The Info List - Big Ben

Big Ben
Big Ben
is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster
in London[1] and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower.[2][3] The official name of the tower in which Big Ben
Big Ben
is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The tower was designed by Augustus Pugin
Augustus Pugin
in a neo-gothic style. When completed in 1859, it was, says horologist Ian Westworth, "the prince of timekeepers: the biggest, most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world".[4] It stands 315 feet (96 m) tall, and the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square, measuring 39 feet (12 m) on each side. Dials of the clock are 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary.[5] Big Ben
Big Ben
is the largest of five bells and weighs 13 1⁄2 long tons (13.7 tonnes; 15.1 short tons). It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years. The origin of the bell's nickname is open to question; it may be named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw its installation, or heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben
Big Ben
tolls on the hour. The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism, but an electric motor can be used as a backup. A British cultural icon, recognised all over the world, the tower is one of the most prominent symbols of the United Kingdom and parliamentary democracy,[6] and it is often used in the establishing shot of films set in London.[7] The clock tower has been part of a Grade I listed building
Grade I listed building
since 1970 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987. On 21 August 2017, a four-year schedule of renovation works began on the tower, which are to include the addition of a lift. There are also plans to re-glaze and repaint the clock dials. With a few exceptions, such as New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
and Remembrance Sunday, the bells are to be silent until the work has been completed in the 2020s.


1 Tower

1.1 Origin 1.2 Design 1.3 Name

2 Clock

2.1 Dials 2.2 Movement 2.3 Malfunctions, breakdowns, and other incidents

2.3.1 20th century 2.3.2 21st century

3 Bells

3.1 Great Bell 3.2 Chimes

4 Nickname 5 Cultural significance 6 2017 renovation 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

9.1 Videos

Tower[edit] Origin[edit]

Audio description of the tower by Gary O'Donoghue

Elizabeth Tower, previously called the Clock Tower but more popularly known as Big Ben,[3][5] was raised as a part of Charles Barry's design for a new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster
was largely destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834.[8][9] The new parliament was built in a neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the palace, he turned to Augustus Pugin
Augustus Pugin
for the design of the clock tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs, including one for Scarisbrick Hall
Scarisbrick Hall
in Lancashire. The design for the tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness and death, and Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell tower & it is beautiful."[10] Design[edit] The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
style, and is 315 feet (96.0 m) high.[11] The bottom 200 feet (61.0 m) of the tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand-coloured Anston
limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 50 feet (15.2 m) square raft, made of 10 feet (3.0 m) thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet (4.0 m) below ground level. The four clock dials are 180 feet (54.9 m) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet (4,650 cubic metres).

The Palace of Westminster, Big Ben
Big Ben
and Westminster

Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents were able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament before the current repair works.[12] However, the tower currently has no lift, though one is being installed, so those escorted had to climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top.[11] Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 230 millimetres (9.1 in) over 55 m height, giving an inclination of approximately 1/240. This includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling for the Jubilee line
Jubilee line
extension.[13] It leans by about 500 millimetres (20 in) at the finial. Experts believe the tower's lean will not be a problem for another 4,000 to 10,000 years.[14] Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west. Name[edit]

skyline with Big Ben
Big Ben
and environs, including the London
Eye, Portcullis House, Parliament Square, and St Margaret's Church

Journalists during Queen Victoria's reign called it St Stephen's Tower. As MPs originally sat at St Stephen's Hall, these journalists referred to anything related to the House of Commons as news from "St. Stephens" (the Palace of Westminster
contains a feature called St Stephen's Tower, a smaller tower over the public entrance).[8] The usage persists in Welsh, where the Westminster
district, and Parliament by extension, is known as San Steffan. On 2 June 2012, The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph
reported that 331 Members of Parliament, including senior members of all three main parties, supported a proposal to change the name from Clock Tower to Elizabeth Tower in tribute to Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in her diamond jubilee year. This was thought to be appropriate because the large west tower now known as Victoria Tower
Victoria Tower
was renamed in tribute to Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
on her diamond jubilee.[15] On 26 June 2012, the House of Commons confirmed that the name change could go ahead.[16] The Prime Minister, David Cameron, announced the change of name on 12 September 2012 at the start of Prime Minister's Questions.[17] The change was marked by a naming ceremony in which the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow, unveiled a name plaque attached to the tower on the adjoining Speaker's Green.[18] Clock[edit] Dials[edit]

The dial of the Great Clock of Westminster. The hour hand is 9 feet (2.7 m) long and the minute hand is 14 feet (4.3 m) long.

The clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials are set in an iron frame 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter, supporting 312 pieces of opal glass, rather like a stained-glass window. Some of the glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround of the dials is gilded. At the base of each clock dial in gilt letters is the Latin


Which means O Lord, keep safe our Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
the First. Unlike most other Roman numeral
Roman numeral
clock dials, which show the '4' position as 'IIII', the Great Clock faces depict '4' as 'IV'. Movement[edit]

The rear of the clock face

The clock's movement is famous for its reliability. The designers were the lawyer and amateur horologist Edmund Beckett Denison, and George Airy, the Astronomer Royal. Construction was entrusted to clockmaker Edward John Dent; after his death in 1853 his stepson Frederick Dent completed the work, in 1854.[19] As the tower was not complete until 1859, Denison had time to experiment: instead of using the deadbeat escapement and remontoire as originally designed, Denison invented the double three-legged gravity escapement. This escapement provides the best separation between pendulum and clock mechanism. The pendulum is installed within an enclosed windproof box beneath the clockroom. It is 13 feet (4.0 m) long, weighs 660 pounds (300 kg), suspended on a strip of spring steel 1/64 inch in thickness, and beats every 2 seconds. The clockwork mechanism in a room below weighs 5 tons.

The clock mechanism

On top of the pendulum is a small stack of old penny coins; these are to adjust the time of the clock. Adding a coin has the effect of minutely lifting the position of the pendulum's centre of mass, reducing the effective length of the pendulum rod and hence increasing the rate at which the pendulum swings. Adding or removing a penny will change the clock's speed by 0.4 seconds per day.[20] The clock is hand wound (taking about 1.5 hours)[21] three times a week.[22] On 10 May 1941, a German bombing raid damaged two of the clock's dials and sections of the tower's stepped roof and destroyed the House of Commons chamber. Architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott
Sir Giles Gilbert Scott
designed a new five-floor block. Two floors are occupied by the current chamber, which was used for the first time on 26 October 1950. The clock ran accurately and chimed throughout the Blitz.[23] Malfunctions, breakdowns, and other incidents[edit] 20th century[edit] 1916: For two years during World War I, the bells were silenced and the clock faces were not illuminated at night to avoid guiding attacking German Zeppelins.[11] 1 September 1939: Although the bells continued to ring, the clock faces were not illuminated at night throughout World War II to avoid guiding bomber pilots during the Blitz.[11] 10 May 1941: A German bombing raid damaged two of the clock's dials. 3–4 June 1941: The clock stopped from 10:13 p.m. until 10:13 the following morning, after a workman repairing air-raid damage to the clock face dropped a hammer into the works.[24] 1949: The clock slowed by four and a half minutes after a flock of starlings perched on the minute hand.[25] 13 January 1955: The clock stopped at 3:24 a.m. due to drifts of snow forming on the north and east dials. Small electric heaters were placed just inside these two dials which faced the full fury of the winter's blast, and this measure has helped to reduce instances of freezing in recent years.[26] New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
1962: The clock slowed due to heavy snow and ice on the hands, causing the pendulum to detach from the clockwork, as it is designed to do in such circumstances, to avoid serious damage elsewhere in the mechanism – the pendulum continuing to swing freely. Thus, it chimed-in the 1963 new year nine minutes late.[27] 30 January 1965: The bells were silenced during the funeral of statesman and former prime minister Winston Churchill.[28] 5 August 1976: First and only major breakdown. The air brake speed regulator of the chiming mechanism broke from torsional fatigue after more than 100 years of use, causing the fully wound 4-ton weight to spin the winding drum out of the movement, causing much damage. The Great Clock was shut down for a total of 26 days over nine months – it was reactivated on 9 May 1977. This was the longest break in operation since its construction. During this time BBC Radio 4 broadcast the pips instead.[29] Although there were minor stoppages from 1977 to 2002, when maintenance of the clock was carried out by the old firm of clockmakers Thwaites & Reed, these were often repaired within the permitted two-hour downtime and not recorded as stoppages. Before 1970, maintenance was carried out by the original firm of Dents; since 2002, by parliamentary staff. 30 April 1997: The clock stopped 24 hours before the general election, and stopped again three weeks later.[30] 21st century[edit]

The south clock face being cleaned on 11 August 2007

27 May 2005: The clock stopped at 10:07 p.m., possibly because of hot weather; temperatures in London
had reached an unseasonable 31.8 °C (90 °F). It resumed, but stopped again at 10:20 p.m., and remained still for about 90 minutes before resuming.[30] 29 October 2005: The mechanism was stopped for about 33 hours to allow maintenance work on the clock and its chimes. It was the lengthiest maintenance shutdown in 22 years.[31] 7:00 a.m. 5 June 2006: The clock tower's "Quarter Bells" were taken out of commission for four weeks[32] as a bearing holding one of the quarter bells was worn and needed to be removed for repairs. During this period, BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
broadcast recordings of British bird song followed by the pips in place of the usual chimes.[33] 11 August 2007: Start of 6-week stoppage for maintenance. Bearings in the clock's chime train and the "great bell" striker were replaced, for the first time since installation.[34] During the maintenance the clock was driven by an electric motor.[35] Once again, BBC Radio 4 broadcast the pips during this time. The intention was that the clock should run accurately for a further 200 years before major maintenance is again required; in fact the repairs sufficed for ten years.[36] 17 April 2013: The bells were silenced as a mark of "profound dignity and deep respect" during the funeral of former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.[37] August 2015: The clock was discovered to be running 7 seconds fast, and coins were removed from its pendulum to correct the error, which caused it to run slow for a time.[38] 21 August 2017: Start of 4-year silencing of the chimes during maintenance and repair work to the clock mechanism, and repairs and improvements to the clock tower building. During this time, dials, hands, and lights will be removed for restoration, with at least one dial—with hands driven by an electric motor—left intact, functioning, and visible at any given time.[39] The bells, however, will still chime for events such as New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
and Remembrance Day.[40][41] Bells[edit] Great Bell[edit]

The second "Big Ben" (centre) and the Quarter Bells from The Illustrated News of the World, 4 December 1858

The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell but better known as Big Ben, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster.[42] The original bell was a 16 ton (16.3-tonne) hour bell, cast on 6 August 1856 in Stockton-on-Tees
by John Warner & Sons.[1] The bell was possibly named in honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, and his name is inscribed on it.[43] However, another theory for the origin of the name is that the bell may have been named after a contemporary heavyweight boxer Benjamin Caunt.[44] It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria, but that an MP suggested the nickname during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard.[45] Since the tower was not yet finished, the bell was mounted in New Palace Yard but, during testing it cracked beyond repair and a replacement had to be made. The bell was recast on 10 April 1858 at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry
Whitechapel Bell Foundry
as a 13½ ton (13.76-tonne) bell.[1][46] The second bell was transported from the foundry to the tower on a trolley drawn by sixteen horses, with crowds cheering its progress; it was then pulled 200 ft (61.0 m) up to the Clock Tower’s belfry, a feat that took 18 hours. It is 7 feet 6 inches (2.29 m) tall and 9 feet (2.74 m) diameter. This new bell first chimed in July 1859; in September it too cracked under the hammer. According to the foundry's manager, George Mears, the horologist Denison had used a hammer more than twice the maximum weight specified.[1] For three years Big Ben
Big Ben
was taken out of commission and the hours were struck on the lowest of the quarter bells until it was repaired. To make the repair, a square piece of metal was chipped out from the rim around the crack, and the bell given an eighth of a turn so the new hammer struck in a different place.[1] Big Ben
Big Ben
has chimed with a slightly different tone ever since, and is still in use today with the crack unrepaired. Big Ben was the largest bell in the British Isles until "Great Paul", a 16¾ ton (17 tonne) bell currently hung in St Paul's Cathedral, was cast in 1881.[47] Chimes[edit]

Big Ben

A recording from the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
radio station of the Westminster
Chimes and the twelve strikes of Big Ben, as broadcast at midnight, New Year's Day 2009.

Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which play the Westminster
Quarters on the quarter hours. The four quarter bells sound G♯, F♯, E, and B. They were cast by John Warner & Sons at their Crescent Foundry in 1857 (G♯, F♯ and B) and 1858 (E). The Foundry was in Jewin Crescent, in what is now known as The Barbican, in the City of London.[48] The bells are sounded by hammers pulled by cables coming from the link room—a low-ceiling space between the clock room and the belfry—where mechanisms translate the movement of the quarter train into the sounding of the individual bells.[49] The quarter bells play a once-repeating, 20-note sequence of rounds and four changes in the key of E major: 1–4 at quarter past, 5–12 at half past, 13–20 and 1–4 at quarter to, and 5–20 on the hour (which sounds 25 seconds before the main bell tolls the hour). Because the low bell (B) is struck twice in quick succession, there is not enough time to pull a hammer back, and it is supplied with two wrench hammers on opposite sides of the bell. The tune is that of the Cambridge
Chimes, first used for the chimes of Great St Mary's church, Cambridge, and supposedly a variation, attributed to William Crotch, based on violin phrases from the air "I know that my Redeemer liveth" in Handel's Messiah.[50][51] The notional words of the chime, again derived from Great St Mary's and in turn an allusion to Psalm 37:23–24, are: "All through this hour/Lord be my guide/And by Thy power/No foot shall slide". They are written on a plaque on the wall of the clock room.[52][53] One of the requirements for the clock was that the first stroke of the hour bell should be correct to within one second per day. The tolerance is with reference to Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(BST in summer).[11][54][55] So, at twelve o'clock, for example, it is the first of the twelve hour-bell strikes that signifies the hour (the New Year on New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
at midnight). The time signalled by the last of the "six pips" (UTC) may be fractionally different. Nickname[edit] The origin of the nickname Big Ben
Big Ben
is the subject of some debate. The nickname was applied first to the Great Bell; it may have been named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw the installation of the Great Bell, or after English heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt.[1][42][44] Now Big Ben
Big Ben
is often used, by extension, to refer to the clock, the tower and the bell collectively, although the nickname is not universally accepted as referring to the clock and tower.[2][56][57][58] Some authors of works about the tower, clock and bell sidestep the issue by using the words Big Ben
Big Ben
first in the title, then going on to clarify that the subject of the book is the clock and tower as well as the bell.[29][59] In August, 2017, satirical news site The Rochdale Herald
The Rochdale Herald
published a spoof article stating that the bell was to be renamed "Massive Mohammed". Many people mistook this for a genuine news story and were widely ridiculed on social media.[60][61][62] This even inspired the creation of two online petitions. Cultural significance[edit]

Double-decker buses frame a busy Whitehall
with Big Ben
Big Ben
in the background.

The clock has become a cultural symbol of the United Kingdom, particularly in the visual media. When a television or film-maker wishes to indicate a generic location in the country, a popular way to do so is to show an image of the tower, often with a red double-decker bus or black cab in the foreground.[63] In 2008 a survey of 2,000 people found that the tower was the most popular landmark in the United Kingdom.[64] It has also been named as the most iconic film location in London.[65]

Big Ben's dials and belfry are illuminated at night.

The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio media, but as the Westminster
Quarters are heard from other clocks and other devices, the sound is by no means unique. Big Ben
Big Ben
is a focal point of New Year celebrations in the United Kingdom, with radio and television stations airing its chimes to welcome the start of the New Year. To welcome in 2012, the clock tower was lit with fireworks that exploded at every toll of Big Ben.[66] Similarly, on Remembrance Day, the chimes of Big Ben
Big Ben
are broadcast to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month and the start of the two minutes' silence.[67] Londoners who live an appropriate distance from the tower and Big Ben can, by means of listening to the chimes both live and on analogue radio, hear the bell strike thirteen times. This is possible because the electronically transmitted chimes arrive virtually instantaneously, while the "live" sound is delayed travelling through the air since the speed of sound is relatively slow.[68] ITN's News at Ten opening sequence formerly featured an image of the tower with the sound of Big Ben's chimes punctuating the announcement of the news headlines of the day.[69] The Big Ben
Big Ben
chimes (known within ITN
as "The Bongs") continue to be used during the headlines and all ITV News
ITV News
bulletins use a graphic based on the Westminster
clock dial. Big Ben
Big Ben
can also be heard striking the hour before some news bulletins on BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
(6 p.m. and midnight, plus 10 p.m. on Sundays) and the BBC World Service, a practice that began on 31 December 1923. The sound of the chimes is sent live from a microphone permanently installed in the tower and connected by line to Broadcasting House.[70] At the close of the polls for the 2010 general election the results of the national exit poll were projected onto the south side of the tower.[71] On 27 July 2012, starting at 8:12 a.m, Big Ben
Big Ben
chimed 30 times, to welcome in the London
Olympic Games (i.e. the 30th Olympiad), which officially began that day.[72] 2017 renovation[edit]

Scaffolding was put up in 2017.

The tower is undergoing a major renovation which began in August 2017 and is expected to last four years.[73] Big Ben's chimes were silenced at noon on 21 August.[74] Essential maintenance will be carried out on the clock, which will be stopped for several months, during which there will be no chimes. Striking and tolling will be maintained for important events such as New Year's Eve
New Year's Eve
and Remembrance Sunday. Big Ben will resume striking and tolling in 2021.[39] The aim of the renovation is to repair and conserve the tower, upgrade facilities as necessary, and ensure its integrity for future generations. The last significant renovation work was carried out to the tower in 1983–85. The most significant addition to the tower will be the addition of a lift.[3] The clock faces are to be repainted and re-gilded,[75] and many broken panes of glass are also being replaced on the dials.[76] Originally, the renovation was estimated to cost between £29 million and £45 million; however, in September 2017, the figure increased to £61 million.[77] Some Conservative MPs want Big Ben
Big Ben
to chime at the moment of Brexit
on 29 March 2019.[78] See also[edit]


Victoria Tower Big Ben
Big Ben


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from News at Ten titles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 August 2012.  ^ " Big Ben
Big Ben
Microphone". BBC. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "General election results beamed onto Big Ben". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 11 November 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2016.  ^ " Big Ben
Big Ben
strikes to celebrate start of 2012 Olympics". YouTube. Retrieved 27 July 2012.  ^ Reuters Staff (August 21, 2017). "Britain's Big Ben
Big Ben
falls silent for four years of renovation work". Reuters.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.  ^ Watson, Leon; McCann, Kate; Horton, Helena (21 August 2017). "Big Ben: Why has Westminster's Great Bell been silenced - and for how long?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2017.  ^ "Elizabeth Tower contract awarded". UK Parliament. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ " Big Ben
Big Ben
to be silenced for months by tower and clock repairs". The Guardian. Press Association. 26 April 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2017.  ^ " Big Ben
Big Ben
tower repair costs double to £61m". BBC News. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.  ^ "Tory MPs want Big Ben
Big Ben
to bong us out of the EU at midnight on the day we Brexit". 19 August 2017. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutBig Benat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Official website of Big Ben
Big Ben
at UK Parliament The Palace of Westminster
at UK Parliament Big Ben
Big Ben
at Whitechapel Bell Foundry Big Ben's Clapper at Houghton-le-Spring Heritage Society Interior photos of the tower at UK Parliament's Flickr A tale of Two Towers: Big Ben
Big Ben
and Pisa transcript of a lecture by Prof. John Burland


The Mechanical Genius of Big Ben
Big Ben
(2017) documentary by Discovery Big Ben's a Hundred (1959) newsreel by British Pathé Big Ben's Clean Up (1955) by British Pathé Big Ben
Big Ben
(1948) by British Pathé

v t e


Background and terminology

Bell Bell-cot Bellfounding Bell-gable Bell tower
Bell tower
/ Campanile Bell-ringer Belfry Bourdon Campanology Church bell Full circle ringing Peal Ring of bells Strike tone Striking clock Zvonnitsa

Bell founders and foundries

Andrey Chokhov Bilbie family Franciscus Illenfeld Geert van Wou Gillett & Johnston Hatch bell foundry John Taylor & Co Juutila Foundry Kashpir Ganusov McShane Bell Foundry Meneely Bell Foundry Pieter and François Hemony Petit & Fritsen Royal Eijsbouts bell foundry Rudhall of Gloucester Whitechapel Bell Foundry


Agogô Altar bell Babendil Bianzhong Bicycle bell Bonshō Carillon Chime Cowbell Crotal bell Dead bell Doorbell Dōtaku Ghanta Glockenspiel Handbell Jingle bell Kane Ship's bell Standing bell Suzu Tintinnabulum Tubular bells

Ringing styles

Bell pattern Blagovest Bolognese bell ringing art Change ringing Canpanò Grandsire Method ringing Peal Russian Orthodox bell ringing Veronese bellringing art

Notable bells

List of heaviest bells Balangiga bells Bell of Good Luck Big Ben Freedom Bell Great Bell of Dhammazedi Great Tom Ivan the Great Bell Tower Japanese Peace Bell Justice Bell Liberty Bell Maria Gloriosa Mingun Bell Olympic Bell Sigismund Bell St. Petersglocke Swan Bells Tsar Bell World Peace Bells Yongle Big Bell


The Ringing World Dove's Guide for Church Bell Ringers Glockenmuseum Stiftskirche Herrenberg Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
Museum Ringing Organisations Freedom Bell, American Legion

v t e


Buildings and structures


Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster

Entertainment venues


Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium


Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville


Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena


10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster
Abbey Westminster



Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace


Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace


Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42


Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
Eye London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch


City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car


Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House


Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park


Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square


Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Embankment Whitehall

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143857959 GN