Wales.[38] The importance of the manufacture of iron goods to Birmingham's economy was recognised as early as 1538, and grew rapidly as the century progressed.[39] Equally significant was the town's emerging role as a centre for the iron merchants who organised finance, supplied raw materials and traded and marketed the industry's products.[40] By the 1600s Birmingham
Birmingham
formed the commercial hub of a network of forges and furnaces stretching from South Wales
South Wales
to Cheshire[41] and its merchants were selling finished manufactured goods as far afield as the West Indies.[42] These trading links gave Birmingham's metalworkers access to much wider markets, allowing them to diversify away from lower-skilled trades producing basic goods for local sale, towards a broader range of specialist, higher-skilled and more lucrative activities.[43]

Birmingham
Birmingham
in 1732

By the time of the English Civil War
English Civil War
Birmingham's booming economy, its expanding population, and its resulting high levels of social mobility and cultural pluralism, had seen it develop new social structures very different from those of more established areas.[44] Relationships were built around pragmatic commercial linkages rather than the rigid paternalism and deference of feudal society, and loyalties to the traditional hierarchies of the established church and aristocracy were weak.[44] The town's reputation for political radicalism and its strongly Parliamentarian sympathies saw it attacked by Royalist forces in the Battle of Birmingham
Battle of Birmingham
in 1643,[45] and it developed into a centre of Puritanism
Puritanism
in the 1630s[44] and as a haven for Nonconformists from the 1660s.[46] The 18th century saw this tradition of free-thinking and collaboration blossom into the cultural phenomenon now known as the Midlands Enlightenment.[47] The town developed into a notable centre of literary, musical, artistic and theatrical activity;[48] and its leading citizens – particularly the members of the Lunar Society of Birmingham
Birmingham
– became influential participants in the circulation of philosophical and scientific ideas among Europe's intellectual elite.[49] The close relationship between Enlightenment Birmingham's leading thinkers and its major manufacturers[50] – in men like Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton
and James Keir
James Keir
they were often in fact the same people[51] – made it particularly important for the exchange of knowledge between pure science and the practical world of manufacturing and technology.[52] This created a "chain reaction of innovation",[53] forming a pivotal link between the earlier scientific revolution and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
that would follow.[54] Industrial Revolution[edit]

Matthew Boulton

Birmingham's explosive industrial expansion started earlier than that of the textile-manufacturing towns of the North of England,[55] and was driven by different factors. Instead of the economies of scale of a low-paid, unskilled workforce producing a single bulk commodity such as cotton or wool in large, mechanised units of production, Birmingham's industrial development was built on the adaptability and creativity of a highly paid workforce with a strong division of labour, practising a broad variety of skilled specialist trades and producing a constantly diversifying range of products, in a highly entrepreneurial economy of small, often self-owned workshops.[56] This led to exceptional levels of inventiveness: between 1760 and 1850 – the core years of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Birmingham
Birmingham
residents registered over three times as many patents as those of any other British town or city.[57] The demand for capital to feed rapid economic expansion also saw Birmingham
Birmingham
grow into a major financial centre with extensive international connections.[58] Lloyds Bank
Lloyds Bank
was founded in the town in 1765,[59] and Ketley's Building Society, the world's first building society, in 1775.[60] By 1800 the West Midlands had more banking offices per head than any other region in Britain, including London.[58]

The Soho Manufactory
Soho Manufactory
of 1765 – pioneer of the factory system and the industrial steam engine

Innovation in 18th-century Birmingham
Birmingham
often took the form of incremental series of small-scale improvements to existing products or processes,[61] but also included major developments that lay at the heart of the emergence of industrial society.[8] In 1709 the Birmingham-trained Abraham Darby I
Abraham Darby I
moved to Coalbrookdale
Coalbrookdale
in Shropshire
Shropshire
and built the first blast furnace to successfully smelt iron ore with coke, transforming the quality, volume and scale on which it was possible to produce cast iron.[62] In 1732 Lewis Paul
Lewis Paul
and John Wyatt invented roller spinning, the "one novel idea of the first importance" in the development of the mechanised cotton industry.[63] In 1741 they opened the world's first cotton mill in Birmingham's Upper Priory.[64] In 1746 John Roebuck invented the lead chamber process, enabling the large-scale manufacture of sulphuric acid,[65] and in 1780 James Keir
James Keir
developed a process for the bulk manufacture of alkali,[66] together marking the birth of the modern chemical industry.[67] In 1765 Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton
opened the Soho Manufactory, pioneering the combination and mechanisation under one roof of previously separate manufacturing activities through a system known as "rational manufacture".[68] As the largest manufacturing unit in Europe this come to symbolise the emergence of the factory system.[69] Most significant, however, was the development in 1776 of the industrial steam engine by James Watt
James Watt
and Matthew Boulton.[70] Freeing for the first time the manufacturing capacity of human society from the limited availability of hand, water and animal power, this was arguably the pivotal moment of the entire industrial revolution and a key factor in the worldwide increases in productivity that would follow over the following century.[71] Regency and Victorian[edit]

Thomas Attwood
Thomas Attwood
addressing a 200,000-strong meeting of the Birmingham Political Union during the Days of May, 1832

Birmingham
Birmingham
rose to national political prominence in the campaign for political reform in the early 19th century, with Thomas Attwood
Thomas Attwood
and the Birmingham Political Union
Birmingham Political Union
bringing the country to the brink of civil war during the Days of May
Days of May
that preceded the passing of the Great Reform Act
Great Reform Act
in 1832.[72] The Union's meetings on Newhall Hill in 1831 and 1832 were the largest political assemblies Britain had ever seen.[73] Lord Durham, who drafted the Act, wrote that "the country owed Reform to Birmingham, and its salvation from revolution".[74] This reputation for having "shaken the fabric of privilege to its base" in 1832 led John Bright
John Bright
to make Birmingham
Birmingham
the platform for his successful campaign for the Second Reform Act of 1867, which extended voting rights to the urban working class.[75] Birmingham's tradition of innovation continued into the 19th century. Birmingham
Birmingham
was the terminus for both of the world's first two long-distance railway lines: the 82 mile Grand Junction Railway of 1837 and the 112 mile London
London
and Birmingham
Birmingham
Railway of 1838.[76] Birmingham
Birmingham
schoolteacher Rowland Hill
Rowland Hill
invented the postage stamp and created the first modern universal postal system in 1839.[77] Alexander Parkes
Alexander Parkes
invented the first man-made plastic in the Jewellery Quarter in 1855.[78] By the 1820s, an extensive canal system had been constructed, giving greater access to natural resources and fuel for industries. During the Victorian era, the population of Birmingham
Birmingham
grew rapidly to well over half a million[79] and Birmingham
Birmingham
became the second largest population centre in England. Birmingham
Birmingham
was granted city status in 1889 by Queen Victoria.[80] Joseph Chamberlain, mayor of Birmingham and later an MP, and his son Neville Chamberlain, who was Lord Mayor of Birmingham
Birmingham
and later the British Prime Minister, are two of the most well-known political figures who have lived in Birmingham. The city established its own university in 1900.[81] 20th century and contemporary[edit]

Destruction of the Bull Ring during the Birmingham
Birmingham
Blitz, 1940

Birmingham
Birmingham
suffered heavy bomb damage during World War II's " Birmingham
Birmingham
Blitz". The city was also the scene of two scientific discoveries that were to prove critical to the outcome of the war.[82] Otto Frisch
Otto Frisch
and Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
first described how a practical nuclear weapon could be constructed in the Frisch–Peierls memorandum
Frisch–Peierls memorandum
of 1940,[83] the same year that the cavity magnetron, the key component of radar and later of microwave ovens, was invented by John Randall and Henry Boot.[84] Details of these two discoveries, together with an outline of the first jet engine invented by Frank Whittle
Frank Whittle
in nearby Rugby, were taken to the United States
United States
by the Tizard Mission in September 1940, in a single black box later described by an official American historian as "the most valuable cargo ever brought to our shores".[85] The city was extensively redeveloped during the 1950s and 1960s.[86] This included the construction of large tower block estates, such as Castle Vale. The Bull Ring was reconstructed and New Street station was redeveloped. In the decades following World War II, the ethnic makeup of Birmingham
Birmingham
changed significantly, as it received waves of immigration from the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
and beyond.[87] The city's population peaked in 1951 at 1,113,000 residents.[79]

World leaders meet in Birmingham
Birmingham
for the 1998 G8 Summit

Birmingham
Birmingham
remained by far Britain's most prosperous provincial city as late as the 1970s,[88] with household incomes exceeding even those of London
London
and the South East,[89] but its economic diversity and capacity for regeneration declined in the decades that followed World War II as Central Government sought to restrict the city's growth and disperse industry and population to the stagnating areas of Wales
Wales
and Northern England.[90] These measures hindered "the natural self-regeneration of businesses in Birmingham, leaving it top-heavy with the old and infirm",[91] and the city became increasingly dependent on the motor industry. The recession of the early 1980s saw Birmingham's economy collapse, with unprecedented levels of unemployment and outbreaks of social unrest in inner-city districts.[92] In recent years, many parts of Birmingham
Birmingham
have been transformed, with the redevelopment of the Bullring Shopping Centre[93] and regeneration of old industrial areas such as Brindleyplace, The Mailbox
The Mailbox
and the International Convention Centre. Old streets, buildings and canals have been restored, the pedestrian subways have been removed and the Inner Ring Road has been rationalised. In 1998 Birmingham
Birmingham
hosted the 24th G8 summit. The city will serve as host of the 2022 Commonwealth Games.[18] Government[edit] Main article: Government of Birmingham

The Council House, headquarters of Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council

Birmingham City Council
Birmingham City Council
is the largest[clarification needed] local authority in Europe with 120 councillors representing 40 wards.[94] Its headquarters are at the Council House in Victoria Square. As of 2017[update], the council has a Labour Party majority and was led by John Clancy, replacing the previous Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition at the May 2012 elections, until Clancy's resignation on 11 September 2017. The honour and dignity of a Lord Mayoralty was conferred on Birmingham
Birmingham
by Letters Patent
Patent
on 3 June 1896. Birmingham's ten parliamentary constituencies are represented in the House of Commons as of 2017[update] by one Conservative and nine Labour MPs.[95] In the European Parliament
European Parliament
the city forms part of the West Midlands European Parliament
European Parliament
constituency, which elects six Members of the European Parliament.[96] Birmingham
Birmingham
was originally part of Warwickshire, but expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, absorbing parts of Worcestershire to the south and Staffordshire
Staffordshire
to the north and west. The city absorbed Sutton Coldfield in 1974 and became a metropolitan borough in the new West Midlands county. Until 1986, the West Midlands County Council was based in Birmingham
Birmingham
City Centre. Since 2011, Birmingham
Birmingham
has formed part of the Greater Birmingham
Birmingham
& Solihull
Solihull
Local Enterprise Partnership along with neighbouring authorities Bromsgrove, Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Redditch, Solihull, Tamworth, Wyre Forest. A top-level government body, the West Midlands Combined Authority, was formed in April 2016. The WMCA holds devolved powers in transport, development planning, and economic growth. The authority is governed by a directly-elected Mayor, similar to the Mayor of London. Geography[edit] Further information: Constituent areas of Birmingham, England

Birmingham
Birmingham
and the wider West Midlands Built-up Area
West Midlands Built-up Area
seen from the International Space Station
International Space Station
at night from the south west

Birmingham
Birmingham
is located in the centre of the West Midlands region
West Midlands region
of England
England
on the Birmingham Plateau – an area of relatively high ground, ranging between 500 and 1,000 feet (150 and 300 metres) above sea level and crossed by Britain's main north-south watershed between the basins of the Rivers Severn and Trent. To the south west of the city lie the Lickey Hills,[97] Clent Hills
Clent Hills
and Walton Hill, which reach 1,033 feet (315 m) and have extensive views over the city. Birmingham
Birmingham
is drained only by minor rivers and brooks, primarily the River Tame and its tributaries the Cole and the Rea. The City of Birmingham
Birmingham
forms a conurbation with the largely residential borough of Solihull
Solihull
to the south east, and with the city of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and the industrial towns of the Black Country
Black Country
to the north west, which form the West Midlands Built-up Area
West Midlands Built-up Area
covering 59,972 ha (600 km2; 232 sq mi). Surrounding this is Birmingham's metropolitan area – the area to which it is closely economically tied through commuting – which includes the former Mercian capital of Tamworth and the cathedral city of Lichfield
Lichfield
in Staffordshire
Staffordshire
to the north; the industrial city of Coventry
Coventry
and the Warwickshire
Warwickshire
towns of Nuneaton, Warwick
Warwick
and Leamington Spa
Leamington Spa
to the east; and the Worcestershire
Worcestershire
towns of Redditch
Redditch
and Bromsgrove
Bromsgrove
to the south west.[98] Much of the area now occupied by the city was originally a northern reach of the ancient Forest of Arden, whose former presence can still be felt in the city's dense oak tree-cover and in the large number of districts such as Moseley, Saltley, Yardley, Stirchley and Hockley with names ending in "-ley": the Old English
Old English
-lēah meaning "woodland clearing".[99]

View across the city from the Lickey Hills, with Longbridge
Longbridge
in the foreground

Geology[edit] Geologically, Birmingham
Birmingham
is dominated by the Birmingham
Birmingham
Fault which runs diagonally through the city from the Lickey Hills
Lickey Hills
in the south west, passing through Edgbaston
Edgbaston
and the Bull Ring, to Erdington
Erdington
and Sutton Coldfield in the north east.[100] To the south and east of the fault the ground is largely softer Mercia
Mercia
Mudstone, interspersed with beds of Bunter pebbles and crossed by the valleys of the Rivers Tame, Rea and Cole and their tributaries.[101] To the north and west of the fault, between 150 and 600 feet (46 and 183 metres) higher than the surrounding area and underlying much of the city centre, lies a long ridge of harder Keuper
Keuper
Sandstone.[102][103] The bedrock underlying Birmingham
Birmingham
was mostly laid down during the Permian
Permian
and Triassic periods.[100] Climate[edit] Birmingham
Birmingham
has a temperate maritime climate, like much of the British Isles, with average maximum temperatures in summer (July) being around 21.3 °C (70.3 °F); and in winter (January) around 6.7 °C (44.1 °F).[104] Between 1971 and 2000 the warmest day of the year on average was 28.8 °C (83.8 °F)[105] and the coldest night typically fell to −9.0 °C (15.8 °F).[106] Some 11.2 days each year rose to a temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F) or above[107] and 51.6 nights reported an air frost.[108] The highest recorded temperature, set during August 1990, was 34.9 °C (94.8 °F).[109] Like most other large cities, Birmingham
Birmingham
has a considerable urban heat island effect.[110] During the coldest night recorded, 14 January 1982, the temperature fell to −20.8 °C (−5.4 °F) at Birmingham Airport
Birmingham Airport
on the city's eastern edge, but just −12.9 °C (8.8 °F) at Edgbaston, near the city centre.[111] Birmingham
Birmingham
is a snowy city relative to other large UK conurbations, due to its inland location and comparatively high elevation.[111] Between 1961 and 1990 Birmingham Airport
Birmingham Airport
averaged 13.0 days of snow lying annually,[112] compared to 5.33 at London
London
Heathrow.[113] Snow showers often pass through the city via the Cheshire
Cheshire
gap on north westerly airstreams, but can also come off the North Sea
North Sea
from north easterly airstreams.[111] Extreme weather is rare but the city has been known to experience tornados – the most recent being in July 2005 in the south of the city, damaging homes and businesses in the area.[114]

Climate data for Winterbourne (South Birmingham), 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.1 (44.8) 9.8 (49.6) 12.7 (54.9) 16.0 (60.8) 19.0 (66.2) 21.3 (70.3) 20.8 (69.4) 17.8 (64) 13.6 (56.5) 9.5 (49.1) 6.9 (44.4) 13.5 (56.3)

Average low °C (°F) 1.4 (34.5) 1.1 (34) 2.9 (37.2) 4.2 (39.6) 7.1 (44.8) 10.0 (50) 12.1 (53.8) 11.8 (53.2) 9.7 (49.5) 6.8 (44.2) 3.8 (38.8) 1.6 (34.9) 6.1 (43)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 73.2 (2.882) 51.4 (2.024) 55.8 (2.197) 61.9 (2.437) 61.3 (2.413) 65.6 (2.583) 63.8 (2.512) 66.7 (2.626) 68.1 (2.681) 82.7 (3.256) 74.8 (2.945) 79.7 (3.138) 804.9 (31.689)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12.9 10.2 10.7 11.1 10.6 9.9 9.0 10.4 9.7 12.3 12.4 11.8 131.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.5 73.7 107.7 149.3 177.6 181.3 193.7 180.2 139.5 104.5 64.0 52.3 1,478.3

Source: Met Office[115]

Climate data for Birmingham

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Mean daily daylight hours 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 17.0 16.0 15.0 13.0 11.0 9.0 8.0 12.4

Average Ultraviolet index 1 1 2 4 5 6 6 5 4 2 1 0 3

Source: Weather Atlas [116]

Environment[edit] Further information: Parks and open spaces in Birmingham
Parks and open spaces in Birmingham
and West Midlands Green Belt

Birmingham
Birmingham
Botanical Gardens

There are 571 parks within Birmingham[117] – more than any other European city[118] – totalling over 3,500 hectares (14 sq mi) of public open space.[117] The city has over six million trees,[118] and 250 miles (400 kilometres) of urban brooks and streams.[117] Sutton Park, which covers 2,400 acres (971 ha) in the north of the city,[119] is the largest urban park in Europe and a National Nature Reserve.[117] Birmingham
Birmingham
Botanical Gardens, located close to the city centre, retains the regency landscape of its original design by J. C. Loudon
J. C. Loudon
in 1829,[120] while the Winterbourne Botanic Garden in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
reflects the more informal Arts and Crafts tastes of its Edwardian origins.[121] Several green spaces within the borough are designated as green belt, as a portion of the wider West Midlands Green Belt. This is a strategic local government policy used to prevent urban sprawl and preserve greenfield land. Areas included are the aforementioned Sutton Park; land along the borough boundary by the Sutton Coalfield, Walmley and Minworth
Minworth
suburbs; Kingfisher, Sheldon, Woodgate Valley country parks; grounds by the Wake Green football club; Bartley and Frankley reservoirs; and Handsworth cemetery with surrounding golf courses.[122] Birmingham
Birmingham
has many areas of wildlife that lie in both informal settings such as the Project Kingfisher and Woodgate Valley Country Park and in a selection of parks such as Lickey Hills
Lickey Hills
Country Park, Handsworth Park, Kings Heath
Kings Heath
Park, and Cannon Hill Park, the latter also housing the Birmingham
Birmingham
Nature Centre.[123] Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Birmingham

Historical population of Birmingham, between 1651-2011[124]

The 2012 mid-year estimate for the population of Birmingham
Birmingham
was 1,085,400. This was an increase of 11,200, or 1.0%, since the same time in 2011. Since 2001, the population has grown by 99,500, or 10.1%. Birmingham
Birmingham
is the largest local Authority area and city in the UK outside of London. The population density is 10,391 inhabitants per square mile (4,102/km²) compared to the 976.9 inhabitants per square mile (377.2/km²) for England. Based on the 2011 UK Census, Birmingham's population is projected to reach 1,160,100 by 2021, an increase of 8.0%. This compares with an estimated rate of 9.1% for the previous decade.[125] The West Midlands conurbation
West Midlands conurbation
had a population of 2,441,00 (2011 est.,), and 2,762,700 people live in the West Midlands (county)
West Midlands (county)
(2012 est.,).

Ethnicity of Birmingham
Birmingham
residents, 2011

White

57.9%

Asian

26.6%

Black

8.9%

Mixed

4.4%

Other

1.2%

Arab

1.0%

Source: 2011 Census[1]

According to figures from the 2011 UK Census, 57.9% of the population was White (53.1% White British, 2.1% White Irish, 2.7% Other White), 4.4% of mixed race (2.3% White and Black Caribbean, 0.3% White and Black African, 1.0% White and Asian, 0.8% Other Mixed), 26.6% Asian (13.5% Pakistani, 6.0% Indian, 3.0% Bangladeshi, 1.2% Chinese, 2.9% Other Asian), 8.9% Black (2.8% African, 4.4% Caribbean, 1.7% Other Black), 1.0% Arab and 1.0% of other ethnic heritage.[126] 57% of primary and 52% of secondary pupils are from non-White British families.[127] 238,313 Birmingham
Birmingham
residents were born overseas, of these, 44% (103,682) have been resident in the UK for less than ten years. Countries new to the twenty most reported countries of birth for Birmingham
Birmingham
residents since 2001 include; Iran, Zimbabwe, the Philippines
Philippines
and Nigeria. Established migrants outnumbered newer migrants in all wards except for, Edgbaston, Ladywood, Nechells
Nechells
and Selly Oak. In Birmingham, 60.4% of the population was aged between 16-74, compared to 66.7% in England
England
as a whole.[128] There are generally more females than males in each single year of age, except for the youngest ages (0–18) and late-30s and late-50s. Females represented 51.6% of the population whilst men represented 48.4%. The differences are most marked in the oldest age group reflecting greater female longevity, where more women were 70 or over.[129] The bulge around the early-20s is due largely to students coming to the city's universities. Children around age ten are a relatively small group, reflecting the decline in birth rates around the turn of the century. There is a large group of children under the age of five reflecting high numbers of births in recent years. Births are up 20% since 2001, increasing from 14,427 to 17,423 in 2011. In 2011, of all households in Birmingham, 0.12% were same-sex civil partnership households, compared to the English national average of 0.16%.[130] 25.9% of all households owned their accommodation outright, another 29.3% owned their accommodation with a mortgage or loan. These figures were below the national average.[131] 45.5% of people said they were in very good health which was below the national average. Another 33.9% said they were in good health, which was also below the national average. 9.1% of people said their day-to-day activities were limited a lot by their health which was higher than the national average.[131] The Birmingham
Birmingham
Larger Urban Zone, a Eurostat
Eurostat
measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,357,100 in 2004.[132] In addition to Birmingham itself, the LUZ includes the Metropolitan Boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull
Solihull
and Walsall, along with the districts of Lichfield, Tamworth, North Warwickshire
Warwickshire
and Bromsgrove.[133] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Birmingham

Religion of Birmingham
Birmingham
residents, 2011

Christian

46.1%

Muslim

21.8%

No religion

19.3%

Religion not stated

6.5%

Sikh

3.0%

Hindu

2.1%

Other religion

0.5%

Buddhist

0.4%

Jewish

0.2%

Source: 2011 Census[134]

Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion within Birmingham, with 46.1% of residents identifying as Christians in the 2011 Census.[134] The city's religious profile is highly diverse, however: outside London, Birmingham
Birmingham
has the United Kingdom's largest Muslim, Sikh and Buddhist communities; its second largest Hindu community; and its seventh largest Jewish community.[134] Between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, the proportion of Christians in Birmingham
Birmingham
decreased from 59.1% to 46.1%, while the proportion of Muslims increased from 14.3% to 21.8% and the proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased from 12.4% to 19.3%. All other religions remained proportionately similar.[135] St Philip's Cathedral was upgraded from church status when the Anglican Diocese of Birmingham
Anglican Diocese of Birmingham
was created in 1905. There are two other cathedrals: St Chad's, seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Birmingham
Birmingham
and the Greek Orthodox Cathedral of the Dormition of the Mother of God and St Andrew. The Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Midlands is also based at Birmingham, with a cathedral under construction. The original parish church of Birmingham, St Martin in the Bull Ring, is Grade II* listed. A short distance from Five Ways the Birmingham Oratory
Birmingham Oratory
was completed in 1910 on the site of Cardinal Newman's original foundation. There are several Christadelphian meeting halls in the city and the Christadelphian
Christadelphian
Magazine and Publishing Group has its headquarters in Hall Green. The oldest surviving synagogue in Birmingham
Birmingham
is the 1825 Greek Revival Severn Street Synagogue, now a Freemasons' Lodge hall. It was replaced in 1856 by the Grade II* listed Singers Hill Synagogue. Birmingham Central Mosque, one of the largest in Europe, was constructed in the 1960s.[136] During the late 1990s Ghamkol Shariff Masjid
Ghamkol Shariff Masjid
was built in Small Heath.[137] The Guru Nanak Nishkam Sewak Jatha Sikh Gurdwara
Gurdwara
was built on Soho Road in Handsworth in the late 1970s and the Buddhist Dhammatalaka Peace Pagoda
Peace Pagoda
near Edgbaston
Edgbaston
Reservoir in the 1990s. Winners' Chapel
Winners' Chapel
also maintains physical presence in Digbeth. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Birmingham

Colmore Row, at the heart of Birmingham's Business District, is traditionally the most prestigious business address in the city.[138]

Birmingham
Birmingham
grew to prominence as a manufacturing and engineering centre, but its economy today is dominated by the service sector, which in 2012 accounted for 88% of the city's employment.[12] Birmingham
Birmingham
is the largest centre in Great Britain for employment in public administration, education and health;[139] and after Leeds
Leeds
the second largest centre outside London
London
for employment in financial and other business services.[140] It is ranked as a beta- world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, the third highest ranking in the country after London
London
and Manchester,[13] and its wider metropolitan economy is the second-largest in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
with a GDP
GDP
of $121.1bn (2014 est., PPP).[2] Major companies headquartered in Birmingham
Birmingham
include the engineering company IMI plc, and including the wider metropolitan area the city has the largest concentration of major companies outside London
London
and the South East.[141] With major facilities such as the National Exhibition Centre
National Exhibition Centre
and International Convention Centre Birmingham
Birmingham
attracts 42% of the UK's total conference and exhibition trade.[142]

The Jaguar F-Type, made by Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
at Castle Bromwich Assembly

Manufacturing accounted for 8% of employment within Birmingham
Birmingham
in 2012, a figure beneath the average for the UK as a whole.[12] Major industrial plants within the city include Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
in Castle Bromwich and Cadbury
Cadbury
in Bournville, with large local producers also supporting a supply chain of precision-based small manufacturers and craft industries.[143] More traditional industries also remain: 40% of the jewellery made in the UK is still produced by the 300 independent manufacturers of the city's Jewellery
Jewellery
Quarter,[144] continuing a trade first recorded in Birmingham
Birmingham
in 1308.[34]

Nominal GVA for Birmingham
Birmingham
2010–2015. Note 2015 is provisional[145]

Year GVA (£ million) Growth (%)

2010 20,795 02.1%

2011 21,424 03.0%

2012 21,762 01.6%

2013 22,644 04.1%

2014 23,583 04.2%

2015 24,790 05.2%

Birmingham's GVA was £24.8bn (2015 est.,), economic growth accelerated each successive year between 2013 and 2015, and with an annual growth of 4.2% in 2015, GVA per head grew at the second fastest rate of England's eight "Core Cities". The value of manufacturing output in the city declined by 21% in real terms between 1997 and 2010, but the value of financial and insurance activities more than doubled.[146] With 16,281 start-ups registered during 2013 Birmingham has the highest level of entrepreneurial activity outside London,[147] while the number of registered businesses in the city grew by 8.1% during 2016.[148] Birmingham
Birmingham
was behind only London
London
and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
for private sector job creation between 2010 and 2013.[149] Economic inequality within Birmingham
Birmingham
is greater than in any other major English city, and is exceeded only by Glasgow
Glasgow
in the United Kingdom.[150] Levels of unemployment are among the highest in the country, with 10.0% of the economically active population unemployed (Jun 2016).[151] In the inner-city wards of Aston
Aston
and Washwood Heath, the figure is higher than 30%. Two-fifths of Birmingham's population live in areas classified as in the 10% most deprived parts of England, and overall Birmingham
Birmingham
is the most deprived local authority in England in terms of income and employment deprivation.[152] The city's infant mortality rate is high, around 60% worse than the national average.[153] Meanwhile, just 49% of women have jobs, compared to 65% nationally,[153] and only 28% of the working-age population in Birmingham
Birmingham
have degree level qualifications in contrast to the average of 34% across other Core Cities.[154] According to the 2014 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, Birmingham
Birmingham
was placed 51st in the world in, which was the second highest rating in the UK. This is an improvement on the city's 56th place in 2008.[155] The Big City Plan
Big City Plan
aims to move the city into the index's top 20 by 2026.[156] An area of the city has been designated an enterprise zone, with tax relief and simplified planning to lure investment.[157] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Birmingham Music[edit] See also: Classical music of Birmingham, Jazz
Jazz
of Birmingham, and Popular music of Birmingham

Mirga Gražinytė-Tyla
Mirga Gražinytė-Tyla
conducting the City of Birmingham
Birmingham
Symphony Orchestra at Symphony Hall

The City of Birmingham
Birmingham
Symphony Orchestra's home venue is Symphony Hall. Other notable professional orchestras based in the city include the Birmingham
Birmingham
Contemporary Music Group, the Royal Ballet Sinfonia and Ex Cathedra, a Baroque chamber choir and period instrument orchestra. The Orchestra of the Swan is the resident chamber orchestra at Birmingham
Birmingham
Town Hall,[158] where weekly recitals have also been given by the City Organist since 1834.[159] The Birmingham
Birmingham
Triennial Music Festivals took place from 1784 to 1912. Music was specially composed, conducted or performed by Mendelssohn, Gounod, Sullivan, Dvořák, Bantock and Edward Elgar, who wrote four of his most famous choral pieces for Birmingham. Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius had its début performance there in 1900. Composers born in the city include Albert William Ketèlbey
Albert William Ketèlbey
and Andrew Glover. Jazz
Jazz
has been popular in the city since the 1920s,[160] and there are many regular festivals such as the Harmonic Festival, the Mostly Jazz Festival and the annual International Jazz
Jazz
Festival. Birmingham's other city-centre music venues include The National Indoor Arena, which was opened in 1991, O2 Academy on Bristol
Bristol
Street, which opened in September 2009 replacing the O2 Academy in Dale End, The CBSO Centre, opened in 1997, HMV Institute in Digbeth
Digbeth
and the Adrian Boult Hall
Adrian Boult Hall
at the Birmingham
Birmingham
Conservatoire.

Black Sabbath, pioneers of heavy metal

During the 1960s Birmingham
Birmingham
was the home of a music scene comparable to that of Liverpool.[161] Although it produced no single band as big as The Beatles
The Beatles
it was "a seething cauldron of musical activity", and the international success of groups such as The Move, The Spencer Davis Group, The Moody Blues, Traffic and the Electric Light Orchestra had a collective influence that stretched into the 1970s and beyond.[161] The city was the birthplace of heavy metal music,[162] with pioneering metal bands from the late 1960s and 1970s such as Black Sabbath, Judas Priest, and half of Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
having come from Birmingham. The next decade saw the influential metal bands Napalm Death and Godflesh
Godflesh
arise from the city. Birmingham
Birmingham
was the birthplace of modern bhangra in the 1960s,[163] and by the 1980s had established itself as the global centre of bhangra culture,[164] which has grown into a global phenomenon embraced by members of the Indian diaspora worldwide from Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to Singapore.[163] The 1970s also saw the rise of reggae and ska in the city with such bands as Steel Pulse, UB40, Musical Youth, The Beat and Beshara, expounding racial unity with politically leftist lyrics and multiracial line-ups, mirroring social currents in Birmingham
Birmingham
at that time. Other popular bands from Birmingham
Birmingham
include Duran Duran, Fine Young Cannibals, Felt, Broadcast, Ocean Colour Scene, The Streets, The Twang, Deluka and Dexys Midnight Runners. Musicians Jeff Lynne, Ozzy Osbourne, Tony Iommi, Bill Ward, Geezer Butler, John Lodge, Roy Wood, Joan Armatrading, Toyah Willcox, Denny Laine, Sukshinder Shinda, Apache Indian, Steve Winwood, Jamelia, Oceans Ate Alaska, Fyfe Dangerfield and Laura Mvula
Laura Mvula
all grew up in the city. Since 2012 the Digbeth-based B-Town
B-Town
indie music scene has attracted widespread attention, led by bands such as Peace and Swim Deep, with the NME
NME
comparing Digbeth
Digbeth
to London's Shoreditch, and The Independent writing in 2012 that " Birmingham
Birmingham
is fast becoming the best place in the UK to look to for the most exciting new music".[165] Theatre and performing arts[edit]

The Birmingham
Birmingham
Hippodrome, home stage of the Birmingham
Birmingham
Royal Ballet, is the busiest single theatre in the United Kingdom.[166]

Birmingham Repertory Theatre
Birmingham Repertory Theatre
is Britain's longest-established producing theatre,[167] presenting a wide variety of work in its three auditoria on Centenary Square
Centenary Square
and touring nationally and internationally.[168] Other producing theatres in the city include the Blue Orange Theatre in the Jewellery
Jewellery
Quarter; the Old Rep, home stage of the Birmingham
Birmingham
Stage Company; and @ A. E. Harris, the base of the experimental Stan's Cafe
Stan's Cafe
theatre company, located within a working metal fabricators' factory. Touring theatre companies include the politically radical Banner Theatre, the Maverick Theatre Company and Kindle Theatre. The Alexandra Theatre and the Birmingham
Birmingham
Hippodrome host large-scale touring productions, while professional drama is performed on a wide range of stages across the city, including the Crescent Theatre, the Custard Factory, the Old Joint Stock Theatre, the Drum in Aston
Aston
and the mac in Cannon Hill Park. The Birmingham Royal Ballet
Birmingham Royal Ballet
is one of the United Kingdom's five major ballet companies and one of three based outside London.[169] It is resident at the Birmingham Hippodrome
Birmingham Hippodrome
and tours extensively nationally and internationally. The company's associated ballet school – Elmhurst School for Dance
Elmhurst School for Dance
in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
– is the oldest vocational dance school in the country.[170] The Birmingham Opera Company
Birmingham Opera Company
under artistic director Graham Vick
Graham Vick
has developed an international reputation for its avant-garde productions,[171] which often take place in factories, abandoned buildings and other found spaces around the city.[172] More conventional seasons by Welsh National Opera
Welsh National Opera
and other visiting opera companies take place regularly at the Birmingham
Birmingham
Hippodrome.[173] Literature[edit]

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Main article: Literature of Birmingham

W. H. Auden

Literary figures associated with Birmingham
Birmingham
include Samuel Johnson
Samuel Johnson
who stayed in Birmingham
Birmingham
for a short period and was born in nearby Lichfield. Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle
worked in the Aston
Aston
area of Birmingham whilst poet Louis MacNeice
Louis MacNeice
lived in Birmingham
Birmingham
for six years. It was whilst staying in Birmingham
Birmingham
that American author Washington Irving produced several of his most famous literary works, such as Bracebridge Hall and The Humorists, A Medley which are based on Aston Hall. The poet W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
grew up in the Harborne
Harborne
area of the city and during the 1930s formed the core of the Auden Group with Birmingham University lecturer Louis MacNeice. Other influential poets associated with Birmingham
Birmingham
include Roi Kwabena, who was the city's sixth poet laureate,[174] and Benjamin Zephaniah, who was born in the city. The author J. R. R. Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien
was brought up in Birmingham. The award-winning political playwright David Edgar was born in Birmingham, and the science fiction author John Wyndham
John Wyndham
spent his early childhood in the Edgbaston
Edgbaston
area of the city, as did Dame Barbara Cartland.[citation needed] Birmingham
Birmingham
has a vibrant contemporary literary scene, with local authors including David Lodge, Jim Crace, Jonathan Coe, Joel Lane and Judith Cutler.[175] The city's leading contemporary literary publisher is the Tindal Street Press, whose authors include prize-winning novelists Catherine O'Flynn, Clare Morrall and Austin Clarke.[176] Birmingham
Birmingham
is the home of the UK's longest-established local science fiction group, launched in 1971 (although there were earlier incarnations in the 1940s and 1960s) and which organises the annual science fiction event Novacon. Art and design[edit] Main article: Art of Birmingham

Rhyl
Rhyl
Sands (ca. 1854), Oil on Canvas, by David Cox depicting Rhyl, Wales

The Birmingham
Birmingham
School of landscape artists emerged with Daniel Bond in the 1760s and was to last into the mid 19th century.[177] Its most important figure was David Cox, whose later works make him an important precursor of impressionism.[178] The influence of the Royal Birmingham
Birmingham
Society of Artists and the Birmingham School of Art
Birmingham School of Art
made Birmingham
Birmingham
an important centre of Victorian art, particularly within the Pre-Raphaelite
Pre-Raphaelite
and Arts and Crafts movements.[179] Major figures included the Pre-Raphaelite
Pre-Raphaelite
and symbolist Edward Burne-Jones; Walter Langley, the first of the Newlyn School
Newlyn School
painters;[180] and Joseph Southall, leader of the group of artists and craftsmen known as the Birmingham
Birmingham
Group. The Birmingham Surrealists
Birmingham Surrealists
were among the "harbingers of surrealism" in Britain in the 1930s and the movement's most active members in the 1940s,[181] while more abstract artists associated with the city included Lee Bank-born David Bomberg
David Bomberg
and CoBrA
CoBrA
member William Gear. Birmingham
Birmingham
artists were prominent in several post-war developments in art: Peter Phillips was among the central figures in the birth of Pop Art;[182] John Salt
John Salt
was the only major European figure among the pioneers of photo-realism;[183] and the BLK Art Group used painting, collage and multimedia to examine the politics and culture of Black British identity. Contemporary artists from the city include the Turner Prize
Turner Prize
winner Gillian Wearing and the Turner Prize
Turner Prize
shortlisted Richard Billingham, John Walker and Roger Hiorns.[184] Birmingham's role as a manufacturing and printing centre has supported strong local traditions of graphic design and product design. Iconic works by Birmingham
Birmingham
designers include the Baskerville
Baskerville
font,[185] Ruskin Pottery,[186] the Acme Thunderer whistle,[187] the Art Deco branding of the Odeon Cinemas[188] and the Mini.[189] Museums and galleries[edit]

Barber Institute of Fine Arts

Birmingham
Birmingham
has two major public art collections. Birmingham
Birmingham
Museum & Art Gallery is best known for its works by the Pre-Raphaelites, a collection "of outstanding importance".[190] It also holds a significant selection of old masters – including major works by Bellini, Rubens, Canaletto
Canaletto
and Claude – and particularly strong collections of 17th-century Italian Baroque painting and English watercolours.[190] Its design holdings include Europe's pre-eminent collections of ceramics and fine metalwork.[190] The Barber Institute of Fine Arts in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
is one of the finest small art galleries in the world,[191] with a collection of exceptional quality representing Western art from the 13th century to the present day.[192] Birmingham Museums Trust
Birmingham Museums Trust
runs other museums in the city including Aston
Aston
Hall, Blakesley Hall, the Museum of the Jewellery
Jewellery
Quarter, Soho House and Sarehole Mill. The Birmingham Back to Backs
Birmingham Back to Backs
are the last surviving court of back-to-back houses in the city.[193] Cadbury
Cadbury
World is a museum showing visitors the stages and steps of chocolate production and the history of chocolate and the company. The Ikon Gallery hosts displays of contemporary art, as does Eastside Projects. Thinktank is Birmingham's main science museum, with a giant screen cinema, a planetarium and a collection that includes the Smethwick Engine, the world's oldest working steam engine.[194] Other science-based museums include the National Sea Life Centre in Brindleyplace, the Lapworth Museum of Geology
Lapworth Museum of Geology
at the University of Birmingham
Birmingham
and the Centre of the Earth environmental education centre in Winson Green. Nightlife and festivals[edit]

Digbeth
Digbeth
Institute, an influential music venue since the 1960s

Nightlife in Birmingham
Birmingham
is mainly concentrated along Broad Street and into Brindleyplace. Although in more recent years Broad St has lost its popularity due to the closing of several clubs, the Arcadian now has more popularity in terms of nightlife. Outside the Broad Street area are many stylish and underground venues. The Medicine Bar in the Custard Factory, hmv Institute, Rainbow Pub and Air are large clubs and bars in Digbeth. Around the Chinese Quarter
Chinese Quarter
are areas such as the Arcadian and Hurst Street Gay Village, that abound with bars and clubs. Summer Row, The Mailbox, O2 Academy in Bristol
Bristol
Street, Snobs Nightclub, St Philips/Colmore Row, St Paul's Square and the Jewellery Quarter all have a vibrant night life. There are a number of late night pubs in the Irish Quarter.[195] Outside the city centre is Star City entertainment complex on the former site of Nechells
Nechells
Power Station.[196]

Birmingham's St Patrick's Day parade is the largest in Europe outside Dublin, and the city's largest single-day event

Birmingham
Birmingham
is home to many national, religious and spiritual festivals including a St. George's Day party. The Birmingham Tattoo
Birmingham Tattoo
is a long-standing military show held annually at the National Indoor Arena. The Caribbean-style Birmingham International Carnival takes place in odd numbered years. The UK’s largest two-day Gay Pride is Birmingham Pride
Birmingham Pride
(LGBT festival), which is typically held over the spring bank holiday weekend in May.[197] The streets of Birmingham's gay district pulsate with a carnival parade, live music, a dance arena with DJs, cabaret stage, women's arena and a community village. Birmingham Pride
Birmingham Pride
takes place in the gay village. From 1997 until December 2006, the city hosted an annual arts festival ArtsFest, the largest free arts festival in the UK at the time.[198] The city's largest single-day event is its St. Patrick's Day
St. Patrick's Day
parade (Europe's second largest, after Dublin).[199] Other multicultural events include the Bangla Mela and the Vaisakhi Mela. The Birmingham
Birmingham
Heritage Festival is a Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
style event in August. Caribbean
Caribbean
and African culture are celebrated with parades and street performances by buskers. Other festivals in the city include the Birmingham
Birmingham
International Jazz Festival,"Party in the Park"[200] was originally a festival hosted by local and regional radio stations which died down in 2007 and has now been brought back to life as an unsigned festival for regional unsigned acts to showcase themselves in a one-day music festival for the whole family. Birmingham Comedy Festival (since 2001; 10 days in October), which has been headlined by such acts as Peter Kay, The Fast Show, Jimmy Carr, Lee Evans and Lenny Henry. The biennial International Dance Festival Birmingham
Birmingham
started in 2008, organised by DanceXchange and involving indoor and outdoor venues across the city. Since 2001, Birmingham
Birmingham
has also been host to the Frankfurt Christmas Market. Modelled on its German counterpart, it has grown to become the UK's largest outdoor Christmas market
Christmas market
and is the largest German market outside of Germany
Germany
and Austria,[201] attracting over 3.1 million visitors in 2010[202] and over 5 million visitors in 2011.[203] Entertainment and leisure[edit] Birmingham
Birmingham
is home to many entainment and leisure venues. It is home to Europe's largest leisure and entertainment complex Star City as well as Europe's first out-of-city-centre entertainment and leisure complex Resorts World Birmingham owned by the Genting Group. The Mailbox which caters for more affluent clients is based within the city. Dialect[edit] The local dialect is called Brummie. Architecture[edit] Further information: Architecture of Birmingham, List of tallest buildings and structures in Birmingham, and Listed buildings in Birmingham

17 & 19 Newhall Street
Newhall Street
in Birmingham's characteristic Victorian red brick and terracotta

Birmingham
Birmingham
is chiefly a product of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries; its growth began during the Industrial Revolution. Consequently, relatively few buildings survive from its earlier history and those that do are protected. There are 1,946 listed buildings in Birmingham and thirteen scheduled ancient monuments.[204] Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council also operate a locally listing scheme for buildings that do not fully meet the criteria for statutorily listed status. Traces of medieval Birmingham
Birmingham
can be seen in the oldest churches, notably the original parish church, St Martin in the Bull Ring. A few other buildings from the medieval and Tudor periods survive, among them the Lad in the Lane[205] and The Old Crown, the 15th century Saracen's Head
Saracen's Head
public house and Old Grammar School in Kings Norton[206] and Blakesley Hall. A number of Georgian buildings survive, including St Philip's Cathedral, Soho House, Perrott's Folly, the Town Hall and much of St Paul's Square. The Victorian era
Victorian era
saw extensive building across the city. Major civic buildings such as the Victoria Law Courts
Victoria Law Courts
(in characteristic red brick and terracotta), the Council House and the Museum & Art Gallery were constructed.[207] St Chad's Cathedral was the first Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in the UK since the Reformation.[208] Across the city, the need to house the industrial workers gave rise to miles of redbrick streets and terraces, many of back-to-back houses, some of which were later to become inner-city slums.[209]

Selfridges, by architects Future Systems

Postwar redevelopment and anti-Victorianism resulted in the loss of dozens of Victorian buildings like New Street station and the old Central Library, often replaced by brutalist architecture.[210] Sir Herbert Manzoni, City Engineer and Surveyor of Birmingham
Birmingham
from 1935 until 1963, believed conservation of old buildings was sentimental and that the city did not have any of worth anyway.[211] In inner-city areas too, much Victorian housing was demolished and redeveloped. Existing communities were relocated to tower block estates like Castle Vale.[212] In a partial reaction against the Manzoni years, Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council is demolishing some of the brutalist buildings like the Central Library
Library
and has an extensive tower block demolition and renovation programme. There has been much redevelopment in the city centre in recent years, including the award-winning[213] Future Systems' Selfridges building in the Bullring Shopping Centre, the Brindleyplace
Brindleyplace
regeneration project, the Millennium Point science and technology centre, and the refurbishment of the iconic Rotunda building. Funding for many of these projects has come from the European Union; the Town Hall for example received £3 million in funding from the European Regional Development Fund.[214] Highrise development has slowed since the 1970s and mainly in recent years because of enforcements imposed by the Civil Aviation Authority on the heights of buildings as they could affect aircraft from the Airport (e.g. Beetham Tower).[215]

Transport[edit] Main article: Transport
Transport
in Birmingham

The Gravelly Hill
Gravelly Hill
Interchange, where the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
meets the Aston Expressway, is the original Spaghetti Junction.

Partly because of its central location, Birmingham
Birmingham
is a major transport hub on the motorway, rail and canal networks.[216] The city is served by the M5, M6, M40, and M42 motorways, and probably the best known motorway junction in the UK: Spaghetti Junction.[217] The M6 passes through the city on the Bromford
Bromford
Viaduct, which at 3.5 miles (5.6 km) is the longest bridge in the United Kingdom.[218] Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport, located 6 miles (9.7 km) east of the city centre in the neighbouring borough of Solihull, is the seventh busiest by passenger traffic in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the third busiest outside the London
London
area after Manchester
Manchester
and Edinburgh. It is the largest base for Flybe, Europe's largest regional airline,[219] and a major base for Ryanair, Thomson Airways
Thomson Airways
and previously Monarch Airlines.[citation needed] Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.[220]

Birmingham New Street railway station
Birmingham New Street railway station
is the largest and busiest in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
outside London

Birmingham
Birmingham
New Street is the busiest railway station in the United Kingdom outside London, both for passenger entries and exits and for passenger interchanges.[221] It is the national hub for CrossCountry, the most extensive long-distance train network in Britain,[222] and a major destination for Virgin Trains
Virgin Trains
services from London
London
Euston, Glasgow
Glasgow
Central and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Waverley.[223] Birmingham
Birmingham
Moor Street and Birmingham
Birmingham
Snow Hill form the northern termini for Chiltern Railways express trains running from London
London
Marylebone.[224] Local and regional services are operated from all of Birmingham's stations by West Midlands Trains.[225] Curzon Street railway station
Curzon Street railway station
is planned to be the northern terminus for phase 1 of the High Speed 2
High Speed 2
rail link from London, due to open in 2026.[226] The National Express
National Express
headquarters are located in Digbeth, in offices above Birmingham
Birmingham
Coach Station, which forms the national hub of the company's coach network.

Urbos 3
Urbos 3
trams on the Midland Metro

Local public transport in Birmingham
Birmingham
is co-ordinated by Transport
Transport
for West Midlands. TfWM's network includes the busiest urban rail system in the UK outside London, with 122 million passenger entries and exits per annum;[227] the busiest urban bus system outside London, with 300.2 million passenger journeys per annum;[228] and the Midland Metro, a light rail system which operates between Grand Central and Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
via Bilston, Wednesbury
Wednesbury
and West Bromwich,.[229] Bus routes are mainly operated by National Express
National Express
West Midlands, which accounts for over 80% of all bus journeys in Birmingham, though there are around 50 other, smaller registered bus companies.[230] The number 11 outer circle bus routes are the longest urban bus routes in Europe, being 26 miles (42 km) long[231] with 272 bus stops.[232] An extensive canal system remains from the Industrial Revolution, with the city having more miles of canal than Venice; as Birmingham
Birmingham
is much larger and its buildings overwhelmingly are accessed by road or footway its canals are a less essential feature than they are in Venice.[233] Nowadays the canals are mainly used for leisure purposes, and canalside regeneration schemes such as Brindleyplace
Brindleyplace
have turned the canals into tourist attractions.[citation needed] Education[edit] Main article: Education
Education
in Birmingham Further and higher education[edit]

University of Birmingham

Birmingham
Birmingham
is home to five universities: Aston
Aston
University, University of Birmingham, Birmingham
Birmingham
City University, University College Birmingham
Birmingham
and Newman University.[234] The city also hosts major campuses of the University of Law
University of Law
and BPP University, as well as the Open University's West Midlands regional base.[235] In 2011 Birmingham had 78,259 full-time students aged 18–74 resident in the city during term time, more than any other city in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
outside London.[236] Birmingham
Birmingham
has 32,690 research students, also the highest number of any major city outside London.[237]

Aston
Aston
University

The Birmingham
Birmingham
Business School, established by Sir William Ashley in 1902, is the oldest graduate-level business school in the United Kingdom.[238] Another top business school in the city includes Aston Business School, one of fewer than 1% of business schools globally to be granted triple accreditation,[239] and Birmingham
Birmingham
City Business School. The Birmingham
Birmingham
Conservatoire, Birmingham School of Acting
Birmingham School of Acting
and Birmingham
Birmingham
Institute of Art and Design, all now part of Birmingham City University, offer higher education in specific arts subjects. Birmingham
Birmingham
is an important centre for religious education. St Mary's College, Oscott is one of the three seminaries of the Catholic Church in England
England
and Wales;[240] Woodbrooke is the only Quaker
Quaker
study centre in Europe;[241] and Queen's College, Edgbaston
Edgbaston
is an ecumenical theological college serving the Church of England, the Methodist Church and the United Reformed Church. Birmingham Metropolitan College
Birmingham Metropolitan College
is one of the largest further education colleges in the country,[242] with fourteen campuses spread across Birmingham
Birmingham
and into the Black Country
Black Country
and Worcestershire.[243] South & City College Birmingham
Birmingham
has nine campuses spread throughout the city.[244] Bournville
Bournville
College is based in a £66 million, 4.2 acre campus in Longbridge
Longbridge
that opened in 2011.[245] Fircroft College is a residential college based in a former Edwardian mansion in Selly Oak, founded in 1909 around a strong commitment to social justice, with many courses aimed at students with few prior formal qualifications.[246] Queen Alexandra College
Queen Alexandra College
is a specialist college based in Harborne
Harborne
offering further education to visually impaired or disabled students from all over the United Kingdom.[247] Primary and secondary education[edit]

Moseley
Moseley
School is one of the largest of the 77 secondary schools in the city

Birmingham City Council
Birmingham City Council
is England's largest local education authority, directly or indirectly responsible for 25 nursery schools, 328 primary schools, 77 secondary schools[248] and 29 special schools.[249] and providing around 3,500 adult education courses throughout the year.[250] Most of Birmingham's state schools are community schools run directly by Birmingham City Council
Birmingham City Council
in its role as local education authority (LEA). However, there are a large number of voluntary aided schools within the state system. Since the 1970s, most secondary schools in Birmingham
Birmingham
have been 11-–-16/18 comprehensive schools, while post GCSE
GCSE
students have the choice of continuing their education in either a school's sixth form or at a further education college. Birmingham
Birmingham
has always operated a primary school system of 4–7 infant and 7–11 junior schools. King Edward's School, Birmingham, founded in 1552 by King Edward VI, is one of the oldest and most prestigious schools in the city, constantly setting high academic standards in GCSE
GCSE
and IB[citation needed] and having many notable alumni pass through its doors, such as J.R.R Tolkien, author of the Lord of the Rings books and The Hobbit. Notable independent schools in the city include the Birmingham
Birmingham
Blue Coat School, King Edward VI High School for Girls and Edgbaston
Edgbaston
High School for Girls. The seven schools of The King Edward VI Foundation are known nationally for setting very high academic standards and all the schools consistently achieve top positions in national league tables.[251] Bishop Vesey's Grammar School is also a notable school founded by Bishop Vesey in 1527.[citation needed] Public services[edit] In Birmingham
Birmingham
libraries, leisure centres, parks, play areas, transport, street cleaning and waste collection face cuts among other services. Albert Bore, leader of Birmingham City Council
Birmingham City Council
called on the government to change radically how local services are funded and provided. It is claimed government cuts to local authorities have hit Birmingham
Birmingham
disproportionately.[252] Child protection services within Birmingham
Birmingham
were rated "inadequate" by OFSTED
OFSTED
for four years running between 2009 and 2013, with 20 child deaths since 2007 being investigated.[253] In March 2014 the government announced that independent commissioner would be appointed to oversee improvements to children's services within the city.[254] Library
Library
services[edit]

The Library of Birmingham
Library of Birmingham
is the new home for the largest municipal library in Europe

The former Birmingham
Birmingham
Central Library, opened in 1972, was considered to be the largest municipal library in Europe.[255] Six of its collections were designated by the Arts Council England
England
as being "pre-eminent collections of national and international importance", out of only eight collections to be so recognised in local authority libraries nationwide.[256] A new Library of Birmingham
Library of Birmingham
in Centenary Square, replacing Central Library, was opened on 3 September 2013. It was designed by the Dutch architects Mecanoo
Mecanoo
and has been described as "a kind of public forum ... a memorial, a shrine, to the book and to literature".[257] This library faces cuts, due to reduced funding from Central government.[258] There are 41 local libraries in Birmingham, plus a regular mobile library service.[259] The library service has 4 million visitors annually.[260] Due to budget cuts, four of the branch libraries risk closure whilst services may be reduced elsewhere.[258] Emergency services[edit] Law enforcement in Birmingham
Birmingham
is carried out by West Midlands Police, whose headquarters are at Lloyd House in Birmingham
Birmingham
City Centre. With 87.92 recorded offences per 1000 population in 2009–10, Birmingham's crime rate is above the average for England
England
and Wales, but lower than any of England's other major core cities and lower than many smaller cities such as Oxford, Cambridge
Cambridge
or Brighton.[261] Fire and rescue services in Birmingham
Birmingham
are provided by West Midlands Fire Service and emergency medical care by West Midlands Ambulance Service. Healthcare[edit]

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
houses the largest critical care unit in Europe.

There are several major National Health Service
National Health Service
hospitals in Birmingham. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, adjacent to the Birmingham Medical School in Edgbaston, houses the largest critical care unit in Europe,[262] and is also the home of the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, treating military personnel injured in conflict zones.[263] Other general hospitals in the city include Heartlands Hospital, Good Hope Hospital in Sutton Coldfield and City Hospital in Winson Green. There are also many specialist hospitals, such as Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham
Birmingham
Women's Hospital, Birmingham
Birmingham
Dental Hospital, and the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital. Birmingham
Birmingham
saw the first ever use of radiography in an operation,[264] and the UK's first ever hole-in-the-heart operation was performed at Birmingham
Birmingham
Children's Hospital.[265] See also Healthcare in West Midlands. Water supply[edit] The Birmingham Corporation Water Department
Birmingham Corporation Water Department
was set up in 1876 to supply water to Birmingham, up until 1974 when its responsibilities were transferred to Severn Trent Water. Most of Birmingham's water is supplied by the Elan aqueduct,[266] opened in 1904; water is fed by gravity to Frankley
Frankley
Reservoir, Frankley, and Bartley Reservoir, Bartley Green, from reservoirs in the Elan Valley, Wales.[267] Energy from waste[edit] Within Birmingham
Birmingham
the Tyseley
Tyseley
Energy from Waste Plant, a large incineration plant built in 1996 for Veolia,[268] burns some 366,414 tonnes of household waste annually and produces 166,230 MWh of electricity for the National Grid along with 282,013 tonnes of carbon dioxide.[269] Birmingham
Birmingham
Friends of the Earth
Friends of the Earth
have strongly opposed the facility for contributing to climate change, causing air pollution and reducing recycling rates in the city.

Another energy-from-waste centre using pyrolysis technology has been granted planning permission at Washwood Heath.[270][271] Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Birmingham

Aston
Aston
Villa vs Birmingham
Birmingham
City in the Second City derby
Second City derby
at Villa Park

Birmingham
Birmingham
has played an important part in the history of modern sport. The Football League
Football League
– the world's first league football competition – was founded by Birmingham
Birmingham
resident and Aston
Aston
Villa director William McGregor, who wrote to fellow club directors in 1888 proposing "that ten or twelve of the most prominent clubs in England combine to arrange home-and-away fixtures each season".[272] The modern game of tennis was developed between 1859 and 1865 by Harry Gem and his friend Augurio Perera
Augurio Perera
at Perera's house in Edgbaston,[273] with the Edgbaston
Edgbaston
Archery and Lawn Tennis
Tennis
Society remaining the oldest tennis club in the world.[274] The Birmingham
Birmingham
and District Cricket League is the oldest cricket league in the world,[275] and Birmingham
Birmingham
was the host for the first ever Cricket World Cup, a Women's Cricket World Cup
Women's Cricket World Cup
in 1973.[276] Birmingham
Birmingham
was the first city to be named National City of Sport by the Sports Council.[277] Birmingham
Birmingham
was selected ahead of London
London
and Manchester
Manchester
to bid for the 1992 Summer Olympics,[278] but was unsuccessful in the final selection process, which was won by Barcelona.[279]

Test cricket
Test cricket
at Edgbaston
Edgbaston
Cricket Ground

Today, the city is home of two of the country's oldest professional football teams: Aston
Aston
Villa F.C., which was founded in 1874 and plays at Villa Park; and Birmingham
Birmingham
City F.C., which was founded in 1875 and plays at St Andrew's. Rivalry between the clubs is fierce and the fixture between the two is called the Second City derby.[280] Aston Villa are 7-time First Division champions and the 1982 European Champions, but currently play in the Championship following their relegation from the Premier League
Premier League
in the 2015–16 season. Birmingham City also currently play in the Championship. Seven times County Championship
County Championship
winners Warwickshire
Warwickshire
County Cricket Club play at Edgbaston
Edgbaston
Cricket Ground, which also hosts test cricket and one day internationals and is the largest cricket ground in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
after Lord's.[281] Edgbaston
Edgbaston
was the scene of the highest ever score by a batsman in first-class cricket, when Brian Lara scored 501 not out for Warwickshire
Warwickshire
in 1994.[282] Birmingham
Birmingham
has a professional Rugby Union
Rugby Union
club, Moseley
Moseley
R.F.C., who play at Billesley Common, with a second professional club, Birmingham & Solihull
Solihull
R.F.C., playing at Damson Park
Damson Park
in the neighbouring borough of Solihull. The city also has a rugby league club, the Birmingham
Birmingham
Bulldogs, who compete in the Co-operative RLC Midlands Premier League
Premier League
(RLC). The city is also home to one of the oldest American football
American football
teams in the BAFA National Leagues, the Birmingham Bulls.

International athletics at the National Indoor Arena

Two major championship golf courses lie on the city's outskirts. The Belfry near Sutton Coldfield is the headquarters of the Professional Golfers' Association[283] and has hosted the Ryder Cup
Ryder Cup
more times than any other venue.[284] The Forest of Arden
Forest of Arden
Hotel and Country Club near Birmingham Airport
Birmingham Airport
is also a regular host of tournaments on the PGA European Tour, including the British Masters
British Masters
and the English Open.[285] The AEGON Classic
AEGON Classic
is, alongside Wimbledon and Eastbourne, one of only three UK tennis tournaments on the WTA Tour.[286] It is played annually at the Edgbaston
Edgbaston
Priory Club, which in 2010 announced plans for a multimillion-pound redevelopment, including a new showcase centre court and a museum celebrating the game's Birmingham origins.[287] The Alexander Stadium
Alexander Stadium
in Perry Barr
Perry Barr
is the headquarters of UK Athletics,[288] and one of only two British venues to host fixtures in the elite international IAAF Diamond League.[289] It is also the home of Birchfield Harriers, which has many international athletes among its members. The National Indoor Arena
National Indoor Arena
hosted the 2007 European Athletics Indoor Championships and 2003 IAAF World Indoor Championships, as well as hosting the annual Aviva Indoor Grand Prix – the only British indoor athletics fixture to qualify as an IAAF Indoor Permit Meeting[290] – and a wide variety of other sporting events. The venue will host the World Indoor Athletics Championships for a second time, when they come to Birmingham
Birmingham
in 2018. Professional boxing, hockey, skateboarding, stock-car racing, greyhound racing and speedway also takes place within the city. Since 1994 Birmingham
Birmingham
has hosted the All England
England
Open Badminton Championships at Arena Birmingham. Commonwealth Games[edit]

Birmingham
Birmingham
2022 logo

Birmingham
Birmingham
will host the 2022 Commonwealth Games, replacing Durban which had to withdraw as host.[18] The Games are expected to take place between 27 July and 7 August 2022. Birmingham
Birmingham
has a wealth of existing sports venues, arenas and conference halls that are ideal for hosting sport during the Games. 95% of the competition venues are already in place for the 2022 games.[291] Alexander Stadium
Alexander Stadium
which will host the ceremonies and athletics will be renovated and the capacity will be increased to 50,000 seats. The 2022 Commonwealth Games
2022 Commonwealth Games
in Birmingham
Birmingham
are expected to generate a £526 million boost to the West Midlands regional economy.[292] The official handover to Birmingham
Birmingham
set to take place at the Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games
2018 Commonwealth Games
Closing Ceremony on 15 April 2018.[293] Food and drink[edit] Main article: Food and drink in Birmingham

Simpson's
Simpson's
in Edgbaston
Edgbaston
is one of Birmingham's four Michelin-starred restaurants

Birmingham's development as a commercial town was originally based around its market for agricultural produce, established by royal charter in 1166. Despite the industrialisation of subsequent centuries this role has been retained and the Birmingham
Birmingham
Wholesale Markets remain the largest combined wholesale food markets in the country,[294] selling meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and flowers and supplying fresh produce to restaurateurs and independent retailers from as far as 100 miles (161 km) away.[295] Birmingham
Birmingham
is the only English city outside London
London
to have five Michelin starred restaurants: Simpson's
Simpson's
in Edgbaston, Turners in Harborne, Carters of Moseley
Moseley
and Purnell's and Adam's in the city centre.[296] Birmingham
Birmingham
based breweries included Ansells, Davenport's and Mitchells & Butlers.[297] Aston
Aston
Manor Brewery
Brewery
is currently the only brewery of any significant size. Many fine Victorian pubs and bars can still be found across the city, whilst there is also a plethora of more modern nightclubs and bars, notably along Broad Street.[298] The Wing Yip
Wing Yip
food empire first began in the city and now has its headquarters in Nechells.[299] The Balti, a type of curry, was invented in the city, which has received much acclaim for the 'Balti Belt' or 'Balti Triangle'.[300] Famous food brands that originated in Birmingham
Birmingham
include Typhoo tea, Bird's Custard, Cadbury's
Cadbury's
chocolate and HP Sauce. There is also a thriving independent and artisan food sector in Birmingham, encompassing microbreweries like Two Towers,[301] and collective bakeries such as Loaf.[302] Recent years have seen these businesses increasingly showcased at farmers markets,[303] popular street food events[304] and food festivals including Birmingham Independent Food Fair.[305][306] Media[edit] Main article: Media in Birmingham

The Electric, the oldest working cinema in the UK

Birmingham
Birmingham
has several major local newspapers – the daily Birmingham Mail
Mail
and the weekly Birmingham Post
Birmingham Post
and Sunday Mercury, all owned by the Trinity Mirror. Forward (formerly Birmingham
Birmingham
Voice) is a freesheet produced by Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council, which is distributed to homes in the city. Birmingham
Birmingham
is also the hub for various national ethnic media, and the base for two regional Metro editions (East and West Midlands). Birmingham
Birmingham
has a long cinematic history; The Electric on Station Street is the oldest working cinema in the UK,[307] and Oscar Deutsch opened his first Odeon cinema in Brierley Hill
Brierley Hill
during the 1920s. The largest cinema screen in the West Midlands is located at Millennium Point in the Eastside. Birmingham
Birmingham
has also been the location for films including Felicia's Journey of 1999, which used locations in Birmingham
Birmingham
that were used in Take Me High
Take Me High
of 1973 to contrast the changes in the city.[308]

The Mailbox, headquarters of BBC
BBC
Birmingham

The BBC
BBC
has two facilities in the city. The Mailbox, in the city centre, is the national headquarters of BBC
BBC
English Regions[309] and the headquarters of BBC
BBC
West Midlands and the BBC Birmingham
BBC Birmingham
network production centre. These were previously located at the Pebble Mill Studios in Edgbaston. The BBC
BBC
Drama Village, based in Selly Oak, is a production facility specialising in television drama.[310] Central/ATV studios in Birmingham
Birmingham
were the location for the recording of many programmes for ITV including Tiswas and Crossroads, until the complex was closed in 1997,[311] and Central moved to its current Gas Street studios. These were also the main hub for CITV, until that was moved to Manchester
Manchester
in 2004. Central's output from Birmingham
Birmingham
now consists of only the West and East editions of the regional news programme Central Tonight. The city is served by numerous national and regional radio stations, as well as local radio stations. These include Free Radio Birmingham & Free Radio 80s, Capital Birmingham, Heart West Midlands, Absolute Radio, and Smooth Radio. The city also has a community radio scene, with stations including Big City Radio, New Style Radio, Switch Radio, Raaj FM, and Unity FM. The Archers, the world's longest running radio soap, is recorded in Birmingham
Birmingham
for BBC
BBC
Radio 4.[312]

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Birmingham Twin cities[edit] Birmingham
Birmingham
has nine sister cities;[313]

Chicago, United States
United States
(since 1993) Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Germany
(since 1966)[314] Changchun, China
China
(since 1983) Guangzhou, China
China
(since 2006) Nanjing, China
China
(since 2007) Johannesburg, South Africa
South Africa
(since 1997) Leipzig, Germany
Germany
(since 1992)[315] Lyon, France
France
(since 1951)[316][317] Milan, Italy
Italy
1974[318]

Birmingham, Alabama, United States, is named after the city and shares with it an industrial kinship.[citation needed] References[edit] Notes[edit]

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City Council. Archived from the original on 8 February 2001. Retrieved 19 December 2006.  ^ "Two Towers Brewery". Two Towers. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "Loaf". www.loafonline.co.uk. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "Food markets".  ^ Griffin, Mary (1 October 2014). " Birmingham
Birmingham
three times lucky at British Street Food Awards". Birmingham
Birmingham
Mail. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "Home – Birmingham
Birmingham
Independent Food Fair".  ^ Griffin, Mary (22 August 2014). "Food and drink producers gear up for Birmingham's first independent food and drink fair". Birmingham Post. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2014.  ^ "The Electric Cinema website". Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Kennedy, Liam (2004). Remaking Birmingham: The Visual Culture of Urban Regeneration. Routledge. p. 115. ISBN 0-415-28838-X.  ^ "About Us – Information about BBC
BBC
English Regions". BBC. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ "Lights, campus, action for BBC
BBC
Birmingham's Television Drama Village". BBC
BBC
Press Release. 9 May 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2008.  ^ Carey, Lee (1 February 2003). "Ever Decreasing Circles". Studio One. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 10 May 2008.  ^ " The Archers
The Archers
airs 15,000th episode". BBC
BBC
News. 7 November 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2007.  ^ "Partner Cities". Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2012.  ^ "Frankfurt -Partner Cities". www.frankfurt.de. Stadt Frankfurt am Main. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2009.  ^ "Partner Cities of Birmingham".  ^ "Partner Cities of Lyon
Lyon
and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2013.  ^ "Milano – Città Gemellate". 2008 Municipality of Milan
Milan
(Comune di Milano). Retrieved 17 July 2009. 

Bibliography[edit]

Berg, Maxine (1991). "Commerce and Creativity in Eighteenth-Century Birmingham". In Berg, Maxine. Markets and Manufacture in Early Industrial Europe. London: Routledge. pp. 173–202. ISBN 0-415-03720-4. Retrieved 27 November 2011.  Briggs, Asa (1965) [1963]. "Birmingham: The making of a Civic Gospel". Victorian Cities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07922-1. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  Gordon E. Cherry (1994). Birmingham
Birmingham
A Study in Geography, History and Planning. ISBN 0-471-94900-0.  Hodder, Mike (2004). Birmingham: the hidden history. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. ISBN 0-7524-3135-8.  Holt, Richard (1986). The early history of the town of Birmingham, 1166–1600. Dugdale Society Occasional Papers. Oxford: Printed for the Dugdale Society by D. Stanford, Printer to the University. ISBN 0-85220-062-5.  Hopkins, Eric (1989). Birmingham: The First Manufacturing Town in the World, 1760–1840. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79473-6.  Jones, Peter M. (2008). Industrial Enlightenment: Science, technology and culture in Birmingham
Birmingham
and the West Midlands, 1760–1820. Manchester: Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 0-7190-7770-2.  Leather, Peter (2001). A brief history of Birmingham. Studley: Brewin Books. ISBN 1-85858-187-7.  Uglow, Jenny (2011) [2002]. The Lunar Men: The Inventors of the Modern World 1730–1810. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-26667-3. Retrieved 27 April 2014.  Ward, Roger (2005). City-state and nation: Birmingham's political history, 1830–1940. Chichester: Phillimore. ISBN 1-86077-320-6. 

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